New York, pp, Songs of Protest, Oak Publications, Protest Songs, New Masses, Washington, D.C., University Press, R. Serge Denisoff, Daily Worker, Folk Music, University of Chicago Press, Christian Crusade, Archive of American Folk Song., Charles H. Kerr, Journal of American Folklore, American Revolution, James K. Skipper, Journal of American Folklore 61, Library of Congress, Music Division, Herbert A. \, Broadside, Monthly Review Press, Richard A. Peterson, Protest Song, Folklore Associates, American Academy of Political and Social Science, John Anthony, Richard Peterson, Dover Publications, Publications, Educational Department, Gibbs M. Joe Hill, Gerald Marks Music, Inc., Freedom Songs, Joe Hill, Folklore, Folk Song, Philadelphia, Richard A. eds, Dunaway University of California at Berkeley, social protest, American Folklore
A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY: PROTEST SONG IN THE UNITED STATES
David King Dunaway University of California at Berkeley
The term "protest song" covers a latitude of musical creation and views of society. A "protest", of course, is an utterance of opposition or resistance, "song", a setting of a text for voice, with or without accompaniment. Defining the genre, unfortunately, is not as easy a task as it first appears. A protest song suggests resistance to an abstraction of society--a song which expresses or reflects the spirit of opposition to a social order, past or present. A lament is not a protest song unless it includes some form of opposition to the condition depicted. Nor is a work song a protest song, unless there is more resistance than bitterness to the worker's complaint. Thus, the literature on war songs would not be included in this listing, except as those songs criticize the military order under which the singers fight, or the social structure that created the war. Items of every ideology, of course, are included here, as well as song collections which include protest songs. Contemporary composers are represented by a single collection. Materials on the music of social protest are incorporated when they discuss the song form. There is considerable variance in these standards. "Who Killed Cock Robin?" may once have been a protest song but its present audience is largely unconscious of this past. Because many protest songs reflect the singer's world view (and not always the listeners'), some have escaped attention, particularly the songs of African-Americans during the 19th century. On the other hand, some protests couched in the song form are practically unsingable, such as those composed by politically-militant but classically-trained composers in the 1930s. I acknowledge the assistance of Alan Dundes, Archie Green, Lawrence Levine, and Chris Strachwitz, and the exercise of a sometimes arbitrary personal judgment in the preparation of this listing.
-A-SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PROTEST SONG IN THE UNITED STATES - Genera- l Works
Adomian, Lan "What Songs Should Workers' Choruses Sing?" Daily Worker, 7 February 1934, p. 5.
Agnew. Spiro T. "Talking Brainwashing Blues." In Sounds of Bs, edited by
R. Serge Denisoff and Richard Peterson, pp. 307-10. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1972.
=, Allan, Anne. *
America. New York: Worker's Bookshop, 1944.
Ames, Russell The Story of American Folk Song. 1955. Reprint. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1960. "Songs of Protest", pp. 14-161.
Bentley, Eric "Songs of Hans Eisler." Sing Out!, January 1964, pp. 34-37. * The Brecht-Eisler ~ o n ~ b o o k~r z ~ o r kO:ak Publications, 1967
Boskin, Joseph, and Rosenstone, Robert A.
"Protest in the Sixties." Annals of&t American Academy of Political and Social Science, March 1969.
Braden, Anne. "Highlander Folk School--the End and the Beginning." Sing Out! no. 1 (February-March 1962), pp. 30-31.
Brand, Oscar * Songs of '76: 4 Folksinger's History of the Revolution. New York: M. E-vans.. 1972-. - The Ball- ad Mongers: Rise of the Modern Folk Song. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1962.
w, Browne, P.J. "Songs for a Rebellion: An Historical Survey." English
(1966). pp. 94-96.
Carawan, Guy and Candie Voices from the Mountains. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1975.
Carey, James T. "The Ideology of Autonomy in Popular Lyrics: content analysis
." Psychiatry 32 (May 1969): 150-64.
Claiborne, Bob. "Folk Music of the United States." Sing Out!, October and November 1951, pp. 8-9, 16. Coffin, Tristram P. "Folksong of Social Protest." In The Philadelphia Folk Festival 1965, edited by Steve Kenin, pp. 19, 28. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Folksong Society, 1965. "Folksong of Social Protest: A Musical Mirage." New York Folklore Quarterly 14 (Spring 1958): 3-9.
