A piece of movie history: an honors thesis ([HONRS] 499

Tags: film, Raiders of the Lost Ark, Spielberg, George Lucas, Indy, Steven Spielberg, integral part, Helen Keller, Norman Reynolds, Indiana Jones, STORYBOARDS, ANIMATION, OA3 ANIMATION, rugged mountain, Syp Smasher, Harrison Fmrd, Harrison Ford, Marion, archeologist, the Ark, Terry Leonard, Glenn Randall, Edgar Rice Burroughs, Tailspin Tommy, Martin Jackson
Content: A Piece of Movie History An Honors Thesis (ID 499) by Veda M. Backman Dr. Wes Gehring, Thesis Advisor Ball State University Muncie, Indiana May 22, 1986 Graduation: August 1986
SfCcli Th[~, > :. r./ L: ~ C~ >A~ I ~';\" 133:>
An electrical impulse seizes the brain and snaps
the eyes wide open in the dark. The adrenaline reaches
the heart and no matter what time it is, the hand is
wildly groping for something to write with. On the
open flap of a book of matches, a shredded paper
napkin, the cover of TV Guide, or on the open palm
of the hand, an idea is born. An unsuspecting world
goes about its business
· then, a year, three
years, five years later the palm print is on every-
body's lips in a dozen languages, crossing over a
score of cultures, religions, and ideologies. The
world has a dashing hero, a magical diversion -- a
new movie.
__ steven Spielberg 1
One day in May 1987, two of America's top directors were sitting on the beach in Hawaii. While building a sand castle, one director began to tell the other a story -- a story set in the 1930's -- "a period where adventures could happen, a romantic time when it took a little longer to get around the world by air than it does today, a period without advanced technology, where the cleverness of the individual against the enemy was what mattered." 2 It was an old-f.ashioned story patterned after movie serials and B-movies of that period. Its hero was a daring adventurer/archeologist. The directors? George Lucas and steven Spielberg. The story became the most popular movie of 1981 -- Raiders of the Lost Ark. Both of the directors were sO intrugued by the story, they wanted to see it immediately. They spent "five days of intensive cooperation,,3 with screenwriter Lawrence Kasdan and three months later they had a working script. It took eighteen months, incredible facilities, and over three hundred people (not including extras) to create the magic of Raiders of the Lost Ark. This is a brief look at their work.
2 PLOT The time is 1936. Deep in a Peruvian jungle, archeologist Indiana Jones is searching for a golden idol. He survives hostile natives, tarantulas, cascading boulders and a boobytrapped temple only to lose the idol to Belloq, a French archeologist on the wrong side of the law. Back in the United States, Army Intelligence visits Indy to ask his help in finding the Lost Ark of the Covenant. According to legends, anyone who possesses the ark is invincible so Hitler had launched an all out effort to find it. Indy was to get the Ark before the Nazis. Forever the adventurer, Indy accepts. He begins by going to Nepal to meet with an old friend, Professor Abner Ravenwood, to obtain the headpiece to the staff of Ra, the means of pinpointing the location of the Ark. He finds that Ravenwood is dead but his daughter Marion (with whom Indy had had an affair ten years earlier) has the headpiece. Unfortunately, the Nazis have also found her. There is a shoot out which leaves Marion's bar in ashes but the headpiece remains in her possession.
