Aqueduct global maps 2.0, F Gassert, M Landis, M Luck, P Reig, T Shiao

Tags: Data Sources, water supply, blue water, Calculation, water withdrawal, the Aqueduct, IUCN, Consumptive, Resolution, withdrawal, water availability, Paul Reig, data collection, Francis Gassert, global indicators, URL Resolution, Reputational Risk, protected areas, water pollution, Description, Arid areas, water quality, non-consumptive, water scarcity, United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Physical Risk, Matt Luck, Variable Area, WORKING PAPER, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, water stress, water withdrawals, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Dartmouth Flood Observatory, variability measures, Drought Severity, water storage, Matt Landis, publication URL, total blue water, Flood Events, water stress measures
Content: Working Paper
Aqueduct METADATA document AQUEDUCT GLOBAL MAPS 2.0 Francis Gassert, Matt Landis, Matt Luck, Paul Reig, and Tien Shiao
Executive Summary This document describes the specific characteristics of the indicator data and calculations for the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas Global Maps. Complete guidelines and processes for data collection, calculations, and mapping techniques are described fully in the Aqueduct Water Risk Framework.1 The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas makes use of a Water Risk Framework (Figure 1), that includes 12 global indicators grouped into three categories of risk and one overall score. Figure 1 | Aqueduct Water Risk Framework Overall Water Risk
Physical Risk QUANTITY Baseline Water Stress Inter-annual Variability Seasonal Variability Flood Occurence Drought Severity Upstream Storage G roundwater Stress
Physical Risk QUALITY Return Flow Ratio Upstream Protected Land
Regulatory and Reputational Risk Media Coverage Access to Water Threatened Amphibians
CONTENTS Executive Summary........................................................1 Total water withdrawal....................................................2 Consumptive and non-consumptive use........................ 5 Total blue water (Bt)....................................................... 6 Available blue water (Ba)................................................7 Baseline water stress......................................................8 Inter-annual variability................................................... 9 Seasonal variability......................................................10 Flood occurrence......................................................... 11 Drought severity...........................................................12 Upstream storage.........................................................13 Groundwater stress ......................................................14 Return flow ratio...........................................................15 Upstream protected land.............................................. 16 Media coverage............................................................17 Access to water............................................................18 Threatened amphibians................................................19 Endnotes......................................................................20 Disclaimer: Working Papers contain preliminary research, analysis, findings, and recommendations. They are circulated to stimulate timely discussion and critical feedback and to influence ongoing debate on emerging issues. Most working papers are eventually published in another form and their content may be revised. Suggested Citation: Gassert, F., M. Landis, M. Luck, P. Reig, and T. Shiao. 2013. "Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0." Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Available online at http://www.wri.org/publication/aqueduct-metadata-global.
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The data selection and validation process involves three steps: (1) a literature review, (2) identification of data sources in the public domain, and (3) the compilation and expert review of the selected data sources. Calculation of 6 of the 12 indicators required the creation of original datasets to estimate water availability and use. The hydrological catchments were based on the Global Drainage Basin Database developed by Masutomi et al.2 Computation of the original datasets was completed by ISciences, L.L.C. Two measures of water use are required: water withdrawal, the total amount of water abstracted from freshwater sources for human use; and consumptive use, the portion of water that evaporates or is incorporated into a product, thus no longer available for downstream use. Withdrawals for the global basins are spatially disaggregated by sector based on regressions with spatial datasets to maximize the correlation with the reported withdrawals (i.e. irrigated areas for agriculture, nighttime lights for industrial, and population for domestic withdrawals). Consumptive use is derived from total withdrawals based on ratios of consumptive use to withdrawals by Shiklomanov and Rodda3 and Flцrke et al.4 Both withdrawals and consumptive use are coded at the hydrological catchment scale. Two metrics of water supply were computed: total blue water and available blue water. Total blue water approximates natural river discharge and does not account for withdrawals or consumptive use. Available blue water is an estimate of surface water availability minus upstream consumptive use. Modeled estimates of water supply are calculated using a catchment-to-catchment flow accumulation approach developed by ISciences, L.L.C., which aggregates water by catchment and transports it to the next downstream catchment. Water supply is computed from runoff (R), the water available to flow across the landscape from a particular location, and is calculated as the remainder of precipitation (P) after evapotranspiration (ET) and change in soil moisture storage (S) are accounted for (i.e., R = P ­ ET ­ S). The runoff data is courtesy of NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center's Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 NOAH land surface model for the years 1950 to 2008.5 The remainder of this document contains the definitions, formulas, and data specifications for the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas global maps.
