Arts audiences and participants research, A Biggins, G Cottee, G Williams

Tags: Derbyshire, arts activities, Chesterfield, arts events, participation, Derbyshire Dales, Amber Valley, South Derbyshire, North East Derbyshire, Bolsover, respondents, arts event, barriers, creative activities, members, Volunteering, Influencing Arts Participation, Age Group, Arts Derbyshire, Erewash, Derbyshire South Derbyshire Total, Glenn Williams, electronic Books, arts groups, community, the community, transferable skills, activities, active members, North East Derbyshire South Derbyshire Total, Citizens Panel Survey Respondents, exploratory factor analysis, Total
Content: Arts Audiences and Participants Research A report prepared for Arts Derbyshire by Anya Biggins, George Cottee & Glenn Williams Nottingham Trent University Psychology Division School of social sciences November 2012 1
Table of Contents 1. Introduction..................................................................................................................................................... 4 2. Headline Results .............................................................................................................................................. 6 Interest in the arts ........................................................................................................................................... 6 Participation in the arts ................................................................................................................................... 6 Frequency of arts attendance and participation within Derbyshire and outside of Derbyshire .................... 7 Volunteering .................................................................................................................................................... 7 Perceived barriers to taking part in the arts ................................................................................................... 7 The benefits of arts participation .................................................................................................................... 8 In-depth interview insights into benefits and barriers of the arts .................................................................. 9 3. Sample Characteristics .................................................................................................................................. 10 4. Survey Results................................................................................................................................................ 12 Interest and Participation in the arts ............................................................................................................ 12 Frequency of Arts Participation................................................................................................................. 19 Location of arts participation .................................................................................................................... 22 Volunteering in support of arts activities ...................................................................................................... 23 Factors Relating to Benefits of Arts Participation ......................................................................................... 26 Uncovering the Barriers to Arts Engagement................................................................................................ 32 5. Analysis of interview data ............................................................................................................................. 36 Theme of `The Social Dynamic of Arts Events and Activities' ....................................................................... 36 Pride/ Involvement/ Inclusion ................................................................................................................... 36 Social Dynamics and Group Bonding......................................................................................................... 37 Handling Pressure of Performing with Group Support ............................................................................. 38 Theme of `Promoting Health and Well-Being' .............................................................................................. 38 Health ........................................................................................................................................................ 38 Well-being ................................................................................................................................................. 39 Theme of `Factors Influencing Arts Participation' ......................................................................................... 39 Barriers to participation ............................................................................................................................ 39 2
Developing on links to promote group-level arts engagement in the community ................................... 39 Conclusions from Interview Data .................................................................................................................. 40 Publicity and engagement ......................................................................................................................... 40 Developing transferable skills.................................................................................................................... 40 Accessibility of the events/activities ......................................................................................................... 40 Involving the wider community................................................................................................................. 41 6. References ..................................................................................................................................................... 42 Appendix 1: Testing the three factor model of benefits of arts engagement................................................... 43 Appendix 2: Analysis of the barriers to arts engagement using latent class analysis ....................................... 46 3
1. Introduction This research was commissioned by Arts Derbyshire to analyse the extent of arts engagement in the Derbyshire region and was a follow-on investigation that sought to extend upon work carried out in 2008 with a Citizens Panel survey of over 4,000 people and a series of focus group interviews (Humberstone, Harris, & Williams, 2009). Since that study, with subsequent arts and cultural development activities in the region, it was decided to conduct a repeat examination of arts engagement in Derbyshire using a similar methodology. In February 2011, the Citizens Panel was used to administer the same questionnaire to another sample of respondents, which again involved data from a sizeable group of over 4,000 people. The aim of the repeated survey was to examine any benefits or barriers relating to arts participation and attendance that may have changed or stayed the same when compared with three years ago. To supplement this collection and analysis of a largescale data set, there was also an attempt to obtain in-depth insights into the impact of arts participation more recently, which involved carrying out a number of one-to-one interviews with those who took part in the organisation and/or performance of a collaborative arts event in 2012. Overall, the information from the Citizens Panel in 2011 and the interviews in 2012 were meant to highlight some of the key perceptions that are likely to exist in the Derbyshire population ­ both for those who are active in the arts and cultural event sector and for those who are less likely to be involved. In the wake of the tension currently being experienced with the need for austerity and budgetary constraints in the sector versus the importance of promoting community cohesion and volunteering as part of the ,,Big Society agenda, this report is intended to examine how this tension can best be managed. This research was aimed at uncovering the market intelligence to be able to make informed decisions on how to promote and maintain a wide range of behaviours in engaging with arts and cultural activities. By gaining a broad-based and in-depth overview of the barriers that Derbyshire residents faced when wanting to take part in arts and cultural events, it was anticipated that a coordinated programme of targeted activities could help artistic and creative endeavours to continue to flourish within the County. There were a number of strengths to the approach that used in this research, namely that: Data were, again, collected from a large population-wide sample, which offered opportunities for comparing trends obtained with the present sample with those obtained in a previous year. The response rate (over 50%) was satisfactory in being able to draw conclusions about representative samples of arts attendance and participation in the region The sample was not confined solely to those persons who had a special interest in the arts but instead had a wide cross-section of interests and levels of participation. There was also a diverse demographic spread of respondents, with the exception of ethnicity which was largely homogeneous. The in-depth interviews conducted with those involved with recent arts activities in the County provided an opportunity to explore the dynamics of what may attract or hinder arts engagement, particularly in delving more deeply beyond what a cross-sectional analysis of survey data could offer. 4
It should also be considered that there was one noticeable limitation to this current study, namely that: It was not possible to match respondents from the 2008 Citizens Panel survey with those who replied in 2011. This is because there would inevitably be some level of drop-out from the 2008 Citizens Panel after this three year period and, to compensate for this, there would need to be additional recruitment of Panel members. Unique identifying information was only generated for each Panel survey rather than the use of a signature identifier that would enable tracking of participants over time; this was because the Panel was intended to capture snap-shot perspectives from the local population rather than analyse continual perceptions from one period to the next among groups of respondents. However, the sizeable group of participants that was again obtained in 2011 and the similar response rate from both surveys offered a unique opportunity to compare the experiences of one sample questioned in one period with another sample who were likely to be reflecting on their experiences of arts and cultural events in this other period of 2011. The sizeable samples involved were also considerably better, and potentially more generalizable, than other studies in the arts and well-being field that may involve sampling mainly arts attendees/participants or studying smaller groups within a specific district. It should be noted also, where claims for statistical significance are being made in this report, that this refers to there being a 95% probability of the result that has been obtained as not being due to chance. We are grateful to Ann Wright, Head of Arts, Derbyshire County Council and Fen Jones, Assistant Policy and Research Analyst, Chief Executives Office, Derbyshire County Council for their invaluable support in providing access to the Citizens Panel data and in responding to queries about the data. We would also like to thank Ann Wright and Peter Shelton ­ both from Arts Derbyshire ­ and our interviewees for commenting on an earlier draft of this report. We would also like to thank the Citizens Panel respondents and our interviewees for kindly giving of their time to provide us with their views and experiences. 5
2. Headline Results The following main findings were obtained. Except where noted otherwise, trends were similar to those found in 2008. Interest in the arts · Substantial interest in the arts was noted with 52.4% of the sample being interested in theatre (i.e. plays or drama), 51.4% were interested in film and 45.4% were interested in other theatre performances. The popularity of the other events/activities ranged from 40.8% being interested in craft exhibitions to 18.3% having an interest in jazz. · Less interest was found among the sample with other live dance events (14.8%), contemporary dance (11.2%), video/electronic arts (8.4%), ethnic dance (8.2%) and cultural festivals (5.3%). · There was most interest in the arts in Derbyshire Dales (74.5% of that district who replied), High Peak (72.5%) and Chesterfield (67.4%) districts, followed by those in South Derbyshire (66.2%), Amber Valley (65.3%), North East Derbyshire (64.2%) and Bolsover (61.2%). The least interest in the arts was found in Erewash (60.4%). Overall, interest in the arts dropped 70.2% in 2008 to 66.7% of the sample in 2011. There was a drop in interest in almost all districts when comparing the 2008 and 2011 statistics with the exception of High Peak, which saw an increase from 71.9% to 72.5%. · Theatre performances (e.g. plays or drama) were the most popular arts activities in terms of interest in many of the districts. Film was second in popularity, whereas other theatre performances (e.g. musicals, pantomimes) was the third most popular. · The arts activities that generated the least interest were culturally specific festivals (e.g. Mela, Baisakhi and Navratri), which were the least popular in all 8 districts. · Generally, attending arts events was more popular than participating; the involvement in amateur and professional events in Derbyshire was evenly split (approximately 30% for each one). Participation in the arts The survey included questions related to the extent of participation in a broad range of arts activities. There was generally a similar level of participation across the art-form choices when compared with expressed interests in certain activities. The following patterns in participation were observed: Theatre performances (e.g. plays, dramas), film and other types of theatre (e.g. musicals, pantomimes) had the highest rates of participation in most districts. · The lowest Participation rates in many of the districts were found with culturally specific activities, such as cultural festivals and ethnic dance although electronic arts were also not very popular. 6