Davis, Henry. "The Almanac Singers: Records of 'The Ballad of October 16' and Other Songs." New Masses 27 May 1941, pp. 29-30.
Davison, Archibald, et al. Songs of Freedom. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1942.
Denisoff, R. Serge. "Folk Music and the American Left: A Generational-Ideological Comparison." British Journal of Sociology 20 (December 1969): 427-42.
"Folk Rock: Folk Music, Protest, or Commercialism?" Journal of Popular Culture 3 (Fall 1969) : 214-30.
Great Day Coming: Folk Music and the American Left. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1971.
"The Proletarian Renascence: The Folkness of the Ideological Folk." Journal of American Folklore 82 (January-March 1969):51-65.
"Protest Movements: Class Consciousness and the Propaganda Song." Sociolo~ical Quarterly 9 (Spring 1968):228-47.
"Protest Songs: Those on the Top Forty and Those on the Streets." American Quarterly 22 (Winter 1970):807-23.
"Radical Consciousness and Social Sanctions: The Case of People's Songs, Inc. and People's Artists." In Crises On Campus, edited by R. Nye et al., pp. 176-211. Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Press, 1971.
"The Right Wing Attack On Protest Songs." Mimeographed. Los Angeles: California State College, 1970. "Rock and the Radical Right: Drugs, Sex, and Revolution." In Approaches to the Study of Popular Culture, edited by Ray B. Browne and R. Serge Denisoff.
* indicates songbook
Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, forthcoming.
Sing a Song of Social Significance. Bowling Green: Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1972. (collected essays)
"Songs of Persuasion." Journal of American Folklore 79 (October-December 1966):581-89.
- Son= - of - Protest, - War, a- nd -P-eace. Santa Barbara, California: American Bibliographical Center, 1973.
"Urban Folk 'Movement' Research: Value Free?" Western Folklore
28 (July 1969):183-97.
Denisoff, R. Serge and Peterson, Richard A.
eds. The ~ o h d sof Social Change: Studies
Psular Culture. w-
Rand McNally, 1972.
Denisoff, R. Serge and Reuss, Richard. "The Protest Songs and Skits of American Trotskyists." Journal of Popular Culture 6 (Fall 1972):407-24.
DeTurk, David A., and Poulin, A., Jr., eds. The American Folk Scene. New York: Dell Books, 1967.
Dugan, James. "Calypso Always Had the Fighting Spirit." Daily Worker, 1 January 1939,p. 7.
Dunson, Josh. "Protest through Popular Music." World of Music, no. 2, (1970), pp. 19-31.
Dylan, Bob. * Writingsa&Drawings_.
New York: Alfred Knopf, 1973.
Ellington, Dick, and Van Ronk, Dave, eds. * .Bosses1 Songbook: Songs to Stifle the -- Flames of Discontent. New York, 1958. (Three editions available)
Finkelstein, Sidney. "Festival and Folk Song." Masses 6 Mainstream, July 1948, p. 93.
m. - How - Music Expresses
New York: International Publishers, 1970.
"Folk Song's Back to Stay." Daily Worker Magazine, 6 March 1949, p. 2.
"Folk Songs Push Communist Line." Freedom Press, 30 October 1963.
Foster, Joseph. "Hans Eisler: Revolutionary Composer." g 1 y Worker, 1 March 1935, p. 5.
-Friction - in - the System. Berkeley: East Bay People's Music, 1977. Friesen, Gordon. "Woody Guthrie
: 'Hard Travelin'." Mainstream, August 1963, pp. 4-11.
Garland, Jim. "It Seems to Me." c n x Out! November 1966, pp. 10-15.
Glazer, Tom Songs of Peace, Freedom, and Protest. New York: David McKay Co., Inc. 1970.
Gold, Mike. "change The World." Daily Worker, October 19, 1933, p. 5; 12 January 1934, p. 5; 19 January 1934, p. 5; 21 April 1934, p. 5; 4 June 1934, p. 5; 14 June 1934, p. 5; 22 November 193L, p. 5; 23 November 1934, p. 5; 30 October 1935, p. 5; 6 November 1935, p . 5; 2 January 1936, p. 5; 17 May 1938, p. 7; 2 January 1946, p. 7; 7 February 1946, p. 6. (columns particularly devoted to protest song)
"Paean To Pete Seeger and American Music." People's World, 8 February 1959, p. 7. Greenway, John. American Folksongs of Yrotest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1953.
