A Selected Bibliography: Protest Song in the United States

Tags: New York, pp, Songs of Protest, Oak Publications, Protest Songs, New Masses, Washington, D.C., University Press, R. Serge Denisoff, Daily Worker, Folk Music, University of Chicago Press, Christian Crusade, Archive of American Folk Song., Charles H. Kerr, Journal of American Folklore, American Revolution, James K. Skipper, Journal of American Folklore 61, Library of Congress, Music Division, Herbert A. \, Broadside, Monthly Review Press, Richard A. Peterson, Protest Song, Folklore Associates, American Academy of Political and Social Science, John Anthony, Richard Peterson, Dover Publications, Publications, Educational Department, Gibbs M. Joe Hill, Gerald Marks Music, Inc., Freedom Songs, Joe Hill, Folklore, Folk Song, Philadelphia, Richard A. eds, Dunaway University of California at Berkeley, social protest, American Folklore
David King Dunaway University of California at Berkeley
The term "protest song" covers a latitude of musical creation and views of society. A "protest", of course, is an utterance of opposition or resistance, "song", a setting of a text for voice, with or without accompaniment. Defining the genre, unfortunately, is not as easy a task as it first appears. A protest song suggests resistance to an abstraction of society--a song which expresses or reflects the spirit of opposition to a social order, past or present. A lament is not a protest song unless it includes some form of opposition to the condition depicted. Nor is a work song a protest song, unless there is more resistance than bitterness to the worker's complaint. Thus, the literature on war songs would not be included in this listing, except as those songs criticize the military order under which the singers fight, or the social structure that created the war. Items of every ideology, of course, are included here, as well as song collections which include protest songs. Contemporary composers are represented by a single collection. Materials on the music of social protest are incorporated when they discuss the song form. There is considerable variance in these standards. "Who Killed Cock Robin?" may once have been a protest song but its present audience is largely unconscious of this past. Because many protest songs reflect the singer's world view (and not always the listeners'), some have escaped attention, particularly the songs of African-Americans during the 19th century. On the other hand, some protests couched in the song form are practically unsingable, such as those composed by politically-militant but classically-trained composers in the 1930s. I acknowledge the assistance of Alan Dundes, Archie Green, Lawrence Levine, and Chris Strachwitz, and the exercise of a sometimes arbitrary personal judgment in the preparation of this listing.
Adomian, Lan "What Songs Should Workers' Choruses Sing?" Daily Worker, 7 February 1934, p. 5.
Agnew. Spiro T. "Talking Brainwashing Blues." In Sounds of Bs, edited by
R. Serge Denisoff and Richard Peterson, pp. 307-10. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1972.
=, Allan, Anne. *
America. New York: Worker's Bookshop, 1944.
Ames, Russell The Story of American Folk Song. 1955. Reprint. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1960. "Songs of Protest", pp. 14-161.
Bentley, Eric "Songs of Hans Eisler." Sing Out!, January 1964, pp. 34-37. * The Brecht-Eisler ~ o n ~ b o o k~r z ~ o r kO:ak Publications, 1967
Boskin, Joseph, and Rosenstone, Robert A. "Protest in the Sixties." Annals of&t American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 1969.
Braden, Anne. "Highlander Folk School--the End and the Beginning." Sing Out! no. 1 (February-March 1962), pp. 30-31.
Brand, Oscar * Songs of '76: 4 Folksinger's History of the Revolution. New York: M. E-vans.. 1972-. - The Ball- ad Mongers: Rise of the Modern Folk Song. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1962.
w, Browne, P.J. "Songs for a Rebellion: An Historical Survey." English
no. 4
(1966). pp. 94-96.
Carawan, Guy and Candie Voices from the Mountains. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1975.
Carey, James T. "The Ideology of Autonomy in Popular Lyrics: content analysis." Psychiatry 32 (May 1969): 150-64.
Claiborne, Bob. "Folk Music of the United States." Sing Out!, October and November 1951, pp. 8-9, 16. Coffin, Tristram P. "Folksong of Social Protest." In The Philadelphia Folk Festival 1965, edited by Steve Kenin, pp. 19, 28. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Folksong Society, 1965. "Folksong of Social Protest: A Musical Mirage." New York Folklore Quarterly 14 (Spring 1958): 3-9.
Davis, Henry. "The Almanac Singers: Records of 'The Ballad of October 16' and Other Songs." New Masses 27 May 1941, pp. 29-30.
Davison, Archibald, et al. Songs of Freedom. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1942.
Denisoff, R. Serge. "Folk Music and the American Left: A Generational-Ideological Comparison." British Journal of Sociology 20 (December 1969): 427-42.
"Folk Rock: Folk Music, Protest, or Commercialism?" Journal of Popular Culture 3 (Fall 1969) : 214-30.
Great Day Coming: Folk Music and the American Left. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1971.
"The Proletarian Renascence: The Folkness of the Ideological Folk." Journal of American Folklore 82 (January-March 1969):51-65.
"Protest Movements: Class Consciousness and the Propaganda Song." Sociolo~ical Quarterly 9 (Spring 1968):228-47.
"Protest Songs: Those on the Top Forty and Those on the Streets." American Quarterly 22 (Winter 1970):807-23.
"Radical Consciousness and Social Sanctions: The Case of People's Songs, Inc. and People's Artists." In Crises On Campus, edited by R. Nye et al., pp. 176-211. Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Press, 1971.
"The Right Wing Attack On Protest Songs." Mimeographed. Los Angeles: California State College, 1970. "Rock and the Radical Right: Drugs, Sex, and Revolution." In Approaches to the Study of Popular Culture, edited by Ray B. Browne and R. Serge Denisoff.
* indicates songbook
Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, forthcoming.
Sing a Song of Social Significance. Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1972. (collected essays)
"Songs of Persuasion." Journal of American Folklore 79 (October-December 1966):581-89.
- Son= - of - Protest, - War, a- nd -P-eace. Santa Barbara, California: American Bibliographical Center, 1973.