J Now partners, Indy and Marion go to Egypt where they meet up with Sallah who will help them in their search. However, they also run across Belloq and the Nazis. After an amusing chase, Indy believes Marion is killed when a truck explodes. Indy is devastated but with Sallah's help he pulls himself together to find the Ark. In the process, he finds that Marion is alive and being held by the Nazis. He finds the Well of Souls where the Ark is hidden but it is ankle deep in snakes. (Indy's one fear.) He brings the Ark to the surface only for it to fall into the hands of Belloq and the Nazis. They seal Indy and a now useless Marion in the Well of Souls. They fight off snakes and cascading skeletons to find themselves at the plane that will take the Ark to Hitler. They again fight their way out of the situation, destroying the plane in the process. Indy then chases the Ark which has been loaded into a truck. After a harrowing chase, he gets away with the truck holding the Ark. Indy and Marion, along with the Ark, board a steamer bound for home. All seems well for the couple until they are overtaken by a German submarine. Marion and the Ark are taken but Indy manages to stowaway on board. Dressed as a German
4 soldier, he procures a gun and threatens to blow up the Ark if Marion is not released. The Nazis do not capitulate, though, so he has lost. He cannot destroy history. In a grand ceremony, the Ark is openned but it should not have been tampered with. It unleases forces that are deadly. Indy and Marion close their eyes to the visions and survive the destruction. When they get back to the united States, Indy is concerned that the Ark will not be handled properly, but the government assures him it will all be all right. He is skeptical but it is out of his hands. The final scene shows the Ark packed in a crate and shelved away in a warehouse full of similar crates. CASTING Casting began in February 1980. Spielberg's method of casting for Raiders was very different but logical. Many actors were very nervous about meeting the legendary Steven Spielberg, so he tried to put them at ease. The actors were not given scripts. Instead, Spielberg would meet them in a large kitchen where he would talk to them and invite them to bake cookies with him. Usually, Howard Kazanjian, Frank Marshall, or Kathy Kennedy would be there as well. Every so
5 often, pictures would be taken of the actors. It was not until it came down to the final choices that the actors were actually filmed. Originally, the producers planned to cast a relatively unknown actor as Indiana Jones. Since they also planned to make sequels if the first film was successful, they needed an actor they could contract for several films. An artist was called in to draw some pictures of Indy, "a rugged individual with a bullwhip, a gun, and a leather jacket and hat.,,4 Inspite of his fame as Han Solo, Harrison Fmrd was chosen to play the dashing hero. According to Howard Kazanjian, George Lucas eventually "realized Harrison was Indiana Jones.,,5 Most of Karen Allen's work before Raiders was on the New York stage playing roles such as Helen Keller in Monday After the Miracle (a sequel to the Miracle Worker). Spielberg and Marshall interviewed her in New York, gave her a scene to read, and then asked her to go to California for a screen test. She got the part and became the only woman in the film. The part of Sallah was originally described as "a small cheerful energetic fellow in his forties.,,6 Imposing, thirtysix year old British actor John Rhys-Davies is far from that
6 description but his superb acting convinced Spielberg that he was perfect for the part. production design Raiders of the Lost Ark was a triumph of logistics. It was filmed in four countries -- England, Tunisia, France, and Hawaii -- plus seven large soundstages at EMI Elstree Studios. Production designer, Norman Reynolds, begp.n work on the project in October of 1979. About half of his time was spent scouting locations and travelling from set to set to check on their progress. The finished sets were the result of close cooperation between the designer, construction manager, master plasterer, and stunt coordinator. A good example is the set for the Well of Souls. The design and construction. Special care had to be taken to accommodate the stunts. Hydraulic lifts were put in the bottom of the giant jackel statue to help if fall and a break-away wall was built for the statue to fall through. Since a stuntman had to "ride" the statue as it fell, special handholds were incorporated in the design. An added difficulty was the presence of seven thousand live snakes dressing the set. A snake handler had to be consulted to make sure the design and the snakes were compatible.
