A study of mental health adjustment and social support among the parents of thalassaemic and normal children of Saurashtra

Tags: Creative Space, International Journal, community, mental health, International Journal ISSN, Mangala, achievement, Ronald Ross, social intelligence, the community, Calcutta Chromosome, maladaptive behavior, mental health facilities, motivation, cyber-crime, research, Community mental health centers, Science group, Community mental health services, crisis treatment, Social Support, Social Support Psychological, International Journal R. Gnanadevan, American Journal of Educational Research, emotional intelligence, Psychological Bulletin, Achievement motivation, discrimination, International Water Council, mental disorders, Murugan, Sailesh Kumar Zarkar, computer crime, social networking site, online security, security consultant, cyber infrastructure, Cyber Security, Cyber Crime, cyber crimes, International Journal Prevention Of Cyber Crime Prevention, data destruction, national law enforcement agencies, malaria parasite, L. Murugan, Interestingly Ghosh, Amitav Ghosh, computer system, national security, International Journal computers, economic infrastructure, criminal activities, Calcutta
Content: Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
The Marginalised Subverting the Centre in Amitav Ghoshs ,,The Calcutta Chromosome
Sandeep A. Wagh Asst. Prof in English S.P.H Arts, Science and Commerce College, Nampur. Nashik (MS)
Abstract In ,,The Calcutta Chromosome by Amitav Ghosh, the marginalised characters not only challenge but also subvert the hierarchy and play vital role in the overall structure of the novels. Ghosh brings the marginalised characters like Mangala and Laakhan from periphery into the center of all action, who belongs to the lowest rung to the Hindu society. It seems that Amitav Ghosh tries to give the marginalised some space in the Historiography which was denied them once.
Key Words: Marginalization, Subversion, Chromosome, Historiography, Hierarchy.
The Calcutta Chromosomes (1996) an intricately detailed novel, revolves around the historical figure of Surgeon-Major Ronald Ross and his discovery of the source of malaria, which took place in Calcutta. The novel opens with Antar, an Egyptian working in the information technology industry. Antar, who works in International Water Council, New York, comes across a partially damaged identity card, and tries to retrieve the information with the help of his powerful computer Ava. This computer, equipped with a powerful search engine, traces the identity card to Murugan, a former colleague of Antar who mysteriously disappeared in Calcutta in 1995. Murugan had been researching on the Nobel Prize-winning scientist, Ronald Ross (1857-1932), whose discovery that malaria is transmitted through the mosquito bite transformed the very treatment of the disease. Murugan seems to be of the opinion that Rosss discovery had been manipulated by an Indian "Counter Science group. Amitav Ghosh deliberately fortifies this marginalised group responsible for pushing the research in certain direction. Presenting a wonderful blend of fact and fiction, Amitav Ghosh meticulously weaves the plot of The Calcutta Chromosome around some of the historical events that led to the discovery of the killer Malaria and its cure, while at the same time, the novel also investigates into other relevant philosophical and sociological issues central to the politics of science. Based on the bio-medical adventures of Ronald Ross towards finding out of the malaria parasite, the novel could be conveniently categorised as science-fiction.the novel opens sometimes in the twenty first century with an Egyptian computer wizard Antar in New York who trips through a damaged identity card on his computer. He discovers
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(1)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
that the lost person in L. Murugan, a colleague and researcher in Life Watch where he works, and is also the one who has done extensive research on the medical history of malaria. He came to an inference that Ronald Ross who was awarded Nobel Prize in 1906 for his work on the life-cycle of malaria parasite (1898) was heading in the wrong direction and was motivated out of the maze by some marginalised people onto the correct path. Ghosh shatters the superiority complex of the West through falsifying Ross false belief in himself as the conductor of research. The intellectually marginalised L. Murugan makes fun of Ross: "He thinks hes doing experiments on the malaria parasite. And all the time its he who is the experiment on the malaria parasite. But Ronnie never gets it; not to the end of his life". (TCC.67) Murugan tries to establish that Ross research was controlled by the marginalised uneducated lower class ,,dhooley bearer Lutchman and Mangala a sweeper woman. Ghosh also dismantles the hegemony of West over East by employing magic realism in his narrative. Through the use of magic realism and mysticism, he presents the underlying themes of the novel. He incorporates the elements of mysticism in dealing with the secret religion of silence. Mangala and Lutchman, as the members of a secret religious group believe in the powers of silence and try to conceal their identity. As it could break the code of secrecy, the novel never clearly identifies the beliefs and aims of this secret society. The narrative suggests that this group of people believed in counter-science. This group started with the idea that knowledge is self-contradictory; "May be they believed that to know something is to change it, therefore in knowing something, youve already changed what you think you know, so you dont really know it at all; you only know its history. Maybe they thought that knowledge couldnt begin without acknowledging the impossibility of knowledge". (TCC. 88) The novel projects these marginalised people as developers of the most revolutionary technology of all the time in world of medicine and reveals that these people were already ahead of Ronald Ross on malaria research. In 1927, Julius Von Wagner-Jauregg won Nobel Prize for his discovery that artificially induced malaria could cure, or at least alleviate syphilitic paresis, although very little was known at that time about the process in which it worked. But it was only 1890s that the underground Indian group, with the mysterious Mangala as their leader had already achieved a significant milestone in this field of research, much ahead of the Europeans. This group had developed a specific kind of malaria that could by cultured in pigeons. One of the main motives of this woman Mangala was to find out a cure for syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease, by way of transporting the malarial microbe to the patient though the bird. The process resulted in swapping "...of randomly assorted personality traits, from the malaria donor to the recipient..." (TCC 206) which could be found only in the non-regenerating tissue, the brain, and could be transmitted through malaria.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(2)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
The story further hints at yet another intention of Mangala and her associates. In fact they intended to achieve ,,immortality through a technique of inter-personal transference of human traits in which all information could be transmitted chromosomally, from one body to another. "When your body fails you, you leave it, you migrate, you are at least a matching symptomlogy of yourself. You begin all over again, another body, another beginning. Just think, no mistakes, a fresh start. ...a technology that lets you improve on yourself in your next incarnation...." (TCC 91-92) Mangala is also the representative of the archetypal mother, the Goddess Kali or Durga with all her immense power of regeneration. Ghosh employs the Goddess metaphor to insist on the necessity of coming back to life. After pursuing a series of experiments, Mangala had come to a dead end of her research in the year 1897 and urgently wanted to have somebody who could carry forward this project. It was precisely at this moment that she chanced upon Ronald Ross, the scientist associated with the discovery of the malaria bug. The unsuccessful attempts left her with the conclusion that with the existing strains of malaria she could not make any advance in the right direction. In order to have the requisite information, she desperately wanted the British scientist to give a proper direction to her research. She deliberately put the necessary clues and details into the head of Ross and carefully started manipulating his experiments so as to make him act the way she wanted. The theme of transmigration and immortality holds a focal point of attention in the novel. The believers of a cult that the soul is immortal and death is nothing more than a change of attire, these primitive characters Mangala and Lutchman hold their faith in continuance of life. Mangala of the 1890s resurrects into the forms of Mrs. Aratounian, Urmila and Tara of 1995 and Laakhan/Lutchman transforms into Lucky. The Changing pattern of names reaffirms the logic of reincarnations concerning ,,The Calcutta chromosomes. It seems that Mangla and Lutchmans shifting identity confirms their marginalised status. Here both Mangala and Laakhan take hold of every situation. The denied margins were approaching towards the centre of things. The subversion and challenging the authority is brilliantly portrayed by Ghosh. Even the stories that Phulboni deal with the power of Silence and have been titled the ,,The Laakhan Stories featuring a mysterious character Laakhan who keeps shifting his identities form postman to a village schoolmaster and so on. These nor-so-easy-to-comprehend stories also confirm the idea of interpersonal transference of soul. Ghosh elaborates much upon the religious tantric rituals performed by this secret sect for transmigration of soul. He employs the technique of fantastical realism in the narrative so as to amaze the readers by its mystical and supernatural strings. Sonali, who works at the Calcutta magazine, becomes the eye-witness of the same ceremony in Robinson Street, where Laakhans spirit is transferred into the body of Romen Haldar and entire ceremony is performed by Mangala bibi in the form of Mrs. Aratounian:
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(3)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
She caught a glimpse of the tops of dozens of heads, some male, some female, young and old, packed in close together. Their faces were obscured by the smoke and flickering fire light...A figure had come out of the shadows: it was a woman....She seated herself by the fire and placed the bad and the birdcage beside her...Then she reached out, placed her hands on whatever it was that was lying before the fire and smiled...Raising her voice, the woman said to the crowd, in archaic rustic Bengali: "The time is here, pray that all goes well for our Laakhan, once again...The drumming rose to a crescendo: there was a flesh of bright metal and a necklace of blood flew up and fell sizzling on the fire". (TCC 138-140) Interestingly Ghosh deconstruct and dismantles western sense of superiority by Indian irrationality. These beliefs are said to have no scientific basis, yet their strong presence in India can easily be felt. Mangala developed a particular kind of malaria that could be induced in pigeons. Mangala had also developed the technique of transferring malaria from a pigeon to a patient of syphilis. Secretly she started treating patients often developed weird personality disorders. These symptoms in the patients were actually "randomly assorted personality traits" which the patient imbibed from the malaria donor, the pigeon. Actually this process hinted at the freak chromosome, which had earlier been described as the unique Calcutta Chromosome. The special contribution that the Calcutta Chromosome makes is that it suggests transference of personality traits. In this way it suggests immortality. Both, Mangala and Laakhan are from the very lowest rung of Hindu caste system. Mangala is doubly marginalised character as well as Laakhan. Here is a desired reversal of roles. Mangala of the sweeper caste is worshipped in blood and flesh as well as years after as an image. Farley, a western scientist, watches this scene where Mangala is deified her social class: The woman Mangala was seated at the far end of the room on a low divan, but alone and in an attitude of command as though enthroned. By her side were several small bamboo cages, each containing a pigeon. Yet it was not the birds themselves, but rather the state they were in that amazed him, for they were slumped on the floors of their cage, shivering, evidently near death. On the floor by the divan, clustered around the womans feet, were some half dozen people in various attitudes of supplication, some touching her feet, others lying prostrate. Two or three other were huddled against the wall, wrapped in blankets. Although Farley had glanced into their scarred, unseeing faces for no more than an instant, he recognised at once that they, like the man he had seen in the bamboo thicket, were syphilitics, in the final stages of the terrible disease. (TCC 85) By bringing the underprivileged to the focus of attention, Ghosh is hinting at the current justified trend in the field of scientific research where the rights of ,,subjects are fervently advocated, especially in the field of social medicine, health hygiene and control of epidemics. Human or animal subjects, who are experimented upon, are perhaps more important that the researcher. We may recall it was Laakhan who offered to drink Ross medicine first. Ghosh tries to
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(4)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
bring recognition to those who do the spade work for all the grand discoveries. Another recent trend suggests that health and bioresearch can be conducted more economically and efficiently if local people are given principal place in it. They know their soil better that those sitting in saniticised laboratories and working on fanciful hypothesis. The most challenging problems of mortal existence lie in human isolation which forces him to leave in marginalised condition. Mans knowledge of being an island is painful and yet, Amitav Ghosh suggests that despite this inevitability there is happiness, security and companionship if sought sincerely. The continuity of life exists in the pattern of fission and fusion. Antar, widower leads a solitary life in his apartment with shadow-like neighbours. Ava the computer is his sole companion and is linked with the other individuals of this scientific world through his machine; Murugan a divorcee has no companions, only some acquaintances like Antar, Urmila, Sonali, Mrs Aratounian; Urmila theoretically has a family but practically she is an alien to be exploited; Sonali the illegitimate child of Phulboni the writer is also a loner. Often seen walking the Calcutta streets companionless; Laakhan and Mangala are above their community to be revered but not to be accepted as a close associate; Ronald Ross the scientist has a family in the background but in the world of research he too is emotionally estranged from all other co-creatures and yet the novel closes with a word of consolation for the frightened and lonesome Antar, coming from an assemblage of people. In Ghoshs narrative technique, it seems, that the author consciously resists the severe boasting of the West for their knowledge and their conviction that their culture is superior to the indigenous culture. The post colonial situation how knowledge becomes the part and parcel of the power struggle between the first and third world countries can be pointed out in Ghoshs literary endeavour. Edward Said, in his article ,,Orientalism Reconsidered (1986) explains, How knowledge that is non-dominative and non-coercive can be produced in a setting that is deeply inscribed with the politics, the considerations, the positions and the strategies of power. (190) In "The Calcutta Chromosomes" also the difference of knowledge in two different cultures becomes the root of all the complexities. "Knowledge" for West is particularized as the established norms of "Science", which stands in stark opposition of Counter Science which is of indigenous origin. The established Science does not approve the authenticity of native Counter Science as the latter belongs to the native culture which is the "other" to the West. Therefore, everything related to the "other" should be discarded. Ghosh shows how this kind of power struggle puts the ethnicity of the entire race under suppression. He gives the scientific explanation of some genetic transformation and mutation theory along with some other kind of explanations which would seem to the common folk as bizarre. But the queer explanation provided be the Counter Science seems odd to others because Counter Science believes that "knowledge is self-contradictory"
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(5)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
According to Franz Fanon, the anti-colonial resistance was always persistent in the minds of the native people simultaneously along with the practice of colonization. That is why the cult members never directly opposed the colonizers; rather they have accepted their activities in order to get their own profit. Their practice of the Counter Science is the guiding force by which they run an equal and lateral research process on a greater experiment. Both Laakhan and Mangala are characters who change identities. Ghosh has underlined the value of secrecy in matters of intellectual property. The whole atmosphere of the book suggests that there is much theft and deceit in this field. There in one Elijah Monroe who comes to Cunninghams Laboratory to detect the ongoing experiments. Laakhan stages a train accident and finishes Elijah Monroe. Similarly another friend of Ross J.W.D. Grigson also faces a near fatal accident in Secunderabad when he senses that something crucial is going on. Laakhan also meets Phulboni thirty-six years after Grigson episode. It clearly means that it is not exactly Laakhan who meets. Phulboni is Saiyad Murad Hussain. He is eminent writer. He has taken the tribal name, Phulboni. This character is designed to convey the authors viewpoint from time to time. The two names are there to emphasize the confusion and duality of self. Everyone is like that. The mythological references of names at times make the characters archetypes. Mangala, the sweeper woman also appears in different forms. When Murugan comes to Calcutta in 1995 to find about the malaria story, he discovers an esoteric cult of image worshippers. Murugan comes to know that the image is that of Mangala. She is called ,,Mangalabibi. People worship to commemorate her reincarnation. Phulboni does a comprehensive story on this image and its advent into the world. Through this Goddess metaphor, Ghosh insists on the necessity of coming back to life. No one dies. Nothing ends. Resurrection is a must. The journey of the soul independent of any particular body is an established Hindu concept. The body dies but the soul travels into another body and lives on. Soul is imperishable. The movement of soul from one body to another and its final merger with the super soul is controlled by God. God is the supreme power. But Mangala, a human being attempts to master the art of transferring souls. She wants to be the controlling consciousness, the mind that sets things in motion. It hardly needs an explanation now that Mangala also symbolizes the ultimate desire of a human being to become God. In polite terms, it can be described as the wish of a human being to merge in the womb of the supreme mother. As we know in ,,Bhakti marg where devotee in cries in aguish to become one with mother. Mangala belongs to this path. The other path is that of ,,Tarka or Logic and Science. Ross follows this path. The two paths may seem contradictory but in reality are not so. They are complementary. In fact, in this book, Ghosh ratifies and endorses Mangalas path. Logic without intuition in incomplete. Rosss research has been attributed a secondary place while Mangalas methods have been hailed as perfect. As has been pointed out earlier, Western aura has been undone. Ghosh with a strong nationalist vein tries to establish Indian supremacy in the world of knowledge and science. We cannot ignore Mangala and Laakhan for
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(6)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
the fact that both of them are form the very lowest rung of Hindu caste system. Here is desired reversal of roles. Mangala of the sweeper caste is worshipped in blood and flesh as well as years after as an image. Farley, a Western scientist watches this scene where Mangala is deified despite her social class. Ghosh seems adamant that the repositories of truth, science and higher knowledge can be a ,,dhooley bearer Laakhan and a sweeper woman Mangala. He demolishes the false concept that class superiority and right to knowledge go together. Here is wishful undoing of Indian caste system and an assertion of the right to knowledge irrespective of class, caste, creed, culture or colour. Twice in the course of the novel, Laakhan is shown as a torch bearer; metaphorically a bearer of knowledge. Ghosh further universalizes the theory by making people of all religious background accepting the entire drama. By bringing the underprivileged to the focus of attention, Ghosh in hinting at the current justified trend in the field of scientific research where the rights of ,,subjects are fervently advocated, especially in the field of social medicine, health, hygiene and control of epidemics. To conclude it can be said that Ghosh brings the marginalised into the mainstream of the history against the backdrop of malaria research. He focuses more on the personal lives of the marginalised against the backdrop of massive historical sweeps in colonial periods where people from the lower strata of the society were not only subjected to imperialism but were also suppressed by the hierarchal pattern in Indian context itself. Mangala, Laakhan, Murugan not only challenge but subverts the overall power structure and play vital role in the course of the novel. Ghosh through ,,The Calcutta Chromosome gives voice to these silent sufferers, the voices that were not recorded in the history. These voices created their own significance to play an important part of Ghoshs fictional world.