"Urban Folk 'Movement' Research: Value Free?" Western Folklore 28 (July 1969):183-97.
Denisoff, R. Serge and Peterson, Richard A. eds. The ~ o h d sof Social Change: Studies
- in
Psular Culture. w-
Rand McNally, 1972.
Denisoff, R. Serge and Reuss, Richard. "The Protest Songs and Skits of American Trotskyists." Journal of Popular Culture 6 (Fall 1972):407-24.
DeTurk, David A., and Poulin, A., Jr., eds. The American Folk Scene. New York: Dell Books, 1967.
Dugan, James. "Calypso Always Had the Fighting Spirit." Daily Worker, 1 January 1939,p. 7.
Dunson, Josh. "Protest through Popular Music." World of Music, no. 2, (1970), pp. 19-31.
Dylan, Bob. * Writingsa&Drawings_.
New York: Alfred Knopf, 1973.
Ellington, Dick, and Van Ronk, Dave, eds. * .Bosses1 Songbook: Songs to Stifle the -- Flames of Discontent. New York, 1958. (Three editions available)
Finkelstein, Sidney. "Festival and Folk Song." Masses 6 Mainstream, July 1948, p. 93.
m. - How - Music Expresses
New York: International Publishers, 1970.
"Folk Song's Back to Stay." Daily Worker Magazine, 6 March 1949, p. 2.
"Folk Songs Push Communist Line." Freedom Press, 30 October 1963.
Foster, Joseph. "Hans Eisler: Revolutionary Composer." g 1 y Worker, 1 March 1935, p. 5.
-Friction - in - the System. Berkeley: East Bay People's Music, 1977. Friesen, Gordon. "Woody Guthrie: 'Hard Travelin'." Mainstream, August 1963, pp. 4-11.
Garland, Jim. "It Seems to Me." c n x Out! November 1966, pp. 10-15.
Glazer, Tom Songs of Peace, Freedom, and Protest. New York: David McKay Co., Inc. 1970.
Gold, Mike. "change The World." Daily Worker, October 19, 1933, p. 5; 12 January 1934, p. 5; 19 January 1934, p. 5; 21 April 1934, p. 5; 4 June 1934, p. 5; 14 June 1934, p. 5; 22 November 193L, p. 5; 23 November 1934, p. 5; 30 October 1935, p. 5; 6 November 1935, p . 5; 2 January 1936, p. 5; 17 May 1938, p. 7; 2 January 1946, p. 7; 7 February 1946, p. 6. (columns particularly devoted to protest song)
"Paean To Pete Seeger and American Music." People's World, 8 February 1959, p. 7. Greenway, John. American Folksongs of Yrotest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953.
"Folksongs as Sociohistorical Documents." Western Folklore 19, (January 1960):l-9.
"Folksong A Protest." Australian Literary Studies 2 (June 1966) : 179-92.
Gustafson, Robert. "Folk Music and Social Protest." Liberation, May 1962, p. 26. * Guthrie, Woodrow Wilson. American Folksong. New York: Oak Publications, 1961. - * Folk Songs. New York: Ludlow Music, 1963.
Hickerson, Joseph. "A List of Materials relating to the Protest Song." Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Music Division, Archive of American Folk Song., n.d.
Jackson, Bruce, ed. Folklore and Society. Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associates, 1966.
Jaffe, Harold, and Tytell, John. The American Experience: A Radical Reader. New York: Harper 6 Row, 1970.
James, Thelma. "Folklore and Propaganda."
September 1948):311.
*. Jasper, Tony. Understanding
Journal of American Folklore 61 (JulySCM Press, 1972, pp. 93-110.
Kaplan, Arlene. "A Study of Folksinging in a Mass Society." Sociologus 5 (Spring 1955):14-28. * Kerr, Charles H. Socialist Songs With Music. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1901. Korall, Burt. "The Music of Protest." Saturday Review, 16 November 1968, pp. 36-39, 126.
Landis, Arthur H. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade. New York: Citadel Press, 1967.
Larkin, Margaret. "Ella May's Songs." The Nation, 9 October 1929, pp. 382-383.
"The Story of Ella May (Wiggins)." New Masses, November 1929, pp. 2-4.
"Revolutionary Music." New Masses, February 1933, p. 27.
Lewis, Elsie. Songs of the Abolitionist Movement. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, forthcoming. - Lewis, George H. - Side - Saddle - on - the Golden - Calf: - Social - Structure - and Popular Culture - in-America. Pacific Palisades: Goodyear Publishing, 1972. * Ligerra, Lanayre. Feminist Folksongs. Boston: Boston Feminists, 1972.
Lomax, Alan. "A New Folk Community Composed of Progressives, Anti-Fascists and Union Members." New York Times Magazine, 26 January 1947. pp. 16, 41, 42.
Mabey, Richard. The Pop Process. London: Hutchinson Educational, Co., pp. 132-76.
McGregor, Craig, ed. Bob Dylan: 5 Retrospective. New York: William Morrow, 1972.
MacKay, Jeanne, and Trevor, Mary. * Songs of Struggle
Celebration. 1720 Newton
St., Washington, D.C.: Jeanne MacKay and Mary Trevor, 1976.
Miller, Lloyd. "The Sound of Protest." Case Western Reserve Journal of Sociology_ 1 (June 1967):41-52.
Miller, Lloyd, and Skipper, James K., Jr., "Sounds of Protest: Jazz and the Militant Avante-Garde." In Approaches to Deviance: Theories, Concepts and research findings, edited by Mark Letton, James K. Skipper, and Charles McCaghy, pp. 129-140.
t.ew York: M e r e d i t h C o r p . , 1 9 6 8 .
M i t c h e l l , L o u i s e . "Songs They S i n g At Show Time f o r W a l l a c e . " Daily W&e_r_, 1948, p. 7.
23 May
* Moore, F r a n k .
