Pakistan, Data collection, CONTRACTOR, Expenditure, Statement of Account, research assistants, household data, IDE, selection procedure, the questionnaire, Telephone interview, Account Management, household members, Research activities, South Asian countries, Satoshi Miyamoto President, Application Guideline, Female Labor Force Participation, Institute of Developing Economies, purdah, Administrative expenses, Administrative Overhead, Enhancement, Japanese clients, Japan External Trade Organization
Application Guideline for "Survey on Toward Enhancement of Female Labor Force
Participation in Pakistan" Commissioned by IDE-JETRO May 22, 2015 Satoshi Miyamoto President, Japan external trade
All of applicants should apply in accordance with this guideline, with recognition about contents of this specification.
1. Proposal Form Submission Submit the Proposal Form in which all necessary items are filled, following the instruction stipulated above clauses by the deadline shown below by e-mail or mail/courier service. [email protected]
3-2-2 Wakaba, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi Chiba, Japan 261-8545 Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO TEL: +81-43-299-9500 FAX: +81-43-299-9731 Application DEADLINE: June 11, 2015 (JST=GMT+9)
2. Evaluation Schedule
Accepting Proposal: May 22, 2015 ~ June 11, 2015
Evaluation Process: June 12, 2015 ~ June 16, 2015
by June 16, 2015
July 1, 2015
SPECIFICATION Enclosed Proposal Form shall be submitted following all requirements and conditions specified in the clauses below. 1. Title of the Research Survey on Toward Enhancement of Female Labor Force Participation in Pakistan 2. evaluation criteria
1) Qualifications and competence of the principal researcher. Proficiency in speaking/writing/reading Punjabi, Urdu and English required. 2) Credibility on institutional management experience on the survey projects. Some experiences in conducting questionnaire surveys with foreign clients (e.g. UN agencies), especially with Japanese clients are required. 3) Soundness and feasibility of sampling strategy to meet the purposes of the survey. 4) Adequacy of work plan to complete the survey in the required timeframe. 5) Experience with household surveys on the related subjects. 6) Familiarity with the conditions of the study area. 3. Background and Objectives of the Research Enhancing female labor force participation (FLFP) is often argued as a key to achieve development and poverty reduction (World Bank
, 2011; Duflo, 2012). Among developing countries
, South Asian
countries are known for its low rate of FLFP, and thus enhancing FLFP is an important policy question. It is economically puzzling why women even in desperate need for cash income do not participate in labor force. The alleged factor behind the puzzle is the practice of purdah (literally "curtain" in Urdu, the practice of gender segregation and the seclusion of women in public). South Asian households have a stigma attached to women working outside, which signify deviation from purdah. Observing purdah is an honor for the entire family, and violating it is a shame for them and implies that the family cannot afford to keep their women in purdah. Among South Asian countries, FLFP is the lowest in Pakistan, where even sewing operators who usually consist of women in other developing countries are mostly men (Makino, 2014). In developing countries, while Social Practice
s often compliment underdeveloped institutions, costs following norms and practices are not negligible. For example, preference for endogamy within castes (Banerjee et al., 2013) and the practice of exchange marriage (Jacoby and Mansuri, 2010) could generate costs such as narrowing the choice of potential marriage partners and missing the opportunity to marry better ones with higher income earning capacity, . Likewise, the practice of purdah, while playing a role in protecting women's security and chastity and their family's honor, generates private as well as Social Costs
. Observing purdah obviously entails the private cost that women miss income generating opportunities. Potential social costs include preventing development and poverty alleviation via discouraging FLFP. To enhance FLFP in South Asian countries, it is necessary to decrease the intensity level of the purdah practice as well as the cost deviating it, while there is no empirical study about them.