Bibliography 1. Ghosh Amitav, The Calcutta Chromosome, New Delhi: Ravi Dayal 1996. 2. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, et.al. The Spivak Reader: Selected Works of Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak: Routledge. 3. Said Edward, Orientalism, London: Penguin 1978. 4. Foucault Michel, The Archeology of Knowledge, London: Tavistock, 1972. 5. Foucault Michel, Power/ Knowledge, tr. Colin Gordon, et al. New York1980. 6. Ghua Ranjit ed. Subaltern Studies, New Delhi: OUP, 1983. 7. Khair Tabish, ,,Amitav Ghoshs The Calcutta Chromosome: The Question of Subaltern Agency in Amitav Ghosh A Critical Companion, ed. Tabish Khair New Delhi, Orient Longman, 2003. 8. Thieme John, ,,The Discoverer Discovered: Amitav Ghoshs The Calcutta Choromosome in Amitav Ghosh A Critical Companion, ed. Tabish Khair New Delhi, Orient Longman, 2003. 9. Barat Urbashi, ,,Quest and Subversion: The Empire Strikes Back in The Calcutta Chromosome in The Novels of Amitav Ghosh, ed by R.K. Dhawan., New Delhi, Prestige Books, 1999.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(7)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
10. Chambers, Claire Gail (2003) The relationship between knowledge and power in the work of Amitav Ghosh. PhD thesis, University of Leeds. 11. Abrams, M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms, New Delhi, Thomson Wadsworth, 2005 12. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory, Chennai, Manchester University Press, 2006 13. Fowler, Roger. Modern Critical Terms, London, Routledge, 2000 14. Griffin, Gabriele, ed. Research Methods for English Studies, Edinburg, Edinburg University` Press Ltd., 2005. 15. Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity and Culture, Borjas, G.J. (1999) Heavens Door: Immigration policy and the American Economy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 16. Dictionary of Race, Ethnicity and Culture, Demrachi, F, Ellena, A., Cattarinussi, B. (eds) (1987) Nuovo dizionario di sociologia, San Paolo, Milano.
Sangharsh/Struggle : e-Journal of Dalit Literary Studies (Peer Reviewed & Refereed International e-Journal) Issn : 2278-3067 (Impact Fector) http://dalitsahitya.com/e-journals Theme : Dalit, Tribal,Woman (Resisting Marginalisation Caused by Class, Caste and Gender) SeJDLS is a Scholarly scientific e-journal that publishes original research papers in the of Arts, Social Science, Commerce, Environment, Human Right etc.. It aims to contribute to the world of research by publishing peer reviewed research and review articles, experimental studies, letter to the editors, book reviews as well as news of Literature, Communication & Soft Skills, Education, Law, Arts, Commerce, Economics & Social Science etc. Call for Papers March, 2016 Submission Last Date : 28 March., 2016 Languge : Multy-Languge (Preefer English, Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi) . , . All correspondence should be addressed to the Editor Email: [email protected] Mo. 09408110030 and 09716104937
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(8)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
Current Trends of Community Mental Health in Psychiatrically ill Patients
Mr. Baku Davayat D. Dr. V. R. Godhaniya College, Opp. Income Tax Office, Khijdi Plot, Porbandar 360575
Concept of mental healthWHO defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity"(WHO, 2001) .It is a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community". Clearly, a person can be called normal if he is not sick, if he is average, if he conforms to social norms, or if he approximates an ideally mature, healthy, or fully functioning personality. The concept of health that is held guides thinking about emotional disorders, modes and goals of treatment, and in general the planning of mental health services. The concept of mental health must focus on the ideal state, emphasize the "positive well being" of the W.H.O charter, rather than no disease. This does depend on the statement of values and in that sense an ethical rather than scientific position is required. As Allport (1958) noted that there is important distinction between statistical norms (what people are like) and ethical norms (what the healthy person should be like).There have been many attempts to describe mental health in ideal terms, which have generally led to the lists of qualities which characterize the nature, healthy, fully functioning, and self actualizing person. Jahoda (1958) has given the following as criteria of positive mental health1- Attitude towards the self; they include the accessibility of the self to the consciousness; the correctness of the self concept; its relation to the sense of identity and the acceptance by the individual of his own self. 2- Growth, development, and self actualization; the extent the individual utilize his abilities; his orientation towards the future and his investment in living. 3- Integration; the extent to which the psychic forces are balanced; a unifying outlook on the life and a resistance to stress. 4- Autonomy; the aim here is to ascertain whether the self reliant person is able to decide with relative ease and speed what suite his own needs best. 5- Perception of reality; a relative freedom from need distortion and existence of empathy. 6- Environmental mastery; under this heading is listed; ability to love, work, and play; adequacy in interpersonal relationships; meeting situational requirements; adaptation and adjustment; and efficiency in problem solving.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(9)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
History of Community Mental Health Movement Adolf Meyer, in 1909, advocated management of mentally ill patient outside the institutions and proposed a comprehensive "community mental health approach" in which psychiatrists, physician, families, police, teachers and social worker would work together to organize primary, secondary and tertiary prevention measures in the community. The book "A Mind That Found Itself" written by an ex-psychiatric patient Clifford W. Beer, exposed the woeful conditions in the mental hospitals. This led to information of ,,National Mental Health Association in U.S.A to fight for better care for mentally ill, which in turn paved way for ,,Mental Hygiene Movement (1950-1980). A very large number of patients were housed in states mental hospitals. New York itself had 90,000 beds for the mentally ill. The joint commission on mental illness and health (1955) brought out a book ,,Action for Mental Health in 1961. President J.F. Kennedy passed a resolution in 1963 to established community mental health centers and offer care for mentally ill, who would get released from mental hospitals. All these changes that were taking place in Europe and America did not have any impact on the Indian scene. Till 1946, the approach of the government was to establish custodial and not therapeutic centers, for small percentage of severely mental ill and handicapped. Though the first general hospital psychiatrist department was started at Bombay and Calcutta way back in1933. The general hospital psychiatric units had a numbers of advantages over the mental hospitals. They were easily approachable without stigma, they encouraged more outpatient care. They attracted more patients with minor health problems and helped in integration of psychiatry into the general health system. 1-Discouragement with existing mental health concepts, activities and rolesi) Disenhancement with psychotherapy. ii) Changing concept of mental health and illness. iii) Dissatisfaction with existing professional roles. 2- Manpower shortage. 3- Poverty and mental health. 4- Sorry state of mental hospitals. 5- Community psychology and zeitgeist.
Mental Health in Community Community mental health is called as third mental health or third psychiatric revolution. Now people entered a new era in understanding and treatment of mental disorders. The emergent field of community mental health is proclaimed as being as radical a change in perspective on human malfunctioning and its alleviation as was wrought in earlier time by Philip Pinel, when he struck the chains from the insane, and by Freud, when he showed that neurosis are psychologically determined and curable through therapeutic conversations. As the consequence of the first revolution, the mentally disturbed emerged as sick people worthy of humane concern; from the second, their conditions were conceived as psychologically determined and psychologically treatable. The trust
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(10)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
of third mental health revolution lies in the quest for the prevention of emotional disorder through social and community interventions aimed at their social determinants. The hope of the community movement is that necessary services can be made more effective and available for the total population, including the poor.
Mentally ill and mental health facilities in our country (India) Mentally ill and mental health facilities in our country-House to house surveys to estimate the number of mentally ill in a given community have been conducted in our country as elsewhere in the world. According to world health organization figures, in any country including ours, 1% of the population suffers severely incapacitating mental disorders and 10% from mild mental disorders. If we project these figures in our country, these would be 6 to7 millions of severely mentally ill and ten times that number of mildly ill persons. While there are millions of people suffering from various types of mental illnesses, the mental health care facilities available for them are very less. There are only 42 mental hospitals in the county with about 20,000 beds. More than 50% beds are occupied by chronic patients.
Mental health program in India Following the experiences of different centers in providing community care for the mentally ill, the professionals and planers formulated a program for mental health at the national level in 1982. The objectives of program are: a) To insure availability and accessibility of minimum mental health care for all in the foreseeable future, particularly to the most vulnerable and underprivileged sections of population. b) To encourage application of mental health knowledge in general health care and in social development. c) To provide community participation in the mental health service development and to stimulate efforts towards self help in the community.
Principles of community psychology Here are some of the major themes which Characterize current thinking in community psychology(M.Levine,1969; Roen, 1971; Cowen,1973; Bloom, 1973; Zax and Specter, 1974). 1- Social-environmental factors are critically important in determining and changing behavior. 2- Social and community interventions (system oriented interventions as against personal oriented interventions) can be effective for making social institutions more health enhancing as well as for reducing individual suffering. 3- Such interventions should be aimed at prevention rather than treatment or rehabilitation of emotional disorders. Not only the individual in need but the population at risk is the proper concern of community psychology.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(11)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
4- Intevention should have as its goal the enhancement of social competence rather than simply the reduction of psychological distress. Community oriented programs should stress the adaptive rather than the pathological in social life. 5- Help is most effective when available close to the settings in which problems arise. Therefore, community clinicians should work in familiar settings close to the person in need rather than in socially and geographically alien settings. 6- The community clinicians should reach out to clients rather than waiting passively for them to seek his services. Such services should be flexible, readily available at the place and time of need, and offered in an atmosphere which reduces rather than accentuate the social distance between helper and helped. Help should be available to those need it most, not only in those who seek it. 7- To use available resources and to extent his action potential impact, the professional should collaborate with community resources people(caretakers) and use nonprofessional coworker. His work may involve consultation more than direct services. 8- Traditional role requirements and professional customs have to be relaxed. Community services require imaginative programming and new conceptual models; innovation is to be encouraged. 9- The community should participate in, if not control, the development and operation of programs which are to serve its needs. Program priorities should reflect the needs concerns of community members. 10- Mental health problems should be broadly rather than narrowly viewed, for they interlock with many other facets of social well being, such as job, housing, and education. To be maximally effective, community mental health programs should deal with as wide a range of social problem as possible. 11- Educating the people to understand the nature and causes of psychological problems and the resources available for dealing with them is a valued task. 12- Since many mental health problems relate to broad-scaled social stress such as poverty, racism, urban density, and alienation, which are beyond the reach of professional interventions, the community psychologist be oriented toward, and as possible facilitate, social reform. 13- To develop the knowledge necessary for informed intervention, community psychology requires naturalistic and ecological research approaches.
Current trends in Community mental health services As the trend toward treatment in the family and community setting-rather than large state mental hospitals-has gathered impetus, we have seen the development of community mental health facilities throughout the country. Where such facilities are available to provide immediate assistance to the individuals or the family, many crises can be rapidly alleviated. Thus the family
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(12)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
is not disrupted, nor does the individual have to be sent to a distant institution and, later, face the problem of return to family and community. An interesting illustration of this trend is found in the study of Langsley (1968) and his coworkers who tried interception certain patients at the point of hospital entry and returning them to their homes instead for a type of family crisis treatment under the supervision of trained therapist. These individuals selected on a random basis, exhibited a wide range of mental disorders including schizophrenia and severe depression. Most of them were successfully treated at home with the participation of family members. Only about 20% of the first75 eventually hospitalized spent only a third as much time in the hospital as did a control group not treated at home before hospitalization. As Denner (1974) has pointed out, however, returning "madness" to the community is not without its problems. The family must be willing to participate in therapy, and the home must provide a supportive environment and not one that reinforces and maintains the maladaptive behavior. Qualified therapists must be available in the community, and the resistance of family members as well as neighbors to having a "mentally ill" person in their midst must be overcome. However, this approach tends to shift the criterion for hospitalization from the severity of the individuals symptoms to the degree of family support and the available of therapeutic supervision outside the hospital setting.
Community mental health centers In 1963 President Kannedy sent a message to congress calling for "a bold new approach" to mental disorders. From this message came the community mental health centers act providing federal assistance to communities for constructing such centers. These centers offer few services to local residents and institutions: a) Inpatient care for person requiring short term hospitalization. b) Partial hospitalization, with day hospitalization for patients able to return home evenings, or night hospitalization for patients able to work but need of further care. c) Outpatient therapy permitting patients to live at home and go about their daily activities. d) Emergency care with psychiatric services around the clock. e) Education for member of the community. f) Diagnostic services. g) Rehabilitation and aftercare. h) Training. i) Research. j) Evolution. These services Consultation are provided without discrimination for all who need them-young or old, well to do or indigent. These community mental health centers are highly flexible and have a number of advantages. For example, the emotionally disturbed individual need no longer face the choice between being admitted to a distant hospital or
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(13)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
receiving no treatment at all. If his disturbance is severe he can enter the centers inpatient facility for short term hospitalization; if he can remain on the job or in his family with supportive care, he can enter partial hospitalization; and if outpatient therapy is sufficient for his needs, he can obtain it at the center. In addition, such community centers usually utilize an interdisciplinary approach to therapy, involving psychiatrist, psychologists, social workers, nurses, and other mental health professionals. Finally, such centers have many resources at their disposal, thus enabling the individual to obtain most or all of the needed services at one agency instead of travelling around the city from one place to another. "Free clinics" and other community service agencies- During the 1960s, many young people developed serious psychological and physical problems, often associated with heavy use of psychedelic and other drugs. Yet because of their rejection of the "establishment," they were reluctant to utilize the usual private and public mental health facilities. In response to the need for free, anonymous treatment facilities, the HeightAsbury and Berkeley free clinics were organized and staffed by volunteer physicians, psychiatrist, psychologists, and other health personnel. Clients were not charged for treatment; no information was given out to patients or relatives; and no questions were asked about drug usage, sexual behavior, or truancy. This freedom from being "hassled" appeared to have a constructive effect on these young people. In addition, the last decade has seen the development of a wide spectrum of community service agencies in which imaginative and concerned members of community are attempting to cope with the interrelated problems of unemployment, delinquency, crime, family disorganization, and mental health. Included here, for example, are community youth centers for "hard to reach" teen agers in poverty areas. These youth centers provide such services as job counseling, remedial education, drug programs staffed by ex-edict, "rap" sessions for dealing with personal problems, leadership training, and home counseling for the youths and their families. Provisions for aftercare - Even where hospitalization or other institutional approaches have modified maladaptive behavior and perhaps fostered needed occupational, interpersonal, and related skills, the readjustment of the individual in the community setting may still be a very difficult one. The last decade has been an emerging trend toward the establishment of day hospitals and halfway houses. Currently the day hospital designed for two key functions: a) To provide an alternative to full-time inpatient care, and To act as a transitional center between full-time hospitalization and returning to the community. The latter function is also served by halfway houses, which provided needed after cares and help former patients function adequately in the community. Typically such halfway- homes are not run by professional mental health personnel, but by the residents themselves. Modifying larger social system- It is now being recognized that not only the immediate family but larger group and institution in the society may behave
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(14)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
in maladaptive way and/or may be pathogenic for the individual within them. Thus there has been increase concern not only providing community based facilities for treating individuals and families but also with approaches to modifying maladaptive conditions in organizations, institute and larger social systems.