Songs and Ballads of t h e American Revolution. 1856. Reprint.
P o r t Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat P r e s s , 1964.
Morgan, Sonaii. "Antiwar p r o t e s t songs: Folklore i n a modern age." Folklore Newsletter of the U - n i v e r s i t y F o l k l o r e A - s s o c i a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s a t A u s t i n , 1 9 7 0 , p p . 73-80.
Murphv, Ch.xrlrs. "The P r o t e s t Motif i n C h i l d r e n ' s F o l k l o r e . " L o u i s i a n a F-olklore M i s c e l l a n y 3 (April 1971):48-50.
Myrus, Donald. Ullls, B A S a n d t h e Big B e a t . New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 6 , p p . 6-32. M&r V a s d . C o m p o s e r ' s C o l l e c t i v e : New York ( J a n u ~ r y - F e b r u a r y , P l a r c h - A p r i l , 1 9 3 5 ) .
" N a t i v e A m e r i c a n Musir.." .S-i n 2 Out!, n o . 5 , ( S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r . 1 9 7 5 ) ( s p e c i a l i s s u e ) . ~
N e a r , Hollv. "What A r e My S o n g s ? " SLn& Out!, no. 6 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 13-18. N o e b e l , David A. R!q_tLm, Riots, a n d R e w t e n . T u l s a , Oklahoma: C h r i s t i a n C r u s a d e Publications. 1966.
The Mf?fxL"On C e n s o r i n g F o l k S o n g s . ' ' The Wahinitqn P o s t , 26 November 1 9 6 5 .
o r t h , Michael. "The Crack i n t h e Consensus: P o l i t i c a l Propaganda i n American P o p u l a r M u s i c . " New M e x i c o I ) > u r t t e g y 36 (1966):hZ-79.
P h i l l i p s , Bruce. " W r i t i n g P e o p l e ' s S o n g s . " Li-ng Ou!, November-llecember 1 9 7 0 , p p . 6 , 9 .
P h i l l i p s , Kevin. " R e v n l u t i o n a r v Y u s i r . " 'It)<. W : ~ s l ~ i l ~ $ t oPn L- I-S- ~6. Mlly 1971. p . A19.
* Hahson, C a r o l v n .
So-n~bouk o f t h e A m ~ f i c a n RevoluI_!o_n. New York: Neo P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 .
R e a l , J e r t ~ "Folk M u s i c a n d Hc.d T u b t l ~ u m p e r s . " A m e r i c a n Op~inj_on, Ilecember 1 9 6 6 . p p . 1 9 - 2 4 . ~
R e i c h , Wendy. "The Uses o f I ' o l k l o r t . i n H r v i t a l i z a t i o n Movements." F o l k l o r e 8 2 (Autumn 1971):233-44.
R e u s s , R i c h a r d A. American F o l k l o r e ;l!yd lceff-WWi_n$ P o l i t i c s , 19L7z1257. Ph.D. dissertation, lndiana University, 1971.
"The R u o t s o f American L e f t - w i n g ' s I n t e r t , s t i n Folksc>ng." L a--b- o-r H i s t o r y 1 2 (Sprinb! ~ 1971):259-79. A W o s A c : G r _ l r R w ~ r ~ a p l ~19y.12,-196-7. Ncw York: ( ; u t h r i e C h i l d r e n ' s T r u s t Fund, 1968. "Wor~dv C u t h r i r a n d H i s F o l k T r a d i t i o n . " .Jo.u-r.nal o f Arnvric-an Fell k l ~ ~ . r8e 3 ~ ( I , ~ n ~ ! . ~ r v - ! lh, ~ r1<971)) :21 - 3 2 .
K l x , i i < ~ - ; . l i i l 1 . 1 r d . " F o l k M u s i c . Old . ~ n dNew."
Fulklt,rc ~
a n-d
5 0->c i c . t ~ :
ES~~J-si n
o t Be_nxmLn A2 BoLki-n, e d i t e d b y B r u c e J a c k s o n . H a t b o r o . F o l k l o r e A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 6 6 .
pp. 11-18.
Ribakove, Sy and Barbara. Folk-Rock: The Bob Dylan Story. New York: Dell, 1966. Richmond, W. Edson, "Book Review: American Folksongs of Protest." Journal of American Folklore 67 (1954):95. Robinson, John P., and Hirsch, Paul. "It's the Sound." Psychology Today 3 October, 1969, pp. 42-45. Rodnitzky, Jerome L. "The Evolution of the American Protest Song." Journal of Popular Culture 3 (Summer 1969):35-45. Rolfe, Edwin. The Lincoln Battalion. New York: Random House. 1939. Roosevelt, Edith Kermit. "Mass Media Subversion." Freedom Press 9 January 1963. Rosen, David. Protest Songs in America. West Lake Village, Calif.: Aware Press, 1972. Rosenfeld, Paul. "Folksong and Culture--Politics." Modern Music no. 1 (January-February 1939):18-24. Rubin, Ruth. "A Comparative Approach to a Yiddish Song of Protest." Studies in Ethnomusicology 2 (1965):54-73. - Voices - of -a People: Yiddish Folk Song. New York and London: Thomas Yoseloff, 1963. Scaduto, Anthony. Bob Dylan: An Intimate Biography. New York: Grosset 6 Dunlap. 1971. Scheips, Paul. Hold the Fort. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press, 1971. Scott, John Anthony. "Ballads and Broadsides of the American Revolution." Sing Out! no. 2 (April-May 1966), pp. 15-22. Seeger, Peter. "From Aldermaston to London--They Walked and Sang for Peace." Sing Out! no. 4, pp. 14-18. "How 'Hootenanny' Came to Be." Sing Out! Autumn 1955, pp. 32-33. - The Incompleat Folksinger. New York: Simon 6 Shuster. 1972. Pp. 62-151. "Oh, Had I a Golden Thread." New York: Songa Music, 1968. "Remembering Woody." Mainstream, no. 8 (August 1963), pp. 27-33. (Woody Guthrie Issue Seeger, Peter, and Silber, Irwin. "A Menace to Nation's Songs." Daily Worker, 31 May 1948, p. 8. * Segal, Edith. Give Us Your Hand: Poems and Songs for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg 2 The Death House At Sing Sing. New York: National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, 1953. "Segregationists Want Ban On Rock and Roll." New York Times, 30 March 1956, p. 39. Selhorn, Werner. Protestsongs. Berlin: Eulenspiegel Verlag, 1968. Shelton, Robert. The Face of Folk Music. New York: Citadel Press, 1960. Shurnsky, Ellen. "Womansong." 9 O x ! , Volume 22, number 6, January-February 1974, pp. 9-1 Segmeister, Elie. Music and Society. New York: Critics Group Press, 1938.