Frequency of arts attendance and participation within Derbyshire and outside of Derbyshire The survey asked the respondents to indicate their preferred city, town or village for attending events both inside and outside Derbyshire. Respondents were also asked for the name and location of the most recent event they attended both inside and outside Derbyshire. The following trends were obtained: · Respondents were more likely to attend arts events within Derbyshire when compared to those events staged outside of Derbyshire. They were also more likely to attend Derbyshire arts events on a more frequent basis as well. · Professional and amateur events were attended in equal numbers inside Derbyshire but the ratio of attendance outside of Derbyshire was four professional events to each amateur event. · Apart from Derby, the most popular locations to attend arts events in Derbyshire were Buxton and Chesterfield by a significant margin, followed by Bakewell, Swadlincote and Glossop. · Certain arts events may be more attractive depending on where the respondents live within Derbyshire. Derby mainly attracted residents from Amber Valley and South Derbyshire whereas Nottingham and Sheffield attracted residents from multiple districts within the county. Manchester was a favoured site for arts attendance only among High Peak residents, whereas Stoke had a low likelihood of being visited by residents from any of the eight districts, the ,,other category was favoured by participants from South Derbyshire and Derbyshire Dales. Volunteering The extent of volunteering, the areas for volunteering and the commitment of volunteers were included in the questionnaire. Volunteering is becoming an increasingly important issue in terms of improving social capital and community cohesion. · In this study, 10.7% of respondents had volunteered in some capacity with arts related events. · Many volunteers would take on a number of roles, the most popular of which was attending an event voluntarily, followed by carrying out committee service. · Residents of Derbyshire Dales had the highest rate of volunteering (13.4%) whilst Erewash had the lowest rate of volunteering (8.0%) · In terms of age category those in the 60-64 age bracket has the highest rates of volunteering (14.2%) whilst the 18-24 age bracket had the lowest (4.7%). · Females were slightly more likely than males to volunteer (rates of 11.1% versus 10.3%). Perceived barriers to taking part in the arts This research aimed to provide insights into perceived and actual barriers to participation in the arts among Derbyshire residents. Our approach identified the likelihood of respondents falling into any of a number of categories based on their answers to 18 survey items representing reasons for not being able to access arts activities in the past. We used advanced multivariate statistical analyses to look at 7
the permutations of each respondent falling into any one of several groups that emerged from these patterns of reasons for non-attendance/non-engagement. The following key findings were obtained: In descending order, the cost of arts participation, having difficulty in finding the time, and not having enough information about the event, were the three most frequently cited reasons for not being able to attend arts events in the past. In 2008, these were also the top three reasons for non-participation, although the rank ordering that time was insufficient time, followed by cost, followed by not having enough information. Eight different groups of respondents were classified according to the reasons given for nonattendance at arts events. These groups were categorised as: An ,,emotional barriers group (4.9% of the sample), who had negative attitudes, feelings and thoughts associated with the arts, such as the reasons of being "often too complex or confusing" and "I might feel uncomfortable or out of place" An ,,isolated due to geography and finances group (5.0%), who highlighted barriers relating to transport and cost indicating a social and physical demographic affecting participation. A ,,health problems (14.0%) group that faced possible difficulties with health and disability, thus making engagement in the arts difficult. A ,,no perceived barriers group (11.4%), which was characterised by a 100% likelihood of saying ,,yes to the item "nothing stops me from taking part in arts and cultural events". A ,,non-motivated group (9.3%) that was generally epitomised by not having any interest in taking part in the arts. A ,,miscellaneous group (7.6%), that was mainly characterised by having other reasons or not knowing why they could not attend or participate in arts events. An ,,uninformed group (19.7%) who were likely to endorse "not having enough information on what is available" and "not having enough notice about the event" as reasons for not taking part. A ,,time-conscious group (28.0%), who emphasised not having enough time to attend arts events. · When comparing the 2008 and 2011 samples, there were some similar groups relating to barriers to arts participation, namely the ,,isolated, ,,uninformed, ,,non-motivated, ,,no perceived barriers and ,,time-conscious groups. Membership of the ,,isolated group decreased (from 17.7% to 5.0%), as did membership of the ,,non-motivated group (from 22.9% to 9.3%); the ,,uninformed group stayed very similar, with a very slight increase from 18.8% to 19.7%; the ,,no perceived barriers group stayed roughly the same (11.6% compared with 11.4%) and the ,,time-conscious group increased from 23.7% to 28.0%. The benefits of arts participation Three main factors emerged, as it did with the 2008 data set, to explain the various benefits that participants derived from taking part in the arts. These factors were labelled as: (1) intrinsic benefits (e.g. engaging in an activity for the sheer joy of it), (2) extrinsic benefits (e.g. taking part to be involved with the motivation of dealing with those outside of oneself such as to socialise or please others) and (3) so-called lack of benefits (e.g. viewing the arts as not being inclusive enough and not being value for money. The following trends were extracted when analysing gender, age group and district-wide differences: Females derived greater levels of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits from arts participation than males did. In terms of lack of benefits, females were also less likely to perceive this factor 8
either when compared with males. This gender difference was the same for both the 2008 and 2011 cohorts. When comparing age group differences between 2008 and 2011, there seemed to be a sizeable drop in 2011 with the level of intrinsic benefits from the arts and this was found across all age groups. As for extrinsic benefits, most of these levels stayed very similar from 2008 to the 2011, apart from those in the ,,24 years and younger age group where extrinsic benefits from the arts took a drop from 62.39% to 59.81%. Lack of perceived benefits was also not that markedly different from one survey to the next. The district-wide comparisons from 2008 to 2011 showed that levels of intrinsic benefits from the arts declined over time and the extent of lack of perceived benefits increased. By contrast, levels of extrinsic benefits from the arts, such satisfaction in mixing with likeminded people, was higher in the 2011 sample in relation to the 2008 group. In-depth interview insights into benefits and barriers of the arts In addition to the Citizens Panel survey, one-to-one interviews with persons who were recently involved in arts events and activities in the region in 2012 offered a unique opportunity to capture their experiences and see the barriers and benefits that they had viewed as pivotal to arts engagement. The interviews were subjected to a thematic analysis, which was aimed at looking at similar kinds of ideas that each interviewees narrative provided. As a result of these data, the three themes were elicited, namely: The Social Dynamic of Arts Events and Activities; Promoting Health and Well-Being; and Factors Influencing Arts Participation. There were sub-themes to these data including: (1) the pride that a person may feel when being involved in a group arts event, the feelings of being involved and included in something worthwhile; (2) the importance of having a supportive social dynamic of a group arts activity and the ability to help such groups build cohesive bonds; (3) the extent to which a group can offer support, especially if there is a performing element to what the arts-related group need to do; (4) how arts activities can specifically aid health; (5) how the arts can also foster well-being on a number of levels; (6) what may deter someone from wanting to take part in the arts; and (7) the importance of using existing community links to capitalise on the effective promotion of the arts to those in the locality. Overall, as a result of the analyses conducted so far, a range of conclusions have been made to aid arts development and the engagement of the population with an array of sustainable arts and cultural activities within the region. 9
3. Sample Characteristics The number of survey respondents in each district can be seen in Table 1. Respondents are also broken down by age group, gender, and ethnic group, which are summarised in Tables 2, 3 and 4.
Table 1: Profile of Citizens Panel Survey Respondents by District
District Amber Valley Bolsover Chesterfield Derbyshire Dales Erewash High Peak North East Derbyshire South Derbyshire Total
No.(% of total sample) 574 (13.9%) 451 (11.0%) 387 (9.4%) 647 (15.7%) 522 (12.1%) 499 (12.0%) 562 (13.7%) 474 (11.5%) 4,116 (100.0%)
Out of the total number of participants, the largest proportion lived in the Derbyshire Dales district (15.7%), while Chesterfield had the smallest proportion (9.4%).
Table 2: Profile of Citizens Panel Survey Respondents by Age Group
Age Group 16 to 17 years 18 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 59 years 60 to 64 years 65 to 74 years 75 years and over Total Missing (i.e. not given) Total
No.(% of total sample) 9 (0.2%) 50 (1.2%) 348 (8.5%) 721 (17.5%) 957 (23.3%) 623 (15.1) 563(13.7%) 634 (15.6%) 196 (4.8%) 4406 (99.9%) 6 (0.1%) 4,116 (100.0%)
The age groups of the participants are less equally spread than the districts in this sample with 16 to 24 years making up only 1.4% of the respondents. Over half of the sample is between 35 and 59 years old (55.9%) which may leave those at either end of the age spectrum under represented, particularly those in a younger age bracket.
10
Table 3: Profile of Citizens Panel Survey Respondents by Gender
Gender Female Male Total
No.(% of total sample) 2,056 (49.95%) 2,060 (50.05%) 4,116 (100.00%)
From Table 3, it can be seen that there was an equal spread of respondents in terms of gender.
Table 4: Profile of Citizens Panel Survey Respondents by Ethnic Group
Ethnic Group
No.(% of total sample)
Asian
Bangladeshi
1 (0.0%)
Indian
5 (0.1%)
Pakistani
2 (0.0%)
White Asian
1 (0.0%)
Black
Caribbean
3 (0.1%)
Other Black
1 (0.0%)
Chinese
1 (0.0%)
Missing
36 (0.8%)
Mixed
Mixed Asian
1 (0.0%)
Other
6 (0.2%)
Other ethnic background
2 (0.0%)
Other mixed background
1 (0.0%)
White
250 (5.7%)
Other White
18 (0.4%)
British
4,070 (92.2%)
Italian
1 (0.0%)
Irish
9 (0.2%)
Table 4 shows that the sample was generally homogeneous with the majority of the sample being
from a White British background (92.2%).
11
4. Survey Results
Interest and Participation in the arts Respondents were asked about whether they were interested in arts events in general. The number of respondents who replied that they were interested in the arts is outlined in Table 5.
Table 5: "Are you interested in arts events in general?"
District Amber Valley Bolsover Chesterfield Derbyshire Dales Erewash High Peak North East Derbyshire South Derbyshire Total
No. responding ,,yes 358 out of 549 responses to the item 262 out of 429 248 out of 368 458 out of 615 302 out of 500 350 out of 483 348 out of 542 300 out of 453 2,626 out of 3,938
% of District 65.3%
2008 data -the % interest in each district: 69.9%
61.1% 67.4% 74.5% 60.4% 72.5% 64.2% 66.2% 66.7%
62.6% 67.7% 76.5% 72.2% 71.9% 66.4% 72.3% 70.2%
As can be seen in Table 5, there was a drop in interest in the arts through almost all districts, with the exception of High Peak in which there was an increase form 71.9% of the district to 72.5%. Chesterfield and Bolsover saw only marginal decreases in interest in arts events, whereas other areas experienced more sizable drops in interest (e.g. from 72.3% to 66.2% in South Derbyshire). The following tables 6, 6a, 6b and 7, 7a, and 7b give a more detailed overview of the most popular and least popular arts activities in relation to interest and participation. In all of the tables, shaded areas indicate one of the top three most popular activities in relation to interest or participation in the activity by district. Bold areas in the table indicate the least interest/participation in these activities by district. From Table 6, it can be seen that theatre performances (e.g. plays or drama) were the most popular arts activities in terms of interest in 4 out of 8 districts and the second most popular in the 4 other districts. Film was the most popular activity in 4 out of 8 districts. Other theatre performances (e.g. musicals, pantomimes) were the third most popular in all 8 districts The least popular arts activities in terms of interest were culturally specific festivals (e.g. Mela, Baisakhi and Navratri), which was the least popular in all 8 districts, ethnic dance was second least popular event in terms of interest in 5 out of 8 districts. Erewash was the only district in which Video or electronic art events did not feature in the bottom three activities of interest.