Crisis Intervention Crisis intervention has emerged as response to a widespread need for immediate help for individuals and family confronted with highly stressful situations. Immediate goals of prevention are-(a)To relieve present distress, notably anxiety, confusion, and hopelessness;(b)To restore the patients previous functioning;(c)To help him, his family, and significant others learn what personal actions are possible and what community resources exist;(d)Understanding the relation of the present crisis to past experiences and persistent problems, and(e)Developing new attitudes, behavior, and coping techniques that might be more effective in future crises. L. Rapoport (1962) has described three interrelated conditions that produce the crisis state: (1) There are hazardous event which threatens the individual; (2) The threat is more damaging if it is symbolically linked to earlier stress that resulted in increased vulnerability or conflicts; and (3) The person is unable to respond with adequate coping mechanisms. Often such people are in a state of acute turmoil and feel over whelmed and incapable for dealing with the stress by themselves. In such instances they do not have time to wait for the customary initial therapy appointment, nor they usually in position to continue therapy over a sustained period. They need immediate assistance. To meet this need, two modes of therapeutic intervention have been developed: (a) short term crisis therapy involving face to face discussion, and(b)the telephone "hot line." These forms of crisis intervention are usually handled either by professional mental health personal or by paraprofessionals. Short term crisis therapy- The sole concern of short term crisis therapy is the current problem with which the individual or family is having difficulty. There are mainly two types of crisis(a) developmental crises, marked by such events as weaning, entering school menstruation marriage job and retirement.(b) Accidental crisis, also investable but less predictable. Sudden illness, the loss of job, the death of a love one, happen without opportunity for prior emotional or practical preparation; so too, more dramatic events, such as earthquakes, fire, or other disasters which effects the lives of entire community. In essence the therapist tries to provide much help as he can or as the client will accept. Although the treatment of medical problems may involve crisis intervention, we mainly concern here with personal or family problem of an emotional nature. In such crisis situation the therapist is usually very active, helping clarify the problem, suggesting plan, action, providing reassurance, and otherwise giving needed information and support. The "hot line"- This is the new approaches to dealing with people in crisis. All major crisis in the U.S.A and other countries have developed some form of telephone hot line to help individuals undergoing period of deep stress. While
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(15)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
the threat of suicide is the most dramatic example, the range of the problems that people call about is virtually unlimited-from breaking up with someone to being on a bad drug trip.
Concept of Prevention Community psychology has been inspired by the examples of public health medicine in the conquest of disease. While clinical medicine focuses on the treatment of the sick individual, public health medicine is aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of disease in the population. Primary prevention is aimed at reducing the possibility of the disease in the population at the risk, as might happen with the development of new vaccine. The goal is to prevent people from becoming ill. It includes all measures designed to foster healthy development and effective coping behavior-on biological, psychosocial and socio-cultural levels. Secondary prevention emphasizes the early detection and prompt treatment of maladaptive behavior in the individuals family and community setting. Thus it is concern with the incidence and scope of maladaptive behavior in specific populations with the early detection of such behavior, with the variety and availability of mental health facilities, and with crisis intervention. Tertiary prevention seeks to reduce the duration of mental illness and thus reduce the stresses they create for the family and the community. In short, the goal at this level is to prevent to further breakdown and disruption. This might involve, rehabilitation, changing community attitude and partial hospitalization.
Discussion Today the word community has a new meaning. It is more than a geographical area. It offers its residents many kinds of services and fills a variety of needs. The cultural traditions and the customs of the various ethnic groups in the population are important. Both behavior and interpretation of psychopathology are influenced by socio-cultural factors. Mental health workers are beginning to develop sensitivity to the community they serve, to learn its complexities and its needs in all kinds of health programs. They are also learning the importance of the power structure of the individual community, and how this structure supports and balances the kaleidoscopic patterns of responsibility for the administration and funding of various social programs. Within each community the goals must be the same: management and prevention of mental disorder through Mental Health Literacy, individual treatment and rehabilitation for all patients of all ages and with all types of illness. This assistance must be continued from the moment the need is recognized until the problem is acceptably resolved. The Psychiatrists and other mental health workers spend longer time in the community, the less they are inclined to see the patient out of context. Instead of treating him in isolation from his family, we are increasingly turning to family and group therapy. It is widely acclaimed that community care is more effective as well as more humane than in-patient stays in mental hospitals. It is, therefore, essential to
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(16)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
develop mental health services in the community settings as an integral part of primary health care; to root out stigma, myths and misconceptions and discrimination against mental disorders. We must advocate community based mental health programs and active involvement of families and community in the delivery of program. The development of the day hospital and the day ward for resident patients is of great significance. As experience with this modality increases, we are finding that a large number and variety of patients can be managed by partial hospitalization. Modern psychiatry still is not able to give standard cost-effective management techniques which can be recommended and implemented, so that benefits are visible to one and all in a short span of time. One success is usually followed by one failure and the society is made to feel less enthusiastic to invest for the care of mentally ill. The number of psychiatrist and other mental health professionals are less and there are some misconception about mental disorderds. Professionals have not worked out the loss of man hours, the cost of not treating mentally ill and the amount of burden caused by the patients on the society. The society is ready to invest for the care and prevention of heart disease and cancer but not mental disorders
Conclusion Community mental health is oriented toward averting human problems rather than simply repairing those that already exist. The ultimate goal of prevention can best be attained through social and community interventions which alter the social institutions which vitally affect the patients well-being. Toward this end, emphasis is shifted from intra-individual factors, whether psychological or biological, toward greater attention to the social and institutional determinants of human well functioning and disorder. It represents a public health rather a treatment.
EFERENCESNiraj Ahuja,Text book of postgraduate psychiatry, Jaypee brothers medical publishers(P) ltd.,New Delhi. Murphy NM, Greenblatt M: Recent advances in community psychiatry. New England Journal of Medicine 272:621-626,674-679, 1965 WHO. The World Health Report 2001 - Mental Health: New understanding New Hop. S.J. Korchin, CBS Publishers & distributers, 4596/1-A,11 Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002 Coleman, Abnormal and Modern Life (1975). Mental Health Manual for Health Workers ICMR Centre for advanced research. NIMHANS Bangalore - 1990.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(17)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Caste and Caste Discrimination in Dalit Literature: A Special Reference to ,,Murdaiah and ,,The Out Caste
Rajvir Singh Ph. D. Research Scholar, Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi
The Indian caste system is considered a close system of stratification, which means that a persons social status is obligated to which caste they were born into.1 A unique feature of Indian society is its composition on the basis of caste. The word caste is denoting the four groups or categories of Hindu society called the Varnas. The first ranked are Brahmins, whose duties are religious scholarship and priest craft; second are the Kshatriyas, the kings and warriors, who protect society and supporter of rituals; third are Vaishyas, the agriculturalists, cattle herders, and merchants; and Shudras, who are usually laborers, peasants, craftsperson and servant who must serve the other three classes. At the very bottom are those who considered the untouchables and the outcaste. These individuals perform occupations that are considered unclean and polluting, such as scavenging and skinning dead animals. They are not considered to be included in the ranked the Varnas. The Varna is divided into specialized subcastes called jatis. Each jati is composed of a group deriving its livelihood primarily from a specific occupation. The word jati, exists in more Indian languages, literary means ,,kind or ,,species and can denote a range of social categories, although one of its primary references is ,,caste.2
Main features of Caste System: Caste system hierarchically divides the society. It is seminary in so far as all larger castes are normally divided into sub-castes, and are sometimes further split into sub-sub-castes. From the economic point of view caste system also defines a division of labour and many occupations are caste-specific, especially in the services and artisan sector. Finally, caste system is predicated on social inequality and in principle all castes within a locality can be mutually ranked within a single hierarchy.3 A sense of highness and lowness or superiority and inferiority is associated with this gradation or ranking. The Brahmins are placed at the top of hierarchy and are regarded as pure or supreme. The degraded caste or the untouchables have occupied the other end of the hierarchy. The status of an individual is determined by his birth and not by selection nor by accomplishments. Each caste has its own customs, traditions practices and rituals. It has its own informal rules, regulations and procedures. The caste
1 Sekhon,Jyoti.Modern India, Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2000, pg-39 2 Dangle, Arjun, Poisoned Bread, Orient Blackswan,2009 pg-xix 3 Christopher, J. Fuller. Caste: In the Oxford India Companion to Sociology and Social Anthropology (ed), Oxford University Press, New Delhi,2001, pg-47
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(18)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
panchayats or the caste councils regulate the conduct of members. The caste system has imposed certain restrictions on the food habits of the members these differ from caste to caste. Caste discrimination is not limited to Dalits, but it extends to all the lower communities. The backward castes, who were also the Shudras, were subjected to discriminatory treatment. There is gradation of occupations also. Some occupations are considered superior and sacred while certain others degrading and inferior. Each caste has its own specific occupations which were almost hereditary. The caste system puts restriction on the range of social relations also. The idea of pollution means a touch of lower caste man would pollute or defile a man of higher caste. Even his shadow is considered enough to pollute a higher caste man. The lower caste people suffered from certain socio-religious disabilities. The impure castes are made to live on the out skirts of the city and they are not allowed to draw water from the public wells. In earlier times entrance to temples and other places of religious importance were forbidden to them. Education facilities, legal rights and political representation were denied to them for a very long time. The caste system imposes restrictions on marriage also. Inter caste marriages are still looked down upon in the traditional Indian society.
Discrimination and Caste Discrimination: Discrimination is the denial of opportunities and rights to certain groups on the basis of race, sex, ethnicity, age or disability. Discrimination in various forms and intensity seems to have coexisted with humanity. Apartheid based on race is usually considered to be one of the most exploitative forms of discrimination. In the recent past, with the efforts by Dalit activists and human rights activists, caste discrimination is considered to be equally if not more horrendous than racial discrimination. Caste discrimination, compared too many other forms of discrimination leads to more disadvantage, dispossession, dehumanization and degradation, and maintains and reinforces social segregation and exclusion.1 With regard to the Indian caste system there is a line of thinking, which holds and propagates the myth that the division of social units and placing them in a hierarchy based on caste is the basis for integration of social order. According to the Vedic texts, the chaturvarna or the caste system is supposed to have emerged from the sacrifice of the primeval being, the Purusa Sukta. But this religious myth was extended to justify the social stratification of society.2 Interestingly, today when the proponents of market economy are propagating the concept of a ,,global village and through this defending an ideology of monoculture as the way of existence and operation, human beings continue to be divided on the basis of caste ,class creed, colour, region, language, ethnicity etc.
1 Louis, Prakash, Political Sociology of Dalit Assertion, Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi, 2003, Pg.-37 2 Ibid, Pg.-41
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(19)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
But among all the basis of social segregation and seclusion, it is caste, which is the most dehumanizing, depriving and discriminating phenomenon of all ages.1 The term Dalit might be linked with the Sanskrit root ,,Dal meaning to crack, split, and open, etc. ,,Dalana means tearing or causing a burst. Dalit means split, broken, destroyed, scattered, torn as under. Two interested process can be identified with regard to the evolution of the term Dalit. First, the term denotes an affirmation action i.e. ,,yes, we are Dalit; we are crushed and broken people. Secondly, it also indicates assertion i.e. ,,no, we will not allow ourselves to be crushed by you the dominant castes anymore. The Dalit panthers, the group representing the Dalit community used the term in the early 1970s to assert their identity for rights and self-respect. Later, the term came to be used to include all the oppressed and exploited sections of the society.2 According to Gangadharan Pantawane, "Dalit is not a caste; Dalit is a symbol of change and revolution. The Dalit believes in humanism. He rejects existence of God, rebirth, soul, sacRed Books that teach discrimination, faith and heaven because these have made him a slave. He represents the exploited man in his country... Dalitness is essentially a means towards achieving a sense of cultural identity. Now, Dalitness is a source of confrontation. This change has its essence in the desire for justice for all mankind." 3 According to Gopal Guru, "The category Dalit has faced criticism, particularly by the urban, educated middle class Dalit as socially regressive, derogatory and undesirable. These middle class Dalit argue that this category forces Dalit to carry the load of their historical past, and hence offers a socially reactionary agenda." Dr. B. R. Ambedkar defined the category Dalit in his fortnightly ,,Bahiskrit Bharat, "Dalithood is a kind of life condition which characterizes the exploitation, suppression and marginalization of Dalit by social, economic, cultural and political domination of the upper caste Brahminical order." 4 According to A.C. Lal, "Dalit is a beautiful word because it embraces the sufferings, frustrations, expectations and groaning of the entire cosmos."5 All Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, neo Bhuddhists, labourers, landless and destitute peasants, women and all those who have been exploited politically and economically and in the name of religion are Dalit. Thus, the word ,,Dalit in its special meaning is used by the erstwhile so called untouchables or the scheduled castes of India to describe their political identity. Dalit literature is, therefore written by and about such category of people. The central concern of Dalit literature is to represent the ,,authentic experience of Dalit in their writings. Dalit experience has been represented by
1 Ibid Pg-42 2 Ibid 144-6 3 Randhawa, Harbir Singh, Dalit Literature: Contents, Trends and Concerns, Sarup Bool Publishing House, 2010, Pg.-5 4 Anand, Mulk Raj, Untouchable, Hind Pocket Books, New Delhi, 1970, Pg.-68 5 Limbale, Sharankumar,THE OUT CASTE (AKKARMASHI), Oxford University Press, India, 2003, translated from Marathi by Santosh Bhoomkar. 5 Valmiki, Omprakash, JOOTHAN-A DALITS LIFE, Radhakrishna Prakashan, 1997 & translated in English by Arun Prabha Mukherjee in 2007
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(20)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
the non-Dalit writers also. As Mulk Raj Anand is also an authentic voice in underlining the caste-based prejudices in the mind of the Savarans. In his novel ,,Untouchable he vividly depicts the miserable lot of the untouchables. Anand strongly detests the institution of caste as it degrades and dehumanizes those who are born in lesser castes. He believes in the dignity and equality of all men. In the novel he expresses his indignation against the ill-treatment meted out to the untouchables.1
The Out Caste: Dalit writer Sharan Kumar Limbale in his autobiography ,,The Out Caste narrates the various aspect of discrimination on the basis of caste. The author narrates about how an innocent Dalit couple Kamble and Masamai are discriminated and exploited by an upper caste landlord Hanmantha Limbale for whom the poor couple used to work day and night. Masamais life speaks out how the poor Dalit families were destroyed and the innocent Dalit women were exploited by the upper caste landlords. She forced to become a whore of Patils of different villages. Masamai gave birth to Sharan Kumar Limbale. Limbale writes, "We were all of one womb and blood. We shared a common mother but different fathers...I was born from her affair with Hanmantha Patil and others from Yeshwantrao Sidramappa Patil, the head of the village." Limbale faced caste discrimination on various time of life. When he was in 3rd standard, he didnt know to write an essay. At time her teacher shouted on him, "You, son of bitch, come on, start writing! You like eating an ox, dont you?" Also he untouchable children were not allowed to sit in the class and asked to sit down amidst the footwear flung all around theM. Limbale states "During the school interval, the other boys threw stones at me and teased me calling aloud Mahar." The hierarchy of seating plan in the classroom shows that there was no equal behavior between Dalit and non-Dalit student. At barbers shop Limbale also faced discrimination where the barber denied cutting his hair though he was ready to pay for it. It also shows that it is caste which is the most dehumanizing, depriving and discriminating phenomenon of all ages. For applying a scholarship the application was to be signed by the parents and forward it by the village Sarpanch but the Sarpanch refused to sign as he was confused to decide Masamais real husband. Limbale writes, "The Sarpanch was in a real fix about how to identify me. But I too was a human being. What else did I have except a human body? But a man is recognized in this word by his religion, caste, or his father. I had neither a fathers name, nor any religion, nor a caste. I had no inherited identity at all... I was an alien ...In the Maharwada I felt humiliated as I was considered a bastard; they called me Akkarmashi''. Whenever Nagi, one of Limbale's sisters abused him he felt humiliated Limbale. Limbale writes about the behaviour of Nagi with him, "you have no connection with us. Nobody knows where you come from. Our fathers are not the same."
1 Limbale, Sharankumar, Towards an Aesthetic of Dalit Literature: History, controversies and considerations, Orient Longman Private Limited, pp-35
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(21)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Listening these words, Limbale burned within self and writes, "Nagi's words pierced my heart. The feeling of alienation weighed heavily on my mind." Although there was no fault of Limbale, he was humiliated in his family, community and out of the community also. Dalits are discriminated at the public places as Limbale also. One day when Limbale and his friend were on their way to pluck the fruits of a toddy palm, Shobhi, an upper caste girl was on other side she asked them to let her pass first. She said in an authoritative voice, "Mahars have become bold these days. They now dare to walk straight up to you. Cant you see I am carrying drinking water? Your touch will make it impure." This shows how the Dalit were treated at public roads and even shadows of Dalit were considered polluted. Dalit was condemned at every place and at every stage of life whether it was public or private. Limbale writes, "Casteism made us bitter." He experienced humiliation and discrimination at a small tea shop in his village practicing duel-cup system. Limbale writes, "Our houses were in places where other villagers used as latrines. We felt no affection for our villages. Instead, we were scared and tense. Dalit were excluded from social life." To continue his education Limbale and his grandmother went to an upper caste money-lender who was drunk and looked at the exposed breast out of Santamai's torn blouse. He refused to give them money. Limbale writes, "His look spread like poison in my heart. I wished that the blouse of this money­lenders mother or sister was torn so that I could stare at their breasts. I burnt within. Our poverty was detestable. I wanted to rebel against such humiliation." Limbale had a new problem after marriage to find a job and a house on rent. He hides his caste to avoid discrimination because, "If they came to know my caste, they would drive me out of the house that I had rented from a high caste landlord. I would be beaten badly. They would even torture my wife." Caste shows very cruel face as Dalit were not given rented house. This discrimination is not for only Limbale but for the whole Dalit community. Thus, Limbales autobiography speaks about many uneven conditions that he experienced as an off-spring of Mahar and upper caste private relation and struggled a lot for being identifying himself as Dalit.
