A History of the University in Europe

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Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information A HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY IN EUROPE general editor W A L T E R R UЁ E G G This is the final volume in a four-part series covering the development of the university in Europe (east and west) from its origins to the present day, focusing on a number of major themes viewed from a European perspective. The originality of the series lies in its comparative, interdisciplinary, collaborative and trans-national nature. It deals also with the content of what was taught at the universities, but its main purpose is an appreciation of the role and structures of the universities as seen against a backdrop of changing conditions, ideas and values. This volume deals with the reconstruction and epoch-making expansion of higher education after 1945, which led to the triumph of modern science. It traces the development of the relationship between universities and national states, teachers and students, their ambitions and political activities. Special attention is paid to fundamental changes in the content of teaching at the universities.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information A HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY IN EUROPE General Editor and Chairman of the Editorial Board: Walter RuЁ egg (Switzerland) Andris Barblan (Switzerland) Asa Briggs (United Kingdom) Alison Browning (United Kingdom) Aleksander Gieysztor (Poland) Notker Hammerstein (Germany) Olaf Pedersen (Denmark) Hilde de Ridder-Symoens (Belgium) John Roberts (United Kingdom) Edward Shils (United States of America) Jacques Verger (France) This four-volume series, prepared under the guidance of an editorial board, has been directed by the Standing Conference of Rectors, Presidents and Vice-Chancellors of the European Universities (CRE), now European University Association (EUA). The EUA, which is a non-governmental organization based in Brussels and Geneva, has over 650 member universities in both eastern and western Europe. Its Brussels and Geneva secretariat oversees the administration of the project. The university is the only European institution to have preserved its fundamental patterns and basic social role and function over the course of the last millennium. This History shows how and why the university grew to encompass the whole of knowledge and most of the world, how it developed an intellectual tradition common to all Europeans, and how it trained academic and professional elites whose ethos transcends national boundaries. Volumes in the series I Universities in the Middle Ages Editor: Hilde de Ridder-Symoens II Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500­1800) Editor: Hilde de Ridder-Symoens III Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800­1945) Editor: Walter RuЁ egg IV Universities since 1945 Editor: Walter RuЁ egg
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information A HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY IN EUROPE general editor w a l t e r r uЁ e g g VOLUME IV UNIVERSITIES SINCE 1945 EDITOR W A L T E R R UЁ E G G
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sa~ o Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo, Mexico City Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cb2 8ru, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521361088 c Cambridge University Press 2011 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2011 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication data A history of the university in the Europe / editor, Walter RuЁ egg. p. cm. ­ (A history of the university in Europe; 4) Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 978-0-521-36108-8 (hardback) 1. Universities and colleges ­ Europe ­ History ­ 20th century. 2. Universities and colleges ­ Europe ­ History ­ 21st century. 3. Education, Higher ­ Europe ­ History ­ 20th century. 4. Education, Higher ­ Europe ­ History ­ 21st century. I. RuЁ egg, Walter. la627.h57 2010 378.409 ­ dc22 2010030058 isbn 978-0-521-36108-8 Hardback
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information CONTENTS
Contributors and editors Reader's guide Bibliographical abbreviations used in the notes Foreword w a l t e r r uЁ e g g ( g e n e r a l e d i t o r ) Acknowledgements
page xi xvi xvii xviii xxiii
PART I: THEMES AND PATTERNS
CHAPTER 1: THEMES
3
w a l t e r r uЁ e g g
Introduction
3
Reformatio in melius
4
Humanism and university reform through dialogue
8
The liberal reform of the universities by Schleiermacher and
Humboldt
11
Expansion and `democratic' university reforms, 1956­1981
13
The introduction of entrepreneurial reforms and the
destruction of the ivory tower
15
The universities and globalization
22
The `Americanization' of European universities
26
Postscript
29
CHAPTER 2: PATTERNS
31
guy neave
Introduction
31
Post-war reconstruction
32
v
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Contents
The expansion of the Soviet university model
35
The drive to mass higher education
41
Foundation and creation
48
Regionalization
52
The place of the `non-state' sector
54
The non-university sector
56
Caveats on the sources for the period 1990­2005
59
New perspectives
60
The astounding vitality of the non-university sector