"Folksongs as Sociohistorical Documents." Western Folklore 19, (January 1960):l-9.
"Folksong A Protest." Australian Literary Studies 2 (June 1966) : 179-92.
Gustafson, Robert. "Folk Music and Social Protest." Liberation, May 1962, p. 26. * Guthrie, Woodrow Wilson. American Folksong. New York: Oak Publications, 1961. - * Folk Songs. New York: Ludlow Music, 1963.
Hickerson, Joseph. "A List of Materials relating to the Protest Song." Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Music Division, Archive of American Folk Song., n.d.
Jackson, Bruce, ed. Folklore and Society. Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associates, 1966.
Jaffe, Harold, and Tytell, John. The American Experience: A Radical Reader. New York: Harper 6 Row, 1970.
James, Thelma. "Folklore and Propaganda."
*. Jasper, Tony. Understanding
Journal of American Folklore 61 (JulySCM Press, 1972, pp. 93-110.
Kaplan, Arlene. "A Study of Folksinging in a Mass Society." Sociologus 5 (Spring 1955):14-28. * Kerr, Charles H. Socialist Songs With Music. Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1901. Korall, Burt. "The Music of Protest." Saturday Review, 16 November 1968, pp. 36-39, 126.
Landis, Arthur H. The Abraham Lincoln
Brigade. New York: Citadel Press, 1967.
Larkin, Margaret. "Ella May's Songs." The Nation, 9 October 1929, pp. 382-383.
"The Story of Ella May (Wiggins)." New Masses, November 1929, pp. 2-4.
"Revolutionary Music." New Masses, February 1933, p. 27.
Lewis, Elsie. Songs of the Abolitionist Movement. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press, forthcoming. - Lewis, George H. - Side - Saddle - on - the Golden - Calf: - Social - Structure - and Popular Culture - in-America. Pacific Palisades: Goodyear Publishing, 1972. * Ligerra, Lanayre. Feminist Folksongs. Boston: Boston Feminists, 1972.
Lomax, Alan. "A New Folk Community Composed of Progressives, Anti-Fascists and Union Members." New York Times Magazine, 26 January 1947. pp. 16, 41, 42.
Mabey, Richard. The Pop Process. London: Hutchinson Educational, Co., pp. 132-76.
McGregor, Craig, ed. Bob Dylan: 5 Retrospective. New York: William Morrow
MacKay, Jeanne, and Trevor, Mary. * Songs of Struggle
Celebration. 1720 Newton
St., Washington, D.C.: Jeanne MacKay and Mary Trevor, 1976.
Miller, Lloyd. "The Sound of Protest." Case Western Reserve Journal of Sociology_ 1 (June 1967):41-52.
Miller, Lloyd, and Skipper, James K., Jr., "Sounds of Protest: Jazz and the Militant Avante-Garde." In Approaches to Deviance: Theories, Concepts and research findings
, edited by Mark Letton, James K. Skipper, and Charles McCaghy, pp. 129-140.
t.ew York: M e r e d i t h C o r p . , 1 9 6 8 .
M i t c h e l l , L o u i s e . "Songs They S i n g At Show Time f o r W a l l a c e . " Daily W&e_r_, 1948, p. 7.
* Moore, F r a n k .
Songs and Ballads of t h e American Revolution
. 1856. Reprint.
P o r t Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat P r e s s , 1964.
Morgan, Sonaii. "Antiwar p r o t e s t songs: Folklore i n a modern age." Folklore Newsletter of the U - n i v e r s i t y F o l k l o r e A - s s o c i a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s a t A u s t i n , 1 9 7 0 , p p . 73-80.
Murphv, Ch.xrlrs. "The P r o t e s t Motif i n C h i l d r e n ' s F o l k l o r e . " L o u i s i a n a F-olklore M i s c e l l a n y 3 (April 1971):48-50.
Myrus, Donald. Ullls, B A S a n d t h e Big B e a t . New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 6 , p p . 6-32. M&r V a s d . C o m p o s e r ' s C o l l e c t i v e : New York ( J a n u ~ r y - F e b r u a r y , P l a r c h - A p r i l , 1 9 3 5 ) .
