A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo

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Content: Geography & Natural Disasters
Williams et al., J Geogr Nat Disast 2013, 3:2 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-0587.1000110
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A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo Thomas M. Williams1*, Bo Song1, Carl C. Trettin2 and Charles A. Gresham1 1Belle Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC29442 2USDA-Forest Service Center for Forested Wetlands, 3734 Highway 402, Cordesville, SC 29434
Abstract Southern US coastal forests are subject to damage by major Atlantic Hurricanes at a frequency that influences forest succession. forest species may be: a) resistant: unchanged in mortality and growth; b) susceptible: increase in mortality and decrease in growth, and c) resilient: increase in mortality but increase in abundance and growth, or d) usurper: absent prior to disturbance and increase abundance and growth afterwards. Although there is a wide literature on resistance of temperate species found in the southern US to hurricane wind and salt damage, long-term ecological implications are poorly understood outside of the tropics. Hurricane Hugo struck the South Carolina Coast with an estimated wind speed of 60 m/s. Due to the relatively fast forward movement of the storm, high wind speed and severe forest damage extended nearly 100 km inland from the coast. In depth studies of immediate damage were reported for four sites and seven forest types. Species resistance to hurricane damage was found to be similar to that reported after other major hurricanes (Camille, Katrina, and Rita) although mortality percentages were influenced by position in the wind field. Susceptible species were highly dependent on position (wind speed) and proximity to the ocean (salt water in storm surge). Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweetgum(Liquidambar styraciflua) varied between resilient and usurper roles in response to mortality percentage of susceptible species.
Keywords: Hurricane;Cape Verde Islands; Mortality Introduction Forests of the southeastern US are frequently struck by Atlantic hurricanes [1]. Hurricanes impact forests primarily by the effects of wind, although salt spray and tidal surge can affect trees close to the coast. Trees can be defoliated, lose branches, be broken in the main bole, either above or below the first branch, or be completely uprooted. The immediate effects of wind and salt of recent southeastern US hurricanes have been summarized [1-4]. The relative resistance of tree species to wind and salt have been determined from the results of studies following hurricanes that struck large forested sections of the southeastern US (e.g., Camille [5], Hugo [6] and Katrina [3]. The long-term ecosystem impacts of hurricanes are much less well understood. Lugo [7] calls ecosystem impacts of hurricanes "visible" and "invisible". Visible are the immediate impact of wind and water while invisible are the long term shifts in species distributions brought about by hurricane damage and subsequent recovery. Outside of the tropics the most complete understanding of these invisible effects has been developed from studies in New England [8-10]. As indicated above the direct effects of hurricanes on southeastern forests are quite well understood. The longer term or invisible effects are less well understood for this region. The roles of individual species in ecosystem recovery can be viewed as one of four pathways [11,12]. 1. A species can be resistant to damage with equal numbers and growth rate before and after the disturbance. 2. A species can be resilient with numbers being reduced by the disturbance but an increase in growth and number after the disturbance. 3. A species can become a usurper being absent before the disturbance and increasing in numbers and growth afterwards. 4. A species can be susceptible with numbers being reduced by the disturbance and numbers and growth declining after the disturbance. In this paper we will examine damage and recovery of southeastern US forest species following Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina. We will examine how several important spatial determinants of damage by the