61
The closing of the circle
63
The symmetry of patterns
64
Select bibliography for Part I
65
PART II: STRUCTURES
CHAPTER 3: RELATIONS WITH AUTHORITY
73
w a l t e r r uЁ e g g a n d j a n s a d l a k
Introduction
73
Recovery in a divided Europe, 1945­1955
74
Emerging national and international University Policies,
1956­1967
95
Expansion, democratization, bureaucratization,
1968­1982
102
Towards a common European model, 1983­1995
113
Concluding remarks: the universities' Europe
118
Select bibliography
122
CHAPTER 4: MANAGEMENT AND RESOURCES
124
geoffrey lockwood
Introduction
124
The university as an organization
125
Images of change
128
Academic structure
130
Forces of change
132
Effective autonomy
137
The management quadrilateral
140
Management and governance
144
Resources
150
Management techniques
155
The arrival of management
159
Select bibliography
160
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Contents
CHAPTER 5: TEACHERS
162
thomas finkenstaedt
Introduction
162
New quantities ­ new qualities
163
Staff structure
170
The university teacher in the modern world
197
Conclusion
201
Select bibliography
203
PART III: STUDENTS
CHAPTER 6: ADMISSION
207
a. h. halsey
Introduction
207
Persistent inequality
211
Models of higher education
213
Matriculation
217
Social selection before 1970
223
Social selection after 1970
226
Shifts in the social distribution of opportunity
232
Select bibliography
236
CHAPTER 7: CURRICULUM, STUDENTS,
EDUCATION
238
sheldon rothblatt
The whirligig of change
238
Responsibility for curriculum and teaching
243
Diplomas and degrees
253
Undergraduates and postgraduates
256
Research and curricula
262
The student role in the curriculum
266
Student mobility
270
Conclusion
272
Select bibliography
274
CHAPTER 8: STUDENT MOVEMENTS AND
POLITICAL ACTIVISM
276
louis vos
Introduction
276
International student organizations
278
Diverging missions (1945­1956)
283
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Contents
A `new student movement' (1958­1969)
288
The Leninist turn and decline (1969­1974)
297
The nature of the `new student movement'
299
Fighting for freedom (1956­1989)
303
Beyond the student movement (1974­2000)
312
Select bibliography
316
CHAPTER 9: GRADUATION AND CAREERS
319
ulrich teichler
Introduction
319
Overall development of enrolment, graduation and
attainment
321
Variations in Europe
324
Distribution by field of study
325
Changing debates about the quantitative and structural
relationships between university education and
employment
327
Degrees and graduation
335
Graduate employment and work
341
Women's employment and work
353
Expectations, recruitment and work
354
The responses of universities to changing graduate
employment and work
356
Four decades of trends and policies
362
Postscript: trends and policies since the 1990s
364
Select bibliography
368
PART IV: LEARNING
CHAPTER 10: SOCIAL SCIENCES, HISTORY
AND LAW
371
notker hammerstein, with the collaboration of
dirk heirbaut
Introduction
371
Sociology
375
Political science
386
Economics
398
Anthropology/ethnology
405
Geography
408
History
409
Law
414
Select bibliography
423
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Contents
CHAPTER 11: THE MATHEMATICAL, EXACT
SCIENCES
424
john ziman
A traditional scene in a larger frame
424
Policing the internal frontiers of knowledge
427
Trans-disciplinary disciplines
431
Collectivism
435
Internationalization
437
Linking the academy with industry
441
Teaching and/or research
444
Looking backward and forward
446
Select bibliography
449
CHAPTER 12: THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
451
herbert c. macgregor
From bones to biotechnology
451
Progress, development and discovery in biology 1945­2004
452
The unravelling of DNA
453
The rise of ecology
456
The role of the university
459
The biology undergraduate
464
The Internet
468
Universities, graduates and employment
469
Select bibliography
471
CHAPTER 13: THE EARTH SCIENCES
473
gordon craig and stuart monro
Introduction
473
Planetary geology
474
Plate tectonics
476
Palaeoclimates and global warming
478
Impact on earth science education
480
Conclusions
483
Select bibliography
484
CHAPTER 14: MEDICINE
485
john ellis
The changing context of university medicine 1945­1995
485
The adaptation of medical education to a changing context
491
The reform of medical education
495
The cost of medical education
507
The outcome of reform
511
Teachers and students
516
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Contents
Education and training
520
Research
523
Select bibliography
527
CHAPTER 15: TECHNOLOGY
528
christopher watson
The post-war context
528
Technology-related developments in the universities
529
The marketplace for knowledge and research in technology
537
Sources of funding and competition
541
Successes and failures of the universities in meeting the
competition
544
Select bibliography
548
EPILOGUE: FROM THE UNIVERSITY IN EUROPE
TO THE UNIVERSITIES OF EUROPE
550
andris barblan
The origins of the project
550
The lessons of history
552
European images of the university
553
The premises of Europeanization in higher education
555
Lowering the iron curtain: 1989 and beyond
557
The main issues of the 1990s: quality and mobility
561
The return of European integration policies
567
A European model of higher education
572