12
Film Ar t Craf t Video or electronic Books or writing event Street art Carnival Cultural festival Play Other Theatre Opera Classical musi c Jazz Live music Ballet Contempor ary dance Ethni c dance Other dance event
District
Table 6: Frequency of Arts Interest by District and Activity
Amber
324 227 225
57
Valley
(N=574)
Bolsover
207 169 179
41
(N=451)
Chesterfield 199 159 156
28
(N=387)
Derbyshire 374 297 266
57
Dales
(N=647)
Erewash
279 186 206
46
(N=522)
High Peak
253 222 215
50
(N=499)
North East 255 206 229
26
Derbyshire
(N=562)
South
226 171 205
41
Derbyshire
(N=474)
Total
2,117 1637 1681 346
(N=4,116)
169
152 191 35 277 230 113 175 107 185 97
61
52
92
124
86 138 18 205 180 77 104 60 142 77 46
135
129 106 25 206 181 68 113 59 134 78
48
202
166 253 41 393 337 165 244 153 237 147 96
28
65
33
58
60 110
149
130 200 26 246 213 75 143 97 189 88
45
162
141 222 38 292 247 123 178 102 183 99
58
165
112 149 18 297 273 114 160 100 184 116 62
41
73
44
75
47
66
138
111 127 17 239 208 93 151 75 165 83
47
34
69
1244 1027 1386 218 2,155 1,869 828 1268 753 1419 785 463 339 608
13
District
Table 6a: Percentage of Arts Interest by District and Activity
Film % Art % Craft % Video or electronic % Books/ writing event % Street art % Carnival % Cultural festival % Play% Other Theatre % Opera % classical music % Jazz % Live music % Ballet % Contemporary dance % Ethnic dance % Other dance event %
Amber
56.4 39.5 39.2 9.9
Valley
(N=574)
Bolsover
45.9 37.5 39.7 9.1
(N=451)
Chesterfield 51.4 41.1 40.3 7.2
(N=387)
Derbyshire 57.8 45.9 41.1 8.8
Dales
(N=647)
Erewash
53.4 35.6 39.5 8.8
(N=522)
High Peak 50.7 44.5 43.1 10.0
(N=499)
North East 45.4 36.7 40.7 4.6
Derbyshire
(N=562)
South
47.7 36.1 43.2 8.6
Derbyshire
(N=474)
Total
51.4 39.8 40.8 8.4
(N=4,116)
29.4 26.5 33.3 6.1 48.3 40.1 19.7 30.5 18.6 32.2 16.9 10.6 9.1 16.0
27.5 19.1 30.6 4.0 45.5 39.9 17.1 23.1 13.3 31.5 17.1 10.2 6.2 14.4 34.9 33.3 27.4 6.5 53.2 46.8 17.6 29.2 15.2 34.6 20.2 12.4 8.5 15.0 31.2 25.7 39.1 6.3 60.7 52.1 25.5 37.7 23.6 36.6 22.7 14.8 9.3 17.0
28.5 24.9 38.3 5.0 47.1 40.8 14.4 27.4 18.6 36.2 16.9 8.6
7.9
14.0
32.5 28.3 44.5 7.6 58.5 49.5 24.6 35.7 20.4 36.7 19.8 11.6 8.8 15.0
29.4 19.9 26.5 3.2 52.8 48.6 20.3 28.5 17.8 32.7 20.6 11.0 8.4 11.7
29.1 23.4 26.8 3.6 50.4 43.9 19.6 31.9 15.8 34.8 17.5 9.9
7.2
14.6
30.2 25.0 33.7 5.3 52.4 45.4 20.1 30.8 18.3 34.5 19.1 11.2 8.2 14.8
14
District
Table 6b: Percentage of Arts Interest by District and Activity for the Citizens Panel 2008 Data
Film % Art % Craft % Video or electronic % Books/ writing event % Street art % Carnival % Cultural festival % Play% Other Theatre % Opera % Classical music % Jazz % Live music % Ballet % Contemporary dance % Ethnic dance % Other dance event %
Amber
49.3 35.5 35.3 4.5
Valley
(N=651)
Bolsover
42.3 7.8 15.7 16.2
(N=477)
Chesterfield 45.0 37.9 41.9 7.4
(N=391)
Derbys.
49.2 45.6 40.7 5.8
Dales
(N=616)
Erewash
53.2 37.2 40.7 6.9
(N=551)
High Peak 46.0 43.4 39.8 9.3
(N=548)
North East 41.6 30.3 39.9 3.1
Derbyshire
(N=611)
South
45.7 33.7 41.2 3.7
Derbyshire
(N=481)
Total
46.7 36.2 38.1 6.6
(N=4,326)
25.7 25.5 31.2 3.4 49.0 39.6 17.7 28.4 16.3 37.2 17.5 7.8
6.6
11.4
16.1 13.6 15.3 15.6 14.8 12.9 17.7 17.2 15.6 16.9 15.2 15.5 12.6 11.9
26.3 28.1 25.3 6.6 53.2 47.3 16.4 26.1 18.9 35.3 20.2 8.2
8.7
12.5
31.2 26.3 38.3 5.2 59.1 49.4 25.0 39.1 26.8 37.2 20.6 13.0 11.4 12.8
25.6 30.1 39.2 3.8 52.3 42.6 17.1 30.1 19.2 36.7 17.8 6.9
5.8
7.8
27.9 26.6 40.9 5.3 52.4 47.3 21.9 33.8 20.8 32.8 20.3 11.1 10.8 12.4
22.9 20.9 27.8 2.8 50.9 42.2 18.5 28.2 14.9 28.5 19.3 8.3
6.5
9.7
25.2 18.7 25.8 4.0 52.4 46.8 17.9 32.2 14.8 32.2 16.6 6.7 5.8
9.4
25.5 24.0 31.3 5.5 48.7 41.3 19.2 29.8 18.5 32.4 18.5 9.7
8.5
11.0
15
Film Ar t Craf t Video or electronic Books or writing event Street art Carnival Cultural festival Play Other Theatre Opera Classical music Jazz Live music Ballet Contemporary dance Ethnic dance Other dance event
District
Table 7: Frequency of Arts Participation by District and Activity
Amber Valley (N=574)
165 97
Bolsover (N=451)
72 57
Chesterfield 97 64 (N=387)
Derbyshire 192 155 Dales (N=647)
Erewash (N=522)
151 84
High Peak (N=499)
123 119
North East 120 89 Derbyshire (N=562)
South
129 78
Derbyshire
(N=474)
Total (N=4,116)
1,049 743
101 24 55
59 10 26
60 7
39
128 13 75
82 18 47 99 17 69 94 11 48
88 7
28
711 107 387
43 83 19
156 137
18 38 6
73 73
34 26 7
107 94
70 126 15
238 190
45 101 15
138 121
41 120 10
150 130
32 55 11
144 131
31 38 7
121 117
314 587 90
1,127 993
39 81 32 93 46 22
16 38
37 43 15 51 26 18 26 43 17 67 28 24 86 120 58 120 72 33
7
24
16 26
15 32
48 54 39 83 37 28 72 86 41 96 42 25 48 60 24 72 45 18
15 34
19 33
8
22
32 59 25 90 35 16
7
18
388 546 251 672 331 184 103 227
16
Film % Art % Craft % Video or electronic % Books / writing event % Street art% Carnival % Cultural festival % Play % Other Theatre % Opera % Classical music% Jazz % Live music % Ballet % Contemporary dance % Ethnic dance % Other dance event %
District
Table 7a: Percentage of Arts Participation by District and Activity
Amber Valley (N=574)
28.7 16.9 17.6 4.2 9.6 7.5 14.5 3.3 27.2 23.9 6.8 14.1 5.6 16.2 8.0 3.8 2.8 6.6
Bolsover (N=451)
16.0 12.6 13.1 2.2 5.8 4.0 8.4 1.3 16.2 16.2 8.2 9.5 3.3 11.3 5.8 4.0 1.6 5.3
Chesterfield 25.1 16.5 15.5 1.8 (N=387)
10.1 8.8 6.7 1.8 27.6 24.3 6.7 11.1 4.4 17.3 7.2 6.2 4.1 6.7
Derbyshire 29.7 24.0 19.8 2.0 11.6 10.8 19.5 2.3 36.8 29.4 13.3 18.5 9.0 18.5 11.1 5.1 2.3 4.9 Dales (N=647)
Erewash (N=522)
28.9 16.1 15.7 3.4 9.0 8.6 19.3 2.9 26.4 23.2 9.2 10.3 7.5 15.9 7.1 5.4 2.9 6.5
High Peak 24.6 23.8 19.8 3.4 13.8 8.2 24.0 2.0 30.1 26.1 14.4 17.2 8.2 19.2 8.4 5.0 3.8 6.6 (N=499)
North East 21.4 15.8 16.7 2.0 8.5 5.7 9.8 2.0 25.6 23.3 8.5 10.7 4.3 12.8 8.0 3.2 1.4 3.9 Derbyshire (N=562)
South
27.2 16.5 18.6 1.5 5.9 6.5 8.0 1.5 25.5 24.7 6.8 12.4 5.3 19.0 7.4 3.4 1.5 3.8
Derbyshire
(N=474)
Total
25.5 18.1 17.3 2.6 9.4 7.6 14.3 2.2 27.4 24.1 9.4 13.3 6.1 16.3 8.0 4.5 2.5 5.5
(N=4,116)
17
Film % Art % Craft % Video/ electronic Books/ writing event Street art % Carnival % Cultural festival % Play % Other Theatre % Opera % Classical music % Jazz % Live music % Ballet % Contemporary dance % Ethnic dance % Other dance event%
District
Table 7b: Percentage of Arts Participation by District and Activity for the Citizens Panel 2008 Data
Amber Valley 22.7 14.9 14.4 1.7 6.3 6.1 11.4 0.6 23.0 19.4 6.6 11.4 5.7 15.5 5.4 2.9 2.2 4.1 (N=651)
Bolsover (N=477)
15.3 12.5 14.5 13.8 11.0 11.3 15.5 15.5 13.0 16.0 17.4 16.3 16.1 16.8 16.0 15.9 13.0 13.2
Chesterfield 22.8 19.4 15.6 2.0 7.4 9.2 7.4 1.3 24.8 22.8 7.2 11.3 4.1 16.1 9.0 3.6 1.3 4.6 (N=391)
Derbyshire
26.8 25.3 19.3 1.8 11.9 10.2 19.5 1.1 38.3 31.3 13.0 19.8 12.2 21.6 9.7 5.8 2.9 6.2
Dales (N=616)
Erewash (N=551)
28.7 17.6 17.1 1.5 7.3 10.0 18.5 1.1 28.7 26.0 6.9 9.8 6.4 15.6 7.3 2.9 1.6 4.0
High Peak (N=548)
20.8 20.3 16.4 1.5 11.3 10.9 20.3 1.5 27.9 24.5 12.4 15.9 9.3 16.1 10.4 4.6 3.5 5.7
North East Derbyshire (N=611)
17.7 14.2 14.6 1.0 6.1 6.1 9.5 1.6 24.1 20.6 7.4 10.3 4.6 12.8 6.2 2.1 1.6 3.4
South Derbyshire (N=481)
17.5 13.9 15. 1.0 5.0 5.2 7.7 2.1 23.7 21.6 8.7 14.6 4.6 13.9 6.0 1.7 1.5 2.9
Total(N=4,326) 21.7 17.6 16.0 2.6 8.2 8.5 14.4 2.8 25.9 22.9 9.9 13.7 7.9 16.1 8.6 4.8 3.3 5.4
18
Table 7 has shown that theatre performances (e.g. plays, dramas) and other types of theatre (e.g. musicals, pantomimes) were highly popular in terms of participation. Respondents also participated highly in going to film events in many of the districts and film was the 2nd most popular activity in 4 out of 8 districts. The lowest participation was found in attending cultural festival in 5 out of the 8 districts. In 3 out of the 8 districts, ethnic dance events were the least popular.