Murdahia: Prof. Tulsi Ram's autobigraphy 'Murdahia' is a story of caste discrimination and humiliation which he faced in his own family and outer sphere authentically. The author narrated the family structure and its construction of the Dalit society, education, poor economic condition, public culture, recognition of masses, political understanding, their consciousness and resistance through all these circumstances. Author's grandfather and forefathers were bonded labourers in the field of Brahmin landlords as other members of Dalit community. They thought that 'Harbai' (ploughman work) was their life right and if they did not do this, it would be the sin (Brahmhatya). Due to this superstition they could not get rid of from Harbai. Authors grandmother told him that if any animal like buffalo or ox died in the village, it was the duty of Dalits to pick up the dead animal and take away from the village. After skinning
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(22)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
it they divide the meat of dead animal to cook and remaining they dried it in the sunlight and keep it for their future use. Further, the author narrates about his school life and Murdahia, a multipurpose working place for the people of authors village (DharmpurAzamgarh). People used to go their field or any other place through the ,,Murdahia. Dalit people also use this place for political meetings. ,,Murdahia did not make different between human being and animals. Countless pain and sufferings of Dalit people were cremated in the Murdahia. The teacher plays an important role in changing the society as they make learnings to the students. But many upper caste teachers have Brahminic mentality. The author narrates how he was terrorizing by his teacher as the Dalit students were beaten for the minor mistakes and abused in a very filthy language. Teacher called Dalit students ,,Chamarkit to show their anger. When the author denied to go to the school because of the terror of the teacher, he was beaten by his father and asked, "School na Jaiba to Chithia ke Padhi" (If you will not go school then how will you read a letter). Another incident of untouchability was practiced with the author when he was denied to drink the water from well and even denied to touch the floor of the well. Also in school the upper caste children had to pour the water into Dalit childrens hands from a distance so that their hands could not touch the bucket/pot. Author narrates that when he was in the fourth standard, he asked for drinking water. When Misar Baba, an upper caste boy was drawing water for the author, by mistake the author touched the floor of the well, Misar Baba left the bucket in the well and started crying loudly as Chamara (the author) had touched the well. That day the author was in terror as he was abused by the Munshi ji (teacher) whole day. After this the author never tried to ask for drinking water in the school. Author also narrates that once a Deputy Sahab (school inspector) fixed the date for school inspection. All the teachers were very worried because the school inspector was Dalit. They were thinking that meal could cook at upper caste teachers house but how he will serve food in his Thali to a Dalit Inspector. So the head master asked the author to bring Lota and Thali from his house without disclosing it to anybody. This incident shows how the upper caste people could not allow eating a Dalit person in their pots whether he is school inspector or other person on the high post as untouchability is deep rooted in the veins of upper caste person. Thus, both the autobiographies show discrimination and on the basis of caste. These autobiographies describe how the authors were humiliated in the school and other public places. Limbale describes the life of a man who suffered not only through this caste system but also through the pain of not even being allowed into the caste system: he was an outcaste, below everyone else. Limbale wherever goes his caste reached first. Limbales autobiography clearly shows how the lives of lowest citizens are completely controlled by the society around him.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(23)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
The dominating theme throughout the book is the Dalits constant battle with hunger. Economic conditions played very important role in both the autobiography. In Mrdahia authors father and grand fathers were bonded labour in the field of upper caste and were commanded by them. The author shows how Dalit used to eat dead animals meat due to their poverty. Thus these autobiographies show how the caste is centered in the Indian society and make different between human beings as lower and upper caste. Untouchables experiences of untouchability are identical. The name of the village may well be different, but the nature of tyranny against Dalits is the same. Social boycott, separate bastis, wells and cremation ground; inability to find rental accommodation; the necessity to conceal caste; denial of admission to public place; injustice done to Dalit women; dragging and cutting of dead animals; and the barber refusing to cut hair- these experiences are alike for all Dalit.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(24)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
A Study of Achievement Motivation of Students of Higher Secondary
Chitroda Jasvanti Laljibhai M.A B.Ed & Ph.D Psychology department Suarashstra University, Rajkot ­ 360005
ABSTRACT The purpose of present study is to find out main difference between the sex and types of family of the students of higher secondary school. The total sample was 120 (60 girls and 60 boys) selected through random sampling. Achievement motivation scale developed by Dr Ashwin jansari was used for data collection,,t test technique is used for data analysis. The result is significant difference in sex and types of family of the students of higher secondary school.
Key word : Achievement motivation, Students, higher secondary,
A Study Of Achievement Motivation Of Students Of Higher Secondary
Introduction Some people have a compelling drive to succeed. Theyve starving for personal achievement rather than the rewards of success per se. They have a desire to do something better or more efficiently than it has been done before (Robbins, 2005) Achievement motivation is also should be considered a sociological motive. Because by achieving something an individual tries to increase his Self ­ prestigernal foe and thus tries to get the social recognition gave the concept of Achievement Motivation. He explained that to achieve something also works as an internal force for example a student works hard and does proper action n until 12 pm at night. Because he want to achieve first class. Similarly different individuals have different Achievement Motivation. It stated in short achieve. Thus motivation includes all those internal conditions which begin an activity and sustain it. Motive is different from stimulus because it is there even before the stimulus. In the absence of internal motive there cannot be any response, however intense the external stimulus, may be. The word motive includes all the internal and external factors which control the activity of the living being. It does not include mechanical or reflex actions because they depend on the Physical structure and the external environment. Such mechanical behavior is observed in less developed animals on the other hand in the developed animals their changing physical and mental conditions control their behavior. If we place milk before the cat. She may of may not drink the milk. She only drinks if she has internal need of motive. The motive depends on the changing physical conditions and past experience. A burnt child dreads the fire
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(25)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
because the memory of burning is always present in his mind. Thus it is clear that motivation n explains the way of behavior. What certain animal or man behaves in a particular way can be known by an inquiry into his internal motivating factors. Sometimes this why can be inferred from external behavior also. The influence of the sex motive can be inferred by a particular behavior of a pair of pigeons. The cause of a particular behavior towards the child shows tender motive in the Mather. There can be one motive behind different actions and different motives behind the same actions. A man can throw a rupee towards a beggar due to digest and also due to pity. A soldiers can save a person from drowning due to altruistic motive and also to take him to gallows, psychology explains the read motives behind the behavior and experience of the individual and living being. What is motivation? Shaffer glimmer and shone ,,A motive may be defined as a tendency to activity initiated by a drive and concluded by on Adjustment. V. E. Fisher ,,A motive is an inclination or impulsion to action plus some degree of orientation or direction.
Review of related literature Shah Palak C. (2015) A study of achievement motivation of secondary school students of Ahmedabad with relation to gender and fathers occupation. Aim of the study is to find out relationship of Achievement motivation with gender and fathers occupation. The total number of sample is 120 in which 60 girls and 60 boys students of Ahmedabad. Achievement motivation level was measured by Ashwin jansari Achievement motivation inventory. The result and analyzed by,,t test. The result showed that there is no significant difference between gender and fathers occupation in achievement of motivation. Suhail ahmed khan (2015) A study of creativity in relation to Achievement motivation of 9th standard students of CBSC schools on Aurangabad city. Adolescence is one of the crucial stage of development between childhood and adulthood moments, in which many physical, cognitive, social and emotional changes takes place. Psychologist and educationist in their studies have found that after the early childhood adolescence is eat most creative age. The functioning of creativity of adolescence is superior to the childs creativity, because it is more rational responsible, productive and independent while the childs creativity is instinctual. Therefore it is significant to study what happens to the potential creative force of children when they grow to adolescence and why this potential force not contribute due to the individual, family and the society. It is said that Achievement motivation is the motivational variable of functional creativity. In thisau study an attempt is made to find the relationship between creativity and Achievement motivation. The study is performed on 300 9th standard students if CBSE schools of Aurangabad city. The result revealed that there is positive but low and substantial relationship between creativity and Achievement motivation. Result also revealed that there is no significant difference between creativity and Achievement motivation of male and female 9th standard students of CBSE schools of Aurangabad city whereas creativity of
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(26)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
9th standard students of CBSC schools of Aurangabad city is moderate and Achievement motivation is high Objective The main objective of study were as under. 1) To measure difference of Achievement motivation between boys and girls. 2) To measure difference of Achievement motivation between joint and separate family of the students.
Null hypothesis To related objectives of this study null hypothesis were constructed as under. 1) There will be no significance difference of Achievement motivation mean of the scores between boys and girls. 2) There will be no significance difference of Achievement motivation mean of the scores between joint and separate family of the students.
Method Sample. 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls) as a sample was taken randomly. Tools Achievement motivation inventory (AMI). The inventory was developed by Dr Ashwin Jansari. It consists 25 items. The test retest reliability was .6301 and the split ­ half correlation ud 0.7245 and validity was .5683 Procedure of data collection In this study random sample was used. Initial meeting with the participants are taken at different schools. Total 80 participants are taken as a sample. They are informed about the purpose of the study upon initial meeting. Each participants is also explained the nature of the study. Participants are informant collected from them. A time for data collection is set up that is conductive with the participants. Before administering the scale the purpose of the study was explained with the participants. A good rappart is built with the participant for getting correct response. Some necessary instruction and guidelines are provided to them properly filling the scale after this the both scale are provided to them and they are requested to fill up the scales as per the instruction is given in the scales. Result and Discussion The data collection of Achievement motivation from sex and types of family.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(27)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Table ­ 1 Significance of difference between Achievement motivation of girls and boys students.
Sex
N
Mean SD
t
Sig
Girls Boys
60
19.04
6.20
3.66
0.01
60
15.60
4.02
* p < 0.05
**p < 0.01 NS = Not significant
Table ­ 2
Significance of difference between Achievement motivation of types of
family
Types of family
N
Mean SD
t
Sig
Joint
60
Separate
60
18.79
6.52
2.31
**
16.45
4.36
* p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 NS = Not significant
It can be shows from table -1 that the mean of achievement motivation of girls students is 19.04 & SD 6.20 the mean of boys students is 15.60 & SD 4.02 mean. So the mean difference between girls and boys students is 3.44. Thus we can say that girls students achievement motivation scores is high than boys students. Because the girls students are more obedient than the boys students. Here ,,t value of achievement is 3.66. Which is significant at 0.01 level. It can be shows from table ­ 2 that the mean of achievement motivation of types of family. Joint Family is 18.79 & SD 6.52 the mean of sprat family is 16.45 & SD 4.36. So the mean difference between joint and separate family is 2.34. Thus we can say that joint family achievement motivation scores is high that separate family. So we can say that joint family is more effective on achievement motivation than separate family. Here ,,t value of achievement is 2.31. Which is significant at 0.05 level.
Conclusions According to the result a significant difference was observed between girls and boys of achievement motivation. According to the result a significant difference was observed between joint and separate family of achievement motivation.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(28)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
References Agarwal Aruna (1988) A study of the relationship between motivation and personality needs of adult learners attending NAED centers of Agra Unpublished ph.d thesis Agra University. Jansari, A. B. (2006) A Study of achievement motivation of secondary students with relation to their gender and fathers occupation. Gujarat journal of psychology vol ­ 19. P. 41-43 Robbins S. P. (2005) organizational behavior. New Delhi person Education. Mistry V. J. (2006) A study of relationship between achievement motivation. Mansuri, A. R. (1986) A study of Achievement motivation of students of stds. V.VI and VII in relation to some psychosocial factors. SPU, research in psychology of eduation pp 398. Mehta, P. (1969) The Achievement Motive in high school boys New Delhi. NCERT Suhail A Khan (2015) IJRAR international journal of research and Analytical reviews, volume 2 April - june Suman, L. N. Achala Empathy (1997) Parent child relationship and achievement motivation. Journal of psychology researcher. Vol.41 No1 and 2, p -66-73
Creative Space : International Journal Notification , / , | | / | . Mo. 0940810030 ans 09716104937 Email : [email protected] com
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(29)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
A Study of Self ­ Concept and Adjustment Among Students
Raval Janki B. Psychology department, Suarashstra University, Rajkot - 360005 ® ,,Khambhalai krupa, Tirupati nagar 7, Near Brahm samaj, Raiya Road, Rajkot 360007
ABSTRACT The purpose of present study was to find out main difference between the Self ­ Concept and Adjustment among students. The total sample was 80 (40 girls and 40 boys) selected through random sampling. Self -concept scale created by Dr. S. P. Ahuluvaliya and Adjustment inventory created method by Mrs. Ragini dube was used for data collection. ,,t test technique was used for data analysis. The result was significant difference in self ­ concept and Adjustment among students.
Key word Self ­ concept, Adjustment, Students.
INTRODUCTION Imaging yourself looking into a mirror what do you see? Do you see your ideal self or your actual self? Your ideal or imagined self is the self that you aspire to do. It is the one that you hope will possess characteristics similar to that of a other worldly figure. Your actual self however is the one that you acutely see. It is the self that has charachrisics that you were nurtured or in some cases, born to have. Self ­ concept is the construct the negotiates these two selves. In other words. It connotes first the identification or the ideal self as separate from other and second. It encompasses all behaviors vented in the actual self that you engage in to reach the ideal self. Adjustment is a behavioral process by which a person maintains balance among various needs that one encounters at a given point of time. Each and every situation of life demands that the person concerned should be able to effectively perform in accordance with some guiding principles and should be able to strike a balance among various forces. Adjustment is define as a process wherein one builds variations in the behavior to achieve harmony with oneself, other or the environment with an aim to maintain the state of equilibrium between the individual and the environment. Adjustment has been analyzed as an achievement as well as a process in psychology. Interpreting adjustment as an achievement would necessitate effective performance in doing what one was expected to and engaged in. This would mean judging the quality on certain parameters. However psychologists have been interested to examine adjustment as a process.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(30)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
Review of related literature Test anxiety and academic self-concept of students Gagandeep kaur*senthil kumaran j* (2015) The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship of Academic self-concept and Test anxiety of students and to find out the differences in these two variables with respect to some selected categorical variables. The objectives are (1) to find out the differences in Test anxiety and Academic self-concept with respect to gender, stream of study, academic self-appraisal and relationship status ; (2) to find out the relationship between Test anxiety and Academic self - concept. For this Purpose, 200 students studying various stream of study as strata. Academic self-concept scale by Liu & Wang (2005) and fried ­ bed test anxiety scale by fried Man & Ben Das Jacob (1997) were utilized to collect data. The data analysis revealed significant findings which will be discussed in full paper. A comparative study of adjustment level of the first year student of the college. Prof Gangaben patel. (2015) The objective of this study was to find out the difference in the degree of adjustment among the first year students of B.A and B.com. The study included randomly selected 30 boys and 30 girls from arts and commerce faculty of pardi college. The degree of adjustment of the first year students measured through Dr. Pramodkumars revised adjustment inventory (RN). For this factorial experimental design 2Ч2 factorial design was used. The result was tested with statistical method ANOVA. The result showed that there was no difference in the degree of Adjustment between first year boys and girls and also there was no difference between boys and girls of arts and commerce faculty as well. Also there was no significant interaction effects of the types of caste and branch in respect of Adjustment among college students. Objective To check the difference of self - concept between girls and boys. To check the difference of Adjustment between girls and boys Null hypothesis 1) There will be no significance difference of self ­ concept mean of the scores between girls and boys. 2) There will be no significance difference of Adjustment mean of the scores between girls and boys. Method Samples In this study total 80 girls and boy students was taken as a sample. Out 40 were girls students and 40 were boys students. Data was selected in Rajkot city (Gujarat).