TOTAL WITHDRAWAL Description: Total withdrawal is the total amount of water removed from freshwater sources for human use. Calculation: Withdrawals were estimated in a two-step process. First, national-level withdrawals were estimated for the year 2010 using multiple regression time-series models of withdrawals as a function of annually measured indicators such as GDP, population, irrigated area, or electrical power production. Regressions were performed separately for each sector (domestic, industrial, and agricultural) and were used to predict withdrawals for 2010, whenever FAO Aquastat values were older than 2008. Where FAO Aquastat reported withdrawals for the year 2008 or more recent, reported values were used. Second, these withdrawal estimates were then spatially disaggregated by sector based on regressions with spatial datasets selected to maximize the correlation with the reported withdrawals (irrigated areas for agricultural, nighttime lights and power plants for industrial, and population for domestic withdrawals). Data Sources
Variable Authors Title Year of publication URL Resolution
Basin delineations Y. Masutomi, Y. Inui, K. Takahashi, and Y. Matsuoka Development of Highly Accurate Global Polygonal Drainage Basin Data 2009 http://www.cger.nies.go.jp/db/gdbd/ gdbd_index_e.html 1 sq. km
Variable Author Title Year of publication URL Resolution
Freshwater withdrawal by country P. H. Gleick The World's Water Volume 7: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources, Island Press 2011 http://www.worldwater.org/data.html Country
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Data Sources
Variable Authors Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution
Gridded population Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University; United Nations food and agriculture Organization (FAO); and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) Gridded Population of the World Version 3 (GPWv3): Population Count Grid, Future Estimates 2005 2005 http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw 2.5 arc minute raster
Variable Author Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution
Nighttime lights NOAA National Geophysical data center (NGDC) Version 4 DMSP-OLS Nighttime Lights Time Series 2010 2000 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/downloadV4composites.html 30 arc second raster
Variable Authors Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution
Global irrigation areas S. Siebert, P. Dцll, S. Feick, J. Hoogeveen, and K. Frenken Global Map of Irrigation Areas Version 4.0.1 2007 2000 http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/irrigationmap/index60.stm 5 arc minute raster
Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0
Variable Author Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution
Irrigated agricultural areas Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) FAOSTAT 2009 2009 http://faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html Country
Variable
Area equipped for irrigation
Authors Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution
K. Freydank and S. Siebert Towards Mapping the Extent of Irrigation in the Last Century: Time Series of Irrigated Area per Country 2008 1990­ 2003 http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/ frontdoor/index/index/docId/5916 Country
Variable Author Title Year of publication URL Resolution
GDP, population, agricultural land, urban population, CO2 emissions World Bank World Development Indicators 2011 http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/ world-development-indicators Country
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Data Sources Variable Author Title Year of publication URL Resolution
Electricity, total net generation, refinery processing gain, coal production U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) International Energy Statistics 2011 http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/ IEDIndex3.cfm Country
Variable Author Title URL Date Accessed Resolution
Withdrawals, precipitation, total renewable water supply, irrigated area Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) FAO AQUASTAT http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/ dbase/index.stm May 24, 2012 Country
Total Withdrawal
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Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0
CONSUMPTIVE AND NON-CONSUMPTIVE USE Description: Consumptive use is the portion of all water withdrawn that is consumed through evaporation, incorporation into a product, or pollution, such that it is no longer available for reuse. Non-consumptive use is the remainder of withdrawals that is not consumed and instead returns to ground or surface water bodies. Calculation: Consumptive use by sector is estimated from total withdrawal using consumptive use ratios by Shiklomanov and Rodda and Flцrke et al. Data Sources
Variable Comments
Withdrawals See Total Withdrawal
Consumptive and Non-Consumptive Use
Data Sources Variable Authors Title Year of publication Resolution Variable Authors Title Year of publication Resolution
Consumptive use ratios I.A. Shiklomanov and John C. Rodda eds. World Water Resources at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century, International Hydrology Series, Cambridge University Press 2004 Major regions Global water use M. Flцrke, E. Kynast, I. Bдrlund, S. Eisner, F. Wimmer, and J. Alcamo "Domestic and Industrial Water Uses of the Past 60 Years as a Mirror of Socio-economic development: A Global Simulation Study," Global environmental change in press, 2012. 2012 Country