Select bibliography
574
Appendix: Universities founded in Europe between 1945
and 1995
575
w a l t e r r uЁ e g g
Name index
595
Subject index
603
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information CONTRIBUTORS AND EDITORS
a n d r i s b a r b l a n (Switzerland) was born in Orbe, Vaud, in 1943. Denis de Rougemont's assistant at the Centre europeґen de la culture (Geneva) from 1973, in 1976 he became the secretary general of the CRE, Standing Conference of Rectors and Vice-Chancellors of the European Universities (Geneva), and in 2001 of its successor, EUA, the European University Association. From 2002 to 2007 he was the secretary general of the Magna Charta Observatory on University Fundamental Values and Rights, Bologna, while also consulting for the Mario Boella Institute in Turin on knowledge-development strategies in European cities. a s a b r i g g s (United Kingdom), from 1976 Lord Briggs of Lewes, was born in Yorkshire in 1921. He is a former provost of Worcester College Oxford (1976­92), a former vice-chancellor of the University of Sussex (1967­92), a former chancellor of the Open University (1978­94) and a former chairman (1974­80) of the European Institute of Education and Social Policy in Paris. He is president of the British Social History Society. His writings span economic, social and cultural history and the history of broadcasting. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. a l i s o n b r o w n i n g (United Kingdom/USA) was born in Buckinghamshire in 1951. In her role as deputy secretary general of the CRE, the Association of European Universities (1986­94), she had responsibility for a number of the organization's international and interdisciplinary projects, including the preparation of this History of the University in Europe. She now divides her time between the USA and Europe. g o r d o n c r a i g (United Kingdom) was born in Milngavie (Scotland) in 1925. He held the James Hutton Chair of Geology in the University of xi
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Contributors and editors Edinburgh. His published work includes Scottish geology, palaeoecology and history of geology. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. h i l d e d e r i d d e r - s y m o e n s (Belgium), born in Sint-JansMolenbeek (Brussels) in 1943, is professor of early modern history at the University of Ghent (Belgium), former president of the International Commission for the History of Universities and a member of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium. She has published on European university history and education in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period. j o h n e l l i s (United Kingdom, 1916­98) was born in Birmingham to a medical family. Educated at Cambridge and at the London Hospital, where he qualified as a doctor in 1941, he became subdean of this institution in 1948, consultant physician in 1951, and dean in 1968. He is famous as the founder of the Association for the Study of Medical Education and as a pioneer in that field, acting as a consultant to many overseas governments on setting up new medical schools and organizing graduate training; he was also the foundation editor of the British Journal of Medical Education. He was knighted in 1980. t h o m a s f i n k e n s t a e d t (Germany) was born in Planegg near Munich in 1930. He was professor of English in SaarbruЁ cken (1960­ 72) and Augsburg (1972­92), president of the Association of University Professors in Germany in 1970/71 and served on the foundation committees of several new universities. He was also the first head of the Bavarian Institute for Research into Higher Education in Munich. He has published books on the history of English vocabulary and has written a short history of English studies in Germany. Since his retirement (1992) he has published several volumes on the history of the pilgrimage to the `Church in the Meadows' (Wieskirche) in Upper Bavaria as well as several volumes on Local History. a . h . h a l s e y (United Kingdom) is emeritus professor of sociology at the University of Oxford and Fellow of Nuffield College. He was born in London in 1923 and graduated after war service from the London School of Economics in 1950. He then specialized in the sociology of education, in the field of higher education. His most famous book is The Decline of Donnish Dominion: The Academic Professions in Britain in the Twentieth Century (Oxford University Press, 2nd edn, 1996). n o t k e r h a m m e r s t e i n (Germany) was born in Offenbach am Main in 1930. Emeritus professor of early modern history at the University of Frankfurt am Main, he has published several works on the history of German universities and the history of learning. He is a member of the editorial board of History of Universities. xii