Silber, Iwin. * Lift E v g LoLcc. New York: 0.1k Publications, 1964.
"People's Songs." Z n x [email protected]! no. 3 (JuIy 1950). pp. 8-9.
"The Singing Hutchinsons--Abolition and Entertainment." SLnng O u t ! Summer 1956, pp. 4-11.
S o x ? A-mxe i&ans Vote By: 3-e Eords and M_uI& That Wan a* L e Elections a-nd In_fLuenceA &t Democratic Process. Harrisburg. Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1971. "Songs from Berkeley: Folk Process on the Campus." S_lng 9%: no. 2 (May 1968), pp. 18-22. * Songs of fhe C c l Yar. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.
Smith. A.W. "Some Folklore Elements in Movements of Social Protest." Folklore 77 (1966) :241-52.
"Some Songs to Sing On Hay Ilay." Daily &rker, 28 April 1946.
*>on3 and Struggle. New York: Jewlsh Workers Musical Alliance, 1938.
*So_ng~o_f t_h: P?:'pJe. New York: Composer's Collective. 1937
"Songs of American Women." S-i_ng Otuj! nu. 2 (May-June 1976) special issue.
"Songs of Protest." T-i-m.e, 15 June 1936, p. 51
"Songs of Protest, Strugfilr in Librarv of People's Music." S-ins Out! no.9 (March 1952). p. to.
Stekert, Ellen. "Cents and Nonsense in the Urban Folksong Movement: 1930-1966."
In Folklore a-nd 52%~:
E s s tn Honor of Benjamin A. gBruce Jackson, Hatboro: Folklore Associates. 1966. Pp. 153-168.
(w. Thomas. Lois Ann. *S_isterhood S o - U I
1909 Parker St., Berkeley: Lois Ann
Thomas, 1976.
Thompson, Stith. "Book Review: American Songs of Protest." Am-an Review 59 (1954):454.
Tracv, H u ~ h ."Yusir as an Agent of Political Expression." Sin2 "But! Strmmrr 1963. pp. L5-49.
Trurzi, Yarcello. "Folksongs on the Right." S i x Ctt! October- November 1963, pp. 51-53 Vassal, .laqurs folks on^: Une Hi?_t-oire de 12 m u ~ i ~pop~uIe_aire agx Etats-Unis. F.ditions Albin Hichrl, 1975. Translated in 1976 under the title Electri-c Child-c~n. New YWagner, .J. "We Shall Overcome." Jaz~zM a ~ a ~ i n - e ,22 October 1966. l'p. 50-52.
Wang, Betty. "Folksongs as Regulators of Pol itics." In Sociolo$~ and Social Research - -. LO (1935):lhl-lh6. i7vprintt.d in T l ~ cStud? of Fc,lklorr, rditcd hv ,%la" Oukdes, p i , . 3113-1 I . l ' n , ~ l t ~ w t ~1t ~I Warmbrand. T r d . "Sini:in): Ag~inst tl~r.Wnr in Washington." B-r.o-a-ds-i-d-r, Xav-June 1971, p. 2 .
* West, Hedy. Hedy West Songbook. Evlangen, West Germany: Rolf Gekder, 1969.
"When Is Folk Music NOT Folk Music?" Los Angeles: Fire and Police Research Association, 1963.
White, Josh. "I Was a Sucker For the Cormnunists." Negro Digest, December 1950, pp. 26-31.
Whitman, Wanda Wilson. Songs that Changed the World. New York: Crown Pulbishers, 1969.
Wilson, Tom. "Protest Songs Down the Ages." Melody Maker, 21 September 1968, p. 34.
"Workers Music League." New Masses, October 1931, p. 31. Workers Music League * Red Song Book. New York: Worker's Library Publishers. 1932.
Wright, Richard. "Huddie Ledbetter, Famous Negro Folk Artist, Sings the Songs of Scottsboro and His People." Daily Worker, 12 August 1937, p. 7.
Zakariasen, William. "The Musician as Activist." pp. 50-55.
Fidelity, no. 7 (July 1971),
Songs of Industrial Protest
Alderson, William. "On the Wobbly 'Casey Jones' and Other Songs." California Folklore Quarterly (October 1942):373-76.
Almanac Singers. *Eight Union Songs of the Almanacs. New York: New Theatre League, 1941.
m, "Songs of Work, Trouble, and Hope." People's
28 October 1941, p. 5.
*Songs for John Doe. New York: American Peace Mobilization, 1941.
"Almanacs Sing of, by, and for the People." Daily Worker, 10 November 1942, p. 7.
Auvilles, Ray and Lida. *Songs of the American Workers. Cleveland: John Reed Club of Cleveland, 1934. Brazier, Richard. "The Story of IWW's Little Red Songbook." Labor Historyg(Winter 1968): 91-105.
Chaplin, Ralph Wobbly. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948.
*CIO Song Book. Washington: CIO Department of Education and Research, ca. 1949.
Collins, Bruce D. "Music in the labor movement." Industrial and Labor Relations Forum, no. 4 (December 1971). pp. 41-52.