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TOTAL BLUE WATER (Bt) Description: Total blue water (Bt) for each catchment is the accumulated runoff upstream of the catchment plus the runoff in the catchment. Calculation: Bt(i) = Rup(i) + R(i) where Rup(i) = Bt(iup), iup is the set of catchments immediately upstream of catchment i that flow into catchment i, and Rup(i) is the summed runoff in all upstream catchments. For firstorder catchments (those without upstream catchments, e.g., headwater catchments), Rup(i) is zero, and total blue water is simply the volume of runoff in the catchment. Data Sources
Data Sources
Variable Author Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution
Runoff National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) 2012 1950­2008 http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydrology/ data-holdings 1 degree raster
Variable Comments
Basin delineations See Total Withdrawal
Total Blue Water
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AVAILABLE BLUE WATER (Ba) Description: Available blue water (Ba) is the total amount of water available to a catchment before any uses are satisfied. It is calculated as all water flowing into the catchment from upstream catchments plus any imports of water to the catchment (Eim(i)) minus upstream consumptive use plus runoff in the catchment. Calculation: Ba(i) = R(i) + Eim(i) + Qout(iup) where Qout is defined as the volume of water exiting a catchment to its downstream neighbor: Qout(i) = max(0, Ba(i) ­ Uc(i) ­ L(i) ­ Ex(i)), Uc(i) are the consumptive uses, L(i) are the in-stream losses due to reservoirs and other infrastructure, and Ex(i) are the exports of water from catchment i. Negative values of Qout are set to zero. In first-order catchments Qout(j) is zero, so available blue water is runoff plus imports.
Data Sources Variable Comments Variable Comments
Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0 Runoff See Total Blue Water Consumptive use See Consumptive and Non-consumptive Use
Available Blue Water
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Baseline water stress Description: Baseline water stress measures total annual water withdrawals (municipal, industrial, and agricultural) expressed as a percent of the total annual available flow. Higher values indicate more competition among users. Arid areas with low water use are shown in gray, but scored as high stress when calculating aggregated scores. Calculation: Water withdrawals (2010) divided by mean available blue water (1950­2008). Areas with available blue water and water withdrawal less than 0.03 and 0.012 m/m2 respectively are coded as "arid and low water use".
Data Sources Variable Comments Variable Comments
Withdrawals See Total Withdrawal Available blue water See Available Blue Water
Baseline Water Stress
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Inter-annual Variability Description: Inter-annual variability measures the variation in water supply between years. Calculation: Standard deviation of annual total blue water divided by the mean of total blue water (1950­2008).
Data Sources Variable Comments Variable Comments
Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0 Total blue water See Total Blue Water Consumptive use See Consumptive and Non-consumptive Use
Inter-annual Variability
WORKING PAPER | January 2013 | 9
Seasonal Variability Description: Seasonal variability measures variation in water supply between months of the year. Calculation: Standard deviation of monthly total blue water divided by the mean of monthly total blue water (1950­2008). The means of total blue water for each of the 12 months of the year were calculated, and the variances estimated between the mean monthly values.
Data Sources Variable Comments
Total blue water See Total Blue Water
Seasonal Variability
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Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0
Flood Occurrence Description: Flood occurrence is the number of floods recorded from 1985 to 2011. Calculation: Number of flood occurrences (1985-2011). Flood counts were calculated by intersecting hydrological units with estimated flood extent polygons.
Data Sources
Variable Authors Title Time covered in analysis URL Date accessed Resolution Comments
Large Flood Events G.R. Brakenridge, Dartmouth Flood Observatory, University of Colorado Global Active Archive of Large Flood Events 1985 ­ October 2011 http://floodobser vator y.colorado.edu/ Archives/index.html October 15, 2011 Flood extent polygons (multiple scales) The Global Active Archive of Major Flood Events aggregates flood events from news, governmental, instrumental, and remote sensing sources and estimates the extent of flooding based on reports of affected regions.
Flood Occurrence
WORKING PAPER | January 2013 | 11
Drought Severity Description: Drought severity measures the average length of droughts times the dryness of the droughts from 1901 to 2008. Calculation: Drought severity is the mean of the lengths times the dryness of all droughts occurring in an area. Drought is defined as a contiguous period when soil moisture remains below the 20th percentile. Length is measured in months, and dryness is the average number of percentage points by which soil moisture drops below the 20th percentile. Drought data is resampled from original raster form into hydrological catchments.
Data Sources
Variable Authors Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution Comments
Drought severity J. Sheffield and E.F. Wood Projected Changes in Drought Occurrence under Future Global Warming from Multi-Model, Multi-Scenario, IPCC AR4 Simulations 2007 1901­2008 http://ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/twimberley/ EnviroPhilo/Drought.pdf 1 degree raster Sheffield and Wood's drought dataset combines a suite of global observation-based datasets with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction­National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis, and creates a global drought event occurrence dataset with a spatial resolution of 1 degree.