7 South America was brought to life on another soundstage. The Temple of Chachapoyan Warriors had an atmosphere reminicent of Tarzan including hidden dangers and a valuable idol. The lush exteriors of the temple, which were filmed in the Hawaiian Islands, matched the man made set perfectly. Reynolds was allowed the most freedom with the set of the Raven Bar. After all, no one knows what a bar in Nepal in the 1930's looked like. Using furniture, cigarettes, and drinks of the period and a rustic building, he created an atmosphere of a hard and rugged mountain life. It was a masterpiece of imagination and imagery. STORYBOARDS In order to get a visual image of how the movie would look, before one frame of film was shot, Spielberg along with artists Ed Verreaux, David Negron, Joe Johnston, and Nilo RodisJamero translated the story into a series of pictures called a storyboards. Steven Spielberg described the value of the storyboards best. Seventy percent of all the shots in the movie were :first designed as storyboards. Among the hybrid nationalities of North Africa, those little funny pictures would transcend four languages (English,
8 French, Arabic, and German) to give everybody working on Raiders something clear and unmistakable to shoot for. Their existence saved us all time, money, and effort and created a vivid library of our goals.? Spielberg began doing storyboards in his early teens when he was making his own home movies. It was natural for him to use them extensively in his professional work. Spielberg is not an artist, though. He makes very rough sketches of his ideas which then takes to real artists. NW pre-thumbnails are rather crude and I always have to accompany them in meetings with an artist to explain, say, which are the horse's legs which is his head and which is his tail and so on. If I can explain that to the artist and he can somehow learn to interpret the hieroglyphics of my own art, then he's on his way to drawing my minds eye of the ent l· re mOV.le from beg"lnnlng t 0 end. 8 The storyboards give every department a good idea of what is expected of them before the actual work begins. This helps them anticipate problems and give realistic cost and time estimates. Spielberg depended heavily on the storyboards to prepare him for each day's shooting. He called Raiders "an exercise in physics, in science and logistics. I,9 It was the careful storyboarding of the entire film that made everything run smoothly and allowed Spielberg to bring it in at cost and under schedule.
'" lFl 1960 Hi anqle F'CV - Master sh...:.t of pl-l.-iCession. Clouds start L... jURt a 1 ittle in tr.is sh,yt: no 1 iqhtnin9 yet.
ELEMENTS; Plate - 'NAzis Clouds BG nor 1 zon , Sta.r11l - Mat.te Painting
M.LS - Indy & Mar10T' f) stdke . . . .'>t"V H.w ,,~lo\\ds un left side o( tr?lme in Be, A little 1, -htning should show i n cl-)uds, t,\\~ it. s:;)oul.:~ 100).: VeI"y fal" a ..... ay. Rt.ars.
l)lc'lte - Indy & Maric:I St::l':~" - M,'\tt.e Paintlllg Clou.15 Llghtni 11"1
!---------4 OA3
Hc~10q. W\,11~(' ~ 1'oht ~t(lr.h""lnCT h ~l;.nd th~ t\rk.
Falr,t ....'l..s;:)::;: of ,-1..~': 1.,:e ,"\!"e cc·mlllq cut. 0_ th~ ark hE"r<',
A/l';' they ~\, ,u: j td.:'.l' 'd) ''''''''_t"y subt le fACf'- Llke
li·.L~;; l ~~_'S.
ELEMENTS: Plate - Bel 10q & Ghosts
r-'lLS - Low PO'll ami(~ Nd'7 is J lC'jX 1 ng tO~'a rd 'l"r,e f j ro,t real oh~st COj,,,S up UJt of :nk move.:;. dlrectly into ;:i1m,·!'a. Its face is ::cscrlpt, ,in~j i t is ShlOl}('h~d '.dth. hidden
ark. and nonf'yes.
p': ... t.t' - N ,:;, .. hns,t
HS - Nazi lit) fa~ :O(T C"f)';>t:"~L "!hGst entp1"S frame right. t gCA,'S behi':1d ~~a-z i. h(>'~ ~.t 'lrls t') \.'llrJ .:lrc,\jn~ hi s riqht shc..ui...rh'T (cry ll"'l.f ~CI fro'".t) ,\S .it Cl~t.=; ··
Plate - Ni'lzi lil GhOHt
< LFL 1980 M..t.S - l~a.:;i t1 taC'~ng C3,IreJ.ii 3ELEMENTS:
Plate chcc;t
t---------f Oil19
!-!.Ј:. ·· Indy, Mar!')n at stake. Ghn'5t:,; e"tf't' '.'dnel(i li:it ;.spinil15nq), m,~ke a wide c,r·~:t:'-turn bt.~hind lr,nj' i. :.I.ar,:-on (1.nct. eXl,t: closely nn c,"''!\{~r~ rtqht:. !;;lO~;!"~ .,rЈ> :.,,)....' :1Ior(' .lct_lve, vi::Jl,-nt.