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(31)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Tools Self ­ concept scale Self ­ concept scale is made by Dr. S. P. Ahuluvaliya has been used. The scale consisted of 80 items. Each was to be rated on two point scale. Its reliability 0.74 and validity is very high. Adjustment Inventory Adjustment inventory is made by Mrs. Ragini dube. The scale consisted of 80 sentences. Each to be rated on two point scale. Its reliability 0.93 and validity is high. Procedure of data collection In this study random sampling was used. Initial meeting with the participants was made at different schools. Total 80 participants were taken as a sample. They were informed about the purpose of the study. Upon initial meeting, each participants was also explained the nature of the study. Participants were informed about the confidentiality regarding information collected from them. A time for data collection was set up that was conductive for the participants. Before administering the scale, the purpose of the study was with explained to the participants. A good rapport was built with the participant for getting correct response. Some necessary instruction and guidelines were provided to them properly filling the scale. After this the both scale were provided to them and they were requested to fill up the both scales as per the instructions given in the scales. After completion of the scale participants returned the scales.
Result and Discussion
The data collection of self ­ concept and adjustment from girls and boys
students.
Table ­ 1
Significance of difference between self ­ concept of girls and boys students.
Sex
N
Mean S.D
t
Sig
Girls Boys
40 40
49.4 44.45
3.29 6.43
4.34 0.01
Significance level = *0.05 = 1.99,
** 0.01=2.64
Table ­ 2
Significance of difference between adjustment of girls and boys students.
Sex
N
Mean S.D
t
Sig
Girls Boys
40 40
62.55 52.25
7.91 11.78
4.60
0.01
Significance level = *0.05 = 1.99,
** 0.01=2.64
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(32)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
It can be seen from Table 1 that the mean on self ­ concept of girls students is 49.4 & S.D 3.29 the mean of boys students is 44.45 & S.D 6.43. So the mean difference between girls and boys students is 4.95. Thus we can say that girls students self ­ concept scores is high than boys students. Self ­ concept because the girls are very active about their boys are more than to self ­ concept than boys students Here ,,t value of self ­ concept is 4.34. Which is significant at 0.01 level. From Table ­ 2 it can be seen that the mean on adjustment of girls students is 62.55 & S.D 7.91 the mean of boys students is 52.25 & S.D 11.78. So the mean difference between girls and boys students is 10.3. Thus more awaking about their adjustment level than the boys students Here ,,t value of adjustment is 4.60. Which is significant at 0.01 level.
Conclusions According to the result a significant difference was observed between girls and boys of self ­ concept. According to the result a significant difference was observed between girls and boys of adjustment.
Referance Jogsan Y. A. (2009) Sanshodhan padhati and Akadashtra, Page 280,281. Psychological science congress on psychological well being 8.9.october (2015) pp 15 Abstract Recent thought (2012) the referred international journal page 12,13 Sen A.K. and Saxena, P (1997), Self concept among upper and scheduled cast school students Praachi Journal of Psycho ­ Cultural Dimensions, 13 (2) 69-74 Smith, H. C. (1978). Sex measures of self concet discrepancy and instability, thpersonalityeir interrelayions to other measures of personality. Journal of community psychology, 2 (1) Vaghela, N. R. (2012), A study of social adjustment of the students studying in secondary and Higher secondary school in relation to certain variable Divine publication Ahmedabad, pp ­ 47-49 Vaniya M. (2013) A study of self ­ concept and adjustment among adolescents. www.study.com.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(33)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Running head: social intelligence AND ADJUSTMENT
Social Intelligence and Adjustment in Young Male and Female
Jayesh M. Chauhan Department of Psychology Suarashtra University Rajkot-360 005 Gujarat (India)
Abstract The Main purpose of this study was to find out the mean difference between social intelligence and adjustment among young male and female. The total sample consisted 180 as a variation belonging to sex and type of faculty. The research tool for social intelligence, social intelligence scale was used. Which was made by Dr. S. Mathur to check adjustment in them adjustment inventory was used. This was made by Ms. R. Dube. To check the relation between social intelligence and adjustment, Karl-Pearso.n co-relation method was used. In social intelligence and adjustment sex and type of faculty variable was significant difference at 0.01 levels. In adjustment sex variable was not significant difference at 0.05 levels. While the co-relation between social intelligence and adjustment was 0.10 positive correlations were seen.
Key words: social intelligence, adjustment.
Social Intelligence and Adjustment in Young Male and Female
Social intelligence according to the original definition of Edward Thorndike is, "The ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls, to act wisely in human relation". It is equivalent to Interpersonal intelligence, one of the types of intelligences identified in Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and closely related to theory of mind. "Man is a social animal". This is an early saying of our ancestors; even this statement reveals that man is mainly dependent on his ,,Society. Thorndike defines "Social intelligence as the ability to understand others and act wisely in human relations. It is the human capacity to understand what is happening in the world and responding to that understanding in a personally and socially effective manner". The level of intelligence differs among individuals. There are many factors affecting intelligence level as external and internal factors. The socio-economic status is also one of the important factors affecting social intelligence. Every profession demands certain specific skills and competence on the part of its practitioners. Teaching, as a profession also demands multiple skills in order to meet the challenges of everyday life. Social intelligence has become a
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(34)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
vital component for human well being and success of any profession. Social intelligence is the ability of an individual to react to social situations of daily life. It is the ability to get along well with others. It includes an awareness of situations and the social dynamics that govern them and knowledge of interaction styles and strategies that can help a person achieve his or her objectives in dealing with others. It is also involves a certain amount of self-insight and a consciousness of ones own perceptions and reaction patterns. Different professions require different levels of social intelligence. Jeloudar and Lotfi-Goodarzi (2012) conducted a study on "The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers." This study was designed to examine the relationship between teachers social intelligence and their job satisfaction factor at senior secondary schools level. Participants were 177 educators who completed the Troms Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS), and a version of the Job Descriptive Index which is a scale used to measure six major factors associated with job satisfaction based on a selected demographic variable. The findings of the study showed that there was significant relationship between teachers social intelligence and their academic degree levels. Further, significant relationships were found between teachers social intelligence and five factors of job satisfaction: nature of the work itself, attitudes towards supervisors, relations with co-workers, opportunities for promotion, work condition in the present environment, but the relationship with one factor (salary and benefit) of job satisfaction is low and negligible. The results indicated that, higher social intelligence the teachers had, the greater job satisfaction they enjoyed. Adjustment is as old as human race on earth. During early days the Concept was purely biological and Darwin used the term as adaptation strictly for physical demands of the environment but Psychologists use the term adjustment for varying conditions of social or interpersonal relations in the society. The term ,,adjustment can be defined as the process of finding and adapting modes of behavior suitable to the environment or to change the environment. Adjustment can be viewed from two angles. The first view being ,,adjustment as an achievement means how efficiently an individual can perform his/her duties in different circumstances such as military, education, business and other social activities. The second view is ,,adjustment as a process, which is of major importance to psychologists, teachers and parents. The process of adjustment starts from birth of the child and continues till death. Thus, we see that adjustment means reactions to the demands and Pressures of social environment imposed upon the individual. The demands may be external (social and educational) or internal (emotional) to which the individual has to react. These two types of demands sometimes clash with each other and consequently make the adjustment a complicated process for the individual. Since adjustment has a profound effect on the overall behavior of an individual whether boy or girl, The present study will focus on the home, educational, social, emotional dimensions of adjustment of boys and girls at plus
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(35)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
two level. The findings can be used as inputs for deriving intervention, strategies so that boys and girls at plus two levels are better adjusted to their environment.
Review of literature Vikash kumar (2014) "Gender differences among adolescents on social intelligence" The Result show that Boys student have better Social intelligence in comparison to Girls student. Mukeshkumar panth, A.K,Agrawal, A,Chaurasiya (2015) "A Comparative study of emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient and social intelligence between under graduate students" The main conclusion is that, boys have more EQ than girls. And girls have more IQ and SI than boys. Science students have more EQ, IQ and SI than art students. Parmar Vishal, Dr. S.M. Kaji (2014) "Adjustment of Boys and Girls School Level Students in Ahmadabad" The result shows that there is significant difference in total, home, social and emotional adjustment of boys and girls students at 0.01 & 0.05 levels. There is no significant difference in school adjustment of boys and girls students in Ahmadabad. Joymalya Paramanik, Birbal Saha1, Bhim Chandra Mondal,(2014) "Adjustment of Secondary School Students with Respect to Gender and Residence" The findings of the present study indicate that there exist significant differences between the secondary school students on the basis of gender but no difference was found locale where they reside. Since these differences are found to be highly significant for gender in all the domains of adjustment.
Objective 1 To examine the main impact of sex variable on social intelligence. 2 To examine the main impact of faculty variable on social intelligence. 3 To examine the internal impact of sex and faculty variable on social intelligence. 4 To examine the main impact of sex variable on adjustment. 5 To examine the main impact of faculty variable on adjustment. 6 To examine the internal impact of sex and faculty variable on adjustment. 7 To examine the correlation between social intelligence and adjustment.
Hypothesis 1 There will be no significance difference in the main impact of sex variable on social intelligence. 2 There will be no significance difference in the main impact of faculty variable on social intelligence. 3 There will be no significance difference in the internal impact of both sex and faculty variable on social intelligence. 4 There will be no significance difference in the main impact of sex variable on adjustment. 5 There will be no significance difference in the main impact of faculty variable on adjustment.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(36)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
6 There will be no significance difference in the internal impact of both sex and faculty variable on adjustment. 7 There is no correlation between social intelligence and adjustment.
METHOD Instruments For this purpose the following test Instruments were considered with their reliability, validity and objectivity mentioned in their respective manuals. In present study two inventory used in research. (1) Social intelligence scale: This was made by S. mathur (2007). (2) Adjustment: This was made by Ms.R.Dube.
Procedure
Personal data sheet, Social intelligence scale and adjustment scale were male
and female on the respondents. The scoring was made as per the direction of the
manuals concerned. Finally 180 respondents were selected (90 male and 90
female). Thereafter, the obtained data were analyses using ANOVA as given
below.
Participants
In present study, random sampling was used. First of all 200 young female
and male were selected. Out of them 180 were selected. In 180, there were 90
male and 90 female were taken as sample. In which 60 Arts, 60 commerce and 60
science young female and male were taken as a sample in different schools of
Rajkot City (Gujarat).
research design
The aim of present research was to a study of social intelligence and
adjustment among young female and male. For these total 180 young female and
male were taken as a sample. To check the main and internal effect of three
independent variables 2 x 3 factorial design was used. Which as under:
Table: A
Factorial Design (2 x 3) (n = 180)
A1 (Female)
A2 (Male)
Total
B1 (Arts)
30
30
60
B2 (Commerce)
30
30
60
B3 (Science)
30
30
60
Total
90
90
180
Where
A = Sex, A1 = Female, A2 = Male
B = Type of Faculty, B1 = Arts, B2 = commerce, B3 =science
Result & Discussion There 2 x 3 factorial designs have been used to check the main and internal effect of the two main independent variables with the help of statistical method ftest (ANOVA) and mean. The difference has been examined. Insert table ­ 2 about here
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(37)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
According to ANOVA Table of social intelligence (Table- 2) the f value of sex variable was 17.96. The mean of A1 (male) received 65.08 and A2 (female) received 70.32 (Table: 2). the 'f' value of sex variable was significant at 0.01 level (Table-2). So we can say that the first hypothesis was not accepted because significance difference can be seen. So more sociality in women compare men because women is adjustment of everyone social field.
Insert table ­ 3 about here According to ANOVA Table of social intelligence (Table-3) the 'f' value of faculty was 30.21. The mean of B1 (Arts) received 71.9 and B2 (commerce) received 60.97 and B2 (science) received 70.23(Table-3). The F-value of faculty was significant at 0.01 levels (Table-3). So we can say that the second hypothesis was not accepted because significance difference can be seen. All subject are dependent of socialize of arts student so arts student are more affected by social in comparison to commerce and science student. Insert table ­ 4 about here The 'f' value (social intelligence) A x B variables (Sex and faculty) Was 44.13, which was significant at 0.01 levels. The mean of A1B1 was 71.63, A1B2 was 58.4, A1B3 was 65.2, A2B1 was 72.17, A2B2 was 63.53 and A2B3 was 75.27 (Table-4). It means fourth hypotheses were not accepted. Insert table ­ 6 about here According to ANOVA Table of adjustment (Table-6) the f value of sex variable was 2.99. The mean of A1 (male) received 57.71 and A2 (female) received 60.68 (Table: 6). the 'f' value of sex variable was not significant at 0.01 level (Table-6). So we can say that the forth hypothesis was accepted because significance difference can be not seen. Insert table ­ 7 about here According to ANOVA Table of adjustment (Table-7) the 'f' value of faculty was 14.51. The mean of B1 (Arts) received 62.9 and B2 (commerce) received 52.68 and B3 (science) received 62 (Table-7). The 'f' value of faculty was significant at 0.01 levels (Table-7). So we can say that the five hypotheses were not accepted because significant difference can be seen. Insert table ­ 8 about here The 'f' value (adjustment) A x B variables (Sex and faculty) Was 20.21, which was significant at 0.01 levels. The mean of A1B1 was 61.37, A1B2 was 54.27, A1B3 was 57.5, A2B1 was 64.43, A2B2 was 51.1 and A2B3 was 66.5 (Table-8). It means fourth hypotheses were not accepted. Insert table ­ 9 about here According to co-relation Table (Table-9) the co-relation between social intelligence and adjustment was 0.10. This was positive co-relation. It means social intelligence increases adjustment decreases and social intelligence decreases adjustment increase.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(38)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
Conclusion: We can conclude by data analysis as follows: There was significance difference in the main impact of sex variable on social intelligence. There was significance difference in the main impact of faculty variable on social intelligence. There was significance difference in the internal impact of both sex and faculty variable on social intelligence. There was no significance difference in the main impact of sex variable on adjustment. There was significance difference in the main impact of faculty variable on adjustment. There was significance difference in the internal impact of both sex and faculty variable on adjustment. There were positive correlation between social intelligence and adjustment. Limitation of the Study In this study taken 180 participants and selected from Rajkot City and only included young male and female and not selected other participant. So that is limitation of this study. Suggestion This study suggests that further needs to study of this area because in this study taken 180 participants so you can take large participant and you selected more different area, economic status, type of family etc. you will be research in future.
References Amina Parveen, Aasia Maqbool (2013) "Adjustment Problem of Male and Female Students At Plus Two Level" University of Kashmir, J&K (India) Academia Arena 2013:5(2) Jeloudar, Soleiman Yahyazadeh and Lotfi-Goodarzi, Fatemeh. "The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers", International Journal of Education Science, (2012) Vol.4 (3): 209213. Joymalya Paramanik, Birbal Saha1, Bhim Chandra Mondal,(2014) "Adjustment of Secondary School Students with Respect to Gender and Residence" American Journal of Educational Research, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 12, 1138-1143 Mukeshkumar panth,A.K,Agrawal,A,Chaurasiya (2015) "A Comparative study of emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient and social intelligence between under graduate students" International Journal of Advanced Research (2015), ISSN 2320-5407, Volume 3, Issue 7, 653-660 Parmar Vishal, Dr. S.M. Kaji (2014) "Adjustment of Boys and Girls School Level Students in Ahmedabad" The International Journal of Indian Psychology | ISSN 2348-5396 Volume 2, Issue 1, Paper ID: B002S07V2I12014 Prathima H. P. ,Dr. Umme Kulsum "Relationship Between Social Intelligence and Mental Health of Secondary School Teachers" PARIPEX - INDIAN JOURNAL OF RESEARCH, Volume : 2 | Issue : 11 | Nov 2013 ISSN - 22501991
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(39)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
R. Gnanadevan (2011) Social Intelligence of Higher Secondary Students In Relation To Their Socioeconomic Status, Mier Journal of Educational Studies, Trends & Practices: Vol. 1 (1) May R.Dube, which was made adjustment scale S. mathur (2007), which was made social intelligence scale Satish Gill (2014) "Emotional, Social and Educational Adjustment of Visually Handicapped Students of Special Schools students", International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2014 1 ISSN 2250-3153 Thorndike, E. L., & Stein, S. (1937).An evaluation of the attempts to measure social intelligence, Psychological Bulletin, 34, 275-285. Vikash kumar (2014) "Gender differences among adolescents on social intelligence" Asian Mirror- International Journal of Research, Volume I, Issue I, February-2014
Result tables
Table-1
Showing the ANOVA Table of social intelligence Variables of
Sex and faculty.
Variables
S.S.
df
M.S.
f
Sig.
Ass
1237.68
1
1237.68
17.96
0.01
Bss
4163.74
2
2081.87
30.21
0.01
ABss
6083.32
2
3041.66
44.13
0.01
Wss
11993.06
174
68.92
Tss
23477.8
179
df sig.level 1 :0.05=3.89
df sig.level 2
:0.05=3.04
0.01=6.76
0.01=4.71
Table - 2: Showing the mean and 'f' value of sex variable (social
intelligence)
Sr. No.
Variables
N
Mean
F
Sig.
1 2
A1 A2
90
70.32
90
65.08
17.96
0.01
0.05=3.89
0.01=6.76
Table - 3: Showing the mean and 'f' value of faculty variable (social
intelligence)
Sr.
No.
Variables
Sig.
N
Mean
F
1
B1
60
71.9
2
B2
60
60.97
30.21
0.01
3
B3
60
70.23
0.05=3.04
0.01=4.71
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(40)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
Table - 4: Variables B1 B2 B3
Showing the mean and 'f' value of Sex and faculty variables
(social intelligence).
A1
A2
F
Sig.
71.63
72.17
58.4
63.53
44.13
0.01
65.2
75.27
0.05=3.04
0.01=4.71
Table-5
Showing the ANOVA Table of Adjustment Variables of Sex
and faculty.
Variables
S.S.
df
M.S.
F
Sig.
Ass
396.04
1
396.04
2.99
NS
Bss
3839.8
2
1919.9
14.51
0.01
ABss
5346.28
2
2673.14
20.21
0.01
Wss
23018.07
174
132.29
Tss
32600.19
179
df sig.level 1 :0.05=3.89
df sig.level 2
:0.05=3.04
0.01=6.76
0.01=4.71
Table - 6: Showing the mean and 'f' value of sex variable (Adjustment)
Sr. No.
Variables
N
Mean
F
Sig.
1
A1
90
60.68
2
A2
90
57.71
2.99
NS
0.05=3.89
0.01=6.76
Table - 7: Showing the mean and 'f' value of faculty variable
(Adjustment)
Sr. No.
Variables
N
Mean
F
Sig.
1
B1
60
62.9
2
B2
60
52.68
14.51
0.01
3
B3
60
62
0.05=3.04
0.01=4.71
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(41)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Table - 8: Showing the mean and 'f' value of Sex and faculty variables
(adjustment).
Variables
A1
A2
F
Sig.
B1
61.37
64.43
B2
54.27
51.1
20.21
0.01
B3
57.5
66.5
0.05=3.04
0.01=4.71
Table -9: Showing the Co-relation between social intelligence and
adjustment
Variables
N
r
Social intelligence
180
Adjustment
180
0.10
Creative Space : Intarnatioanal Journal
.
.
.