Frequency of Arts Participation Respondents were questioned about their frequency of arts participation in the Derbyshire region. Table 8 summarises how often people attended, or took part in, Derbyshire arts activities in the total sample.
Table 8: Frequency of arts participation within Derbyshire
Frequency At least once a week At least once a month Three to four times a year One or two times a year More than a year ago Never Dont know Missing Total
No. (%) 85 (2.1%) 475 (11.5%) 1084 (26.3%) 954 (23.2%) 713 (17.3%) 679 (16.5%) 74 (1.8%) 52 (1.3%) 4,116 (100%)
From Tables 9 and 10, it can be seen that attendance at events in Derbyshire was split almost evenly between amateur and Professional Performances but a majority (62.3%) were audience members.
Table 9: Type of arts event recently attended in Derbyshire
Amateur
Professional
Both
Missing data
No. (%) 1,239 (30.1%) 1,236 (30.0%) 269 (3.6%) 1,372 (33.3%)
Table 10: Level of involvement with arts events recently attended in Derbyshire
In the audiences Participating Both No. (%) 2,563 (62.3%) 145 (3.5%) 36 (0.9%)
In other ways 77 (1.9%)
Missing 1,295(31.5%)
Respondents were also asked to provide information about how often they took part in arts activities outside of the Derbyshire region. The frequency data for the total sample are outlined in Table 11. 19
Table 11: Frequency of arts participation outside of Derbyshire
Frequency At least once a week At least once a month Three to four times a year One or two times a year More than a year ago Never Dont know Missing Total
No. (%) 43 (1.0%) 260 (6.3%) 821 (19.9%) 951 (23.1%) 774 (18.8%) 810 (19.7%) 122 (3.0%) 335 (8.1%) 4,116 (100%)
It is noteworthy that the frequency of arts participation outside of Derbyshire is lower compared with figures obtained for arts participation within Derbyshire. For instance, almost twice as many respondents attended arts events in Derbyshire with a response of ,,at least once a month (11.5%) compared to participation outside of Derbyshire (6.3%). However, there were very similar percentages of respondents amongst those who attended arts events outside of Derbyshire ,,one or two times a year (23.1%) compared to those attending arts events at the same frequency within Derbyshire (23.2%). In Figure 1, the proportion of respondents arts participation frequency is portrayed according to each district. There was a slightly higher proportion of respondents in Derbyshire Dales who took part in the arts on at least a weekly basis when compared to the other districts. Moreover, there was a sizeable proportion of residents in Derbyshire Dales who attended 3-4 times a year; while South Derbyshire had the greatest number of individuals taking part in arts events 1-2 or times a year. There was about 15-27% of respondents in most of the districts who had never participated in an arts event in Derbyshire, with the exception of Derbyshire Dales residents (only 9.5% of them had never taken part in an arts event in Derbyshire). Figure 2 gives an overview of frequency of arts participation outside of Derbyshire in relation to the respondents district of residence.
20
% participation within each district
Figure 2: Frequency of arts participation outside of Derbyshire by District
100% 90% 80% 70% 60%
Don't know Never Less than once a year
50%
One or two times a year
40% Three to four times a year 30%
20%
At least once a month
10% At least once a week 0%
Total sample South Derbyshire North East Derbyshire High Peak Erewash Derbyshire Dales Chesterfield Bolsover Amber Valley
21
Professional arts events accounted for nearly half of the level of attendance outside Derbyshire (see Table 12) whereas within the County attendance of amateur and professional events was evenly split (see Table 9).
Table 12: Type of arts event recently attended outside Derbyshire
Amateur No. (%) 442 (10.3%)
Professional 919 (46.5%)
Both
Missing data
151 (3.7%) 1630 (39.6%)
Table 13: Level of involvement with arts events recently attended outside Derbyshire
In the audience Participating Both In other ways Missing data
No. (%) 2411 (58.6%)
57 (1.4%) 16 (0.4%) 44 (1.1%)
1,588
(38.6%)
A smaller percentage of the sample directly participated in the arts compared with those were
only in the audience ­ this trend was visible for events inside and outside of Derbyshire.
Location of arts participation Respondents were asked to name the town or village where they normally attend an arts event in Derbyshire. Some responses included multiple locations. There was a clear lead for Derby, Buxton and Chesterfield, with a noticeable number of people listing other places like Bakewell, Belper, Glossop and Swadlincote.
Table 14: Most likely town/city to visit for arts events (by respondents district)
District Amber Valley (N=526) Bolsover (N=373) Chesterfield (N=337) Derbyshire Dales (N=609) Erewash (N=472) High Peak (N=458) North East Derbyshire (N=458) South Derbyshire (N=495)
Derby (% of area) 281 (53.4) 32 (8.6)
Nottingham (% of area) 174 (33.1) 123 (33.0)
6 (1.8) 26 (7.7)
Town/City
Stoke Manchester
(% of (% of area)
area)
0 (0)
8 (1.5)
Sheffield (% of area) 18 (3.4)
Other (% of area) 45 (8.6)
0 (0)
5 (1.3) 168 (45.0) 45
(12.1)
0 (0)
12 (3.6) 264 (78.3) 29 (8.6)
162 (26.6) 117 (24.8) 7 (1.5)
72 (11.8) 11 (1.8) 320 (67.8) 0 (0)
49 (8.0) 3 (0.6)
218 (35.8) 97 (15.9) 1 (0.2%) 31 (6.6)
0 (0)
6 (1.3) 362 (79.0) 47 (10.3) 36 (7.9)
31 (6.3) 50 (10.1) 1 (0.2) 13 (2.6) 354 (71.5) 46 (9.3)
235 (55.8)
78 (18.5)
4(1.0)
6 (1.4)
5 (1.2)
93 (22.1)
22
The most likely town or city to be visited for major arts events was also asked in the survey. Derby seemed to be a favourite option among Amber Valley and South Derbyshire residents when considering arts events. Nottingham seemed to attract residents mainly from Erewash and at least a third of respondents from Amber Valley and Bolsover. Stoke did not seem to appeal to any of the Derbyshire residents and Manchester was only favoured as an arts venue for High Peak residents. Sheffield seemed to attract people from a diversity of areas, including Chesterfield, Bolsover, Derbyshire Dales, and North East Derbyshire. Derbyshire Dales seems to be a district that has a more widely spread likelihood of attendance.
Volunteering in support of arts activities There were 10.7% of the respondents who undertook some form of volunteering in the arts, which was even split between males and females. Table 15 shows the highest rate of volunteering (13.4%) was in Derbyshire Dales and Chesterfield having the lowest (7.7%).
Table 15: Volunteering in the arts by district
District Amber Valley Bolsover Chesterfield Derbyshire Dales Erewash High Peak N.E. Derbyshire South Derbyshire Total
No. of volunteers (%) 61 (11.3%) 38 (9.5%) 27 (7.7%) 82 (13.4%) 37 (8.0%) 62 (13.1%) 47 (9.2%) 51 (11.6%) 405 (10.7%)
Non-volunteers 480 360 325 528 428 411 464 388 3384
Total 541 398 352 610 465 473 511 439 3789
Table 16: Volunteering in the arts by age group
Age Group
No. of volunteers
Non-volunteers Total
(% of age group)
16 to 17 years
1 (11.1%)
8
9
18 to 24 years
2 (4.7%)
41
43
25 to 34 years
24 (7.2%)
308
332
35 to 44 years
73 (10.8%)
603
676
45 to 54 years
79 (8.8%)
815
894
55 to 59 years
68 (11.8%)
507
575
60 to 64 years
74 (14.2%)
448
522
65 to 74 years
65 (11.5%)
502
567
75 years and over
16 (9.7%)
149
165
Total
402 (10.6%)
3381
3783
Table 16 shows that, as a percentage of the most salient age groups, people aged 60-64 years
were the most likely to volunteer (14.2% of that age group).