"'Come All You Poor Workers,' She Sang to the Harlan Miners." Daily Worker, 4 June 1941, p. 7. *Commonwealth Labor Hymnal. Vol. I, 11. Mena, Ark.: Commonwealth College, 1938, 1939.
Cunningham, Agnes. "The Red Dust Players." Sing Out! no. 1 (January 19761, pp.10-15.
*Six Labor Songs. Mena, Ark.: Commonwealth College, n.d.
Denisoff, R. Serge- "The Almanac Singers: 'Take It Easy, But Take It."' Journal of - American - Folklore 83 (January-March 1970):21-32.
Dunson, Josh. "Songs of American Labor." Mainstream, no. 8 (August 1962), pp. 44-45.
Finkelstein, Sidney. "People's Songs." New Masses, 29 April 1947, p. 31.
Foner, Philip. *American Labor Songs of the nineteenth century. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1975.
- Talking Union. Folkways Records, FH5285. (liner notes) Fowke, Edith. "Labor and Industrial Protest Songs in Canada." Journal of American Folklore 82 (January-March 1969):34-50.
Friedland, William H. "American Labor Songs." Free Labor World, no. 121 (July 1960), pp. 294, 300.
Friesen, Gordon. "Almanac Singers: End of the Road." Broadside (NYC), November 1962.
"Aunt Molly Jackson." Daily Worker, 10 January 1942, p. 7.
"Open Door at Almanac House." Broadside (NYC), 30 June 1962.
"Winter and War Come to Almanac House." Broadside (NYC), 30 June 1962.
Green, Archie. "Born on Picketlines, Textile Workers' Songs Are Woven into History." - Textil- e Labor, April 1961, pp. 3-5.
"A Discography of American Coal Miner's Songs." 101-15.
History, (Winter 1961):
"John Neuhaus: Wobbly Folklorist." Journal of American Folklore 73 (JulySeptember 1960):189-217.
"Let Them Wear Their Watches Fine." 1977, in press.
&O a Miner. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1972.
"The Workers in the Dawn: Labor Lore." In Our Living Traditions: An Introduction to American Folklore, edited bcristram P. Coffin, pp7251-62. New York and London: Basic Books, 1968.
"Aunt Molly Jackson Memorial Issue." Kentucky Folklore Record 7 (October 1961).
Greenway, John. "Aunt Molly Jackson and Robin Hood: A Study in Folk Re-creation." Journal of American Folklore 69 (January-March 1956):23-37.
Guthrie, Woody "People's Songs." Sunday Worker, 13 March 1946, p. 7.
Guthrie, Woody and The Almanac Singers. *-.
New York: 1941. Mimeographed.
Hille, Waldemar. "Freedom Songs--Compared to--Union Songs." pp. 1-3.
E, no.3 (December 1964),
*The People's Song Book. 1948. Reprint. New York: People's Artists, 1956.
Horton, Zilphia. *Labor Sonxs. Atlanta: TMVA SouthEastern Regional Office, 1939.
"How Industrial Music Can Be ?lade to Suit Needs of Workers." - Bil- lboard, 6 February 1943, pp. 62-63.
industrial workers of the World. *Songs of the Workers. 34th ed. Chicago: IWW, 1974.
Joyner, Charles W. "Up in Old Loray: Folkways of Violence in the Gastonia Strike." - North - Carol- ina Folklore 12 (December 1964):20-24. Korson, George. Coal Dust on the Fiddle: Songs and Stories of the Bituminous Industry. 1943. Reprint, with foreword by John Greenway, Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associates, 196
Minstrels of the Mine Patch: Songs and Stories of the Anthracite Industry. 1938. Reprint, with foreword by Archie Green. Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associates, 1964.
*Labor Sings. New York: ILGWU combined locals, 1940.
*Labor Songs For All Occasions. Madison: University of Wisconsin Songbooks For Summer Sessions, 1938, 1940.
*Let The People Sing. Madison: University of Wisconsin Summer School For Workers, 1941.
*w Lomax, Alan, Guthrie, Woody, and Seeger, Pete.
Hitting Songs for Hard-Hit People.
New York: Oak Publications, 1967.
Lowenfels, Lillian. "One Million Americans Have Heard Almanacs." Daily Worker, 2 September 1941, p. 7.
- Marc- h and Sing. New York: American Music League, 1937 Mooney, Fred. Struggle in the Coal Fields. Morgantown, W. Va.: West Virginia University Library, 1967.
"OW1 Plows Under the Almanac Singers." New York Times, 5 January 1941, p. 9.
People's Songs Bulletin. vol. 1, 1946. New York: People's Songs, 1946-1949. *A People's Songs Wordbook. New York: People's Songs, Inc., 1947. Potamkin, Harry Alan, and Rady, Gertrude. * Songs For Workers' and Farmers' Children. New York: New Pioneer Publishing Co., 1933.
Quinn, Mike. "Seeing Red." Western Worker, 14 May 1936 and 22 June 1936.
Reuss, Richard. "The Ballad of 'Joe Hill' Revisited." Western Folklore 22 (July 1967): 187-188.
m, Rosen, David. "The Wobblies."
no. 2 (1971). pp. 12-20.
Seeger, Charles. "On Proletarian Music." Modern Music. no. 2 (March-April 19341, pp. 121-27.
"Songs by Auvilles Mark Step Ahead in Workers' Music." Daily Worker, 15 January 1935, p. 5.
Seeger, Pete. "The Coal Creek Rebellion." Sing Out! Summer 1955, pp. 19-21.
"People's Songs and Singers." New Masses, 16 July 1946, pp. 9-12.
"Songs of Labor and the American People." Sing Out! no. 1 (January 1976), p. 1.
"Whatever Happened to Singing in the Unions?" Sing Out! no. 2 (May 1965). pp. 28-31.
18 Senauke, Alan. "Roots of Sing Out! Magazine." Sing Out! no. 1 (January 1976), pp. 3-7.
Siegmeister, Eli.1L.E. Swift] "The Auvilles' Songs." New Masses, 5 February 1935, p. 28. Silber, Irwin, ed. Reprints from the People's Songs Bulletin. New York: Oak Publications, 1961.