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Contributors and editors d i r k h e i r b a u t (Belgium), born in Hamme (Eastern Flanders) in 1966, is professor of legal history and Roman law at the University of Ghent (Belgium) and secretary of the Legal History Committee of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts. He has published on medieval customary law, the history of private law in nineteenthcentury Belgium and the methodology of legal history. g e o f f l o c k w o o d (United Kingdom) was born in Yorkshire in 1936. He graduated in economics at the London School of Economics. In 1959, having previously served in the Royal Air Force in Germany, he joined the staff at the University of Manchester and in 1961 was a founder member of staff at the University of Sussex which he continued to serve until 1996, including twenty-four years as its head of administration. He earned his doctorate in Strategic Management in 1981. He was for thirty years a consultant in university management with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), UNESCOInternational Institute of Educational Planning (UNESCO-IIEP) and the European Commission, and a founder member of the European Centre for Strategic Management in Universities. He has published widely, including the standard British text on university planning and management. h e r b e r t c . m a c g r e g o r (United Kingdom), born and educated in Scotland, is professor emeritus of zoology at the University of Leicester and a visiting professor at the School of Biosciences of the University of Exeter. His research and publications centre on animal cytogenetics and on the organization and expression of gene sequences in chromosomes, with a special emphasis on the genomes of amphibians and birds. He is editor of the journal Chromosome Research. s t u a r t m o n r o (United Kingdom), born in Aberdeen (Scotland) in 1947, is scientific director of Our Dynamic Earth, a centre in Edinburgh communicating Earth and environmental sciences to the public. He was a principal geologist in the British Geological Survey from 1970 to 2005 and now also serves as a trustee of the National Museums of Scotland, as a non-executive director of the Edinburgh International Science Festival, as a member of Edinburgh University Court and as independent co-chair of the Scottish Science Advisory Committee. He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 2007. g u y n e a v e (United Kingdom) was born at Lyndhurst, Hampshire, in 1941. He is honorary professor at the Centre for Higher Education Policy Studies, Twente University (Netherlands), and senior principal researcher at the Centro de Investigacёa~ o de Polґiticas do Ensino Superior (CIPES) at Matosinhos (Portugal). A historian by training, he has published as author/editor some thirty books on comparative higher-education xiii
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Contributors and editors policy, as co-editor the Encyclopedia of Higher Education and the Complete Encyclopedia of Education. He was for eighteen years editor of the journal Higher Education Policy, and served as president of the European Association for Institutional Research, He is a foreign associate of the National Academy of Education of the United States of America. Since 1990 he has lived mainly in Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris. s h e l d o n r o t h b l a t t (USA) was born in Los Angeles, California, in 1934. He is professor of history emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and sometime director of the Center for Studies in Higher Education on that campus. He holds an honorary degree from Gothenburg University in Sweden. Besides American universities, he has taught in Australia, Austria, Sweden and Norway. He is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society of Britain, a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and a member of the National Academy of Education (USA). His academic publications are on the comparative history of universities, with translations into Italian, Spanish, Swedish and Japanese. He serves on the editorial board of a number of journals. w a l t e r r uЁ e g g (Switzerland) was born in Zurich in 1918. He was professor of sociology at the Universities of Berne (1973­86) and at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main (1961­ 73), and served as rector of the latter (1965­70), as president of the Westdeutschen Rektorenkonferenz (1967­8) and founder president of the International Federation of Social Science Associations (1976­8). His numerous publications focus on humanism, historical sociology and the history of higher education. j a n s a d l a k (Poland/Canada), born in 1945, is professor and vicerector at the Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities/SWPS, Poland. He is also a visiting professor of European studies at the BabesBolyai University in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. He is a former director of UNESCO's European Centre for Higher Education (UNESCO-CEPES). His many publications cover such topics as the processes of reform and transformation in higher education and science policy, the organization of doctoral studies and academic qualifications, private higher education, academic excellence and rankings, as well as the ethical dimension of higher education and academic values. He has been awarded six honorary doctorates from leading universities in Romania, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. u l r i c h t e i c h l e r (Germany), born in 1942, is a professor and former director of the International Centre for Higher Education Research (INCHER) at the University of Kassel. The major themes of his numerous academic publications include higher education and the world of work, xiv