storm have influenced the roles of key species during the first 15 years of recovery. Factors Important to the Extent of Original Damage Wind Hurricane Hugo originated near the Cape Verde Islands on September 10, 1989 and struck St. Croix at midnight September 17-18th with sustained winds measured at 62 m/s [140 mph] [13]. It continued to Puerto Rico on the 18th with measured winds between 41-59 m/s [98-132 mph]. The storm declined in intensity after crossing Puerto Rico but regained strength over the Atlantic between the 18th and 21st. It struck north of Charleston SC near midnight September 21-22 with winds near 60 m/s [135 mph] and a forward speed of 48 k/h [30 mph] passing through the state by morning of September 22nd. The rapid forward progress resulted in high wind across all of northeastern South Carolina [13,14] (Figure 1). The most extensive survey of hurricane damage came from examination of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots [15]. Figures 1 and 2 display data on percent damage in the FIA plots averaged by county. The FIA plot data were also used by Pittman et al. [16] to estimate inland wind speeds using the Fugita method (Figure 3). These figures display the most important spatial factor, the relation of a forest stand to the general wind pattern of the hurricane. As found *Corresponding author: Thomas M. Williams- Belle Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, P.O. Box 596, Georgetown, SC 29442, Tel: 1-843-546-6318; fax: 1-843-546-6296; E-mail: [email protected] Received June 14, 2013; Accepted July 28, 2013; Published August 02, 2013 Citation: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/2167-0587.1000110 Copyright: © 2013 Williams TM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
J Geogr Nat Disast ISSN: 2167-0587 JGND, an open access journal
Volume 3 · Issue 2 · 1000110
Citation: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/2167-0587.1000110 Page 2 of 7
Path of center of Hurricane Hugo
Charlotte NC 39g
Pickens
Cherokee Greenville Spartanburg
Oconee
Union
Chester
Lancaster
Chesterfield
Marlboro
Anderson
Laurens
Abbeville
Greenwood
Newberry Saluda
Fairfield
Kershaw
Lee Richland
Darlington
Dillon
Florence Marion
McCormick Edgefield
Lexington
Shaw AFB 49g
Horry
0-1 2-8 9 - 19 20 - 31 32 - 46 47 - 70 Percent of pine trees damaged
Aiken
Calhoun Orangeburg
Williamsburg Georgetown
Myrtie Beach 36m 48g
Barnwell
Bamberg
Dorchester
Berkeley Charleston
McClellanvile 44m 54g
Allendale Hampton
Colleton
Charleston
Bulls Bay 48m 65g Sulivans Island 43m 57g
Isle of Palms 46m 60g
100 km
Jasper Beaufort
SeaBook Island 31m 39g
Beaufort
Edisto Beach
Beaufort 24m 29g
Charleston NE 39m 48g SW 42m 51g Folly Beach NE 38m 49g SW 42m 55g
Figure 1: Map of South Carolina showing the extent of average pine tree damage in each county [15] and measured wind speeds along the coast and inland [13, 14]. Wind speeds are listed as maximum sustained (m) and peak gust (g) in meters per second.
by Busby [17] wind speeds in the north and east of the storm track are generally higher. Only very near the coast and very near the eye wall are equally strong SW winds likely. In South Carolina, severe damage was spread nearly 100 km inland north and east of the storm track. Figure 2 reveals that there is also an interaction of wind speed and tree species. In Charleston, Chesterfield, Darlington, Kershaw, Lee, and Lancaster counties a greater proportion of hardwood species were damaged than pines. In addition to the general assessment made across the state, four separate intensive studies of forest damage were located on Hobcaw Forest [18], Santee Experimental Forest [19], Beidler Forest [20], and Congaree National Park [(21] (Figure 2). In general each of these authors found results consistent with estimates of relative wind susceptibility found in the rest of the southeast [3-6]. Live oak (Quercus virginiana), cypress (Taxodium distichum), swamp(Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora), and water tupelo(Nyssa aquatica), were usually the most resistant, while laurel (Quercus laurifolia), willow (Quercus phellos), and water (Quercus nigra) oaks and spruce (Pinus glabra) and pond (Pinus serotina) pines were quite susceptible. Pines were found to vary in susceptibility at the four sites. Spruce
pines, found only at the Beidler Forest, experienced over 90% mortality [20]. Pond pine was more prevalent at Hobcaw and experienced 27% mortality in the lower speed winds there [18]. At Hobcaw, loblolly pine was more susceptible to wind than longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) with 10% vs. 7.3% in damage classes that were considered fatal [18]. However, at Santee both species experienced roughly equal mortality with nearly 90% mortality [19]. More loblolly pines were broken than uprooted with the opposite being true for longleaf pine [19]. For pines and oaks, damage increased as diameter increased. For example, Gresham et al.[18] found loblolly pine with light damage had an average diameter of 20 cm while heavily damaged trees had an average diameter near 40 cm. An exception to this general rule was found at the Congaree National Park site [21] where very large loblolly pines, >100 cm in DBH, showed only 29% heavy damage, compared to nearly 45% for 80-100 cm and 75% for 60-80 cm. This result may be due to a characteristic of these very large pines or a result of the reduced wind speeds at that site. Since such large trees were only present on the National Park site there is no way to resolve this question. Stand structure was also important with greater damage in stands of medium density. Damage was especially severe in recently thinned pine plantations.