*Sing A Labor Song. New York: Gerald Marks Music, Inc., 1950.
Smith, Gibbs M. Joe Hill. 1969. Reprinted as Labor Martyr: Joe Hill. New York: G 6 D Publications, 1972.
E . Seattle: Pacific Coast School for Workers, 1938.
*Songs of the Almanac Singers. New York: Bob Miller, Inc., 1942.
*Songs of the People. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937.
*Songs of Work and Protest. New York: Dover Publications, 1976.
* m s Our Union Taught Us-. New York: Educational Department, ILGWU, n. d.
m, "Song With a Purpose." People's
16 April 1940, p. 5.
*STFU Song Book. Memphis: Educational Department, Southern Tenant Farmers Union, nd. Stavis, Barrie, and Harmon, Frank. *The Songs of Joe Hill. New York: People's Artists, 1955.
Stegner, Page. "Labor History in Fact and Song." Caravan, June-July 1960, pp. 8-16.
"Protest songs from the Butte mines." Western Folklore 26 (Fall 1967): 157-67.
Stegner, Wallace. "Joe Hill, the Wobblies' Troubadour." pp. 20-24, 38-39.
Republic, January 1948,
- Joe - Hill. New York: Doubleday, 1969.
Tippet, Tom. When Southern Labor Stirs. New York: Jonathan Cape 6 Harrison Smith, 1931.
West. DOG *Songs for Southern Workers. Lexington, Ky.: Kentucky Workers Alliance, 1937.
Wimberly, Lowry Charles. "Hard Times Singing." American Mercury 32 (June 1935):197-202. *Workers1 Song Book, No. 1 and No. 2. New York: Worker's Music League, 1935.
*worker's [email protected] Katonah: Brookwood Labor College, 1934.
*Working Women's Music. Somerville, Mass.: New England Free Press, 1975. U.A. Works Public Administration. *Songs Collected by Workers. USWPA, Bowling Green, Ky.: Bowling Green College of Commerce, 1938.
Afro-American Songs of Protest
Allen, William, F.: Ware, Charles P.; and Garrison, Lucy M., eds. *Slave Songs of the - United - Sta- tes. 1867. Reprint. Magnolia, Mass.: Peter Smith Publishing, 1960.
Ames, Russell. "Implications of Negro Folk song." Science and Society 15 (1951):163-73. "Protest and Irony in Negro Folksong." Science and Society 14 (Summer 1950):193-213. Asch, Moses, and Lomax, Alan. *The Leadbelly Songbook. New York: Oak Publications, 1962. Bikel, Theodore. "Freedom Songs, From Egypt to Mississippi." Hootenanny, no. 1 (March 1964). p. 19. "Black music in America." Sing Out! no. 6 (November-December 1975) special issue. Botkin, Benjamin A. "The Folksay of Freedom Songs." New Masses, 21 October 1947, pp. 14-16 "Self-Portraiture and Social Criticism in Negro Folk Song." Opportunity: - Jou-rnal of Negro Life, February 1927, pp. 38-42. Botkin, Benjamin A., ed. *&My Burden Down. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945. Carawan, Guy and Candie. *Freedom is a Constant Struggle: Songs of the Freedom Movement. New York: Oak Publications, 1968. *We Shall Overcome! Songs of the Southern Freedom Movement. New York: Oak Publications, 1963. Clark, Sam. "Freedom Songs and the Folk Process." Sing Out! February-March 1964, pp. 13-14. Cunard, Nancy. Negro. 1932. Reprint with Hugh Ford 1970. New York: Ungar Publications. Dunson, Josh. "FreBdom Singing Gathering in the Heart of Dixie." Sing Out! September 1964, pp. 34-35. Fisher, Mark. *Negro Slave Songs in the United States. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1969. Frank, Richard. "Negro Revolutionary Music." New Masses, 15 May 1934, pp. 28-29. Gellert, Lawrence. *Me and My Captain" (Chain Gasgs): Negro Songs of Protest. New York: Hours Press, 1939. *Negro Songs of Protest. New York: Carl Fischer, Inc., 1936. "Two Songs About Nat Turner, Great Negro Freedom Fighter." Daily Worker, 12 June, 1949. Gordon, Robert Winslow. "Folksongs of America: Jail Ballads." New York Times Magazine. 19 June 1927, p. 15. Hentoff, Nat. "Jazz and Race." Cormnonweal, 8 January 1965, pp. 482-84. "New Jazz: Black, Angry, and Hard to Understand." New York Times Magazine, 25 December 1966, pp. 10-11, 36-39. Jackson, Bruce, ed. and comp. *Wake Up Deadman. Cambridge: Hanard University Press, 1972. Jones, LeRoi. Blues People. New York: W. Morrow, 1969. Katz, Bernard, ed. The Social Implications of Early Negro Music in the United States.
New York: Arno Press, 1969.
Keil, Charles. Urban Blues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966. Kofsky, Frank. Black Nationalism and the Revolution in Music. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970.
Levine, Lawrence W. Black Culture and Black Consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
"The New Negro and Black Culture." In Key Issues in the Afro-American Experience, edited by Huggins, Kilson, and Fox. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1971.
"Slave Songs and Slave Consciousness." In Anonymous Americans: Explorations - in Nineteenth Century History, edited by Tamora Hareven, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1971.
Lewis, George H. "Social Protest and Self Awareness in Black Popular Music." Popular Music and Society, no. 4 (Summer 1973), pp. 327-33.
Livingstone, Anne. "Negro Music." Music Front (published by the Pierre Degenter Club), no. 2 (August 1935).
Lomax, John A . , and tomax, Alan. *Negro Folksongs as Sung by Leadbelly. New York: Macmillan, 1936.