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Contributors and editors systems of higher education, and the internationalization of higher education. He is a member of the Academia Europaea and the International Academy of Education, a past chairman of the Consortium of Higher Education Researchers (CHER) and a former president of EAIR, an association of higher-education management professionals. j a c q u e s v e r g e r (France) was born in Talence near Bordeaux in 1943. He is professor of medieval history at the University of Paris IV-Sorbonne and Directeur d'eґtudes at the Eґ cole pratique des hautes etudes, IVe section (Paris). He is a leading medievalist whose publications on the intellectual and cultural world, especially on the universities of the Middle Ages, have been translated into several languages. l o u i s v o s (Belgium), born in Mol in 1945, is professor of history in the Faculty of Arts at the Catholic University of Leuven. A former visiting professor at the Universities of Pennsylvania and Nijmegen, he teaches on contemporary European history and the history of Poland. He has published several books and articles on the history of student movements, youth associations and nationalism in Belgium. c h r i s t o p h e r w a t s o n (United Kingdom) was born in Edinburgh in 1937. He was a fellow of Merton College, Oxford from 1968 to 2002 and has since been an emeritus fellow. In parallel with this appointment, he has worked for the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (subsequently AEA Technology), initially engaged in research in plasma physics and controlled fusion, and later in managing R&D on offshore technology and nuclear robotics. He was a member of the international team which built the Joint European Torus at Culham, and has more recently been involved in UK-funded programmes to help Russian nuclear weapon scientists to transfer to civilian work. His writings include publications on the history of science. j o h n z i m a n (United Kingdom, 1925­2005) was born in Cambridge but brought up in New Zealand. He studied at Oxford and lectured at Cambridge, before becoming professor of theoretical physics at Bristol in 1964. His researches on the theory of the electrical and magnetic properties of solid and liquid metals earned his election to the Royal Society in 1967. Voluntary early retirement from Bristol in 1982 was followed by a period as visiting professor at Imperial College, London, and from 1986 to 1991 as founding director of the Science Policy Support Group. He was chairman of the Council for Science and Society from 1976 to 1990, and wrote extensively on various aspects of the social relations of science and technology.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information READER'S GUIDE
This series, although compiled by specialists, is destined for the general reader. The notes and bibliographies accompanying the different chapters have therefore been kept to a minimum. The notes are either bibliographical references to specify sources, generally the most important or recent works relating to the subject, or they have been introduced to justify quantitative data or explain any significant differences between two interpretations of a particular point. Select bibliographies at the end of the chapters are designed to stimulate further reading and are not exhaustive. The reader will find more complete bibliographical references in the works indicated. As a number of well-known works for the period are quoted in several chapters, abbreviations of the titles of these works have been used in the notes. A list of bibliographical abbreviations is provided on the next page. In addition, the reader will find a more general bibliography at the end of chapter 2 (`Patterns'), as this chapter locates the presence and nature of universities during the period covered by this volume. In order to avoid unnecessary overlaps between the various chapters, the editors have made cross-references to other chapters in the text as well as in the notes, thereby informing the reader that more ample information on the subject can be found elsewhere in the volume (see also the subject index). The Standard English version of proper names has been used throughout; when necessary, a form more commonly used in Continental Europe is indicated by means of a cross-reference in the name index.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE NOTES Clark and Neave, Encyclopedia I B. R. Clark and G. Neave (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Higher Education, vol. I: National Systems of Higher Education (Oxford, 1992). Clark and Neave, Encyclopedia II B. R. Clark and G. Neave (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Higher Education, vol. II: Analytical Perspectives (Oxford, 1992). Clark and Neave, Encyclopedia III B. R. Clark and G. Neave (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Higher Education, vol. III: Analytical Perspectives (Oxford, 1992). Clark and Neave, Encyclopedia IV B. R. Clark and G. Neave (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Higher Education, vol. IV: Academic Disciplines and Indexes (Oxford, 1992). Jґilek, Historical Compendium L. Jґilek (ed.), Historical Compendium of European Universities/Reґpertoire historique des universiteґs europeґennes (Geneva, 1984).
