Oxford Style Manual, note section, Punctuation, Judith Butcher, English Dictionary, Notes section, The Oxford English Dictionary, Copy-Editing, paragraph, roman numerals, paragraphs, Compound adjectives, selection, non-restrictive clause, apostrophe, plural form, fourteenth century, Latin words, hyphens, compound adjective, capital letter, restrictive clause
UK STYLE GUIDE Our British-English house style is based upon Copy-Editing by Judith Butcher (CE), and sections below are marked with the appropriate reference from CE. We would also recommend the New Oxford Style Manual as a useful reference. The Oxford English Dictionary
(OED) is our reference for spelling. *If anything in your manuscript purposefully deviates from these guidelines make a note of it on the Electronic Checklist you submit with the revised manuscript. Otherwise it will be made to conform.
Arrangement of the Manuscript
Your manuscript should be arranged in the following order (CE 7.0):
Front matter (prelims): (numbered in Roman numerals
Half-title page Series title page (if applicable) Title page Copyright page Dedication or Epigraph (if any) Contents (List of) Illustrations (List of) Tables/Figures/Maps Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Introduction Notes on text/transliteration (List of) Abbreviations General map(s) relevant to whole book (List of) Contributors Chronology
Main text: (numbered in Arabic numerals)
Long Introduction or Chapter 1 remaining chapters
Epilogues, afterwards, conclusions Appendix(es) Notes section Glossary Bibliography/Reference list Notes on Contributors Index
Headings · differentiate levels of headings using bold and italic treatments · don't capitalize articles (a, an, the), coordinate conjunctions (and, but, or, for, nor) and prepositions (through, against, between, without, since, etc.) · don't use numbers or letters to distinguish headings · don't use superscript reference numbers in a heading, find a place for it within the paragraph. Paragraphing · don't indent paragraphs that follow on immediately after a heading · do indicate whether paragraphs following blocked extracts should be indented (as a new paragraph) or not (if it is a continuation of the paragraph before the quote) · don't leave additional spaces between paragraphs
Cross-References · In-text cross-references should consist only of a chapter number or a subhead title. · If cross-referencing notes within the note section, please ensure that note numbers have not been changed and that the correct notes are being referenced. Punctuation [see CE 6.12.7 for a list of common faults in punctuation] Punctuation that is part of a phrase set in a font different from the text font (i.e. italic or bold) should also be set in that font; but if the preceding or following word is in roman, then the punctuation should be set in roman (e.g. the independent businessmen, members or the 58er Verein,...). COLONS A dash should never follow a colon which introduces a list or other displayed material (CE 6.12.7). Colons should not be followed by capital letters. COMMAS A comma should consistently be omitted before the final `and' (i.e. red, white and blue) in lists of three or more items. In situations where the sentence is particularly complex, it may be permitted (CE 6.12.6). This also applies to lists of authors' names in the reference section. The abbreviation et al. is not normally preceded by a comma: Robert Johnson
et al. (eds). However, when the name is inverted in bibliographical style, then a comma follows the first name: Johnson, Robert, et al. (eds). EXCLAMATION POINTS As a general rule, it is best to avoid the use of exclamation points in scholarly writing. When exclamation points appear in quoted material, we advise that you use your discretion, replacing the exclamation mark with the expression [sic] when the use of such punctuation serves as a means of editorial protest. Spelling · The Oxford English Dictionary is our arbiter for British-English spelling · In accordance with the New Oxford Style Manual, we use the `z' spelling for all words ending in `ize', `ization' (organize, organization). However, words such as `analyse' and `paralyse' should be spelt `yse'. · Ensure that British-English variants of words such as defence, labour, travelled, towards, sceptic, etc. are used. · Avoid the use of contractions (e.g. won't, can't, didn't). · Look out for words with alternative spellings and apply the same version throughout the volume. This is particularly important for editors of collected volumes. · alternative spellings in quoted material and book and article titles should not be changed except where capitalization is required. The copyeditor will not have the time to check the spelling of titles, so please ensure their accuracy. Hyphenation · In general, we prefer that compound words