J Geogr Nat Disast ISSN: 2167-0587 JGND, an open access journal
Volume 3 · Issue 2 · 1000110
Citation: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/2167-0587.1000110 Page 3 of 7
Pickens
Cherokee Greenville Spartanburg
Oconee
Anderson
Laurens
Abbeville
Greenwood
McCormick
Union
Chester
Lancaster
Chesterfield
Marlboro
Newberry
Fairfield
Kershaw Lee
Saluda
Lexington
Richland
Surnter
Darlington
Dillon
Florence Marion
0-1 2-8 9 - 19 20 - 31 32 - 46 47 - 70 Percent hardwood trees damaged
Edgefield Aiken
Congaree Swamp
Calhoun
Williamsburg
Orangeburg
Beidler Forest
Georgetown
Barnwell
Bamberg
Dorchester
Berkeley
Charleston
Allendale Hampton
Colleton
Charleston
100 km
Jasper
Beaufort
Beaufort Beaufort
Santee Experimental Forest
Horry Hobcaw Forest
Figure 2: Map of South Carolina showing the extent of average hardwood tree damage in each county [15] and location of the four intensive damage inventories and subsequent long-term recovery plots.
Estimated wind speed meters/ second 20.0145607 - 25 25.00000001 - 30 30.00000001 - 35 35.00000001 - 40 40.00000001 - 45 45.00000001 - 50 50.00000001 - 55 55.00000001 - 60
Hugo Track
Figure 3: Map of South Carolina showing estimated wind speed derived from Pittman et al. [16]. Wind speeds were estimated by Fugita method applied to damage estimates on Forest Inventory and Analysis plots also used by [15] in figures 1&2.
J Geogr Nat Disast ISSN: 2167-0587 JGND, an open access journal
Volume 3 · Issue 2 · 1000110
Citation: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/2167-0587.1000110
Page 4 of 7
All four intensively studied sites also showed a marked difference in damage by landscape position. The differences are probably much more likely due to species distribution by landscape position than any differences in wind speed associated with the subtle topography of the coastal plain. At all four study sites the lowest landscape positions were occupied by cypress-tupelo forest type, with bottomland hardwoods at higher elevations, and mixed pine hardwood or pines on the higher portions of the landscape sampled only by [18,19]. Wind damage to cypress-tupelo types exceeded 20% only at the Francis Marion National Forest [22] and was less than 10% at the Beidler Forest [19]. The bottomland hardwood type had over 50% damage at Santee [19], Beidler[20], and Congaree[21]. Probably the main reason for greater damage in the bottomland hardwood type was the presence of more susceptible oak and sweetgum species in this forest type. Likewise, the upland pine-hardwood stands on Hobcaw Forest and pine stands at both Hobcaw and Santee have oaks and loblolly pines that are much more susceptible than cypress or tupelo Tidal surge In addition to wind, forests were also influenced by salt water carried inland by the tidal surge. The distribution of measured surge
heights (Figure 4) was similar to the distribution of wind speeds with the highest surge also occurring at Bulls Bay [14]. Further north at Hobcaw Forest marsh detritus was found in the forest at elevations suggesting a tidal surge of 3-4 m [23]. Salt induced tree mortality was limited to elevations less than 3m. Initial measurements of salt concentrations in the soil and shallow groundwater found highest concentrations in the highest landscape positions under pine stands and relatively low concentrations in the lowest landscape positions under cypress-tupelo stands. Water table records from before and during the early parts of the storm suggested that soils in lower positions were saturated by rain prior to the surge [23]. Initial salt concentrations did not correspond to later tree