Table 17: Volunteering by gender
Gender Female Male
Volunteers (% of gender) Non-volunteers
221 (11.1%)
1692
194 (10.3%)
1692
Total 1903 1886
23
Table 18: Frequency of volunteering type
No. (%)
Committee work 176 (4.3%)
Teaching or Coaching 51 (1.2%)
Fundraising 152 (3.7%)
Distribution of publicity 106 (2.6%)
Organising activities 152 (3.7%)
Ticket selling 85 (2.1%)
Technical or administrative assistance 88 (2.1%)
Attend the event voluntarily 198 (4.8%)
District Amber Valley Bolsover Chesterfield Derbyshire Dales Erewash High Peak N.E. Derbyshire S. Derbyshire Total
Committee work 23 19 8 43 12 27 19 25 176
Table 19: Types of volunteering in the arts by district
Teaching or Coaching 5 8 2 8
Fundraising 13 14 8 25
Distribution of publicity 16 13 7 20
Organising activities 20 18 8 30
Ticket selling 10 10 7 21
5
14
6
9
32
17
7
16
9
7
30
18
51
152
106
14
8
23
10
15
10
24
9
152
85
Technical or administrative assistance 17 9 6 23 4 11 8 10 88
Attending event voluntarily 29 20 14 35 20 26 24 30 198
24
Age Group 16 to 17 years 18 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 59 years 60 to 64 years 65 to 74 years 75 years and over Total
Table 20: Types of volunteering in the arts by age group
Committee Teaching or Fundraising Distribution Organising Ticket
work
Coaching
of publicity activities selling
1
0
0
0
13
4
24
9
29
12
32
8
39
6
26
8
11
3
175
50
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
13
9
10
7
25
19
25
15
33
17
31
16
15
16
24
10
31
20
32
13
24
19
20
18
7
4
8
5
150
104
151
84
Technical or administrative assistance 0 0 3 17 15 15 22 12 3 87
Attending event voluntarily 0 0 12 40 37 32 34 32 9 196
Table 21: Types of volunteering in the arts by gender
Gender Committee Teaching or Fundraising Distribution of Organising Ticket
work
Coaching
publicity
activities selling
Female
89
26
76
65
Male
87
25
76
41
Total
176
51
152
106
83
55
69
30
152
85
Technical or administrative assistance 30 58 88
Attending event voluntarily 109 89 198
25
Factors Relating to Benefits of Arts Participation It should also be noted that, before main factors relating to arts participation were investigated, there were some occasional missing responses with the items relating to benefits or lack of benefits to arts participation. To account for these missing responses, an advanced method of replacing the missing values with a likely response was used (known as ,,multiple imputation). Further details on how multiple imputation was carried out can be seen in Langkamp, et al. (2010) and Mulla, et al. (2009). Before being able to analyse the impacts of arts participation on respondents lives, there initially needed to be an examination of whether the three main benefits of arts participation obtained from the 2008 sample from the Citizens Panel data could be reproduced with this data set from 2011. The three main benefits were categorised into different factors -a typology that comprised: (1) extrinsic benefits (i.e. doing arts and Creative activities to engage with other people or to please others), (2) intrinsic benefits (i.e. engaging in the arts for the sheer enjoyment of the activity) and (3) lack of benefits. The lack of benefits factor was so phrased because high levels of agreement with questionnaire items such as "arts events are not inclusive enough" were indicative of a growing dissatisfaction with what arts participation can offer for the individual respondent. After confirming whether or not these three factors still existed in the 2011 data set, then the results could be cross-referenced with the psychological and structural barriers that respondents faced in relation to arts engagement (along with examining the role of other data, such as age group and gender differences). The idea of having three factors relating to the benefits of arts participation was compared with having one main factor of general benefits (or lack of benefits). The three factor model was also compared with a model testing for five factors. These five factors were linked to the current model in psychology about well-being that there are the five elements of (1) having positive emotions, (2) being engaged in an engrossing activity, (3) maintaining positive relationships, (4) getting meaning from ones life, and (5) deriving a sense of accomplishment from ones activities. This alternative five factor model was put forward as a possible way in which arts participation could impact on well-being. After conducting the analysis, it was revealed that the three main factors remained intact as the best representation of how arts participation was seen as benefiting well-being. The in-depth, technical details of this analysis are provided in Appendix 1. These three factors were then used to test out differences between respondents in the current sample. To examine the degree to which people in the eight districts within Derbyshire vary in their perceptions of the arts, three questionnaire subscale scores were generated by summing each respondents answers to items relating to each of the three factors. For example, the 8 items that related to ,,intrinsic benefits of the arts were added up to produce a score for this concept. As there was a minimum score of ,,1 and a maximum score of ,,5 for each of the items and there were 8 items for the ,,intrinsic benefits of the arts factor, this would produce a minimum possible score of 8 and a maximum possible score of 40 for this set of items. For ease of comprehension, the scores for ,,intrinsic benefits of the arts were converted into percentages by subtracting 8 from the raw score, dividing this value by 32 and multiplying the result by 100. The same process was used for the ,,extrinsic benefits (i.e. subtracting 6 for this 6-item scale from the raw score, dividing the resulting value by 24 (the range of possible scores) and multiplying this by 100) and ,,lack of benefits scores (i.e. subtracting 3 from the raw score, dividing this by 12 (the range) and multiplying the result by 100) as well. This method was also used with the 2008 cohort (see Humberstone, et al. 2009). Figures 3, 4 and 5 provide a summary of the average percentage scores for the three types of perceived 26
benefits by district of residence. High levels in the graphs indicate an average high degree of agreement with the concept (e.g. higher scores of intrinsic benefits = greater degree of perceived intrinsic benefits derived from the arts). Figure 3: Perceived intrinsic benefits of the arts by district
District
S Derbyshire NE Derbyshire High Peak Erewash Derbyshire Dales Chesterfield Bolsover Amber Valley 58
66.64
70.41
66.23
69.40
66.30
68.79 70.38
72.40
68.45
72.13
67.27
70.08
64.07
67.65
66.71
70.05
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
% agreement with intrinsic benefits
2008 2011
District
Figure 4: Perceived extrinsic benefits of the arts by district
S Derbyshire NE Derbyshire High Peak Erewash Derbyshire Dales Chesterfield Bolsover Amber Valley 54
56.56
57.86 57.98 57.88 57.97
58.90 58.84 59.09
56.99
58.11
57.83 58.00 57.49
59.74 58.78 58.78
55
56
57
58
59
60
% agreement with extrinsic benefits
2008 2011
27
Figure 5: Lack of perceived benefits of arts by district
District
S Derbyshire NE Derbyshire High Peak Erewash Derbyshire Dales Chesterfield Bolsover Amber Valley 50
56.75 55.21 55.98 55.79
59.83
55.57
58.31 57.13 59.62
53.87
56.53
58.57 58.20
55.80
57.19
56.27
52
54
56
58
60
% agreement with lack of benefits of the arts
2008 2011
As can be seen in Figure 3, the levels of perceived intrinsic benefits that respondents derived from arts participation had declined across all districts when comparing the 2008 sample with the 2011 sample. In a likewise manner, those surveyed in 2011 were more likely than with the 2008 sample to see a lack of benefits with the arts (see Figure 5); in essence, they were more likely to agree with survey items stating that arts events are not inclusive enough and are not value for money (i.e. low scores on the ,,lack of benefits scale meant that there were higher levels of agreement with negatively tinged items of the arts not being inclusive enough and not being value for money as the items were scored from ,,1 = ,,strongly agree to ,,5 = ,,strongly disagree). By contrast, the extrinsic benefits that respondents gained from the arts (e.g. characterised with items such as "I like being with those with whom I have a lot in common" and "I like meeting new people") increased in the 2011 survey in almost all districts, with the exception of Derbyshire Dales (see Figure 4). For the 2011 cohort, there were significant differences by district for intrinsic benefits derived from arts engagement, F (7, 4108) = 4.64, p <.001, and for lack of benefits, F (7, 4108) = 6.65, p <.001. Respondents in Bolsover had significantly lower intrinsic benefit levels when compared with Chesterfield, Derbyshire Dales, and High Peak respondents (all p <.05 with a Tukey HSD test). In a like manner, respondents from Bolsover were significantly more likely to see a lack of benefits to arts participation than Derbyshire Dales and High Peak respondents (p <.05 with a Tukey HSD test). By contrast, there were no significant differences by district for levels of extrinsic benefits of arts engagement, F (7, 4108) = .47, p = .85. 28
Table 22: Mean scale scores (and standard deviations) of perceived benefits of arts participation by gender (2008 vs. 2011) Intrinsic benefits Extrinsic benefits Lack of benefits
2011
Female
30.22 (4.60)
20.62 (3.49)
9.88 (1.62)
Male
28.58 (5.00)
19.47 (3.65)
9.64 (1.62)
2008
Female
31.26 (4.56)
20.49 (3.58)
10.02 (1.65)
Male
29.77 (4.84)
19.26 (3.78)
9.79 (1.73)
N.B. Please note that low levels on the ,,lack of benefits scale indicate that respondents are more likely to see a lack of benefits from arts engagement. According to Table 22, it can be seen that females derived greater levels of intrinsic and extrinsic benefits from arts participation than males did. In terms of lack of benefits, females were also less likely to see this factor either, when compared with males. This trend was visible in 2008 and 2011. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the 2011 data set by using sex as the differentiating inDependent variable and the three benefits scales as the dependent variables. Significant sex differences were found for the combination of the three dependent variables, F (3, 4112) = 77549.10, p < .001, Wilks Lambda = .98. When the results of the three dependent variables were considered separately, all three dependent variables also showed significant differences. For instance, using a Bonferroni adjusted alpha level of .017, there were sex differences for intrinsic benefits of the arts, F (1, 4414) = 119.65, p < .001, extrinsic benefits of the arts, F (1, 4414) = 105.95, p <.001, and lack of benefits of the arts, F (1, 4414) = 20.28, p <.001. The strongest difference was observed for females having higher levels of intrinsic benefits from arts engagement when compared with males (effect size of .028, which showed that 2.8% of the variance in intrinsic benefits of arts engagement could be explained by sex differences). The intrinsic and extrinsic benefits of arts participation were also analysed by age group (see Figures 6-8). It should be acknowledged with the statistics that can be seen in these figures is that the sub-sample sizes for the age groups at the extremities were relatively smaller than the other age groups. For instance, those aged 24 years or younger numbered 88 and 58 for the 2011 and 2008 samples respectively. Likewise, the oldest age group (i.e. 75 years or older) numbered less than 200 for the 2011 cohort so there could not be a like-for-like comparison for the eldest and youngest age groups. For the other age groups, there was a relatively better chance of like-for-like comparisons. With the 2011 sample, there seemed to be a sizeable drop in the level of intrinsic benefits that people gleaned from arts participation compared with the 2008 cohort. As for extrinsic benefits, most of these levels stayed very similar from one cohort to the next, apart from those in the 24 years and younger age group where 29
extrinsic benefits from the arts took a drop from 62.39% to 59.81%. Lack of perceived benefits was also not that markedly different from one survey to the next. To analyse statistical significance between the age groups, some of the groups were merged so as to create larger groups with which to make meaningful comparisons. As a result, the remaining categories for the ensuing analysis were as follows: 25-44 years, 45-59 years (for women) merged with 45-64 (men), 60 years and over (for women) merged with 65 years and over (for men). As the ,,24 years and younger age group was too small, this group was excluded from the analysis. MANOVA tested age group differences for the three age groups (the independent variable) in relation to three dependent variables (intrinsic benefits, extrinsic benefits, and lack of benefits of arts participation). Significant age group differences were found for the combination of the three dependent variables of intrinsic benefits, extrinsic benefits and lack of benefits, F (6, 4058) = 6.25, p < .001, Wilks Lambda = .98. When the results of the three dependent variables were considered separately, only one of the three dependent variables ­ extrinsic benefits - showed significant age group differences (using a Bonferroni adjusted alpha level of .017, F (2, 2031) = 7.71, p <.001. Post-hoc Tukey HSD tests (with p <.05) found that those in the oldest age group (60 years or over for women, 65 years or over for men) were significantly more likely to have high levels of extrinsic benefits of arts engagement (e.g. deriving socialisation benefits and being with like-minded people) when compared with the other two age groups.