r 1. tt.' - I '" M tIC :.t 1!!4 - !-tl!tle Paint.ln,' el( ll'~S w/lilt'.tning
ANIMATION: G~cs'~ [,\ (jh'. n If'lq
POV Belloq. Gh:)st. comes In next to camera right. Many q1105t:9 are s-till swirllng over the ~azis. This ghost circlE~, ~hen comes back to face ca~~ra (Belloq), hovЈ>r.i.n:~. lie i." face 's here Lnrly octined, is con::>tantly ct~an91ng, and 1.S female. l...t till'! end of the shot, sh,e moves st!"'Jnqly to the left., t0ward where Toht is standing.
Plate - Nazis Ghosts t~erlalc 'lh0St
t-......O--F-------i Ghosts
cu Toht. The back of the ghost's head is visible on the left aide of ~_he screen (ahould look. like the same fog we t.f!W in OA32). The ghost.: does not cut our v~sion of Toht.
Plstll - i'oht Ghost
_ ~ _____________... AGNhoIM.t ATION:
('I: l'L..;'Lt. Tvht. is s!~r.7!am::lq _..:lW .'1.1' the :~i.'Jht r;f '_~:e ghost. 'rr,e bi!vi<. of tne ;jhost' ..... hedd (an Oltt ()f tcells fug) can be seen 0[1 the left han~ ~l~e (If Lho sc=een. By the end of t~~ 8~IOt. W(! ~dn see lnrl 9hO.s;t mo'_·~rLq ri.qht.
PLn,:' - ;!.'nh~ \.~h·' 'j t
ANIMATION: ::::~0st
PAGE 7t\
LS, High ar.q-le. c.\.)~\..lI'r.n of flT(-,
I;~::' .'--ls C"C;·,t~I1ue ;;::o:)t~n'J P1?1te bolts
I I.__ ."_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. _ ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~----------- ··- - - -
.:._j 'lnr t. "::'JL,mn ,)tit <::-f ~C" llS, ~311 :li1~.~.·. Just bЈ';() ·2r'~''''lln, c·r i(~.lnall b~ Uo;;'.
t fir~ is 111 t-,.:mt of 'To ht-:'i lc ~tw 1,~ft Sldt: "t <::. the ('lid of th~ shot., t~, (I;:~(i, st_3rts ::) ':urr. t ...· '~
:H~ ~te-
;,',j 1-.l.;.1n of t- I J
o LFL 1980 OS Toht. wi.th Toht in r,.;. C~lur":1 of fire is in fr'Jnt of him ~ slig!".-tly to the right side of 1~'ame. Some dead Na.)!;is -can be seen i.n BG. Fire i8 changing frolf'. red tv white, a.nd ra.ys are being emi tte,j towo!l'd Toht.
ELEMENTS: FG Plate .. Toht Column :)f fire - PyT'0 BG Pla.te - Nazis
~ ·"~c:, 1.,'-' ./ '7/ 1/ ,;..~/
os Belloq. Belloq is silh·.) lettec'!, r;,atted i~lt') HIe FG. Fire is changing from leJ u~ whi.t.e-blu(>. Bolt!'; are shooting toward Seiloq.
j ELEMENTS: Plate - Belle;,", Colurnr. of fire - PYlCi B,:-lt s
PAGE, 98
CO Belloq (phony head). Belloq's head explodes.
LS - Indy' Marion at stake. Flames, moving dW<3.y , undt:!r Cdmera, split ~round Indy" Marion as t.hey go. At the end of the she+:, we see the flames 51 mdng um·.'n, perhaps curling up slightly.