mortality. While maximum concentrations were initially on the highest landscape positions mortality was more pronounced at lower positions (Figure 5). Relatively large rains (40-70 mm) occurred during the fall of 1989 and were thought to have diluted salt beneath the pines [23]. Eighteen months after the storm a series of multi-level piezometers and ground water samplers were installed across a ridge-swale section of the eastern forest. Pressure and concentration data showed that the rain had flushed salt deep (5m) into the water table aquifer beneath the pine stands along the ridges [24]. During the 18 months this
Path of center of Hurricane Hugo Berkley County
Georgetown County Santee River
Extent of figure 4 Georgetown Harbor
Dorchester County
Charleston
4.63 4.99
County 5.31
5.73
Charleston Harbor
50 km
Figure 4: Portion of South Carolina Coast from Charleston Harbor to Georgetown with points where height of the tidal surge (meters NAVG1929) were measured [14]. The orange box encompasses Hobcaw Forest and adjacent marsh where tidal surge and subsequent tree mortality were measured [22].
J Geogr Nat Disast ISSN: 2167-0587 JGND, an open access journal
Volume 3 · Issue 2 · 1000110
Citation: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/2167-0587.1000110 Page 5 of 7
5 Km Figure 5: Shaded relief map of Hobcaw forest from LIDAR digital elevation model with portions of the forest that were alive (green) and killed by salt (red). Small dots are locations of Hobcaw Forest recovery plot centers. Blue ­ cypress tupelo; Pink ­pine-hardwood; Green ­ longleaf pine; Yellow ­ upland hardwood.
deeper groundwater with entrained salt moved laterally to the adjacent cypress-tupelo stand in the swale. There it emerged as upward flow resulting in mortality in the cypress-tupelo stand [24]. By 1994, all of the tupelo trees had died and only a few cypress were left in the stand, consistent with the higher salt resistance of cypress [5,6]. Factors Influencing Stand Recovery Despite the large number of studies of initial damage caused by Hurricane Hugo [3], there have been few publications outlining forest recovery after the storm. Cosentino[25] examined revegetation of the Santee Experimental Forest using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) with LANDSAT data. He found that a canopy with the same NDVI index as the pre-hurricane forest was present after ten years of recovery. This suggests that photosynthesis my have returned to pre-hurricane levels in this period. After 12 years the original bottomland hardwood plots were re-measured to examine recovery of bottomland hardwoods at the Congaree National Park [21,26]. On these six plots they found species recruitment and ecological role of species depended on the original damage (21.2-67.9% of trees damaged). For example, red maple (Acer rubrum) was a usurper only on heavily damaged sites and loblolly pine was a susceptible species on plots where damage was high. Sweetgum was resilient on lower damage plots and usurper on highly damaged plots. They also found contradictory small increase in diversity of species in individual plots but an increase in homogeneity among the six plots. In 1994 Gresham installed a study that included subsets of plots installed by [20] on the Beidler Forest and [21] at the Congaree National Forest. He then used a sampling protocol similar to those authors and