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FOREWORD
W A L T E R R UЁ E G G
With this fourth volume the History of the University in Europe reaches its conclusion. It owes its origins to the Standing Conference of Rectors and Vice-Chancellors of the European Universities (Confeґrence permanente des Recteurs et Vice-chanceliers des Universiteґs Europeґennes, CRE). In the Epilogue the former general secretary, Andris Barblan, describes how the project came about, and, from the position of someone who has been continually involved with European university questions, adds conclusions he has drawn from the completed History. After thorough clarification of the aims in the autumn of 1983, the CRE handed the concrete realization of the project to an international editorial board. This body decided that a modern university history focusing on Europe could not simply be organized according to countries, types of university, leading universities, and intellectual movements. Instead it should seek to summarize the social conditions and tasks, the structures and functions, the protagonists and activities of the university from its origins to the period after the Second World War in a comparative European context and according to the very latest research. There then appeared between 1992 and 2004 three volumes with the same thematic structure for the Middle Ages, the Early Modern era, and the period covering 1800 to 1945 ­ a fundamentally coherent time span in terms of university history. The Epilogue in each volume sketched the transition to the next and, in addition, in the second volume the chapter `Tradition and Innovation' showed the gradual transition from the Middle Ages to the Early Modern period. The comparative European approach of the individual chapters caused the least difficulties in the first volume, not only because the university landscape of the Middle Ages was largely restricted to those parts of Europe Christianized by Rome, but especially because medievalists have xviii
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Foreword always carried out their research within a European perspective. This could only be sustained in the following volumes for Part IV, `Learning', in which topics were not bound by National Frontiers. For those aspects treated in the other chapters, historians in a variety of countries had produced excellent work, but in terms of content they were for the most part national, indeed local, in their focus. Already in the preparatory stages of the project, the CRE had set up a network of national correspondents, who were able to help improve the European comparative element of the undertaking. The network passed its first major test in collecting material, for a Historical Compendium of European Universities was published by the CRE in 1984 and served as a reference book for the whole project.1 Later on, the national correspondents were at the disposal of the different authors for information on the particularities of their respective university systems, and they helped to furnish a more complete European perspective. As a result, the editorial board tried to find authors for the various chapters of each volume from a wide range of European cultural traditions willing to pursue their theme comparatively over the whole of Europe. In order to introduce them to this comparative approach, they were invited to take part in two or three workshops for each volume, which were hosted by old and new universities famous for their European importance ­ from Bologna and Oxford to Bochum, from Salamanca and Coimbra to Ghent. At the first workshop the authors' concepts of the individual chapters, which they had prepared on the basis of guidelines proposed by the editorial board, were thoroughly discussed by both authors and editors. At the second and third meetings a similar debate occurred relating to the authors' drafts. This led to a learning process that increased not only the European perspective of the different chapters, but was also introduced by our collaborators into conferences and publications on modern European university history.2 The fifteen chapters and the Epilogue of volume IV have been produced by an East European scholar, a French-speaking Swiss, two Flemish Belgian, four German-speaking and ten Anglophone authors. That the last group forms the majority is a reflection of the leading role assumed by their universities since 1945. The American model of entrepreneurial universities was introduced in Europe in 1985 by the British ViceChancellors' Committee. In chapter 4, `Management and Resources', 1 Jґilek, Historical Compendium. 2 A. Romano and J. Verger, I poteri politici e il mondo universitario (XIII­XX secolo), Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Madrid 28­30 Agosto 1990 (Soveria Mannelli, 1994); M. Peset (ed.), Aulas y Saberes, VI Congreso Internacional de Historia de las Universidades Hispaґ nicas (Valencia, 1999); R. C. Schwinges (ed.), VeroЁ ffentlichungen der Gesellschaft fuЁ r UniversitaЁ ts- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte (Basel, 1999ff.). xix