" N a t i v e A m e r i c a n Musir.." .S-i n 2 Out!, n o . 5 , ( S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r . 1 9 7 5 ) ( s p e c i a l i s s u e ) . ~
N e a r , Hollv. "What A r e My S o n g s ? " SLn& Out!, no. 6 ( J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 13-18. N o e b e l , David A. R!q_tLm, Riots, a n d R e w t e n . T u l s a , Oklahoma: C h r i s t i a n C r u s a d e Publications. 1966.
"On C e n s o r i n g F o l k S o n g s . ' ' The Wahinitqn P o s t , 26 November 1 9 6 5 .
o r t h , Michael. "The Crack i n t h e Consensus: P o l i t i c a l Propaganda i n American P o p u l a r M u s i c . " New M e x i c o I ) > u r t t e g y 36 (1966):hZ-79.
P h i l l i p s , Bruce. " W r i t i n g P e o p l e ' s S o n g s . " Li-ng Ou!, November-llecember 1 9 7 0 , p p . 6 , 9 .
P h i l l i p s , Kevin. " R e v n l u t i o n a r v Y u s i r . " 'It)<. W : ~ s l ~ i l ~ $ t oPn L- I-S- ~6. Mlly 1971. p . A19.
* Hahson, C a r o l v n .
So-n~bouk o f t h e A m ~ f i c a n RevoluI_!o_n. New York: Neo P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 .
R e a l , J e r t ~ "Folk M u s i c a n d Hc.d T u b t l ~ u m p e r s . " A m e r i c a n Op~inj_on, Ilecember 1 9 6 6 . p p . 1 9 - 2 4 . ~
R e i c h , Wendy. "The Uses o f I ' o l k l o r t . i n H r v i t a l i z a t i o n Movements." F o l k l o r e 8 2 (Autumn 1971):233-44.
R e u s s , R i c h a r d A. American F o l k l o r e ;l!yd lceff-WWi_n$ P o l i t i c s , 19L7z1257. Ph.D. dissertation, lndiana University, 1971.
"The R u o t s o f American L e f t - w i n g ' s I n t e r t , s t i n Folksc>ng." L a--b- o-r H i s t o r y 1 2 (Sprinb! ~ 1971):259-79. A W o s A c : G r _ l r R w ~ r ~ a p l ~19y.12,-196-7. Ncw York: ( ; u t h r i e C h i l d r e n ' s T r u s t Fund, 1968. "Wor~dv C u t h r i r a n d H i s F o l k T r a d i t i o n . " .Jo.u-r.nal o f Arnvric-an Fell k l ~ ~ . r8e 3 ~ ( I , ~ n ~ ! . ~ r v - ! lh, ~ r1<971)) :21 - 3 2 .
K l x , i i < ~ - ; . l i i l 1 . 1 r d . " F o l k M u s i c . Old . ~ n dNew."
5 0->c i c . t ~ :
o t Be_nxmLn A2 BoLki-n, e d i t e d b y B r u c e J a c k s o n . H a t b o r o . F o l k l o r e A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 6 6 .
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to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, 1953. "Segregationists Want Ban On Rock and Roll." New York Times, 30 March 1956, p. 39. Selhorn, Werner. Protestsongs. Berlin: Eulenspiegel Verlag, 1968. Shelton, Robert. The Face of Folk Music. New York: Citadel Press, 1960. Shurnsky, Ellen. "Womansong." 9 O x ! , Volume 22, number 6, January-February 1974, pp. 9-1 Segmeister, Elie. Music and Society. New York: Critics Group Press, 1938.
Silber, Iwin. * Lift E v g LoLcc. New York: 0.1k Publications, 1964.
"People's Songs." Z n x [email protected]
! no. 3 (JuIy 1950). pp. 8-9.
"The Singing Hutchinsons--Abolition and Entertainment." SLnng O u t ! Summer 1956, pp. 4-11.
S o x ? A-mxe i&ans Vote By: 3-e Eords and M_uI& That Wan a* L e Elections a-nd In_fLuenceA &t Democratic Process. Harrisburg. Pa.: Stackpole Books, 1971. "Songs from Berkeley: Folk Process on the Campus." S_lng 9%: no. 2 (May 1968), pp. 18-22. * Songs of fhe C c l Yar. New York: Columbia University
Smith. A.W. "Some Folklore Elements in Movements of Social Protest." Folklore 77 (1966) :241-52.
"Some Songs to Sing On Hay Ilay." Daily &rker, 28 April 1946.