Age group
Figure 6: Intrinsic benefits of arts participation by age group
>=75 years 65 to 74 years 60 to 64 years 54 to 59 years 45 to 54 years 35 to 44 years 25 to 34 years <=24 years 62
65.55 66.54 66.23 66.32
71.23
69.05
70.60
70.33
67.91 67.18 66.71 67.20
71.36 69.78 70.40 72.33
64
66
68
70
72
74
% agreement with intrinsic benefits
2008 2011
30
Age group
Figure 7: Extrinsic benefits of the arts by age group
>=75 years 65 to 74 years 60 to 64 years 54 to 59 years 45 to 54 years 35 to 44 years 25 to 34 years <=24 years 52
58.99 60.32
58.08 58.67
56.04
57.95
57.53 58.35
56.59 56.86
59.14
61.31 61.64
58.05
59.81
62.39
54
56
58
60
62
64
% agreement with extrinsic benefits
2008 2011
Figure 8: Lack of perceived benefits by age group
>=75 years 65 to 74 years 60 to 64 years 54 to 59 years 45 to 54 years 35 to 44 years 25 to 34 years <=24 years 51
56.91 55.83
55.59
57.42 58.10 56.75
57.41
56.16
58.71
53.67
56.57 56.98 57.11 56.87 56.11 56.07
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
% agreement with lack of benefits
2008 2011
Age Group
31
Uncovering the Barriers to Arts Engagement The following table shows the most common perceived barriers to arts participation, ranging from the most common to the least common.
Table 23: Frequencies of barriers endorsed by sample (in descending order)
Barrier
Frequency (%)*
1.It costs too much
1,493 (36.3%)
2.It's difficult to find the time
1,341 (32.6%)
3.Not enough information on what is available
963 (23.4%)
4.It's not close enough to where I live/work
690 (16.8%)
5. Nothing stops me from attending arts and cultural events
630 (15.3%)
6.Not really interested
618 (15.0%)
7.Not enough notice about the event
614 (14.9%)
8.Lack of transport / I can't easily get to it
539 (13.1%)
9.I don't know enough about it
489 (11.9%)
10.Health isn't good enough
393 (9.5%)
11.I dont have anyone to go with
362 (8.8%)
12. Never occurred to me
182 (4.4%)
13.I might feel uncomfortable or out of place
166 (4.0%)
14. I wouldnt enjoy it
145 (3.5%)
15. Other reasons
133 (3.2%)
16. Dont know
84 (2.0%)
17.It is often too complex or confusing
50 (1.2%)
18.Against my religion / beliefs
22 (0.5%)
*N.B. respondents could select as many options that applied to them, so this is the percentage of persons who endorsed the item as a barrier as a percentage of the overall sample. After using a statistical technique called latent class analysis, we were able to identify the underlying patterns of ,,present vs. absent responses that people were giving to each of the potential reasons for non-attendance of art events. The technical details of conducting the latent class analysis are outlined in Appendix 2. Through careful consideration of a range of fit statistics, we decided that eight classes (or ,,groups) would most accurately represent the responses that people gave as to why they did not attend arts events. This can be contrasted
32
with the 2008 sample in which there were only six groups within the sample regarding reasons for non-attendance or non-participation. In that study, the six groups were labelled as having perceived barriers that were ,,arts resistant, ,,time-conscious, ,,uninformed, ,,geographically and financially isolated, ,,non-motivated and ,,no perceived barriers categories. The percentage of the respondents from 2008 in each of those six groups is contrasted with the eight groups that emerged from the 2011 sample in the following table.
Table 24: Latent classes in relation to perceived barriers (2008 vs. 2011 samples)
Latent classes for the 2008 study
Latent classes for the 2011 study
(% of sample)
(% of sample)
1. Arts resistant (5.2%)
1. Emotional barriers (4.9%)
2. Time-conscious (23.7%)
2. Isolated due to geography and finances (5.0%)
3. Uninformed (18.8%)
3. Health problems (14.0%)
4. Isolated due to geography and finances 4. No perceived barriers (11.4%) (17.7%)
5. Non-motivated (22.9%)
5. Non-motivated (9.3%)
6. No perceived barriers (11.6%)
6. Miscellaneous (7.6%)
7. Uninformed (19.7%)
8. Time-conscious (28.0%)
In the current study, there were some similar classes that emerged when compared to the previous study and in some cases the proportions of respondents in that class were similar. For example, the percentage of people in the ,,uninformed group rose slightly from 18.8% to 19.7%; the percentage of respondents in the ,,no perceived barriers group dropped from 11.6% to 11.4%. There were more marked shifts for some of the other similarly labelled groups with those in a ,,time-conscious group (as a percentage of the entire sample) rising from 23.7% to 28.0%. By contrast, the number of people in an ,,isolated due to geography and finances group declined considerably from 17.7% of the total sample in 2008 to 5.0% in 2011. Two new categories of perceived barriers emerged from analysis of the 2011 sample, namely ,,health problems and ,,miscellaneous.
33
Table 25: Group membership according to reasons given for not attending arts events ­ gender differences
Latent class/group 1. Emotional barriers 2. Isolated 3. Health problems 4. No barriers 5. Non-motivated 6. Miscellaneous 7. Uninformed 8. Time-conscious Total
No. of Males (% of all males responding) 89 (4.3%) 42 (2.0%) 161 (7.8%) 274 (13.3%) 255 (12.4%) 271 (13.2%) 401 (19.5%) 567 (27.5%) 2,060 (100.0%)
No. of Females (% of all females responding) 71 (3.5%) 115 (5.6%) 317 (15.4%) 204 (9.9%) 151 (7.3%) 213 (10.4%) 414 (20.1%) 571 (27.8%) 2,056 (100.0%)
As can be seen in Table 25, there were no discernible gender differences for those in the ,,uninformed and ,,time-conscious groups and there were similar proportions of men and women in the ,,emotional barriers group too. The more noticeable differences were with men being more likely to be in the ,,no barriers and ,,non-motivated groups compared with women. Women were more likely to be in the ,,isolated and ,,health problems groups when it came to reasons for not engaging with arts and cultural activities.
34
24 years or under (% of age group)
Table 26: Group membership according to reasons given
for not attending arts events ­ age group differences
25-34 years 35-44 years 45-54 years 55-59 years 60-64 years
(% of age (% of age
(% of age
(% of age
(% of age
group)
group)
group)
group)
group)
65-74 years (% of age group)
75 years or over (% of age group)
1. Emotional barriers
4 (6.8%)
12 (3.4%) 33 (4.6%)
37 (3.9%)
30 (4.8%)
23 (4.1%)
18 (2.8%)
3 (1.5%)
2. Isolated
3 (5.1%)
14 (4.0%) 20 (2.8%)
40 (4.2%)
24 (3.9%)
23 (4.1%)
25 (3.9%)
8 (4.1%)
3. Health barriers 4 (6.8%)
24 (6.9%) 50 (6.9%)
80 (8.4%) 66 (10.6%) 71 (12.6%) 123 (19.1%) 57 (29.1%)
4. No perceived barriers
4 (6.8%)
29 (8.3%) 56 (7.8%) 101 (10.6%) 81 (13.0%) 100 (17.8%) 91 (14.2%) 14 (7.1%)
5. Nonmotivated
8 (13.6%) 23 (6.6%) 70 (9.7%)
85 (8.9%) 71 (11.4%) 69 (12.3%) 59 (9.2%) 21 (10.7%)
6. Miscellaneous 5 (8.5%) 36 (10.3%) 63 (8.7%)
82 (8.6%) 68 (10.9%) 78 (13.9%) 100 (15.6%) 52 (26.5%)
7. Uninformed
17 (28.8%) 85 (24.4%) 166 (23.0%) 205 (21.4%) 118 (18.9%) 94 (16.7%) 108 (16.8%) 22 (11.2%)
8. Timeconscious
14 (23.7%) 125 (35.9%) 263 (36.5%) 327 (34.2%) 165 (26.5%) 105 (18.7%) 119 (18.5%) 19 (9.7%)
Total
59 (100.1%) 348 (99.8%) 721 (100.0%) 957 (100.2%) 623 (100.0%) 563 (100.2%) 643 (100.1%) 196 (99.9%)
N.B. Some totalled percentages do not exactly equal 100% due to rounding values up to 1 decimal place.
The above table highlights the latent class/group membership based on age group. As with Figures 6 to 8, where caution was urged in relation to drawing conclusions on those at the extreme ends of the age spectrum, the same principle applies here. It should be noted that the more salient latent class membership can be seen with the time-conscious group, which constituted largely a third of each age group for those aged 25-34, 3544, and 45-54 years. Those in the ,,uninformed group were also a sizeable section of those aged 24 years or younger as well.