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Foreword the example of the University of Sussex clearly shows this revolutionary change, which was later adopted by university bodies throughout Europe. The reason why the universities were cast adrift into this state of autonomy is explained in chapters 2 and 3. That they were forced to learn in a few decades of autonomous deficit funding what the American universities had practised for hundreds of years is discussed in the conclusion of the first chapter. This one example shows that the thematic treatment can sometimes only be explored in its European perspective over several chapters.3 Part IV, under the title `Learning', was designed to show what was studied, discovered, and taught in the various subject areas, but it presented a special problem. Such an excursion into the history of scholarship and knowledge had proved relatively easy to carry out in the earlier volumes. Yet this was not the case in the fourth volume. The subject matter of modern science and its applications is too far ranging and technically demanding, and the university's part in the development of science too extensive, for adequate review in a work of this kind. However, the fact that the European countries hardest hit by the war faced similar problems of reconstruction after it, including adjustment to the new American dominance in all the natural sciences and technologies, suggested a simplification in our approach. We thus emphasize science policy, as in John Ziman's chapter on the exact sciences, rather than substantive scientific contributions. Sometimes, because of the many successes of the policy, a congratulatory tone creeps in, as in Herbert Macgregor's piece on the biological sciences. But we have let the chapters stand as the considered opinions of experienced men who worked in science and advised about its future during much of the time covered by this volume. Their contributions have value as both primary and secondary accounts of their topics. The six authors of the chapters on science, medicine and technology are British. Although this was not a determined editorial policy, it has advantages that compensate for the resultant emphasis on the experience of the UK. Firstly, it has provided some unity in problems and their solutions and allowed extensive treatment of teaching in the sciences, technology and medicine. Secondly, because Britain occupied a position between the post-war driver of world science, the United States, and Continental Europe, it felt American pressures early and keenly; and because its infrastructures had not been destroyed in the war, it faced squarely and publicly the problem of renovating them to meet the new circumstances. Thirdly, the programme for academic expansion in general and for enlarging the relative representation of science and technology 3 That is the reason for the detailed subject index. xx
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Foreword in particular gave exemplary results in Britain. Our authors have made comparisons with the situation in other European countries as they have seen fit. On the occasion of the `Ninth Centenary Celebrations' of the University of Bologna in 1988,4 work started on volume IV with the establishment of the plan and the guidelines. When the working groups and the authors who had been engaged up to that point came together in 1991 and 1992 in Bologna and Ghent, the European university landscape was no longer divided by the Iron Curtain. The comparison of the Soviet and western university models in the third chapter, `Relations with Authority', which had been developed using the example of the occupying powers in Germany, had to be augmented by an author who was particularly familiar with the universities of Central and Eastern Europe. In other chapters writers were asked to broaden the European perspective wherever possible and appropriate. It was also necessary to extend the finishing point of the volume in stages, from 1990 to 1995. Delays held back the appearance of the third volume until 2004, and we had to ask the authors of volume IV to revise their drafts in light of the current state of research. Some of them felt it necessary to sketch in developments beyond 1995. Sir John Ellis, who wrote the chapter `Medicine', died in 1998 and John Ziman passed away at the beginning of 2005, before being able to complete the revision of his chapter `The Mathematical, Exact Sciences'. The editorial board reviewed the revised drafts at its nineteenth meeting in June 2005 and delegated various editorial tasks for the English edition to individual members. We owe a particular debt of gratitude to John Heilbron, who agreed to help with the editing of the science chapters of the `Learning' part, paying special attention to those written by the now deceased authors. Both he and the board decided to leave this section as a testimony to the authors' own experience. The earlier volumes contained a chronological catalogue of the universities in existence during the period in question. In the third volume this was augmented by a list of specialist colleges and applied science universities of equivalent standing. In the fourth volume the great number of colleges and universities has made such a detailed catalogue impractical. However, at its last meeting the editorial board thought it helpful to list for every country those universities founded between 1945 and 1995 in chronological order. The successor body to the CRE, the EUA, kindly asked the national rectors' conferences to supply the appropriate information. Any missing data were added by the general editor, using the World Higher Education DATABASE 2005/6. As in the earlier volumes 4 For further information on the `foundation' date of 1088, see vol. I, pp. 24­6, 58­60. xxi