Rushing flames - Pyr~ Plate - Indy' Marion Clouds .- very dark ,& w/!'Iome lj ghtning
PAGE 101
Up~er left POV. Cut to this sh~t just in time to st.'e th(' !.ast of the g .....'et:p~n(J flni\\t~9 De at'lsorberl lnt," the .;-olurm ,,:,( firt:.:.. (01wn'1. st.:1rlS Just above l-OC<:S '."'l'::: Cd.n'l0n ~, shoots up..... ard :..nto t.ne sk'.:. C: _'llds ;a.nnot be seen !'.n'; l":'ri:ler.
P15te - Indy Marion Column of f;..re - Py\"O Stdrs - M~tte palnting
PAGE 104
18 STUNTS Stuntmen were an integral part of Raiders. They are the ones who make the characters and adventures larger than life. The stuntmen are the ones who do·"as much as anyone to insure that the audience would be brought to the edge of their seats. ,,10 The largest stunt sequence in the movie is the chase in the desert. Five vehicles are involved in the chase: an American GlVIC truck, a Mercedes truck and staff car, a command care, and a motorcycle. They all had to be specially built since any still existing from that who are not likely to loan them out for stunt work. All of the vehicles were equiped with hidden seat belts and roll bars to protect the stuntmen. The c~imax of the scene is when Indy gets thrown out of the truck, travels under it, and climbs back on. It is a throwback to classic Western chases. Terry Leonard was the lucky man who got to double for Harrison Ford in this scene. The action of the scene was really much slower than it appeared. Glenn Randall, stunt coordinator, drove the truck slowly while Leonard moved through a trench dug into the road. Leonard describes the precarious position of each man: It's tough on Glenn, when he's driving the vehicle. He can't go too fast because that would
19 start a vacillating action underneath the truck. Once you start swinging back and forth, the more you go to one side, the more you go to the other side, and pretty soon you are totally out of control and those wheels will get you. It puts a lot of pressure on him. If you run over somebody there's no excuse that's going to make you forget that it happened. 11 stunt work involves incredible trust and a love for what you are doing, but there is no denying that it adds so much. A film like Raiders would be lost without it. CRITIQUE Raiders of the Lost Ark was a huge financial success. It earned $ 310 million in its first year .'IA I ts success redeemed Spielberg in the eyes of the industry. Some critics, however, criticised the film for not making a strong statement about life and because it lacked the personal touch. I, on the other hand, agree with the critics who praised the film. Spielberg stated that he hade the film because he "always wanted to bring a serial to life that blends Lash LaRue, Syp Smasher, Masked Marvel and Tailspin Tommy with eliments from Edgar Rice Burroughs and George's own imagina~ tion.,,12 He did that in Raiders. The film is a loving salute to the serials and B-movies that were an integral part of
20 Spielberg's and Lucas's childhoods. It was made to be enjoyed, not to change the world. There is nothing wrong with that. For those who do need a message, though, Raiders had a stronger message than most "summer movies." It advises us to deal with those things which are beyong ouf human realm with care and respect, whether we believe or not. The film was also far from lacking the personal touch. While Raiders was a salute to the old movie serials, it also poked gentle fun at some of their idiosyncrasies. For example, when Indy knocked out a German soldier to get a uniform, it did not fit, so he had to try again. The character of Indiana Jones is, itself, a bit of personal warmth. He is a vulnerable hero. He is no longer a young man so his adventures take their toll. He has fears (snakes) and he has emotions. He never forgot the young girl he had cared about. When they come together again and then he believes she is killed, he is crushed. Indy is a lovable hero. The relationship between Indy and Marion is perhaps the most personal touch. The audience cares about them -- not just that they survive, but that they are happy. The characters are "real." They have a past, present, and (we hope) future.
Raiders of the Lost Ark was all that it was meant to be.
If part of that was to be a brief reprieve from the problems
of today, I think Lucas and Spielberg should be thanked for
giving us such an entertaining and high quality escape.