35
5. Analysis of Interview Data Interviews were carried out with six people who were involved in arts-related events in the County during summer 2012 ­ either with events such as the Buxton Festival Fringe or with a group that ordinarily attended a tai chi class in the region but was asked to rehearse and perform a dance for the Olympic Torch relay. All interviews were conducted on the telephone and were audio-taped with a digital voice recorder to enable deeper qualitative analysis of the data to be undertaken. The total interviewing time for all six interviews was 131 minutes. The briefest interview took 11 minutes in duration whereas the maximum interview duration was 48 minutes. Interviews were transcribed and then subjected to a thematic analysis. ,,Themes are things that capture "something important about the data in relation to the research question, and represents some level of patterned response or meaning within the data set" (Braun & Clarke, 2006, p.82). To find these patterned responses, we examined the transcripts and listened to the interviews on numerous occasions to get a deeper understanding into how people are affected by participation in group-level arts activities within the region. The resulting themes, and illustrative quotes, are meant to represent experiences common to most, if not all, six interviewees. Three main themes were extracted from the data: (1) The Social Dynamic of Arts Events and Activities, (2) Promoting Health and Well-Being and (3) Factors Influencing Arts Participation. Theme of `The Social Dynamic of Arts Events and Activities' Pride/ Involvement/ Inclusion When taking part in group-level arts event and activities, perceiving involvement as an honour and cultivating a sense of pride in the endeavour appears to be important on two levels. Initially, for those directly involved and asked, for example by an organising body, to be a part of an event have a dual perception of both pride and responsibility; one participant mentioned the pride she felt through being involved with a dance for the Olympic Torch Relay by saying, "I thought it was quite an honour to be asked" while simultaneously feeling a sense of responsibility in performing well enough at this important event; this was illustrated with the same interviewee making a further comment of being keen "to do something for the County, if you like, for the local community". Furthermore, another member of the same group who was asked to perform at the Torch Relay also mentioned the surprise experienced by many group members when approached to get involved. This was owing to a perception of not being likely to be included in such events due to their age. This interviewee reflected on this issue by saying, "because theyre [the group with which the interviewee belongs] all similar ages to me and they dont get asked to do things you know, they think theyre past it". This illustrates how diverse members of a community may begin to feel more included in a communitys activities if sufficient thought is devoted to this. Another interviewee of the same dance group reflected on the sense of pride in being chosen to do a dance for the Olympic Torch Relay but also having feelings of being able to surpass any initial perceived limitations. Instead, this interviewee believed that her and her group were able to "rise to the challenge". 36
On a slightly different level, according to one interviewee, the recruitment of performers for group-level arts events had a different dynamic to it than attracting adequate audience numbers and that getting an audience was sometimes a problem. An example from the Buxton Festival Fringe demonstrated how fostering a sense of pride and inclusion could be used to resolve such a tension. A contemporary dance group taught secondary school children a dance routine, which was aimed to be the opening act for the dance groups performance itself; as a consequence of this involvement, and the instilling of pride among the children and members of the childrens family and friends, a satisfactory solution could be achieved in getting sufficient participation and attendance at such an event. Inclusion in group-level arts events in the community demonstrated that involvement of individuals from diverse areas within a community can effect both individual pride and a sense of accomplishment as well as benefit the event itself on a collective level. These events can also induce a strong sense of community and solidarity. For instance, one interviewee who took part in the Olympic Torch relays dance expressed feeling "proud to be part of this huge torch relay" and, likewise, another interviewee expressed pride with the extent to which the Buxton Festival Fringe was important to Buxton and its surrounding localities in which it was seen as "build[ing] up a sense of belonging to a place". Social Dynamics and Group Bonding Initially joining a group or class in ones own community ­ whether arts-related or as physical exercise - can be seen as a good platform for meeting new people. The way in which this impacts on peoples social environment and the ,,feel of the group facilitates members to be at ease with others particularly when carrying out a shared activity. As one interviewee put it, this is illustrated with "that lovely feeling you get, when you walk in you walk in among friends". Through regularly attending group activities, the social dynamic was seen as progressing even more positively and transcending the periods when the group would meet for a class or activity. For example, one interviewee commented that the camaraderie extended to supporting group members in a number of ways and caring for their well-being by aiming "...to visit people if theyre not well". Having a performance to do helps strengthen bonds between the group members, as it meant a move in dynamic of that group; this is shown when the class of participants who usually learned tai chi had begun to learn a group dance for the Olympic Torch Relay. The dance element brought the group even more closely together and participants all described feeling they got to know each other better. This closely-bonded feeling of the group changed with the rehearsal of the Torch Relay dance, as a carefully coordinated activity, which was more collective in orientation than the usual exercises that the tai chi group would perform by themselves during most weeks. If anything, one interviewee saw the group, after the performance, as a "now like a band of brothers". In essence, the performing element of what the group managed to achieve helped creative a cohesive sense of community and turned the dynamic from individuals attending a class to there being a cohesive group giving a performance. In a similar manner, an interviewee from a choir that performed at the Buxton Festival Fringe saw a similar dynamic by saying that the performance "gives us a kind of different sense of focus" compared with the dynamic of rehearsals. The Fringe gave an excellent opportunity for choir members to have a galvanised sense of focus. 37
Handling Pressure of Performing with Group Support With this focus on performing in front of an audience and the pressure that came along with this, it was clear that other group performers were vital to instilling a sense of solidarity and strength before, during and after the performance. One participant reflected on the moment of performing with her group: "I dont think anyone was particularly nervous. They just went to enjoy it. And it didnt matter if you made a mistake - you just do your best. I think thats the way we treated it, we all do our best, and if you do something wrong... it doesnt really matter". Remaining calm and managing nerves was related to the potential perceptions of the audience and of the group members of each other. One ploy was to use ones age and peoples expectations of older people to reduce any possible embarrassment. One interviewee said that there was reassurance of each by saying "Please relax, you know, I mean, what are we gonna do? Were not going to spoil us manners at this time of life". With this unique opportunity to perform in front of others, and through the support of the group, it was possible for the group members to exceed their own expectations of themselves as performers. As one participant reflected, "you can get out of your comfort zone, and do something different...and you can do it". The perceptions of the group atmosphere and camaraderie were important in both joining a group and in remaining involved with the group activities. One interviewee mentioned how her interest in joining a singing group and the informal introduction to the choir with no auditions required seemed to be an attractive feature for her. Furthermore, when approaching tasks that may be difficult or outside of our comfort zone being confident that making mistakes will not be socially awkward allowed for a relaxed atmosphere. Potential mistakes were less of a concern for some interviewees, when having the group support to rely on. This was mirrored by a comment from one interviewee who focused on the mood during practice sessions by saying,"...because being part of a group, you were learning and making mistakes and you sort of laugh about it. It was enjoyable". Theme of `Promoting Health and Well-Being' Health Health is an important theme to those taking part in a community art event, or in a community art group. Members of the tai chi group who became dancers to be able to perform at the Olympic Torch Relay expressed how the tai chi improved their health and gave them techniques to help their health in an everyday setting. An example of this was in the interview with one participant who was facing chronic health problems and believed that, "it gave me my life back". In a like manner, members from the local choir that performed at the Buxton Festival Fringe experienced the therapeutic benefits from singing together for an hour to make them feel healthier when they left. Both are examples of how group-driven activities can improving the health of those who attend, but also provided transferable skills to benefit physical health; tai chi offered participants breathing techniques that helped them deal with stressful situations and kept them physically fit, whereas being part of a choir also offered effective methods of regulating ones breathing in a healthy way. 38
Well-being Holistic well-being encompasses more than physical health and mental health and these different elements of well-being were elicited through group-related arts activities. The enjoyment that emerged from such activities was important to the well-being of those who attended group-level arts events. Every participant expressed enjoying the activities, and this enjoyment was seen as benefiting their well-being in the long-term. Also, concerning the emotional ups-and-downs when performing in public, one participant reflected on the following: ,,whereas, as a performer, theres a kind of slight tension of "will it all go ok?" and then theres the relief when it does [go OK], so the kind of level of excitement and relief and pleasure [is] kind of a bit higher when youre performing. Being a part of the Fringe and being a performer meant for one interviewee an increased sense of enjoyment. One participant noted how public performance was very different experientially from practice sessions; there seemed to be an idea of time passing more quickly when performing in front of an audience as part of a group. This was illustrated with one participant who talked about that moment of performing when saying, "the speed... it went really fast... as youre in another place, almost, when youre in front of people". This experience is akin to being in a state of ,,flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 2002), which is seen as an optimal psychological state that has been equated with higher states of happiness and sustained well-being. Theme of `Factors Influencing Arts Participation' Barriers to participation In the case of community dance, there appeared to be a potential barrier, according to some interviewees, with dance perhaps being seen as too loose and expressive to such an extent that it may be likely to be avoided. One interviewee spoke of it being difficult for adults to respond in a creative dance situation where there is less structure surrounding the movements. This can be contrasted with tai chi, in which there are tightly scripted movements but also room to create ones own idiosyncratic style. This interviewee noted the contrast and suggested that the teaching of dance to adults may need to be something that is initially prescriptive and structured before there can be room for creativity beyond building up the ,,vocabulary of some initial moves. The key aspect to be drawn from these dynamics could be the importance of having some structure to a group-level arts programme but not being so structured throughout as to ,,suffocate a persons individual creativity and deter them from attending. Developing on links to promote group-level arts engagement in the community It should be noted that many of the interviewees disclosed that they were already active members of the community before joining these group-level arts activities. One interviewee said that she was a teacher in the area before retiring, and another interviewee described 39
being an active and confident member of her community as well. These arts activities appeared to attract people who were already active members of the community so there may be an issue of how to attract people who feel marginalised and not part of the community; for these people on the periphery, taking the first step to join an art-related group in ones community may feel very daunting. It was expressed in interviews that the opportunities for people to find out more about group arts activities in the community were important. For some, it may be serendipitous, such as being invited to take part in an organised dance, whereas for others it may be through targeted advertising at doctors surgeries and community centres. Added to this, interviewees talked about learning more about such activities through friends or family members. Conclusions from Interview Data Publicity and engagement The way in which participants are approached for involvement in creative activities can be crucial for engagement ­ both as an initial spark and to sustain such activity. While the location of advertising and promotional material is important, so is the way in which the activity is portrayed. One participant reported learning more about such activities in a doctors surgery, which represents an accessible everyday setting for that interviewee. Distribution of promotional material in these kinds of locations may be an effective way of reaching community members. Other participants reported discovering activities through friends and family members. Clearly, positive testimonials from trusted people can act as an effective way to encouraging people to join arts groups in the community. By capitalising on some of the principles and practices that are well-known to create a ,,Tipping Point (e.g. see Gladwell 2000) of interest among ever-expanding social networks, much can be achieved in galvanising enthusiasm and interest about new and existing group-level arts projects that could spring up in the County. Developing transferable skills In group-level arts activities, skills are learned that directly impact on a participants ability to undertake specific activities. However, some skills can also be transferred to everyday living situations. In particular, skills that help people cope with adverse life events through group arts events and activities may provide the vital social support that some community members may thrive on. Likewise, other skills like appropriate breathing techniques can be used to alleviate stress and anxiety in order to maintain satisfactory levels of mental health and wellbeing. The transferable skills that can be obtained through group-level arts activities are well-documented (Guetzkow, 2002) and such skills could be part-and-parcel of the benefits that are promoted to potential participants during the publicity and engagement of the local population in such group-level arts programmes. Accessibility of the events/activities The location of arts groups in the community was important for most of those interviewed. Not only did living near to the venue offer some level of convenience and capacity for integrating attendance into ones regular weekly routine, but meeting people from the local 40
community helped create wider social networks and meant there were enhanced social support capabilities. The importance of moving towards decentralised arts and creative activities open to all communities needs to be emphasised. However, it should be recognised that a centralised, one-off and regular event, such as the Fringe Festival or the Olympic Torch Relay may be sufficient to spawn enthusiasm and interest for a wide range of creative expression, which would still need to be sustained from then onwards to make group-level arts events and activities open to all of those in the community. Involving the wider community As well as being members of a specific group, positive outcomes were experienced through participation in wider community events such as the Buxton Festival Fringe. This involvement and performance enabled people to feel valued by the community beyond their immediate group. This change of focus, namely through preparing for a forthcoming performance, enabled the group to come together and support each other, and thus strengthen the bonds between group members. Encouraging people to be more involved in local and national group-level arts events and activities can be highly beneficial, which can result in stronger community cohesion (Shaw, 2003) and an increased awareness of how to bring about change through creative and collaborative actions. 41
6. References Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. qualitative research in Psychology, 3, 77-101. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2002) Flow: The classic work on how to achieve happiness. London: Rider. Gladwell, M. (2000) The tipping point: How little things can make a big difference. Little London: Abacus. Guetzkow, J. (2002) How the Arts Impact Communities: An introduction to the literature on arts impact studies. Working Paper Series 20. Princeton University Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies. Available via: http://www.princeton.edu/~artspol/workpap/WP20%20-%20Guetzkow.pdf [accessed on 28th August 2012]. Humberstone, A., Harris, T., & Williams, G.A. (2009) Arts audiences and participants research. Report prepared for Derbyshire Arts Development Group & Derbyshire County Council. Cultural Consortium and Nottingham Trent University. Langkamp, D.L., Lehman, A., & Lemeshow, S. (2010) Techniques for Handling Missing Data in Secondary Analyses of Large Surveys. Academic Pediatrics, 10, 205­210. Mulla, Z., Byungtae, S., Ramawami, K. & Nuwayhid, B.S. (2009)Multiple Imputation for Missing Laboratory Data: An Examplefrom Infectious Disease Epidemiology. Annals of Epidemiology, 19, 908­914. Seligman, M. (2011) Flourish. A new understanding of happiness and well-being ­ and how to achieve them. London: Nicholas Brearley Publishing. Shaw, P. (2003) Whats art got to do with it? Briefing paper on the role of the arts in neighbourhood renewal. London: Arts Council England. Williams, G.A., Humberstone, A. & Harris, T. (2010) Participation in the arts and well-being: Constructing a typology of perceived barriers and benefits. Paper presented at British Psychological Societys Annual Conference, 14-16 April, 2010, Stratford-upon-Avon. 42
Appendix 1: Testing the three factor model of benefits of arts engagement For analysis of the 2008 Citizens Panel data set, exploratory factor analysis was used to extract the possible factors that underpin the common ways in which respondents perceived benefits (or lack of them) in relation to arts participation. A three-factor model emerged from that analysis (see Williams, Humberstone and Harris, 2010).As a theoretical model had then been developed from that study with the 2008 data set, it was deemed appropriate this time, to conduct confirmatory factor analyses to test whether the three-factor model still applied to this new data set or whether an alternative factor model would have been a better representation. This analysis was necessary, not only as a quality control measure, but also from a theoretical standpoint to ensure that the theory still held. This analysis could then show that the model was rigorous and could be replicated with other samples. To undertake the confirmatory factor analysis, Mplus statistical software was used. A range of fit statistics were generated and the table below shows the results for the 1 factor, 3 factor and 5 factor model (based on Seligman, 2011).