Drought Severity
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Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0
Upstream Storage Description: Upstream storage measures the water storage capacity available upstream of a location relative to the total water supply at that location. Higher values indicate areas more capable of buffering variations in water supply (i.e. droughts and floods) because they have more water storage capacity upstream. Calculation: Upstream storage capacity divided by the mean of total blue water (1950­2008).
Data Sources Variable Comments
Total blue water See Total Blue Water
Data Sources
Variable Authors Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution Comments
Major dams and reservoirs B. Lehner, C. R-Liermann, C. Revenga, C. Vцrцsmarty, B. Fekete, P. Crouzet, P. Dцll, et al. Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) Database Version 1.1 2011 2010 http://atlas.gwsp.org/index. php?option=com_content Dams (point) GRanD database includes reservoirs with a storage capacity of more than 0.1 cubic km although many smaller reservoirs were included. The database includes approximately 6,862 dams and reservoirs around the world.
Upstream Storage
WORKING PAPER | January 2013 | 13
Groundwater Stress Description: Groundwater stress measures the ratio of groundwater withdrawal relative to its recharge rate over a given aquifer. Values above one indicate where unsustainable groundwater consumption could affect groundwater availability and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Calculation: Groundwater footprint divided by the aquifer area. Groundwater footprint is defined as A[C/(R-E)], where C, R, and E are respectively the area-averaged annual abstraction of groundwater, recharge rate, and the groundwater contribution to environmental stream flow. A is the areal extent of any region of interest where C, R, and E can be defined.
Data Sources
Variable Authors Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution
Groundwater footprint T. Gleeson, Y. Wada, M.F. Bierkens, and L.P. van Beek Water Balance of Global Aquifers Revealed by Groundwater Footprint 2012 1958­2000 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/ v488/n7410/full/nature11295.html Polygons
Groundwater Stress
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Return Flow Ratio Description: Return flow ratio measures the percent of available water previously used and discharged upstream as wastewater. Higher values indicate higher dependence on treatment plants and potentially lower water quality in areas that lack sufficient treatment infrastructure and policies. Arid areas with low water use are shown in gray, and scored as low stress when calculating aggregated scores. Calculation: Upstream non-consumptive use divided by the mean of available blue water (1950­2008). Areas with available blue water and accumulated upstream non-consumptive use less than 0.03 and 0.012 m/m2 respectively are coded as "arid and low water use".
Data Sources Variable Comments Variable Comments
Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0 Non-consumptive use See Consumptive and Non-consumptive Use Available blue water See Available Blue Water
Return Flow Ratio
WORKING PAPER | January 2013 | 15
Upstream Protected Land Description: Upstream protected land measures the percentage of total water supply that originates from protected ecosystems. Modified land use can affect the health of freshwater ecosystems and have severe downstream impacts on both water quality and quantity. Calculation: Percentage of total blue water that originates in protected areas. IUCN category V protected lands, as well as a large number of unclassified proposed lands, breeding centers, municipal parks, cultural and Historic Sites, and exclusively marine areas, are excluded. Data Sources
Data Sources Variable Authors Title URL Date accessed Resolution
Variable Comments
Total blue water See Total Blue Water
Protected areas International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP­WCMC) The World Database on Protected Areas http://protectedplanet.net/ June 14, 2012 Protected areas (multiple scales)
Upstream Protected Land
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Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0
Media Coverage Description: Media coverage measures the percentage of all media articles in an area on water-related issues. Higher values indicate areas with higher public awareness about water issues, and consequently higher reputational risks to those not sustainably managing water. Calculation: Percentage of all media articles on water scarcity and/or pollution. Google Archives was used to search a string of keywords including a river name, "water shortage" or "water pollution," and an administrative unit, e.g. "River+ water shortage + Country." The time frame was limited to the past 10 years from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2011. For each country, the number of articles on water shortage and water pollution was summed and divided by the total number of articles on any topic found when searching for the administrative unit.
Data Sources
Variable Author Title Time covered in analysis URL Date accessed Resolution Comments
Media coverage Google Google News 2002­2012 http://news.google.com/news/advanced_ news_search?as_drrb=a September 26, 2012 Country Media articles are limited to English articles.