added plots on Hobcaw Forest and at the Santee Experimental Forest [27] (Figure 2). Despite efforts to replicate stand types across the study only cypress-tupelo types were present in all four site, with bottomland hardwoods present at three, upland pine stands were only located at Hobcaw Forest and pine-hardwood types at Hobcaw and Santee. The major findings of [27] are summarized in Table 1. Each forest type is represented for those locations where it was sampled. These results would suggest that the ecological role of a species in recovery is highly dependent on the severity of damage sustained by the stand during the storm. Cypress and tupelo are very resistant, unless there is very severe damage by wind or salt intrusion they will dominate the recovering stand. While loblolly pine is usually resilient it can become susceptible in conditions where other factors limit regeneration [21]. On Hobcaw, with salt-water surge and a plentiful seed supply loblolly pine became a usurper in longleaf and cypress-tupelo types. Similarly, longleaf pine is usually considered resistant to lower winds [5,18] but it became susceptible when salt surge was added to wind and plentiful loblolly seed sources were available. It is obvious that establishing a long-term recovery study that strives to encompass the variety of forest types damaged by a large hurricane is fraught with limitations. Recovery research is first restrained by locations of well inventoried plots of pre-disturbance and original damage conditions. It is also limited to locations where tree recovery will not be influenced by later activities. In South Carolina that has resulted in information from four sites, only good fortune resulted in sites with differing exposures to wind and salt water allowing some information to be developed for each type of damage. Several species showed consistent responses such as resistance for bald cypress and swamp tupelo and resilience for loblolly pine, sweetgum, and laurel
J Geogr Nat Disast ISSN: 2167-0587 JGND, an open access journal
Volume 3 · Issue 2 · 1000110
Citation: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/2167-0587.1000110
Page 6 of 7
Forest Type Cypress-Tupelo Cypress-Tupelo Cypress-Tupelo Cypress-Tupelo Bottomland Hardwood Bottomland Hardwood Bottomland Hardwood Pine-hardwood Pine-hardwood Upland pine hardwood Upland hardwood Longleaf Pine
Location Beidler Congaree Hobcaw Santee Beidler Congaree Santee Congaree Hobcaw Santee Hobcaw Hobcaw
1994 Basal Area 109.2 69.7 11.8 23.4 42.8 58.4 13.1 32.4 23.6 9.2 22.1 7.3
1994 Dominant species Bald Cypress Swamp Tupelo Bald Cypress Swamp Tupelo Swamp Tupelo Bald Cypress Bald Cypress Sweetgum Sweetgum Laurel Oak Sweetgum Green Ash Red Maple Sweetgum Loblolly Pine Sweetgum Loblolly Pine Pond Pine Loblolly pine Blackgum Loblolly Pine Sweetgum Longleaf Pine Loblolly Pine
Dominant Recovery Species Bald Cypress Swamp Tupelo Bald Cypress Swamp Tupelo Loblolly Pine Bald Cypress Bald Cypress Laurel Oak Sweetgum Green Ash Sweetgum Amer. Holly Red Maple Laurel Oak Loblolly Pine Sweetgum Loblolly Pine Live Oak Loblolly Pine Water Oak Loblolly Pine Sweetgum Longleaf Pine Loblolly Pine
Response Type[11] Resistant Resistant Resistant Resistant Usurper Resistant Resistant Usurper Resilient Resilient Resilient Resilient Resilient Resilient Susceptible Resilient Resilient Resistant Resilient Resilient Resilient Resilient Susceptible Usurper
Table 1: Summary of plot information for various forest types damaged by Hurricane Hugo. Basal area is the average tree basal areas for all plots in the type at that location in m2/ha. Dominant species are based on tree basal area in all plots of that type at that location. Dominant recovery species are species that are expected to be important in the new stand based on either tree basal area or number of saplings.
