Aggression and violence in adolescence

Tags: Cambridge University Press, Robert F. Marcus Frontmatter, Risk Factors, Robert F. Marcus, Personality Motivators, General Aggression Model, Romantic Relationships, Prevention Programs, Normative Changes, Motivators, Situational Influences, Tertiary Prevention, Childhood Aggression, Hannah Marcus, Betsy Singer Marcus cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Aggression, Violent Behaviors, Developmental Pathways, Personality, Adolescence, Race Differences, Violent Behavior, Meredith Marcus, cross-sectional surveys, human development, longitudinal studies, Dr. Marcus, Pennsylvania State University, counseling children and adolescents, Adolescent Violence, Jared Marcus, chapter content, Sarah KnightonWisor, Karen Alleyne, Community Adoption of Prevention Programs, Nicole Fowler, Programs 156 School, Dating Violence
Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-86881-5 - Aggression and Violence in Adolescence Robert F. Marcus Frontmatter More information AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE IN ADOLESCENCE Using data sets consisting of cross-sectional surveys drawn from nationally representative samples of adolescents in the United States and official sources of crime statistics, a portrait of aggression and violence among adolescents is presented. Fluctuations in self-reported and official sources of data are examined by year, gender, grade, and race. Both distal and contemporary risk factors for aggression and violence are discussed. Distal risk factors for violence in adolescence are presented using longitudinal studies. The General Aggression Model provides the framework for exploring which contemporary personal and situational factors increase or decrease risk for aggression and violence. Dating aggression in adolescence is placed in the context of normal development and varies according to individual partner and relationship factors. This book presents rigorously tested scientific prevention programs for adolescents with violent and aggressive behavior. Since joining the faculty at the Institute for Child Study, Department of Human Development, at the University of Maryland in 1973, Dr. Robert F. Marcus has balanced his academic duties with his work in the community. Dr. Marcus holds a Ph.D. in human development and family studies from the Pennsylvania State University. Completion of his dissertation was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Dr. Marcus has authored more than forty articles and presented more than fifty of his works at professional and scientific meetings around the country. Interested in counseling children and adolescents early in his career as a Psychology Junior Fellow for the New Jersey Department of Institutions and Agencies and as a school psychologist in New Jersey, Dr. Marcus became a licensed psychologist in Maryland in 1979. A clinical practice working with aggressive children and adolescents complemented his academic interests. Since developing the course "Adolescent Violence" in 1993, his interests started forming into this book. Currently, Dr. Marcus is a Practice Associate of Sheppard Pratt Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, with an assignment at their satellite clinic in Columbia, Maryland.
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-86881-5 - Aggression and Violence in Adolescence Robert F. Marcus Frontmatter More information Aggression and Violence in Adolescence ROBERT F. MARCUS Department of Human Development University of Maryland
© Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-86881-5 - Aggression and Violence in Adolescence Robert F. Marcus Frontmatter More information Dedication To my parents, Gilbert and Hannah Marcus To my wife, Betsy Singer Marcus
cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sa~o Paulo, Delhi
Cambridge University Press 32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, usa www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521868815
c Robert F. Marcus 2007
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2007
Printed in the United States of America
A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Marcus, Robert F., 1943­
Aggression and violence in adolescence / Robert F. Marcus.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
isbn 978-0-521-86881-5 (hardback) ­ isbn 978-0-521-68891-8 (pbk.)
1. Aggressiveness in adolescence. 2. Violence in adolescence. 3. Aggressiveness in adolescence ­
Cross sectional studies. 4. Violence in adolescence ­ Longitudinal studies. I. Title.
bf724.3.a34m37 2007
155.5 18232 ­ dc22
2007005153
isbn 978-0-521-86881-5 hardback isbn 978-0-521-68891-8 paperback
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.
© Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-86881-5 - Aggression and Violence in Adolescence Robert F. Marcus Frontmatter More information
Contents
Acknowledgments
page ix
Introduction
1
1. Prevalence of Aggression and Violence in Adolescence
8
Definitions of Aggression and Violence
9
Distinguishing Aggression and Violence from Other Antisocial
Behavior
12
Reliability and Validity of Surveyed Aggression and Violence
15
Findings from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey
19
Grade Trends in Aggressive and Violent Behaviors
21
Gender and Race Differences in Surveyed Aggressive and
Violent Behavior
24
Cross-National Comparisons of Surveyed Aggression
and Violence
25
Official Crime Statistics
26
Gender and Race Differences in Homicide
28
Arrest Data for Violent Crimes by Adolescents
28
Summary
32
2. Developmental Pathways to Violence
35
Adolescence as a Period of Multiple Transitions
36
Adolescence and Multiple Personality Transitions
37
Early Development of Violent Behavior
42
The Centrality of Aggression in the Development of Violence
43
Childhood Aggression and a Resulting Cascade of Effects
46
Early vs. Late Onset Violence
47
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-86881-5 - Aggression and Violence in Adolescence Robert F. Marcus Frontmatter More information
vi
Contents
Multiple Developmental Pathways from Childhood through
Adolescence
49
Longitudinal Risk Factors for Later Violence or Serious
Offending
51
Summary
53
3. Personality Risk Factors for Aggression and Violence
55
Motivators, Moderators, and Mediators of Aggression
and Violence
56
Personality Motivators for Aggression and Violence:
Sensation Seeking
58
Personality Motivators and Mediators: Negative Affect
63
Personality Motivators and Mediators: Anger
64
Personality Motivators and Mediators: Depressed
Mood/Clinical Depression
68
Personality Motivators and Mediators: Empathy
72
Summary
78
4. Situational Risk Factors for Aggression and Violence
80
Situational Influences and the "General Aggression Model"
81
Provocation
84
Frustration
88
Pain and Discomfort
90
Alcohol and Drug Use and Abuse
92
Incentives
97
Aggressive Cues
101
Violent Episodes in Middle and High Schools
103
Summary
107
5. Aggression and Violence in Romantic Relationships
109
Normative Changes in Adolescent Social Relationships
111
Normative Changes in Adolescent Dating Relationships
112
Prevalence and Forms of Dating Violence in Adolescence
115
Relationship Differences and individual differences in Dating
Aggression
118
Summary
129
6. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Prevention of Aggression
and Violence
131
Scientific Standards for Prevention Programs
132
© Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-86881-5 - Aggression and Violence in Adolescence Robert F. Marcus Frontmatter More information
Contents
vii
Meta-Analysis of Prevention Programs Targeting Aggression
and Violence
135
primary prevention Programs
137
Secondary prevention
142
Tertiary Prevention
148
Summary
152
7. Closing Comments
155
Prevention Programs Addressing Key Risk and Protective
Factors
155
Risk Factors Not Addressed by Programs
156
School and Community Adoption of Prevention Programs
157
References
161
Index
181
© Cambridge University Press
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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-86881-5 - Aggression and Violence in Adolescence Robert F. Marcus Frontmatter More information Acknowledgments I gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Nicole Fowler and Sarah KnightonWisor for their help in gathering many important studies, and for providing a student's perspective on chapter content. My clinic colleagues, Dr. Karen Alleyne and Dr. V. Nia Shell, provided important psychiatric perspectives on key issues. Jared Marcus and Meredith Marcus provided technical assistance at various points in the preparation of this volume.
© Cambridge University Press
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