are closed up · Words with prefixes should be spelled as follows: coauthor, interrelated, nonviolent, postmodern
· the hyphen should be retained if the second word begins with a capital letter or number: non-American, post-1950 · hyphens should be used to eliminate any possible confusion in meaning or pronunciation: re-create · hyphens should be used to avoid a double letter: re-edit · Compound adjectives are generally hyphenated: nineteenth-century art, well-known composer · A compound adjective with an `-ly' adverb is not hyphenated: deeply involved groups · In headings both words should be capitalised if they can both stand alone: Twentieth-Century Literature, Tool-Maker) · Otherwise the second word should be lower-case: Ethno-political Policies Italics · Use italics for emphasis sparingly. It is usually possible to make your point without special emphasis. Do Not use italics for the following: · the scholarly Latin words and abbreviations ibid., idem, e.g., i.e., cf., viz., ca. (CE 6.7.1). The only exception is the word [sic], which is always italicized and appears in brackets · commonly used foreign words found in a Standard English
dictionary, such as `et al.', `a priori', `corpus', and `raison d'кtre' · titles of articles, chapters, short stories
. Use roman and quotes for these (CE 6.7) · the possessive or plural s following an italicized word, `the Discovery's home port' (CE 6.7.1) · names of political parties
, institutions, governmental agencies, (proper nouns) even when they are in a foreign language
. Set them in roman (plain) type Numbers and Measurements · In general, use words for whole numbers from one to ninety-nine (except for a series of quantities) and for any numbers followed by hundred, thousand, million, and so forth. Use figures for other numbers (CE 6.10.3). In a series, all numbers should either be in figures or should be spelled out for consistency (CE 6.10.3). · Round numbers are usually spelled out, but very large numbers followed by million or billion may be expressed in figures: two thousand years of history but 4.5 billion years (CE 6.10.3). · Where there is a series of round millions, 2m can be used. With a Ј or $ sign 2 million is acceptable. · If two series of quantities are being dealt with, it may be clearer to use words for one and figures for the other: `Ten wards each had 16 beds, while fifteen others had as many as 30'. · If the first word in a sentence is a number, it should either be spelled out or the sentence should be rewritten (CE 6.10.3): e.g. `The year 1968 was ...' rather than `1968 was ...' · Hyphenate spelled-out numbers: twenty-nine, two-thirds, but use figures to avoid too many hyphens, e.g. 62-year-old woman. · Always use a comma in thousands and larger numbers (CE 6.10.4): 6,580 and 834,345,736. · Figures, not words, must be used before abbreviations: 5 kg, 6 km. · Figures are always used in percentages, except when starting a sentence. · Write 0.5, not .5 (CE 6.10.5). · Make it clear whether it is a British or American billion (Br. million; Amer. thousand million) (CE 6.10.2). Dates · the sequence for a date should be day-month-year: 2 December 1964 (no commas), or simply 2 December, if the year is not necessary · Spell out century numbers: `the fourteenth century
' and hyphenate the adjectival form: `fourteenth-century wars'. The word `mid' as an adjective does not use the hyphen: `the mid fourteenth century', but it does take the hyphen when joined to another word to form a modifier: `a mid-fourteenth-century prelate'. Early and late are not hyphenated: `late nineteenth-century jug'. · Pairs of dates: 197071, 197273, 191518, but 18091903. (BC dates cannot be elided.) (CE 6.5.1) · Decades should be 1930s (no apostrophe), not 1930's, 1930ies or thirties (but `the thirties' should be
used when referring to the aura of the times and not just the era). · In text, use `from 1924 to 1928' not `from 192428'; and `between 1924 and 1928' not `between 1924 28'; `8 September to 19 January' is better than `18 September 19 January' (CE 6.5.1).
The preferred style for number ranges is as follows:
If the first number is ...
then for the second number ...