oak. However, severity of damage resulted in differing response types for the same species; loblolly pine as susceptible at Congaree ­ pine hardwoods, resilient at most other sites, and a usurper at the Hobcawcypress-tupelo site. Variability in both the degree of damage and the role of individual species in recovery has not been conducive to developing broader ecological principles of hurricane impacts. Results at Congaree were examined to test hypotheses that diversity imparted resilience, hurricane disturbance restructures species composition and enhances diversity, and hurricane disturbance accelerates succession [26]. None of these hypotheses were found to have been supported. The difference between the recovery rates of upland and lowland ecosystems was thought to be significant during initiation of studies by [27]. However, the results show that species differences and extent of damage are more important to both recovery rate and recovery species compositions than any topographic gradients in the sites. Conclusions The spatial pattern of hurricane damage and recovery has proven to be exceedingly complex. Although we understand the relative resistance of most southern species to wind, we cannot translate those ratings to estimates of potential damage due to our general lack of precise wind speeds associated with levels of damage for a single species. Storm size, intensity, and forward speed combine to create a unique distribution of wind speed after the storm comes ashore. Damage severity decreases with distance from the coast and distance from the center of the storm. Damage is also asymmetrical with more damage to the north and east of the center. Species differences can be seen at the general statewide scale but plot studies show a variety of damage at even a single location. Outside of relative small zones of high mortality, damage becomes a complex mosaic based on species composition, age, and density overlain by complex distribution of wind velocities as the hurricane interacts with land. On the immediate
coast wind disturbance is complemented by the movements of salt in the tidal surge and subsequent drainage across the landscape. Finally, individual species recovery and interactions are highly influenced by the degree of initial damage. References 1. Conner WH(1998) Impact of Hurricanes of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts USA.271-287 In Laderman, AD [Ed] Coastally Restricted Forests, Oxford University Press, NewYork. 2. Brokaw NVL, Walker LR (1991) Summary of the Effects of Caribbean Hurricanes on Vegetation. Biotropica 23: 442-447. 3. Haymond JL, Hook DD, Harms WR(1996) Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research And Management Related to The Storm. USDA Forest Service.South.Res. Stat. General Technical Report SRS5 540p. 4. Kupfer JA, Myers AT, Mclane SE, Melton GN(2008) Patterns of Forest Damage In A Southern Mississippi Landscape Caused By Hurricane Katrina. Ecosystems 11:45-60 5. Stanturf, JA, Goodwick SL, Outcalt KW(2007) Disturbance and Coastal Forests: A Strategic Approach to forest management in Hurricane Impacted Zones. Forest Ecology and Management 250:119-135 6. Barry PJ, Doggett C, Anderson RL, Swain K(1998) How to Evaluate And Manage Storm-Damaged Forest Areas. USDA Forest Service, Southern Region, Management Bulletin R8-Mb63. 7. Lugo AE (2008) Visible and Invisible Effects of Hurricanes on Forest Ecosystems: An International Review. Australian Ecology 33:368-398. 8. Foster DR(1988) Disturbance History, Community Organization and Vegetation Dynamics of The Old-Growth Pisgah Forest, Southwestern New Hampshire, USAJournal of Ecology 76:105-134. 9. Foster DR (1988) Species Stand Response to Catastrophic Wind in Central New England, USA.Journal of Ecology 76:135-151. 10. Busby PE, Canham CD, Motzkin G, Foster DR(2009) Forest Response to Chronic Hurricane Disturbance In Coastal New England. Journal of Vegetation Science 20:487­497. 11. Bellingham PJ, Tanner EVJ, Healey JR(1995) Damage and Responsiveness
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Citation: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/2167-0587.1000110