I likB the way critic Martin Jackson described Raiders:
The wonderful , relaxing unreality, the kind that
sends you from the theatre limp from the marrow escapes
and tingling adventure, slightly embarrassed at having
enj oyE~d it all so much
. It is the superi or
directing of Spielberg and the magical special effects
of the crew that moves this film along like a rocket
... It is a marvelous piece of entertainment, full
of drama, suspense, and daring deeds that simply refuse to let the viewer rest. 13
In short, it is a joy.
It would take years and thousands of pages to do justice to the work and genius that went into the making of Raiders of the Lost Ark. There are many people who gave their time (and a part of their lives) to make this film. They deserve our praise and our thanks. We're making movie history. -- George Lucas 14
22 CREDITS Directed by STEVEN SPIELBERG Produced by FRANK MARSHALL Screenplay by LAWRENCE KASDAN Story by GEORGE LUCAS & PHILIP KAUFMAN Executive Producers GEORGE LUCAS & HOWARD KAZANJIAN Music John Williams Editor MICHAEL KAHN, A.C.E. Associate Producer ROBERT WATTS Director of Photography DOUGJAS SLOCOMBE Production Design NORMAN REYNOLDS A Lucasfilm Ltd. Production Filmed in PANAVISION
Casting MIKE FENTON, JANE FEINBERG, MARY SELWAY Second Unit Director MICHAEL MOORE Stunt Co-Ordinator GLENN RANDALL costume design DEBORAH NADOOLMAN Visual Effects Supervisor RICHARD EDLUND Mechanical Effects Supervisor KIT WEST First Assistant Director David TOMBLIN Prod1.;.ction Supervisor DOUGLAS TWIDDY Assistant Production Manager PATRICIA CARR Second Asst. Directors ROY BUTTON, PATRICK CADELL Location Manager BRYAN COATES Continuity PAMELA MANN Associate to Mr. Spielberg KATHLEEN KENNEDY Additional Photography PAUL BEESON, B.S.C. Operating Camerman CHIC WATERSON Asst. Camerman ROBIN VIDGEON Second Asst. Camerman DANNY SHELMERDINE Dolly Grip COLIN MANNING Gaffer MARTIN EVANS Head Rigger RED LAWRENCE art director LESLIE DILLY Set Decorator MICHAEL FORD Construction Manager BILL WELCH PropE~rty Master FRANK BRUTON Asst. Construction Manager GEORGE GUNNING Asst. Art Directors FRED HOLE, MICHAEL LAMONT, JOHN FENNER, KEN COURT Production Illistrator ED VERREAUX Production Artists MICHAEL LLOYD & RON COBB Sketch ArtiSt Andrew GARNET-LAWSON Modeller KEITH SHORT Chief Buyer DAVID LUSBY Art Department Asst. SHARON CARTWRIGHT Head Platerer BERT RODWELL
Supervising Plasterer Kenneth Clark Master Painter ERIC SHIRTCLIFFE Construction Storeman David Middleton Property Master (Tunisia) PETER HANCOCK Property Supervisor CHARLES TORBETT Armorer SIMON ATHERTON Wardrobe Supervisor RITA WAKELY Wardrobe Assitants SUE WAIN & IAN HICKINBOTHAM Chief Make-Up Artist TOM SMITH Make-Up Artist DICKIE MILLS Chie:f Hairdresser PATRICIA McDERMOTT Hairdresser MIKE LOCKEY Stunt Arranger PETER DIAMOND Senior Effects Technician PETER DAWSON Effects Technicians TERRY SHUBERT, RODNEY FULLER, TREVOR NEIGHBOUR Effects Engineering TERRY GLASS Special Effects Equipement Supervisor BILL WARRINGTON Special Effects Electrician CHRIS CONDON Special Effects Carpenter ROY COOMBS Special Effects Welder YVES DE BONO Effects Assistants KEN