Less than 100 use all digits
100 to 109, or any higher number where the last 2 digits are below 10
use changed part only, omitting unneeded zeros
1079, 2089, 1,0026
For All Other
Use two digits, or more 12025, 415532, 1,536
Foreign Languages · Please ensure that all accents are used in the typescript · Foreign words or short phrases that are not commonly used in English should be italicized · We prefer to italicize a foreign word or phrase only on its first appearance in the text if it is used frequently thereafter · A translation should be provided for each foreign term · Words frequently used in scholarly discourse (Sonderweg or Bьrgertum, for example) need not be translated · Words that have become familiar in English (e.g. catharsis, habeas corpus, croissant) should not be italicized. If it appears in the O.E.D. then it does not need to be italicized. FRENCH (CE 6.6) Spell out Saint or Sainte. Use cedillas in `garзon' and so forth. Accents on capital letters should be omitted. GERMAN (CE 6.6) All nouns are capitalized. Please retain all umlauts and Я, especially those in proper names. PROPER (PERSONAL AND PLACE) NAMES The names of foreign persons, places, institutions, buildings and so forth should not be italicized in the main text. Use `United State
s' rather than America where possible, unless the entire continent is referred to, in which case use North America
. The abbreviation U.S. can be used as an adjective. Use `Britain' only when you mean England, Scotland and Wales
; `United Kingdom
' for Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
; `British Isles
' for the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic. Holland is, strictly speaking, only two provinces of THE NETHERLANDS
. Use contemporary rather than modern names: for example, `Leningrad' rather than `St Petersburg' for a book about the Cold War
. Anglicize place names
, including in the bibliography: for example, `Munich' not `Mьnchen'; `Vienna' not
`Wien'; `Marseilles' not `Marseille'. However, `Braunschweig' should be retained. Be consistent when referring to foreign names where variation is possible, for example `Franz Joseph' and `Franz Josef', `Kaiser Wilhelm
II' and `William II'. Note that you should always use `Habsburg' and not `Hapsburg'. TRANSLATIONS If it is important to provide the text of a quotation in a foreign language, a translation should also be supplied. Preferably, the translation should appear in the body of the text, with the original passage and source cited in a note (CE 11.1.5). However, do avoid excessive numbers of notes containing foreignlanguage quotations. Try to be selective, and give the original only where it is of particular relevance and not too long. Quotations For in-text quotations, use single quotes with double quotes for a quotation within a quotation: He remarked, `This charge of "fraudulent conversion" will never stick'. Quotations of five lines or longer (or over about sixty words) should be indented as extracts and separated from the main text by a space above and below. Within the quotation, further paragraph indentations should be made as needed to indicate the paragraphing of the original source. Such text extracts should not be set within quotation marks
: It was not normal for either servant or factory girls to receive a fixed and adequate yearly income. Since average wages only rarely exceeded the minimum necessary for existence ... ill health or unemployment meant drastic cuts in wages and a dramatic deterioration in women's living standards ... ... Cyclical slumps also occasioned massive redundancy, a problem that was particularly acute for waitresses and women employed in domestic trades and seasonal occupations. Be sure to indicate whether the line following the block extract should be indented as a new paragraph or set flush to the left as a continuation of the paragraph containing the quotation. A colon should introduce a quotation of more than one complete sentence ELLIPSES Omit ellipses at the beginning and end of quotations unless they are needed for sense (CE 11.1.3). Use ellipses to indicate that material is missing within the quotation. Three ellipses points `...' are used to indicate an omission between sentences: Casca said: `There was more ... foolery yet ...' Ellipses should not be enclosed in square brackets. POETRY/VERSE When poetry is quoted, it is desirable to include a pdf of the printed page from which the poem is taken Abbreviations and Contractions · If numerous abbreviations are used, please provide a list of them at the end of the front matter (CE 6.1.3). If there is no List of abbreviations
in the manuscript, explain unusual abbreviations on their first occurrence in the typescript, for example, REM (rapid eye movement). Avoid unnecessary abbreviations. · Do not use the full point after contractions, i.e. abbreviations that include the first and last letter of the word (e.g. Mr, Mrs, Dr, St, Ltd, edn, eds). The exception to this rule is `no.' for numero. · A full point is required after abbreviations, i.e. that use the first part of the word (e.g. `ed.', `vol.', `seq.', although a few drop the full point, including in the international system
of measurement: Mme, Mlle, m, mm, kg (CE 6.8). Note: `ibid.' and `et al.' but `idem' and `passim' (CE 6.1.1) · Use full points in the abbreviation of names of countries (except the USSR) but omit them with other acronyms: U.S., U.K., UN, EU, NATO, AFL.
· The plural form does not take an apostrophe except in certain instances when its meaning might otherwise be confusing (CE 6.1): NCOs but Ph.D.'s, x's, SOS's, e.m.f.'s. Grammar and Language CE 6.15 contains a very useful selection of commonly misunderstood points of syntax and style, a couple of which are provided below. · `That' should be used with a restrictive clause, `which' with a non-restrictive clause. `That' never requires a comma, but `which' should be set off by one preceding it. (e.g.,He stopped the second car that was driven by a woman. / He stopped the second car, which was driven by a woman.) · `Since' should be changed to `because' when its sense is ambiguous. See CE 6.2 on Bias and Parochialisms.
OS Manual, OED OED