Lovell, John, Jr. "The Social Implications of the Negro Spiritual." Journal of Negro Education 8 (October 1939): 634-643. Reprinted in The Social Implications - of Early Nezro Music in the United States, edited with an introduction by Bernard Katz, New York: Arno Press and The New York Times, 1969. Pp. 127-137.
Black Song: The Forge and the Flame. New York: Macmillan, 1972.
Odum, Howard, and Johnson, Guy. *- of North Carolina Press, 1926.
Workaday -.
Chapel Uill, M.C.:
Oliver, Paul. Blues Fell This Morning: The Meaning of the Blues. 1961. Reprint. New York: Hacmillan, 1962.
Savannah Syncopators: African Retentions in the Blues. New York: Stein and Day, 1970.
- The Story of_ the Blues. Radnor, Pa: Chilton, 1969. Reagon, Bernice. Songs of the Civil Rights Movement 1955-1965: A Study in Cultural History. Ph.D. dissertation, Howard University, 1975.
Rhodes, Willard. "Music as an agent of Political Expression." African Studies Bulletin 5 (May 1962) :14-22.
Scarborough, Dorothy. On the Trail of Negro Folk-songs. Cambridge, Mass.: hrvard University Press, 1925.
Schutz, Phillip. "Songs of the Negro Worker." New Masses, May 1930, p. 6.
Seeger, Peter. "You Can't Write Down Freedom Songs." Sing Out! June 1965, p. 11.
Sidrow, Ben. Black Talk. New York: Helt, Rhineart, 1971.
Stove, Harriet Beecher. Men of Our Times. Hartford: Hartford Publishing Co., 1868, "Frederick Douglas and Slave Songs." White, Newman I. *American Negro Folk-Songs. 1928. Reprint, with foreword by Bruce Jackson, Hatboro, Pa: Folklore Associates, 1965, pp. 376-86. Latin-American Songs of Protest Baez, Tony. "Puerto Rican Protest Music." Milwaukee Folk, December '72-January '73, Suppl., pp. 1-6. Heisley, Micheal. An Annotated Bibliography of Chicano Folklore from the Southwestern - United - States. Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Comparative Folklore and Mythology, U.C.L.A., 1977, pp. 34-65. Nadal, Tony. "Music of Puerto Rico." Sing Out! no. 3 (September-October 1976), pp. 4-8. McNeil, Brownie. "Corridos." In Texas Folk and Folklore, edited by Mody C. Boatright, Dallas, Tex.: Southern Methodist University Press, 1954. "Corridos of the Mexican Border." In Mexican Border Ballads and Other Lore, edited by Mody C. Boatright. Austin, Tex.: Publications of the Texas Folklore Society, 21 November 1946. Paredes, d r i c o . 4 Texas--Mexican Cancionero. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois, 1976, pp. 59-109. Pena, Felix A. "Folk Music of La Raza." Sing Out! no. 3 (September- October 19761, pp. 19-23. Rodriguez-Puertolas, Julio. "La Problernatica Socio-Politica Chicana en Corridos Y Canciones." Aztlan, vol. 6, no.1, January 1975, pp. 97-116. Silber, Irvin. "La Huelga!: Songs of the Delano Grape Strike." Sing Out! no. 2 (May-June 1976), pp. 4-8. Sonnichsen, Phillip. Texas-Mexican Border Music. vol. 2 and 3, Berkeley: Arhoolie Records, 1975. Strachwitz, Chris. Texas-Mexican Border Music. vol. 1, Berkeley: Arhoolie Reconds 1974. Topical Song Movements of the 1960s Aarons, Leroy R. "FBI Checks Folk Songs--Then Mum's the Word." The Washington Post, 6 November 1965. Allen, Gary. "That Music: There's More To It Than Meets The Ear." American Opinion, February 1969, pp. 49-62. Anderson, Omer. "Army Drops Bomb on 'Protests."' Billboard, 15 January 1966, p. 3. Baez, Joan. *Songs For Our Times. New York: Oak Publications, 1969. "Beatles on Revolution." New York Times, 27 October 1968, p. 68. Bluestein, Gene. "Songs of the Silent Generation." New Republic, 13 March 1961, pp. 21-22.
Cunningham, Sis. *Broadside: Songs of Our Times from the Pages of Broadside Ma azine. Volume 1. Introduction by Gardon Friesen. New York: Oak Publica- ti&, 1 9 6 4 x u m e 2, 1968; Volume 3, 1970.
Dane, Barbara and Silber, Irwin, eds. *The Vietnam Songbook. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1969.
Denisoff, R. Serge. "Kent State, Muskogee, a d the White House." Broadside, no. 108 (July-August 19701, pp. 2-4. Denisoff, R. Serge, and Levine, Mark H. "The Popular Protest Song: The Case of the 'Eve of Destruction.'" public opinion Quarterly, 35 (Spring 1971):117-22. Dunson, Josh. Freedom in the Air: Song Movements of the Sixties. New York: International Publishers, 1965.
"Thunder Without Rain." Sing Out!, volume 15, January 1966, pp. 12-17.
Friesen, Gordon. "Hey Brother! Let the People Sing." Broadside (NYC), NovemberDecember 1970, p. 3.
"Songs for our time." Mainstream, no. 12 (December 1962), pp. 3-22. Gabree, John. "Rock: Art, Revolution or Sell-out?" Hi Fidelity, August 1969, pp. 10-11.
Gleason, Ralph J. "Surrounded by 'Subversive' Music." San Francisco Chronicle, 14 November 1965, p. 23.
"The Times They Are a Changing." Ramparts, no. 7 (April 1965), pp. 36-48.
"God is Dead and Other Protest Songs Receive Vatican Radio's Blessing." Variety, 5 June 1968, pp. 1, 60.
Gollan, A.E. "Hair--Is The Revolution." Christian Crusade Weekly, 20 February 1972, PP. 1, 3. Hall, C. "Rebellion Way of Kid's Life: Writing Team on Protest Songs." Billboard, 21 August 1965, p. 16.