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Foreword (and, indeed, as in most developed nations) the definition of a university was taken to be an institution that had been accorded the right to award doctorates by the state; this definition naturally presupposes teaching supported by research. Among the national correspondents, Walter HoЁ flechner, Graz, and I. V. Komarov, St Petersburg, have contributed most helpfully to individual chapters with their commentaries. We are also very grateful to our authors for their patience and their willingness to revise their contributions. The two youngest members of the editorial board, Andris Barblan and Alison Browning, have been especially active in the preparation of the fourth volume. As secretary general and deputy secretary general of the CRE during the gestation and implementation phase of this project, they have played a crucial part in following it through to completion with never-failing energy. They must derive great satisfaction from the fact that not only the English and German Editions initiated by the CRE have been very well received, but Portuguese and Spanish versions of the first volumes have already appeared, and translations into Russian and Chinese are in progress. In the early volumes it was repeatedly necessary to point to gaps in the research base. The same is of course true for volume IV. As we have done throughout this series, in the `Learning' section we have emphasized the subjects that gave the university its character during the several periods covered by the volumes. Thus theology and the arts received special attention in the first three volumes, with particular emphasis on the rise of humanism and the humanities. During the period covered by the present volume, natural science set the tone and direction, and the social sciences followed suit. Our coverage includes history as a social science and omits religion and the humanities. The latter as academic disciplines have undergone substantial changes since 1945 and their place in contemporary universities driven by science, engineering and business is constantly being redefined. Perhaps our successors will be inspired to examine recent developments in both areas, and in the process persuade the publishers to bring out a fifth volume.5 Yet despite its deficiencies, we hope that A History of the University in Europe ­ by presenting and explaining the conditions and developments that shaped this history ­ will not only stimulate further research but also contribute to a better understanding of the purpose and task of the university in a globalized world. 5 For the teaching of the humanities, see chapter 8, `Education'.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The preparatory work for A History of the University in Europe has been generously supported by Dutch, German, Portuguese, Swedish, Spanish and Swiss foundations and sponsors, the European Cultural Foundation in Amsterdam, the Fritz Thyssen Stiftung in Cologne, the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung in Sankt Augustin, the Robert Bosch Stiftung in Stuttgart, the Stifterverband fuЁ r die deutsche Wissenschaft in Essen, the Stiftungsfonds Deutsche Bank in Essen, the VolkswagenStiftung in Hanover, the Portuguese Secretary of State for Higher Education, the National Institute for scientific research as well as the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, the Fondacioґ n Ramoґ n Areces in Madrid, the Antonio de Almeida Foundation in Oporto, the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Fund in Stockholm, the Creґdit Suisse in Zurich, HoffmannLa Roche & Co. in Basel, the JubilaЁ umsstiftung der Versicherungsgesellschaften ZuЁ rich/Vita/Alpina in Zurich, the Max und Elsa BeerBrawand-Fonds of the University of Bern, the Nestleґ Corporation in Vevey, and the Schweizerische Nationalfonds zur FoЁ rderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung in Bern. Among the national correspondents listed in volume II, Walter HoЁ flechner, Graz, and Griigori A. Tishkin, St Petersburg, helped especially in giving volume IV a `European' dimension. The assistance of other colleagues is recognized in the chapters concerned. Johan Hanselaer from Ghent (Belgium) has systematized the names, footnotes and format of this volume, as he did for the earlier volumes in our series. He also prepared the name indexes, and, with the help of Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, the subject indexes for volumes I, II and IV. We thank him for his meticulous and intelligent work over the course of the whole project.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-36108-8 - A History of the University in Europe: Universities since 1945, Volume IV Edited by Walter Ruegg Frontmatter More information Acknowledgements We are very grateful for all the financial and scholarly support of the project. We thank the universities at which our conferences and discussions have taken place, notably the Universities of Bern, Salamanca, Coimbra, EichstaЁ tt, Oxford, Bochum, Bologna and Ghent. Above all we thank the CRE and its successor, the EUA, for their invaluable help. Last but not least we wish to thank the authors, sponsors and publishers for their patience and understanding during the long delay of this publication.
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