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ofJamaican MontaneTree Species after Disturbance by A Hurricane. Ecology 7: 2562-2580. 12. Batista WB, Pratt WJ(2003) Tree Population Responses to Hurricane Disturbance: Syndromes in a South-Eastern USA Old-Growth Forest. Journal of Ecology 91:197-212 13. Brennen JW(1991) Meteorological Summary ofHurricane Hugo.Journal ofCoastal Research SI 8 1-12. 14. Sparks PR(1991) Wind Conditions inHurricane Hugo and Their Effect on Buildings in Coastal South Carolina. Journal ofCoastal Research SI 8 13-24. 15. Sheffield RM, Thompson MT(1992) Hurricane Effects onSouth Carolina's Forest Resource. USDA Forest Service Res. Pap.SE284 Asheville, NC. 51pp. 16. Pittman K, Kellison RC, Lea R (1996) Hurricane Hugo Damage Assessment Of Bottomland Hardwoods In South Carolina. P 52-63 In Haymond JL, Hook DD, Harms WR (Eds.) Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research And Management Related To The Storm. USDA Forest Service.South.Res. Stat. General Technical Report SRS5. 17. Busby PE, Motzkin G, Boose ER(2008) Landscape-Level Variation in Forest Response to Hurricane Disturbance acrossa Storm Track. Canadian Journal Forestry Research. 38: 2942­2950. 18. Gresham CA, Williams TM, Lipscomb DJ(1991) Hurricane Hugo Wind Damage to Southeastern U.S. Coastal Forest Tree Species. Biotropica23:420-426. 19. Hook DD, Buford MA, Williams TM(1991) Impact ofHurricane Hugo onSouth Carolina Coastal Forests. Journal ofCoastal Research SI8:291-300. 20. Duever M, Mccollom J(1992) Hurricane Hugo Effects On Old-Growth Floodplain Forest Communities At Four Hole Swamp,South Carolina. P197-
202 InProceedings oftheSeventh Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference. USDA Forest Service, SFES Gen. Tech. Rept. SO-93. 21. Putz FE, Sharitz RR (1991) Ecological Impact of Hurricane Hugo; Salinization of A Coastal Forest. Journal of Coastal Research.Canadian Journal of Forestry Research21:1765-1770. 22. Gartner DL, Hook DD, Buford MA(1996) Hurricane Damage tothe Tree Canopy Species ofa 26 Year Old Seed Tree Regeneration Experiment Ina Non-Alluvial Swamp. P 101-105 In Haymond JL, Hook DD, Harms WR (Eds.) Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research And Management Related To The Storm. USDA Forest Service.South.Res. Stat. General Technical Report SRS5. 23. Gardner LR, Michner WK, Blood ER, Williams TM, Lipscomb DJ, Jefferson WH(1991) Ecological Impact ofHurricane Hugo; Salinization of A Coastal Forest. Journal ofCoastal Research SI8:301-317. 24. Williams TM(1996) Verification of Contaminant Flow withGIS and Aerial Photography. Pp. 74-81 in Environmental problem solving With Geographic Information Systems.USEPA conference proceedings.EPA/625/R-95/004, Center forEnvironmental Research Information, Cincinnati OH. 25. Cosentino GR (2013) Comparing Vegetation Cover intheSantee Experimental Forest, South Carolina (USA), Before And After Hurricane Hugo: 1989-2011. (2013) Geosciences Theses.Georgia Southern University 58. 26. Zhao D, Allen B, Sharitz RR (2006) Twelve Year Response of Old-Growth Southeaster Bottomland Hardwood Forests to Disturbance from Hurricane Hugo. Canadian Journal ofForest Research 36:3136-3147. 27. Song B, Gresham CA, Trettin CC, Williams TM(2012) Monitoring theRecovery of Coastal Plain Forests from Hurricane Hugo. In: Xi W.M (Ed) Forest Restoration. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology 6 (SI 1): 60-68.
Citation: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage and Recovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/21670587.1000110
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J Geogr Nat Disast ISSN: 2167-0587 JGND, an open access journal
Volume 3 · Issue 2 · 1000110

File: a-review-of-spatial-aspects-of-forest-damage-and-recovery-on.pdf
Title: A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage andRecovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo
Author: Thomas M. Williams
Subject: Williams TM, Song B, Trettin CC, Gresham CA (2013) A Review of Spatial Aspects of Forest Damage andRecovery on the South Carolina Coast Following Hurricane Hugo. J Geogr Nat Disast 3: 110. doi:10.4172/2167-0587.1000110
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