Media Coverage
WORKING PAPER | January 2013 | 17
Access to Water Description: Access to water measures the percentage of population without access to improved drinking water sources. Higher values indicate areas where people have less access to safe drinking water, and consequently higher reputational risks to those not using water in an equitable way. Calculation: Percentage of population without access to improved drinking-water sources. An improved drinkingwater source is defined as one that, by nature of its construction or through active intervention, is protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with fecal matter.
Data Sources
Variable Authors Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution
Access to water World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) WHO / UNICEF Joint monitoring programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation 2012 2010 http://www.wssinfo.org/ Country
Access to Water
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Aqueduct Global Maps 2.0
Threatened Amphibians Description: Threatened amphibians measures the percentage of freshwater amphibian species classified by IUCN as threatened. Higher values indicate more fragile freshwater ecosystems and may be more likely to be subject to water withdrawal and discharge regulations. Calculation: The percentage of amphibian species classified by IUCN as threatened in a particular area. For each catchment, the total number of threatened freshwater amphibian species was counted and divided by the total number of freshwater amphibian species whose ranges overlap the catchment. Catchments with fewer than two amphibian species were excluded.
Data Sources
Variable Author Title Year of publication Time covered in analysis URL Resolution Comments
Threatened amphibians International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) The IUCN Red List of threatened species 2010 2010 http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/spatial-data#amphibians Polygons Freshwater amphibian species status database is joined to the known species range spatial data. Several name corrections were made in joining the data.
Threatened Amphibians
WORKING PAPER | January 2013 | 19
Endnotes 1. Paul Reig, Tien Shiao, and Francis Gassert. Aqueduct Water Risk Framework, WRI Working Paper, Washington DC: World Resources Institute, forthcoming. 2. Yuji Masutomi, Yusuke Inui, Kiyoshi Takahashi, and Yuzuru Matsuoka. "Development of Highly Accurate Global Polygonal Drainage Basin Data," Hydrological Processes 23: 572-84, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7186, 2009. 3. I.A. Shiklomanov and John C. Rodda, eds. World Water Resources at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century, International Hydrology Series, Cambridge University Press, 2004. 4. M. Flцrke, E. Kynast, I. Bдrlund, S. Eisner, F. Wimmer, J. Alcamo, "Domestic and Industrial Water Uses of the Past 60 Years as a Mirror of SocioEconomic Development: A Global Simulation Study," Global Environmental Change, in press, 2012. 5. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2), Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center, 2012. Acknowledgments This publication was made possible thanks to the ongoing support of the World Resources Institute Markets and Enterprise Program and the Aqueduct Alliance. The authors would like to thank the following people for providing invaluable insight and assistance: Nicole Grohoski, Thomas Parris, Pragyajan Rai, Tianyi Luo, Robert Kimball, Betsy Otto, Charles Iceland, and Kirsty Jenkinson as well as Nick Price and Hyacinth Billings for graphic support and final editing. For their extensive technical guidance and feedback during the development of the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas Global Maps, the authors would also like to thank: Robin Abell, World Wildlife Fund David Cooper, World Resources Institute Martina Flцrke, University of Kassel Tom Gleeson, McGill University Cy Jones, World Resources Institute Mindy Selman, World Resources Institute Justin Sheffield, Princeton University Richard Vogel, Tufts University Yoshihide Wada, Utrecht University
About WRI WRI focuses on the intersection of the environment and socio-economic development. We go beyond research to put ideas into action, working globally with governments, business, and Civil Society to build transformative solutions that protect the earth and improve people's lives. About the Authors Francis Gassert is a research assistant with the Markets and Enterprise Program at WRI, where he manages the data collection and GIS analysis of the Aqueduct project. Contact: [email protected] Matt Landis is a research scientist at ISciences, L.L.C., where he develops and applies hydrological algorithms and models. Matt Luck is a research scientist at ISciences, L.L.C., where he develops and applies hydrological algorithms and models. Paul Reig is an associate with the Markets and Enterprise Program at WRI, where he leads the design and development of the Aqueduct project. Contact: [email protected] Tien Shiao is a Senior Associate with the Markets and Enterprise Program at WRI, where she manages the application and road testing of the Aqueduct project for companies and investors. Contact: [email protected] WITH SUPPORT FROM The Aqueduct Alliance: Goldman Sachs General Electric Skoll Global Threats Fund Bloomberg Talisman Energy Inc. Dow Chemical Company Royal Dutch Shell Dutch Government United Technologies Corporation DuPont John Deere Procter & Gamble Company
Copyright 2013 World Resources Institute. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. To view a copy of the license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 10 G Street, NE | Washington, DC 20002 | www.WRI.org

F Gassert, M Landis, M Luck, P Reig, T Shiao

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