Model
Table 27: Fit statistics for the 1 factor, 3 factor and 5 factor models
X2
d.f.
p
CFI
TLI RMSEA SRMR
(90% CI)
3 factors 8337.178 116 0.0000 0.924 0.911 0.131
0.051
(0.1290.134)
1 factor 17063.405 119 0.0000 0.843 0.821 0.186
0.069
(0.1840.188)
5 factors 12874.419 94 0.0000 0.877 0.843 0.182
0.065
(0.1790.184) Key: X2= chi square; d.f.=degrees of freedom; p=level of statistical significance; CFI=Comparative Fit Index; TLI=Tucker-Lewis Index; RMSEA=Root Mean Square Error of Approximation; 90%CI = 90% confidence intervals ­ this shows a range from the lower bound confidence interval to the upper bound confidence interval; SRMR =Standardized Root Mean Residual.
N.B. Figures in bold indicate a better fit of the data with the hypothesised model compared with the other models. With the CFI and TLI statistics, high values are important, whereas with the RMSEA and SRMR, the lower the value the better. A good model should ideally have a CFI and TLI statistics of .90 or above; the RMSEA and SRMR should ideally have values of .05 or lower. The Figure overleaf shows the factor loadings for each item, which relates to the strength of the relationship between each item and its associated factor. There are also two-headed arrows between the factors, which shows the relationships between each factor. There was a significant positive relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic benefits of arts participation. By contrast, intrinsic benefits correlated negatively with the lack of benefits factor, as did the extrinsic benefits factor.
43
Intellectual stimulation Productive use of time Makes me feel good It gives me a sense of awe It broadens my horizons They are a good thing Entertain Enjoy
Figure 9: Factor Loadings for the Three Factor Model and Correlations Between Factors
Sense of
Working as a
Health
personal
group
identity
.941
.963
.890
.854
.937 .901
Meeting new people Community identity
.954 .930
Intrinsic
.261
benefits
Extrinsic benefits
.891 .905
Lot in common
.965 -.078 -.217 .949
.929 .913
Lack of benefits .835
.589 .939 Not inclusive enough
Not value for
Difficult to
money
understand
44
The reliability of the three scales that were developed as a result of the factor analysis was also satisfactory. The internal consistency values for the three scales were as follows: 0.98 for the intrinsic benefits scale, 0.96 for the extrinsic benefits scale, and 0.82 for the lack of benefits scale. These values are to do with the Cronbachs Alphas - the degree with which each item is related to other items in the scale; the higher the Cronbachs Alpha value, the better, with numbers ranging from 0 to 1. 45
Appendix 2: Analysis of the barriers to arts engagement using latent class analysis A latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to examine the underlying patterns to peoples perceptions of what hindered them from taking part in arts events. This method of analysis was aimed at investigating whether there were any common denominators to the barriers to arts participation that were perceived. LCA is based on the assumption that there are different patterns to a group of peoples method of responding to questionnaire items that reveal some form of hidden (i.e. latent) grouping of how these people are seeing the world. To test out this notion of there being different categories of perceived barriers, 18 survey items were used and respondents were prompted to indicate whether any of these reasons for not being able to participate in arts events were either present or absent. The possible response patterns that could emerge from having these 18 items are highly varied and numerous with 218 (i.e. 262,144) permutations. For instance, just one response pattern could be that all 18 items were endorsed as being present barriers for a single respondent. Another response pattern could be that none of the 18 items had been present for another respondent, and so on. With the present sample, 740 response patterns were obtained, as opposed to 654 in the 2008 sample. The five most frequently occurring response patterns were as follows: 1. "Nothing stops me from attending arts and cultural events" ONLY from 422 respondents 2. No barriers selected at all from 263 respondents 3. "It's difficult to find the time" ONLY from 257 respondents 4. "It costs too much" ONLY from 198 respondents 5. "It's difficult to find the time" AND"It costs too much" from 179 respondents With latent class analysis, there is no one fit statistic that is given prominence over any other fit statistic; rather, an overall appraisal of the range of fit statistics is undertaken and a considered decision is taken as to the level of support for a certain class solution. In the case of Table 28 below, the accuracy of classification of response patterns into different classes (measured by ,,entropy) was not markedly different for the 7, 8 and 9 class solutions (i.e. 73.7%, 74.0% and 74.8% respectively by moving the decimal place two places to the right to indicate classification accuracy). The one main sign that the 8 class solution was the optimal fit for the data could be found with the use of the Sample Size Adjusted Bayesian Information Criterion (SSABIC). With this fit statistic, there was a decline in value for each of the class solutions until it reached the 8 class solution and then the SSABIC started to increase in value. This trend gave a clear indication that it was at the point of the 8 class solution where the best fit had been achieved with the current data set. 46
Table 28: Fit indices for the latent class analysis into reasons for not taking part in the arts
Model
Log
Free
LRx2
AIC
BIC
SSABIC
LRT (p)
Entropy
Parameters
(d.f.)
p
1 Class
-23724.163
18
5425.648
47484.325
47598.133
47540.936
(262027)
1.0000
2 Classes
-22753.810
37
3849.245
45581.619
45815.557
45697.987
1927.086
0.624
(262026)
(0.0000)
1.0000
3 Classes
-22414.801
56
3155.876
44941.602
45295.670
45117.726
673.258
0.622
(262004)
(0.2063)
1.0000
4 Classes
-22192.843
75
2717.147
44535.685
45009.883
44771.566
439.516
0.694
(261988)
(0.0053)
1.0000
5 Classes
-21998.741
94
2846.953
44185.482
44779.810
44481.119
385.558
0.708
(261992)
(0.0441)
1.0000
6 Classes
-21823.329
113
2477.988
43872.657
44587.115
44228.050
346.051
0.691
(261972)
(0.0000)
1.0000
7 Classes
-21736.358
132
2332.444
43736.715
44571.304
44151.865
172.721
0.737
(261955)
(0.0001)
1.0000
8 Classes
-21673.152
151
2204.179
43648.304
44603.022
44123.209
126.259
0.740
(261935)
(0.0493)
1.0000
9 Classes
-21630.996
170
2160.826
43601.992
44676.841
44136.654
90.001
0.748
(261919)
(0.0360)
1.0000
Key: Log = Log Likelihood, LRx2 = Likelihood ratio chi square; d.f.=degrees of freedom, p=statistical significance level, AIC=Aikake Information
Criterion, BIC=Bayesian Information Criterion, SSABIC=Sample Size Adjusted Bayesian Information Criterion, LRT=Lo-Mendell-Rubin Test.
Values in Bold indicate better fit.
47
Further detail about the likelihood of respondents seeing a barrier present (or not) is given in Table 29 below in relation to the respondents membership of a specific latent class. Although most of the latent classes/groups may appear self-explanatory, the first group could appear to have a different label associated with lack of knowledge on arts and cultural activities. However, there was already an ,,uninformed group that had a high likelihood of endorsing the item, "not enough information on what is available" and a moderate probability of endorsing the reason of "not enough notice about the event". In essence, the labelling of the first latent class/group was rather determined by relative probabilities of viewing the reasons of feeling uncomfortable or out of place and not enjoying the events, along with the activities being too complex of confusing. For each of those three reasons, those in group 1 (i.e. the emotional barriers group) had a higher likelihood of using these reasons for nonattendance compared with those in other groups. For example, those in the ,,emotional barriers group had a 31.7% likelihood of reporting a feeling of being uncomfortable or out of place as a reason for non-engagement compared with a 10.6% probability of this being endorsed for those in group 2 ranging all the way to a 0% probability of agreeing to this reason for those in groups 4 and 6. The other labels given to the groups of respondents, based on their pattern of replying with their reasons for non-attendance, were more self-explanatory. Relatively speaking, the very high likelihood of having arts events that are not close where respondents lived and worked was the rationale for choosing a label to do with isolation ­ a barrier that was present in the responses of those in the 2008 data set. For the other latent classes/groups, the most salient reasons for non-attendance/non-participation were used as justification for the labels given to each latent class/group. 48
Table 29: Latent Classes/Groups
according to barriers with items typifying class membership
Latent class/group and typical items
% probability of
endorsing this item
Group 1: Emotional barriers group
Dont know enough about it
53.8%
I might feel uncomfortable or out of place
31.7%
Its often too complex or confusing
14.3%
I wouldn't enjoy it
24.4%
Group 2: Isolated due to geography and finances
It costs too much
74.2%
It's not close enough to where I live/work
92.8%
Lack of transport / I can't easily get to it
60.7%
Group 3: Health problems
Health isn't good enough
30.8%
Group 4: No perceived barriers
Nothing stops me from attending arts and cultural events
100.0%
Group 5: Non-motivated
Not really interested
94.0%
Group 6: Miscellaneous
Don't know
21.0%
Other reasons
12.5%
Group 7: Uninformed
Not enough information on what is available
88.7%
Not enough notice about the event
48.2%
Group 8: Time-conscious
It's difficult to find the time
63.2%
49

A Biggins, G Cottee, G Williams

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