In South Asian countries, marriage is usually arranged via parental economic decision-making process. For most women who do not work for pay, marriage is literally a way to make a living and survive. Deviating the purdah practice detracts the value as a bride in the marriage market, which seems to motivate people to observe it. The more excess the supply of brides is, the stronger the incentive of observing purdah would be in order not to impair the value of bride. However, deviation from purdah does not seem to uniformly spoil the value of bride in the marriage market, and the actual function of purdah is not well known. For example, FLFP as a teacher is accepted although working in schools requires at least some contacts with male colleagues. It is not yet empirically investigated how such working environment in schools affects costs deviating from purdah. The objective of this research is to empirically explore normative and structural barriers preventing FLFP in Pakistan and factors potentially decreasing the barriers, and to reach policy implication enhancing FLFP. In order to serve this objective, the household survey is especially designed to measure the intensity level of purdah practice and the cost deviating from it. References Banerjee, Abhijit, Esther Duflo, Maitreesh Ghatak, and Jeanne Lafortune. 2013. "Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India," American Economic Journal
: Microeconomics 5(2): 33-72. Duflo, Esther. 2012. "Women Empowerment and economic development
," Journal of Economic Literature
50(4): 1051-1079. Jacoby, Hanan and Ghazala Mansuri. 2010. "Watta Satta: Bride Exchange and Women's Welfare in Rural Pakistan," American Economic Review
100(4): 1804-1825. Makino, Momoe. 2014. "Pakistan: Challenges for Women's Labor Force Participation" in Takahiro Fukunishi and Tatsufumi Yamagata (eds.) The Garment Industry in Low-Income Countries: An Entry Point of Industrialization, Hampshire UK: Palgrave Macmillan
, pp. 132-176. World Bank. 2011. World Development
Report 2012: gender equality
and Development. Washington, DC
: World Bank. 4. Scope of Work on the Research 1) Pretesting of survey instruments A CONTRACTOR will pretest the questionnaire for at least 20 households in order to improve questionnaire and let staffs familiarize interview. A CONTRACTOR will discuss with IDE about any necessary changes in the questionnaire. 2) Selection of samples It is expected that the survey incorporates 400 households in the semi urban/urban area
. The eligible households are those who have unmarried girls aged 15-30. The sample should consist of the households whose unmarried female household member
s work outside and earn income (Type I household) and those in which no unmarried female household members work outside their homes (Type II household). A CONTRACTOR will construct a list of whole eligible households in each primary sampling unit (PSU) (e.g. ward). The number of PSUs covered should be discussed with IDE. A CONTRACTOR will select 150 Type I households and 250 Type II households randomly from the list (stratified random sampling).
3) data collection
Using the questionnaire, household data
will be collected through interview by visit. Interview must be conducted with household's head and one of the young unmarried female household members by trained CONTRACTOR's staff. Interview without attendance of a CONTRACTOR's staff shall not be included in the household data submitted to IDE. Telephone interview may be used only to supplement or confirm data taken by visit. A CONTRACTOR needs to make the most effort to increase household's response. In collaboration with IDE, a CONTRACTOR will request related authorities and organizations, such as District Commissioner's Office, for corporation to the survey. When collection of data for the planned number of households is at risk, a CONTRACTOR needs to report to IDE, and will discuss how to cope with the problem. An interviewer will double check some key figures using the questionnaire's design allowing detection of inconsistency. IDE staffs will join a CONTRACTOR project team for the first month of survey period to give on-the-job training and to check the appropriateness of questionnaire. 4) Delivery of data and the related documents Data collected in the original questionnaires with household information shall be delivered to IDE via internationally reliable courier service (e.g. DHL, OCS, TCS, etc.). Also complete description of sample selection procedure including replacement process needs to be submitted. 5. Expected Outcome The project is expected to produce household data with 400 households randomly selected from the compiled household lists. 6. Research Schedule Term of Research work: Research work shall be conducted from July 1, 2015 to February 5, 2016. 1) July 2015 Making a contract 2) August 2015 to December 2015 Pretest and sample selection Data collection 3) January 8, 2016 Submission of the household data in the original questionnaire and related documents 4) January 29, 2016 Submission of a statement of accounts for settlement and all of original receipts, vouchers and other records 7. Reports Data collected in the original questionnaire with household information shall be delivered to
IDE by mail/courier service. Also complete description of sample selection procedure including replacement process needs to be submitted by January 8.
8. Budget Estimation Guideline
(1) Maximum Total Budget: Maximum Total amount of (2) and (3) is 2,064,150JPY.
(2) Direct Expenses:
See clause 9 for details.
(3) administrative overhead
: Administrative expenses on the Research activities, in
maximum 10 % of total direct expenses would be on budget
9. General Condition of Expenditure and Account Management on the Research (1) Expenditure Items Expenditure items on the Research should be confined to the following items. 1) Direct Expenses a. Honoraria for researchers Keep daily work logs on report sheet provided by IDE-JETRO in order to confirm the status of the Research work. b. Wages and salaries for research assistant
s Upon hiring research assistants, keep daily reports specifying the name of the employee and content of service, to confirm the status of work. 2) Administration Overhead Expenditure such as telecommunication and translation on the Research shall be borne within the amount of Administration Overhead.
(2) Statement of Account, Receipts and Vouchers on Expenditure Obtain official receipts or vouchers on each expenditure, keep the originals and submit them with Statement of Account. In case of needs to save the original documents in order to file tax returns
or use them for another reasonable purpose, file a copy of them for the purpose of Account Audit by IDE. In case that receipts and vouchers are written in language other than English or Japanese, it shall be translated into English.