*>on3 and Struggle. New York: Jewlsh Workers Musical Alliance, 1938.
*So_ng~o_f t_h: P?:'pJe. New York: Composer's Collective. 1937
"Songs of American Women
." S-i_ng Otuj! nu. 2 (May-June 1976) special issue.
"Songs of Protest." T-i-m.e, 15 June 1936, p. 51
"Songs of Protest, Strugfilr in Librarv of People's Music." S-ins Out! no.9 (March 1952). p. to.
Stekert, Ellen. "Cents and Nonsense in the Urban Folksong Movement: 1930-1966."
In Folklore a-nd 52%~:
E s s tn Honor of Benjamin A. g
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(w. Thomas. Lois Ann. *S_isterhood S o - U I
1909 Parker St., Berkeley: Lois Ann
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Tracv, H u ~ h ."Yusir as an Agent of Political Expression." Sin2 "But! Strmmrr 1963. pp. L5-49.
Trurzi, Yarcello. "Folksongs on the Right." S i x Ctt! October- November 1963, pp. 51-53 Vassal, .laqurs folks on^: Une Hi?_t-oire de 12 m u ~ i ~pop~uIe_aire agx Etats-Unis. F.ditions Albin Hichrl, 1975. Translated in 1976 under the title Electri-c Child-c~n. New Y
Wagner, .J. "We Shall Overcome." Jaz~zM a ~ a ~ i n - e ,22 October 1966. l'p. 50-52.
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* West, Hedy. Hedy West Songbook. Evlangen, West Germany: Rolf Gekder, 1969.
"When Is Folk Music NOT Folk Music?" Los Angeles: Fire and Police Research Association, 1963.
White, Josh. "I Was a Sucker For the Cormnunists." Negro Digest, December 1950, pp. 26-31.
Whitman, Wanda Wilson. Songs that Changed the World. New York: Crown Pulbishers, 1969.
Wilson, Tom. "Protest Songs Down the Ages." Melody Maker, 21 September 1968, p. 34.
"Workers Music League." New Masses, October 1931, p. 31. Workers Music League * Red Song Book. New York: Worker's Library Publishers. 1932.
Wright, Richard. "Huddie Ledbetter, Famous Negro Folk Artist, Sings the Songs of Scottsboro and His People." Daily Worker, 12 August 1937, p. 7.
Zakariasen, William. "The Musician as Activist." pp. 50-55.
Fidelity, no. 7 (July 1971),
Songs of Industrial Protest
Alderson, William. "On the Wobbly 'Casey Jones' and Other Songs." California Folklore Quarterly (October 1942):373-76.
Almanac Singers. *Eight Union Songs of the Almanacs. New York: New Theatre League, 1941.
m, "Songs of Work, Trouble, and Hope." People's
28 October 1941, p. 5.
*Songs for John Doe. New York: American Peace Mobilization, 1941.
"Almanacs Sing of, by, and for the People." Daily Worker, 10 November 1942, p. 7.
Auvilles, Ray and Lida. *Songs of the American Workers. Cleveland: John Reed Club of Cleveland, 1934. Brazier, Richard. "The Story of IWW's Little Red Songbook." Labor Historyg(Winter 1968): 91-105.
Chaplin, Ralph Wobbly. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948.
*CIO Song Book. Washington: CIO Department of Education
and Research, ca. 1949.
Collins, Bruce D. "Music in the labor movement
." Industrial and Labor Relations Forum, no. 4 (December 1971). pp. 41-52.
"'Come All You Poor Workers,' She Sang to the Harlan Miners." Daily Worker, 4 June 1941, p. 7. *Commonwealth Labor Hymnal. Vol. I, 11. Mena, Ark.: Commonwealth College, 1938, 1939.
Cunningham, Agnes. "The Red Dust Players." Sing Out! no. 1 (January 19761, pp.10-15.
*Six Labor Songs. Mena, Ark.: Commonwealth College, n.d.
Denisoff, R. Serge- "The Almanac Singers: 'Take It Easy, But Take It."' Journal of - American - Folklore 83 (January-March 1970):21-32.
Dunson, Josh. "Songs of American Labor." Mainstream, no. 8 (August 1962), pp. 44-45.
Finkelstein, Sidney. "People's Songs." New Masses, 29 April 1947, p. 31.
Foner, Philip. *American Labor Songs of the nineteenth century
. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1975.