.
: / 9716104937
.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(42)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
Running Head: WELL-BEING AND SOCIAL SUPPORT IN WOMEN
Psychological Well-Being and Social Support among Married and Unmarried Women
Kinjal P. Usadadiya Department of Psychology, Suarashtra University, Rajkot-360 005 Gujarat (India)
Abstract: The main purpose of this research was to find out the mean difference between married and unmarried women. The total 80 as a variation belonging to married and non-married women were taken. The research tool for Psychological Well-being was Measured by Sudha Bhogle and tool for social support were used which made by Ritu Mhera and P. Kalhara (1997). Here t-test was applied to check the significance of Psychological Well-being and Social support between married and non-married women. To check the relation between Psychological Well-being and social support correlation method is used. The study revealed that there was significant difference between married and non-married women in Psychological Well-being. There was significant difference between married and non-married women in social support. While the correlation between Psychological Well-Being and social support reveals 0.70 positive correlations.
Keywords: Psychological Well-Being and Social Support
Psychological Well-being and Social support among married and NonMarried Women
Adolescence is an important developmental phase along the path to adulthood, years during which youth become increasingly independent from their families. Yet parents and other family members still play a critical role in the promotion of women well-being, by providing a positive support system within which youth can explore their changing identity. Psychological well-being is an umbrella term. Different researchers used different concepts and terms for phenomena of psychological well-being e.g. terms of self-concept and self-esteem, Rosenber, 1965; mood, affect, quality of life, mentality and subjective well-being, Diener et al, 1985 for describing psychological well-being. Campbell (1976) took it as persons current state of affairs. Self-esteem, self-actualization, stress, anxiety and depression are the key components of psychological well-being or social support. Good social support is considered significant to cope with life challenges. Psychological well-being studied extensively as there is a need to improve the state of mental conditions of people. Researchers find a large number of
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(43)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
people are getting affected by social support problems. Wellness is generally used to mean a healthy balance of mind, body and spirit and it results in an overall feeling of well-being. In other words; wellness is a view of health that emphasizes the state of the entire being and its on-going development. There are several determinants of wellness and some of them include better understanding of concepts like health practices, spirituality, family, environment, work, money and security, health services, social support and leisure. Hameeda Shaheenet. all.(2014) A study of loneliness in relation to wellbeing among women. The results showed that there was significant negative relationship between loneliness and well-being. The study implicates the development of intervention strategies for reducing the feeling of loneliness so as to prevent its negative impacts on adolescent well-being. Susana Coimbra (2015) Social Skills, Social Support and Well-being in Women of Different Family Configurations The results indicated that family configuration is not associated with the psychological well-being of women. The social skills of empathy, self-control, civility, social resourcefulness and affective approach as well as the social support appraisals from friends and family were the best predictors of adolescent psychological well-being. Social relationships play important role in promoting better health and alleviating diseases. However, not all kinds of social relations, interactions, ties, and sharing of social resources have similar health consequences, nor do they always predict improved health outcomes (Cohen, Gottlieb, & Underwood, 2000; Cohen & Wills, 1985; Thoits, 1984; Uchino, 2004). Research has shown that interpersonal relationships can have both positive and negative influences on health and well-being (Cohen, 2004; Vinokur & van Ryn, 1993), and that supportive behaviour leads to better physical and social support outcomes (Cohen, Gottlieb, & Underwood, 2000; House, Landis, & Umberson, 1988; Lakey & Cohen, 2000; Taylor, 2011a; Thoits, 1995; Uchino, Cacioppo, & Kiecolt-Glaser, 1996). One aspect of social relationships is social support (both formal and informal), and this construct has been researched widely by social scientists since 1970s. Although research involving allied concepts like social network, social capital, social ties, and social integration was abundant prior to 1970s, it was not until mid-1970s that studies on social support as a distinct construct came into existence. In fact, one of the initial systematic definitions of the construct social support was provided by Sidney Cobb in his March 1976 Presidential Address before American Psychosomatic Society. Cobb (1976: 300) defined social support as "information leading the subject to believe that he (or she) is cared for and loved, es- teemed, and a member of a network of mutual obligations." Although this definition ignores received Social support and emphasizes the notion of perceived social support, it is rather a different attempt to conceptualize social support compared to a generic view of support. In addition, as pointed out by Hupcey (1998), Cobbs (1976) definition includes only ,,in- formational and ,,emotional aspect of social support, and as such overlooks the provision of ,,instrumental support. More recently, Thoits (2010: S46) provided a more comprehensive definition of social
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(44)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
support that refers to "emotional, informational, or practical assistance from significant others, such as family members, friends, or co-workers; (and that) support actually may be received from others or simply perceived to be available when needed." It is important to note the critical distinctions between constructs like social network, social integration, social capital, and social support. Although social supports arise from members of the social net- work in which individuals belong, the mere existence of social network does not guarantee the provision of social support. That is to say, social support emerges from substantial assistance by others ­ in the form of either informational, emotional, material, or/and companionship needs ­ which is recognized as sup- port by both the provider and the recipient. What matters is the strength of ties, willingness to provide supports, and quality of such support rather than the number of ties that a person has in a network (Pearlin, 1989; Pearlin, Lieberman, Menaghan, &Mullan, 1981). Similarly, having social capital does not en- sure that support should be available when needed by people under stressful situations. Moreover, social integration refers to the structural density of an inSuresh Jokena Charisse Smith Islam (2004), this study examined the relationship between marriage, social support, and psychological health among impoverished, rural mothers. While findings revealed that marital status had little effect on depression levels, social support appeared to be negatively correlated with depression. Furthermore, mothers who maintained marital status and reported high social support reported the lowest depression levels. Findings contribute to the limited body of research focusing on health in rural areas and yield valuable knowledge about the experience of psychological health among impoverished, rural mothers. "Psychological Well-being and Social support among Married and Unmarried Women"
Objectives: The main objectives of study were as under. 1. To measure the psychological Well-being among married and unmarried women. 2. To measure the social support among married and unmarried women. 3. To measure the correlation between psychological Well-being and social support. Hypothesis: To related objectives of this null hypothesis were as under. There will be no significant difference in psychological Well-being among married and non-married women. There will be no significant difference in social support among married and unmarried women. There will be no correlation between psychological Well-being and social support.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(45)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Method
Participants:
According to the purpose of present study total 80 samples has been
selected. There were 40 married and 40 unmarried women were taken as a
sample from different area in Rajkot city. (Gujarat)