GITTENS & RAY HANSON Animal Handlers MICHAEL CULLING, STEVE EDGE, JED EDGE sound Design BEN BURTT Supervising sound effects Editor RICHARD L. ANDERSON Sound Effects Editors STEVE H. FLICK, MARK MANGINI Supervising Dialogue Editor CURT SCHULKEY Dialogue Editor ANDY PATTERSON Asst. Dialogue Editor ERIC WHITFIELD Production Sound ROY CHARMAN Sound Boom Operator JOHN SALTER Production Maintainance GEORGE RICE Re-Recording Bill Varney, STEVE MASLOW, GREGG LANDAKER Music Recording ERIC TOMLINSON Orchestrations HERBERT W. SPENCER SupE~rvising Music Editor KENNETH WANNBERG
25 Asst. Film Editors PHIL SANDERSON, BRUCE GREEN, COLIN WILSON Apprentice Film EProduction Assistants GILL CASE & DANIEL PARKER Doctor DR. FELICITY HODDER Production Accountant ARTHUR CARROLL Assistant Accountant MICHAEL LARKINS Location Accountant STEFANO PRIORI Still Photographer ALBERT CLARKE Unit Publicist DEREK ROBBINS 2ND UNIT Operating Cameramen WALLY BYATT, GERRY DUNKLEY, DAVID WPRLEY Assistant Camerman CHRIS TANNER Second Asst. Camerman EAMONN O'KEEFE Dolly Grip JIM KANE First Asst. Director CARLOS GILL Second Asst. Director MICHAEL HOOK Continuity MAGGIE JONES Doctor DR. HASSAM MOOSSUN Special Visual Effects Produced at INDUSTRIAL LIGHT AND MAGIC
ENDNOTES 1Lawrence Kasdan, Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Illustrated Screenplgy (New york: Ballantine Books, 1981), p. i. 2Derek Taylor, The Making of Raiders of the Lost Ark (New York: Ballantine Books, 1981), p. 1J. JKasdan, p. i. 4Taylor, p . 15· .5Taylor, p. 1.5. 6Taylor, p. 9. 7Kasd 2.n, p. i. 8Indiana--Iones~d---.!he Te!!!Ele of Doom; Official Collectors Edition (Newtown, Connecticut: Paradise Press, 1984), p . .53. 9David Breskin, "Steven Spielberg," Rolling Stone, 24 Oct. 198.5, p. 76. 9AKasdan, pp. 104-11J. 10Taylor, p. 112. 11Taylor, p. 115. 11A20/ 20 Transcript, 24 June 1982, p.8. 12"Keep Your Eye On Summer Movies," Harper's Bazaar, May 198 1, P . JO.
13Martin A. Jackson, "Films," USA Today, Sept. 1981, pp. 66-67. 14Taylor, p. 14. 15Taylor, pp. 175-179.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Breskin, David. "steven Spielberg." Rolling Stone, 24 Oct. 1985, pp. 22+. Denby, David. "Movie of Champions." New York, 15 June 1981, pp. 68-70. Geng, Veronica. "Spielberg's Express." Film Corrunent, JulyAug. 1981, pp. 57-59. Griggin, Nancy. "Jungle Chums." Life, June 1984, pp.88-94. "I Dream For a Living." Time, 15 July 1985, pp. 54-63. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom: Official Collectors Edition. Newtown, Connecticut: Paradise Press, 1984. Jackson, Martin A. "Films." USA Today, Sept. 1981, pp. 66-67. Kasdan, Lawrence. Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Illustrated Screenplay. New York: Ballantine Books, 1981. "Keep Your Eye On Surruner Movies." Harper's Bazaar, May 1981, p. 30. Laursen, Byron. "Steven Spielberg: Movie Magic." The Movie Magazine, Summer 1985, pp.4+. Saltzman, Joe. "Lucas Films: An Empty Way Station?" USA Today, Sept. 1981, p. 69. Taylor, Derek. The Maki~of Raiders of the Lost Ark. New York: Ballantine Books, 1981. 20/20 Transcript. 24 June 1982.

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