- Talking Union. Folkways Records, FH5285. (liner notes) Fowke, Edith. "Labor and Industrial Protest Songs in Canada." Journal of American Folklore 82 (January-March 1969):34-50.
Friedland, William H. "American Labor Songs." Free Labor World, no. 121 (July 1960), pp. 294, 300.
Friesen, Gordon. "Almanac Singers: End of the Road." Broadside (NYC), November 1962.
"Aunt Molly Jackson." Daily Worker, 10 January 1942, p. 7.
"Open Door at Almanac House." Broadside (NYC), 30 June 1962.
"Winter and War Come to Almanac House." Broadside (NYC), 30 June 1962.
Green, Archie. "Born on Picketlines, Textile Workers' Songs Are Woven into History." - Textil- e Labor, April 1961, pp. 3-5.
"A Discography of American Coal Miner's Songs." 101-15.
History, (Winter 1961):
"John Neuhaus: Wobbly Folklorist." Journal of American Folklore 73 (JulySeptember 1960):189-217.
"Let Them Wear Their Watches Fine." 1977, in press.
&O a Miner. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1972.
"The Workers in the Dawn: Labor Lore." In Our Living Traditions: An Introduction to American Folklore, edited bcristram P. Coffin, pp7251-62. New York and London: Basic Books, 1968.
"Aunt Molly Jackson Memorial Issue." Kentucky Folklore Record 7 (October 1961).
Greenway, John. "Aunt Molly Jackson and Robin Hood
: A Study in Folk Re-creation." Journal of American Folklore 69 (January-March 1956):23-37.
Guthrie, Woody "People's Songs." Sunday Worker, 13 March 1946, p. 7.
Guthrie, Woody and The Almanac Singers. *-.
New York: 1941. Mimeographed.
Hille, Waldemar. "Freedom Songs--Compared to--Union Songs." pp. 1-3.
E, no.3 (December 1964),
*The People's Song Book. 1948. Reprint. New York: People's Artists, 1956.
Horton, Zilphia. *Labor Sonxs. Atlanta: TMVA SouthEastern Region
al Office, 1939.
"How Industrial Music Can Be ?lade to Suit Needs of Workers." - Bil- lboard, 6 February 1943, pp. 62-63.industrial workers
of the World. *Songs of the Workers. 34th ed. Chicago: IWW, 1974.
Joyner, Charles W. "Up in Old Loray: Folkways of Violence in the Gastonia Strike." - North - Carol- ina Folklore 12 (December 1964):20-24. Korson, George. Coal Dust on the Fiddle: Songs and Stories of the Bituminous Industry. 1943. Reprint, with foreword by John Greenway, Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associates, 196
Minstrels of the Mine Patch: Songs and Stories of the Anthracite Industry. 1938. Reprint, with foreword by Archie Green. Hatboro, Pa.: Folklore Associates, 1964.
*Labor Sings. New York: ILGWU combined locals, 1940.
*Labor Songs For All Occasions. Madison: University of Wisconsin Songbooks For Summer Sessions, 1938, 1940.
*Let The People Sing. Madison: University of Wisconsin Summer School For Workers, 1941.
*w Lomax, Alan, Guthrie, Woody, and Seeger, Pete.
Hitting Songs for Hard-Hit People.
New York: Oak Publications, 1967.
Lowenfels, Lillian. "One Million Americans Have Heard Almanacs." Daily Worker, 2 September 1941, p. 7.
- Marc- h and Sing. New York: American Music League, 1937 Mooney, Fred. Struggle in the Coal Fields. Morgantown, W. Va.: West Virginia University Library, 1967.
"OW1 Plows Under the Almanac Singers." New York Times, 5 January 1941, p. 9.
People's Songs Bulletin. vol. 1, 1946. New York: People's Songs, 1946-1949. *A People's Songs Wordbook. New York: People's Songs, Inc., 1947. Potamkin, Harry Alan, and Rady, Gertrude. * Songs For Workers' and Farmers' Children. New York: New Pioneer Publishing Co., 1933.
Quinn, Mike. "Seeing Red." Western Worker, 14 May 1936 and 22 June 1936.
Reuss, Richard. "The Ballad of 'Joe Hill' Revisited." Western Folklore 22 (July 1967): 187-188.
m, Rosen, David. "The Wobblies."
no. 2 (1971). pp. 12-20.
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