Research design:
The aim of present study was to a study of psychological Well-being and
social support among married and unmarried women. For these total 80 married
and non-married women were taken as a sample. Here to the measure
psychological Well-being scale was used. This was made by Sudha Bhogle.
Check social support in them Ritu Mhera and P. Kalhara (1997) social support
scale was used. To check difference between group t-test and correlation method
was used. The result discussion of psychological Well-being and social support is
as under.

Tools:
For this purpose the following test tools were considered with their
reliability, validity and objectivity mentioned in their respective menus in
present study two inventories is used.
The research tool for Psychological Well-being was Measured by Sudha
Bhogle and tool for social support were used which made by Ritu Mhera and P.
Kalhara(1997).

Procedure:
According to purpose of present study for data collection the investigator
explained the purpose the study to the participants for these total 40 married and
40 unmarried women were taken as a sample from different part of Rajkot city
(Gujarat). Testing was done personally with married and unmarried women. The
whole procedure of fill the inventory was explained to them fully and clearly.
The instructions given on questionnaire were explained to them. It was also
made clear to them that these scores would be kept secret. It was checked that
any of the participants left any questions un-answered or that no participants
encircled both the answer given against questions.
Results and Discussions The main objective of the present study was to measure the "psychological Well-being and social support among married and unmarried women." In it statistical t-test method is used. To check correlation between psychological Wellbeing and social support Karl Persian ,,r method is used. Result discussion of present study is as under. Insert Table-1 The table-1 indicates that the mean score of psychological Well-being on married women are 22.93 and unmarried women are 23.63. The standard deviations for both married and unmarried women are 13.42 and 13.44 respectively. The difference between these two means is no significant of confidence as the value of t-test is 0.23.a perusal of that reveals no significant
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(46)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
difference in psychological well-being of the two groups. So the first hypothesis is accepted. Here Evidences of research finding given by Hameeda Shaheen et.all. (2014)The results showed that there was significant negative relationship between loneliness and well-being. The study implicates the development of intervention strategies for reducing the feeling of loneliness so as to prevent its negative impacts on adolescent well-being. Result was same as present study. There for we can say that present finding are supported byHameeda Shaheenet. all.(2014) Also supported bySusana Coimbras (2015)research. Insert Table-2 The table-2 indicates that the mean scores of social support on married and unmarried women are 54.05 and 56.07 respectively. The standard deviations for both married and unmarried women are 56.18 and 28.65 respectively. The difference between these two means is no significant of confidence as the value of t-test is 0.27 a perusal of that reveals no significant difference in social support of the two groups.. So the second hypothesis is also accepted. Here Evidences of research finding given by Jokena Charisse Smith Islam (2004), while findings revealed that marital status had little effect on depression levels, social support appeared to be negatively correlated with depression. Furthermore, mothers who maintained marital status and reported high social support reported the lowest depression levels. Findings contribute to the limited body of research focusing on health in rural areas and yield valuable knowledge about the experience of psychological health among impoverished, rural mothers. Insert Table-3 According to table-3 the results obtained positive co-relation between psychological Well-being and social support. It was 0.70 positive co-relations between psychological Well-being and social support. It means psychological Well-being decrease social support decrease and psychological Well-being increase social support increase.
Conclusion We can conclude by data analysis as follows; There were no significant differences between the mean scores of two groups on psychological Well-being and there were no significant difference between the mean scores of two groups on social support. The co-relation between psychological Well-being and social support is 0.70 which is positive correlations.
References: Campbell, A. (1976). Subjective measures of wellbeing. American Psychologist, 31, 117-124. Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38(5), 300-314.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(47)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Cohen, J. (2011). Social support received online and offline by individuals diagnosed with cancer (Doctoral dissertation). Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved from https:// digarchive.library.vcu.edu/handle/10156/3454 Cohen, S. (2004). Social relationships and health. American Psychologist, 59(8), 676-684. Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985).Stress, social support and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310-357. Cohen, S., Gottlieb, B., & Underwood, L. (2000).Social relationships and health. In S. Cohen, L. Underwood, & B. Gottlieb (Eds.) Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists. New York: Oxford University Press, 3-25. Diener, et. al. (1985), The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of personality assessment, 49, 71-75 DoshiDhara R &YogeshAJogsan (2013)Depression and psychological well-being in old age,Open Access Psychology & Psychotherapy HameedaShaheenet. all.(2014) A study of loneliness in relation to well-being among womens.International Journal of Education and Psychological Research (IJEPR) Vol-3, Issue 4, p.p.46-49 House, J. S., Landis, K. R., &Umberson, D. (1988).Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540-545. House, J. S., Umberson, D., & Landis, K. R. (1988).Structures and processes of social support. Annual Review of Sociology, 14, 293-318. Hupcey, Judith E. (1998). Social support: Assessing conceptual coherence. Qualitative Health Research, 8(3), 304-318. JokenaCharisse Smith Islam(2004),MARITAL RELATIONSHIP STATUS, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND PSYCHOLGOCIAL WELL-BEING AMONG RURAL, LOWINCOME MOTHERS; Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science. Lakey, B., & Cohen, S. (2000). Social support theory and measurement. In S. Cohen, L. Underwood, & B. H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 29-52). New York: Oxford University Press. Pearlin, L. I., Lieberman, M. A ., Menaghan, E. G., &Mullan, J. T. (1981). The stress process. Journal of Health and social behavior, 22, 337-356. Susana Coimbra (2015), social skills, social support and well-being in womens of different family configurations. Paidйia,Vol.25, No.60, p.p.9-18. Taylor, S. E. (2011a). Social support: A Review. In M. S. Friedman (Ed.), The handbook of health psychology (pp. 189-214). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Taylor, S. E. (2011b). Affiliation and stress. In S. Folkman (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of stress, health, and coping (pp. 86-100). New York: Oxford University Press.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(48)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
Thoits, P. A. (1984). Explaining distributions of psychological vulnerability: Lack of social support in the face of life stress. Social Forces, 63, 453-481. Thoits, P. A. (2010). Stress and health: Major findings and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51 (Special Issue), S41-S53.Thoits, P. A. (1995). Stress, coping and social support processes: Where are we? what next? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35(Extra Issue), 53-79. Uchino, B. N. (2004). Social support and physical health: Understanding the health consequences of relationships. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Uchino, B. N., Cacioppo, J. T., &Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1996). The relationship between social support and physiological processes: A review with emphasis on underlying mechanisms and implications for health. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 488-531. Vinokur, A. D., & van Ryn, M. (1993). Social support and undermining in close relationships: Their independent effects on the social support of unemployed persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 350-359.
Result tables:
Table-1
Psychological Well-being among married and unmarried women
Sr.
Variables
N
Mean
SD
t
Sig.
No.
1 Married Women
40
22.93
13.42
2
Unmarried
40
23.63
13.44
0.23
NS
Women
Significance Level 0.05 = 2.02
1.01 = 2.71
Table-2
Social support among married and unmarried women
Sr.
Variables
N
Mean
SD
t
Sig.
No.
1 Married Women
40
54.05
56.18
2
Unmarried
40
26.07
28.65
0.27
NS
Women
Significance Level 0.05 = 2.02
0.01=2.71
Table-3
Correlation of the psychological Well-being and social support among married and
unmarried women
Sr. No.
Variable
N
Mean
r
1
Psychological Well-
80
23.28
0.70
being
2
Social Support
80
55.38
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(49)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Conceptual Analysis of Cyber Crime Up to Security and there Prevention
Hetal Bhatt Research Scholar of Rai University, Dr. Kamaljit Lakhtaria Guide And Supervisor of Rai University, Ahmadabad
Abstract In the present day world, India has witnessed an unprecedented index of Cyber crimes whether they pertain to Trojan attacks, salami attacks, e-mail bombing, DOS attacks, information theft, or the most common offence of hacking. Despite technological measures being adopted by corporate organizations and individuals, we have witnessed that the frequency of cyber crimes has increased over the last decade. Since users of computer system and internet are increasing worldwide in large number day by day, where it is easy to access any information easily within a few seconds by using internet which is the medium for huge information and a large base of communications around the world. Certain precautionary measures should be taken by all of us while using the internet which will assist in challenging this major threat Cyber Crime, i have discussed various categories of cyber crime and cyber crime as a threat to person, property, government and society.
Keywords: Cyber crime. Computer crime, hacking, cyber fraud, Prevention of cyber crime.
Introduction about Computer Cyber Crime
"cyber crime" means any criminal or other offence that is facilitated by or involves the use of electronic communications or Information Systems, including any device or the Internet or any one or more of them " Computer crime, cyber crime, e-crime, hi-tech crime or electronic crime generally refers to criminal activity where a computer or network is the source, tool, target, or place of a crime. These categories are not exclusive and many activities can be characterized as falling in one or more category. Additionally, although the terms computer crime or cybercrime are more properly restricted to describing criminal activity in which the computer or network is a necessary part of the crime, these terms are also sometimes used to include traditional crimes, such as fraud, theft, blackmail, forgery, and embezzlement, in which computers or networks are used to facilitate the illicit activity.
History The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820 which is not surprising considering the fact that the abacus, which is thought to be the earliest form of a computer, has been around since 3500 B.C. in India, Japan and China. The era of modern computers, however, began with the analytical engine of
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(50)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
Charles Babbage. In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced the loom. This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard's employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology. This was the first recorded cyber crime.
Cyber Crime In India Reliable sources report that during the year 2005, 179 cases were registered under the I.T. Act as compared to 68 cases during the previous year, reporting the significant increase of 163% in 2005 over 2004. (Source: Karnika Seth - Cyber lawyer & Consultant practicing in the Supreme Court of India and Delhi High Court) Some of the cases are: · The BPO, Mphasis Ltd. case of data theft · The DPS MMS case · Pranav Mitra's email spoofing fraud
Defining Cyber Crime At the onset, let us satisfactorily define "cyber crime" and differentiate it from "conventional Crime". 166 Computer crime can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature, such as theft, fraud, forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. The abuse of computers has also given birth to a gamut of new age crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act, 2000. Defining cyber crimes, as "acts that are punishable by the Information Technology Act" would be unsuitable as the Indian Penal Code also covers many cyber crimes, such as email spoofing and cyber defamation, sending threatening emails etc. A simple yet sturdy definition of cyber crime would be "unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both". Let us examine the acts wherein the computer is a tool for an unlawful act. This kind of activity usually involves a modification of a conventional crime by using computers. Some examples are: Cyber Crime Criminal Target Technology technology-as-target ­ criminal offences targeting computers and other information technologies, such as those involving the unauthorized use of computers or mischief in relation to data, and; technology-as-instrument ­ criminal offences where the Internet and information technologies are instrumental in the commission of a crime, such as those involving fraud, identity theft, intellectual property infringements, money laundering, drug trafficking, human trafficking, organized crime activities, child sexual exploitation or cyber bullying. These categories are examined in this report through examples and law enforcement case studies involving recent cybercrime threats. The report concludes with three key observations:
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(51)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Technology creates new opportunities for criminals. Online markets and Internet-facing devices provide the same opportunities and benefits for serious and organized criminal networks as they do for legitimate businesses. Cybercrime is expanding. Once considered the domain of criminals with specialized skills, cybercrime activities have expanded to other offenders as the requisite know-how becomes more accessible. Cybercrime requires new ways of policing. The criminal exploitation of new and emerging technologies ­ such as cloud computing and social media platforms, anonymous online networks and virtual currency schemes ­ requires new policing measures to keep pace in a digital era.
Types of Cybercrime Types of Cybercrime Description
Financial Crimes Credit Card Frauds; Money Laundering
Cyber Pornography Pornographic Websites; Online distribution
Online Gambling
Millions of websites, all hosted on servers abroad, offer online gambling.
IP Crimes
Software Piracy; Copyright Infringement; Trademarks Violations; Theft of Computer Source Code.
Email Spoofing
A spoofed email is one that appears to originate from one source but actually has been sent from another source.
This occurs when defamation takes place with the help of
Cyber Defamation computers and/or the Internet. E.g. someone publishes
defamatory matter about another on a website.
This involves following a person's movements across the
Internet by posting messages (sometimes threatening) on
Cyber Stalking bulletin boards frequented by the victim, entering chat-
rooms frequented by the victim, constantly bombarding
the victim with emails etc.
Unauthorised
Also known as Hacking. Involves gaining access illegally to a computer system or
network and in some cases making unauthorized use of
Access
this access. Hacking is also the act by which other forms
of cyber-crime (e.g., fraud, terrorism) are committed.
Theft of any information contained in electronic form
Eft
such as that stored in computer hard disks, removal
storage media, etc. Can extend to identity theft.
This refers to sending a large number of emails to the
Email Bombing
victim resulting in the victim's email account (in case of an individual) or mail servers (in case of a company or an
email service provider) crashing.
Salami Attacks
These attacks are often used in committing financial crime and are based on the idea that an alteration, so
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(52)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
insignificant, would go completely unnoticed in a single
case. E.g. a bank employee inserts a program, into the
bank's servers, that deducts a small amount of money
(say 5 cents a month) from the account of every customer.
This unauthorized debt is likely to go unnoticed by an
account holder.
This involves flooding a computer resource with more
requests than it can handle,causing the resource (e.g. a
web server) to crash thereby denying authorized users
Denial of Service (DNS) Attack
the service offered by the resource. Another variation to a typical denial of service attack is known as a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack wherein the perpetrators
are many and are geographically widespread. It is very
difficult to control such attacks and is often used in acts
of civil disobedience.
Viruses are programs that attach themselves to a
computer or a file and then circulate themselves to other
files and to other computers on a network. They usually
Virus/worm
affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it. Worms, unlike viruses do not need the host to
attach themselves to. They merely make functional copies
of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all
the available space on a computer's memory.
These are event dependent programs where programs
kick into action only when a certain event (known as a
Logic Bombs
trigger event) occurs. Some viruses may be termed logic bombs because they lie dormant throughout the year and
become active only on a particular date (e.g. Chernobyl
virus).
An unauthorized program which functions from inside
Trojan Attacks what seems to be an authorized program, thereby
concealing what it is actually doing.
Web Jacking
This occurs when someone forcefully takes control of a website (by cracking the password and later changing it).
Hacking designed to cause terror. Like conventional
Cyber-Terrorism
terrorism, `e-terrorism' is utilizes hacking to cause violence against persons or property, or at least cause
enough harm to generate fear.
Classification of Cyber Crimes:
Computer crime mainly consists of unauthorized access to
computersystems data lteration, data destruction, and theft of intellectual
properly. Cyber crime in the context of national security may involve hacking,
traditional espionage, or information warfare and related activities.
Pornography, threatening email, assuming someone's identity, sexual
harassment, defamation, SPAM and Phishing are some examples where
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(53)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
computers are used to commit crime, whereas viruses, worms and industrial espionage, software piracy and hacking are examples here computers become target of crime.
Cybercrime: The facts Cybercrime has now surpassed illegal drug trafficking as a criminal moneymaker Somebodys identity is stolen every 3 seconds as a result of cybercrime Without a sophisticated security package, your unprotected PC can become infected within four minutes of connecting to the Internet. Criminals committing cybercrime use a number of methods, depending on their skill-set and their goal. Here are some of the different ways cybercrime can take shape:
Cyber Security: Cyberspace is as vulnerable as much as it is a vital infrastructure. The threat is real. US President Obama recently declared that "cyber threat is one of the most serious economic and national security challenges we face as a nation" and that "America's economic prosperity in the 21st century will depend on cyber security." The same is true for other nations as well. Private and public cyber infrastructure in the United States falls under nearly constant attack, often from shadowy sources connected to terrorist groups, organized crime syndicates, or foreign governments. These attacks bear the potential to disrupt e-mail and other online communications networks, but also the national energy grid, militarydefense ground and satellite facilities, transportation systems, financial markets, and other essential facilities. In short, a substantial cyber-attack could take down the nation's entire security and economic infrastructure. Cyber is the new domain of international espionage, sabotage, and war. China, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States employ extensive cyber spying networks." A coordinated series of denial-of service and other attacks could cripple a state's political and communications systems, as happened during "Web War 1" between Russia and Estonia in 20076 as computer networks collapsed, factories and chemical plants exploded, satellites spin out of control and the financial and power grids failed." In June 2010, for example, a computer worm called "Stuxnet" was discovered in Iran. At first inspection, it appeared to be a routine bit of malware.
CAUSES OF CYBER ­ CRIME There are many reasons why cyber-criminals commit cyber-crime, chief among them are these three listed below: Cyber crimes can be committed for the sake of recognition. This is basically committed by youngsters who want to be noticed and feel among the group of the big and tough guys in the society. They do not mean to hurt anyone in particular; they fall into the category of the Idealists; who just want to be in spotlight.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(54)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
Another cause of cyber-crime is to make quick money. This group is greed motivated and is career criminals, who tamper with data on the net or system especially, e-commerce, e-banking data information with the sole aim of committing fraud and swindling money off unsuspecting customers. Thirdly, cyber-crime can be committed to fight a cause one thinks he believes in; to cause threat and most often damages that affect the recipients adversely. This is the most dangerous of all the causes of cyber-crime. Those involve believe that they are fighting a just cause and so do not mind who or what they destroy in their quest to get their goals achieved. These are the cyberterrorists.
HOW TO ERADICATE CYBER ­ CRIME Research has shown that no law can be put in place to effectively eradicate the scourge of cyber-crime. Attempts have been made locally and internationally, but these laws still have shot-comings. What constitutes a crime in a country may not in another, so this has always made it easy for cyber criminals to go free after being caught. These challenges notwithstanding, governments should in the case of the idealists, fight them through education not law. It has been proven that they help big companies and government see security holes which career criminals or even cyber-terrorist could use to attack them in future. Most often, companies engage them as consultants to help them build solid security for their systems and data. "The Idealists often help the society: through their highly mediatised and individually harmless actions, they help important organizations to discover their high-tech security holes...."1 The enforcement of law on them can only trigger trouble, because they would not stop but would want to defy the law. " Moreover, if the goal of the cyber-crime legislation is to eradicate cyber-crime, it mint well eradicate instead a whole new culture...."1 Investments in education is a much better way to prevent their actions. Another means of eradicating cyber-crime is to harmonize international cooperation and law, this goes for the greed motivated and cyber-terrorists. They can not be fought by education, because they are already established criminals, so they can not behave. The only appropriate way to fight them is by enacting new laws, harmonize international legislations and encourage coordination and cooperation between national law enforcement agencies.
1. http://www.cyberlawcentre.org/genl0231/11._Intro_to_Cybercrime.pdf 2. http://www.nalsarpro.org/CL/Modules/Module4/Chapter-1.pdf 3. http://www.techopedia.com/definition/2387/cybercrime 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_crime 5. http://in.norton.com/cybercrime-definition 6. http://www.infosec.gov.hk/english/crime/what_crc_1.html 7. http://cybercrime.org.za/definition 8. http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/pubs/cc-report-rapport-cc-eng.htm 9. http://www.ijarcsse.com/docs/s/Volume_3/5_May2013/V3I5-0374.pdf
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(55)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Prevention Of Cyber crime prevention is always better than cure. It is always better to take certain precautions while working on the net. One should make them a part of his cyber life. Sailesh Kumar Zarkar, technical advisor and network security consultant to the Mumbai Police Cyber crime Cell, advocates the 5P mantra for online security: Precaution, Prevention, Protection, Preservation and Perseverance. Identification of exposures through education will assist responsible companies and firms to meet these challenges . One should avoid disclosing any personal information to strangers, the person whom they dont know, via e-mail or while chatting or any social networking site. One must avoid sending any photograph to strangers by online as misusing or modification of photograph incidents increasing day by day. An update Anti-virus software to guard against virus attacks should be used by all the netizens and should also keep back up volumes so that one may not suffer data loss in case of virus contamination. A person should never send his credit card number or debit card number to any site that is not secured, to guard against frauds. It is always the parents who have to keep a watch on the sites that their children are accessing, to prevent any kind of harassment or depravation in children. Web site owners should watch traffic and check any irregularity on the site. It is the responsibility of the web site owners to adopt some policy for preventing cyber crimes as number of internet users are growing day by day. Web servers running public sites must be physically separately protected from internal corporate network. It is better to use a security programs by the body corporate to control information on sites. Strict statutory laws need to be passed by the Legislatures keeping in mind the interest of netizens. IT department should pass certain guidelines and notifications for the protection of computer system and should also bring out with some more strict laws to breakdown the criminal activities relating to cyberspace. As Cyber Crime is the major threat to all the countries worldwide, certain steps should be taken at the international level for preventing the cybercrime. A complete justice must be provided to the victims of cyber crimes by way of compensatory remedy and offenders to be punished with highest type of punishment so that it will anticipate the criminals of cyber crime.
Conclusion In conclusion, computer crime does have a drastic effect on the world in which we live. It affects every person no matter where they are from. It is ironic that those who in secret break into computers across the world for enjoyment
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(56)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
have been labeled as deviance. Many hackers view the Internet as public space for everyone and do not see their actions as criminal. Hackers are as old as the Internet and many have been instrumental in making the Internet what it is now. In my view point hacking and computer crime will be with us for as long as we have the Internet. It is our role to keep the balance between what is a crime and what is done for pure enjoyment. Luckily, the government is making an effort to control the Internet. Yet, true control over the Internet is impossible, because the reasons the Internet was created. This is why families and the institution of education of is needed, parents need to let their children know what is okay to do on the computer and what is not and to educate them on the repercussions of their actions should they choose to become part of the subculture of hackers. In finishing this theses, the true nature of what computer crime will include in the future is unknown. What was criminal yesterday may not be a crime the next day because advances in computers may not allow it. Passwords might be replaced for more secure forms of security like biometric security. Most of the recorded computer crimes cases in most organization involve more than individual and virtually all computer crime cases known so far are committed by employer of the organization. Criminals have also adapted the advancements of computer technology to further their own illegal activities.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(57)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
Human Rights Commission, Function and Powers
Dr. Neetu Simar Ph.D. (Public Administration) MDU, Rohtak (Hry.)
Rajesh Kumar Ph.D. Scholar (Public Administration) NIMS University, Jaipur (Raj.)
What are Human Rights?
Human right are rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of gender,
Nationality, Place of residency, sex, ethnicity, religion, color or and other
categorization. Thus human rights are non-discriminatory, meaning, that all
human beings are entitled to them and can not be excluded from them of course,
while all human beings are entitled to human rights, not all human beings
experience them equally throughout the world. Many governments and
individuals ignore human rights and grossing exploit other human beings.
In order to live with dignity certain basic rights and freedoms are
necessary, which all human beings are entitled to there basic rights are called
human rights.
Human rights demand recognition and respect for the inherent dignity to
ensure that everyone is protected against abuses which undermine their
dignity, and give the opportunities they need to realize their full potential.
Human rights include civil and political rights such as:

The right to freedom of expression.

The right to freedom of conscience.

The right to properties

The right to freedom of assembly.

The right to privacy.

The right to vote.
Human rights also cover economic and social rights, such as:

The right to an adequate standard of living.

The right to adequate food, housing water and sanitation

The rights you have at work

The right to education.
Human rights belong to everyone, everywhere, regardless of nationality,
sexuality, gender, race, religion or age The foundation of modern, human
rights in the universal declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The 30 articles of
the declaration were adopted in 1948 by the united Nations General Assembly,
and over time the these have been integrated. isnto natural laws and
international treaties. The core values of the UDHR human dignity fairness,
equality , non-descrimination, apply to everyone, everywhere.
Historical Development of Human Rights. Human rights are the rights a person has simply because he or she is a human being. Human right and held by all persons equally, universally and
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(58)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
forever. All human beings are born free and equal and dignity and rights. They are endowed. with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood, Kant said that human beings have an intrinsic value absent inanimate objects. To violate a human right would therefore be a failure to recognize the worth of human life, Human right is a concept that has been constantly evolving throughout human history. They have been intricately field to the laws, customs and religions. throughout the ages. Most societies have had traditions similar to the "golden rule" of "Do unto other as you would have then do unto you." The Hindu Vedas, the Babylonian, Code of Hummurabi, The Bible, The Quran (Koran) and Analects of Confucius are five of the oldest written sources which address questions of peoples duties, right and responsibilities.
The Origin and Evolution of the concept of Human Right. The problem of human rights is intrinsically bound up with the relations existing between man and his social environment more specifically with the relationship between man and all institution, on which his social existene depends. The legal concept of human rights in the product of a specified period of history. In Europe , the concept mainly emerged under the Umbrella of the philosophical, political and legal values, which gained, ground from the renaissance onwords. The emporgence of these value and their development are themselves inseparable from a long historical process of economic, social, political and cultural transformation.
Human rights Bill:- The human rights bill was produced in this Lok Sabha on 14th may, 1993. It was thoroughly discussed and debated on both houses. When the bill was considered by the Parliamentary Committee on Human Affairs, certain modification were suggested in the original draft. In this meantime the President promulgated the protection of Human rights ordinance 1993 on 28th September, 1993. The ordinance was subsequently replaced by the protection of Human rights act 1993. The statement of objects and reasons attached to the Bill mentions that "India is party to The International covenant on civil and political rights and the International covenant on economics, Social and cultural rights, adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on the 16th December, 1966. The human rights embodied in the aforesaid covenants stand substantially protected by the constitution. However, there has been growing concern in the country and abroad about issues relating to human rights. Having regard to this, changing social realities and the emerging trends in the nature of crime and violence, Government has been reviewing the existing laws, procedures and system of administration of Justice, with a view to bringing about greater accountability and transparency in them and devising efficient and effective methods of dealing with situation. Composition of Commission:The commission shall consist of (i) A chairperson who has been a chief Justice of the Supreme Court;
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(59)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
(ii) One member who is, or has been, a Justice of the Supreme Court; (iii) One member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court; (iv) Two members of be appointed from amongst having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights. Apart from this, the chairperson of the National Commission for Minorities the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes (and the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes) and National Commission for women, shall be deemed to be member of the commission for the discharge of function enumerated in clauses (b) to (J) of section. 12of the act.
Appointing Authority:-
Every appointment shall be made by the President on a warrant under
hand and seal appoints the chairperson and other members after obtaining the
recommendation of a committee composed of:-
(a) The Prime Minister
....... Chairperson
(b) Speaker of the house of the People
....... Member
(c) Minister in-charge of the ministry of Home Affairs ....... Member
(d) Leader of the opposition in the House of People
....... Member
(e) Leader of the opposition in the Council of States. ....... Member
(f) Deputy Chairperson of the Council of States ....... Member
Function and powers of the commission:-
Function of the commission:- The commission shall perform all or any of
the following function namely:-
a) Inquire, Suo Motu or on a petition presented to it by a victim or any
person on his behalf or a direction or order of any court into complaint of.
i) Violation of human rights or abetment there of; or
ii) negligence in the prevention of such violation, by a public servant.
b) Intervene in any proceeding involving any allegation of violation of
human rights pending before a court with the approval of such court;
c) Visit, notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the
time being in force, any jail or other institution under the control of the state
government, where persons are detained or ledged for purposes of treatment,
reformation or protection for the study of the living conditions of the inmates
thereof and make recommenlotins thereon to the government;
d) Review the safeguard provided by or under the constitution or any
law of the time being in force for the protection of human rights and
recommended measures for their effective implementation;
e) Review the factors including act of terrorism that inhibit the
enjoyment of human rights and recommended appropriate remedial measures;
f) Study treaties and other international instrument on human rights
and make recommendation for their effective implementation;
g) Undertake and promote research in the field of human rights;
h) Spread human rights literacy among various sections of society and
promote awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these
rights through publications, the media, seminars and other available means;
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(60)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
i) Encourage the efforts of non-governmental and institution working in the field of human rights; j) Such other functions as it may consider neccessory for the protection of human rights.
Powers relating to inquiries. (1) The commission shall, while inquiring into complaints under this Act, have all the powers of a civil count trying a suit under the code of civil procedure, 1908, and in particular in respect of the following matters, namely. (a) Summoning and enforcing the attendance of witnesses and examining them on oath; (b) discovery and production of any document; (c) receiving evidence on affidavits; (d) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office; (e) Issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses or documents. (f) any other matter which may be prescribed. (2) The commission shall have power to require any person subject to any privilege which may be claimed by that person under any law for the time being in force, to furnish information such points or matters as, in the opinion of the commission, may be useful for, or relevant to, the subject matter of this inquiry and any person so required shall be deemed to be legally bound to furnish such information with in the meaning of section 176 and section 177 of the Indian Penal Code. (3) The Commission or any other officer not below the rank of a Gazetted Officer, specially authorised in this behalf by the commission may enter any building or place where the commission has reason to believe that any relating to the subject matter of the inquiry may be found, and may seize any such document or take extracts or copies therefrom subject to the provision of section 100 of the code of criminal Procedure 1973, in so far as it may be applicable. (4) The commission shall be deemed to be a civil court and when any offence as is described in section 175, section 178, section 179, section 180 or section 228 of the Indian Penal code is committed in the view or presence of the commission, the commission may, after recording the facts constituting the offence and the statement of the accused as provided for in the code of Criminal procedure, 1973, forward the case to a magistrate having jurisdiction to try the same and the magistrate to whom any such case is forwarded shall proceed to hear the complaint against the accused as if the care has been forwarded to him under section 346 of the code of criminal procedure 1973. (5) Every Proceeding before the commission shall be deemed to a judicial with in the meaning of section 193 and 228, and for the purposes of section 196, of the Indian Penal Code and the commission shall be deemed to be a Civil court for all the purposes of section 195 and chapter XXVI of the Code of Criminal Procedure 1973.
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(61)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
(6) Where the commission considers necessary or expedient so to do, it may, by order, transfer any complained filed or pending before if to the state commission of the state from which the complaint arises, for disposed in accordance with the provision of this Act; Provided that no such complaint shall be transferred unless the same is one respecting which in state commission has jurisdiction to entertain the same. (7) Every complaint transferred under sub-section (6) shall be dealt with and disposed of by the state commission as of it were a complaint initially filed before it.
State Human Rights Commissions:According to the stipulation of the protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, there should be a state Human Right Commission in every state. The State Government shall specify the place for headquarters of the state Commission. The Chairperson shall hold office for a term of five year, or until he attains the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
The State Commission shall consist of:(a) A chairperson who has been a chief justice of a high court; (b) One member who is, or has been, a judge of a high court of District Judge in the state with a minimum of seven years experience as District Judge; (c) One member to be appointed from amongst person having knowledge of a practical experience in matters relating to human rights; The chairperson and member shall be appointed by the Governor by warrant under his hand and seal, provided that every appointment shall be made after obtaining the recommendation of a committee consisting of :- (a) The Chief Minister as a chairperson; (b) Speaker of the legislative Assembly as members; (c) Minister in-charge of a Department of Home in that State as member; (d) Leader of the opposition in the Legislative Assembly as member; The Chairperson is appointed for a term of five years or till he attains the age of seventy years, whichever is earlier. The other members are appointed for five years and they are eligible for reappointment for another term of five years. But no member shall hold office after attaining the age of seventy years. The chairperson or any other member of the state Commission may be removed from his office in the same manner and on the same ground as in the case of the chairperson and members of National Human Rights Commission.
Reference:1. Dr. K.V. Ravi Kumar, "Promotion and protection of human rights", New Delhi, Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, 2011. 2. P.K. Meena, "Human rights theory and practice", New Delhi, Murari Lal & Sons, 2008. 3. www.legalserviceindia.com 4. www.endslaverynow.org 5. nhrc.nic.in
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(62)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
Creative Space : International Journal
ISSN 2347-1689
A Critical Review of Sugam Babus Wings (Sugam Babu. Wings. Translated by David Shulman. Hyderabad: New Life Presentations. Pp.72. 2006(1st edition)
Reviewed by - Dr. Sapna Miranda Assistant Professor Department of English, St.Alberts College, Cochin, Kerala
(I happened to come across Sugam Babu the poet when I received a personal, signed copy of Wings from the author a couple of years back. Among the many volumes that I receive for reviews, this stood out from the rest with its originality and freshness. Somehow I had misplaced the slight volume in the melee that followed my numerous shifts and then it was forgotten while drowning in full time research. Years later, it fell into my hands recently when I was clearing out my cupboard at Ahmedabad before moving to Cochin and as serendipity would have it, transported me to another realm of poetic experience altogether...again...) Wings is a metaphor for the poets flight into transcendental meditative flashes. In the preface the poet writes, "Life is not an exaggeration. And, hence poetry too should not be an exaggeration." As a result, the collection is a journey from general realities to the extra-ordinary. The seventy-one reflective flashes exude an acute Miltonian self-awareness on the part of the writer about his responsibility as a poet. For instance, "it is not easy to grasp a poet ­
a poet is the future." There is confidence in the strength of poetry. If not today, then some other day, "someone will come for my poem let him come when ever ­
Desire is A peacocks feather." The bilingual anthology in Telugu and English is structured in the form of seventy-one gnomic phrases ­ clever and condensed. They are illuminative flashes in the dark promising the reader at least some insight into the meaning of life. The alluringly simple and direct language appeals to our simple sensibilities. However we are jolted out of this complacency suddenly when we come face to face with abrupt clefts and breaks that dispel our illusion of simplicity. The gnomic complexity is cleverly coated with an apparent sweetness of
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01
(63)
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
ISSN 2347-1689
Creative Space : International Journal
ordinariness. We are almost there, yet not fully able to comprehend. In this verbal calisthenics lies the poets ability to arrest our attention.
Sugam Babu, the "son of the soil", "the paigambara poet" and the "revolutionary" communicates with his method of taking the reader into his confidence. He asks, "Above this paper flower How long Can the bee Be?-" Love,hope, despair and pain are part of his kaleidoscopic vision. Gnomic aphorisms culled from ordinary sayings give it an instructive and delightful shade. For example, there is humour wherein he observes, "There are some people Whom life will never touch no matter how long they live-
it rains on buffaloes"
There is nothing of the existential angst, which is so characteristic of the moderns. Instead, it simply deals with the meanings conferred by the masses on life without a capital L. his "stylish free verse" reflects the beliefs and values of the masses that sweat it out rather than getting lost in the labyrinths of casuistry. As a result, the work communicates as well as touches. Every time a new insight is gained because of its terse gnomic quality. It transports meaning from one level to another. Ideas burst out like solar flames but with intermittent black spots of maudlin and paradox. Wings sing of common people and their lives. It celebrates the raw and naked life in sync with the elements and the poet exhorts, "Throw away the filthy blanket to breathe easy ­ It is easy to see a parallel with Walt Whitmans "Leaves of Grass" as it celebrates the simple things and at the same time questions and explores the complex transcendental truth beneath the apparent simplicity. For those looking for grand universal epiphanies, there is nothing of that sort. The works at the most manage to create a ripple and then subside. Every little poem is a ripple and therein lays the beauty of Wings. There are no hard-hitting and life-changing revelations.
Jan. ­ Feb., 2016
(64)
Vol. 04, Issue ­ 01

File: a-study-of-mental-health-adjustment-and-social-support-among.pdf
Author: user
Published: Wed Mar 16 01:05:31 2016
Pages: 64
File size: 1.34 Mb


Wildy & Sons Ltd, 32 pages, 0.48 Mb

The Gospel of Luke, 2 pages, 0.1 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com