Horowitz, Irving Louis. "Rock and Rebellion, from Modern Jazz to Hard Rock, a Sociological View." Commonweal, 12 February 1971, pp. 466-69.
Huck, Susan. "Why is rock music So Awful." Review of the News, 11 February 1970, pp. 17-24. Keating, Senator Kenneth B. "Mine Enemy--the Folk Singer." Congressional =, 26 September 1963, pp. 17290-92.
Kornbluth, Joyce. Rebel Voices: a > E Anthology. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1964.
Ladner, Robert, Jr. "Folk music, Pholk Music and the Angry Children of Malcolm X." - San -Francisco Quarterly, no. 2 (June 19701, pp. 131-45.
Long, Margaret. "Let Freedom Sing." The Progressive, no. 11 (November 1965), pp. 27-31.
Madden, Richard. "N.Y. Leads Songs of Protest." _New Lolk Ti-me?, 29 August 1968, p. 1.
Noebel, David A. .me Beatles: A _Study of D r u e , S S ,
Revolution. Tulsa, Okla.:
Christian Crusade Publications, 1969.
Comnmism, Hypnotism and the Beatles. Tulsa, Okla.: Christian Crusade Publications, 1965.
Ochs, Phil. *The War is Over. New York: Barricade Music, 1968.
Pankake, Jon and Nelson, Paul. "P-for Protest." Little Sandy Review, no. 25 (1963): 3-20. Reprinted in The American Folk Scene: Dimensions of the Folksong Revival, edited by Daivd A. DeTurk and A. Poulin, Jr. pp. 140-149. New York: Dell, 1967.
Paxton, Tom. *Ramblint Boy and Other Songs. New York: Oak Publications, 1965.
Philbrick, Herbert A. "Subverting Youth with Folksings." In Your Church--Their Target. Arlington, Va.: Better Books, 1966, compl. Kenneth W. Ingwalson, pp. 167-77.
"Pop Protest Songs Soar." Melody yaker, 11 September 1965, p. 1.
Reuss, Richard A. "Topical Songs from People's Songs to Broadside; The Changing Times." Broadside, 12 February 1965, pp. 10-12.
Reynolds, Malvina. *Little Boxes and other Handmade Songs. New York: Oak Publications, 1964
Robinson, John P.. and Hirsch, Paul M. "Teenage Responses to Rock and Roll Protest Songs." In Sounds of Social Change, edited by R. Serge Denisoff and Richard A. Peterson. Chicago: Rand McNally 1972, pp. 222-31.
Rodnitzky, Jerome. "The Decline of Contemporary Protest Music." Popular Music and Society, Fall 1971, pp. 44-50.
"The New Revivalism: American Protest Songs. 1945-1968." South Atlantic Quarterly, no. 1 (Spring 1971), pp. 13-21.
"The Structure of Contemporary Protest Music." Popular Music and Society, no. 1 (Fall 1971), pp. 44-50.
Rosenstone, Richard A. "The Times They Are A-changin': The Music of Protest." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 1969, pp. 131-44. a Russcol, Herbert. "I Gave My Love a Cherry, So Tell It Like It Is, Baby!" Fidelity, no. 12 (December 19681, pp. 54-58.
Sherman, Robert. "Sing a Song of Freedom." Saturday Review, 28 September 1963, pp. 65-67.
Silber, Irwin. "Rise and Fall of the Folk Renaissance." Guardian, no. 25 (March 19721,~.14
"The Topical Song Revolution at Midpoint." In Newport Folk Festival July 22-25, 1965, edited by Ralph Rinzler and Stacey Williams, pp. 20, 62. New York: Nevport Folk Foundation, 1955. Reprinted in The American Folk Scene: Dimensions of the Folksong Revival, edited by David A. DeTurk and A. Poulin, Jr., pp. 167171, New York: Dell, 1967.
"A Study in Illusion and Reality. Songs to Fight a War By." Sing Out! no. 4 (August-September 1967), pp. 20-25.
Sinclair, John. "Liberation Music," -,
November 1970, pp. 18-22.
Sinclair, John, and Levin, Robert. Music and Politics. New York: World Publishing, 1971.
Student Peace Union *Songs for Peace: 100 Songs of the Peace Movement. Introduction by Pete Seeger. New York: Oak Publications, 1966.
Tamony, Peter. "'Hootenanny': The Word, Its Content and Continuum." Western Folklore, 22 (Fall 1963):165-70.
Top Forty Freedom Songs. Mimeographed. Miami Beach, Fla.: 1969.
"Topical Songs and A symposium.
Folksinging, 1965." - Sin2- O?t! Reprinted in The American Folk
no. 4 (September 1965), pp. 9-18. Scene: Dimensions of tho Folksong
Revival, edited by David A. DeTurk and A. Poulin, Jr., pp. 150-66. New York:
Dell, 1967."
Protest in Country-Western Music
Coomber, Chris. "Protesting Ain't New." Country Mucic People, no. 6 (July 1970), p. 21.
"Country Artists, Music Hurl Hat in the Political Arena." Billboard, 11 April, 1970, p. 58.
"First Angry Man of country music." New York Times Magazine, 21 September 1969, pp. 32-58.
Jarolimek, John. "Social Criticism Country Western Style." Pennsylvania School J ~ u 1m17 (April 1969):479-80.
Malone, Bill C. Cou>-try Music, - U.S- .A.: A Fifty-Year History_. Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, 1968.
Orth, Michael. "The Crack in the Consensus: Political Propaganda in American Popular Music." New Mexico Quarterly 36 (Spring 1966).
"Protest Disker Hits Draft Vandals." Variety, 27 October 1965, p. 60.
Reagan, Mike. "The Pious Rhetorir of Country Music." Music Journal, no. 1 (January 1969), pp. 50, 67-70.
Reed, Roy. "Country Music Becomes Concerned." New York Times, 19 April 1970, p. 49.