Charitable giving by Canadians

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Content: Component of Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11-008-X Canadian Social Trends Ar ticle Charitable giving by Canadians by Martin Turcotte April 16, 2012
Standard symbols for Statistics Canada The following standard symbols are used in Statistics Canada publications: . not available for any reference period .. not available for a specific reference period ... not applicable 0 true zero or a value rounded to zero 0s value rounded to 0 (zero) where there is a meaningful distinction between true zero and the value that was rounded p preliminary r revised x suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act E use with caution F too unreliable to be published
Charitable giving by Canadians by Martin Turcotte
Introduction Every year, millions of people donate money to charitable and non-profit organizations. By contributing financially to organizations and groups that support causes dear to their heart, donors want to contribute to the well-being of their fellow citizens or advance principles and values that they believe in. In recognition of the difference these donations can make in the community, governments provide income tax credits to encourage giving by taxpayers or match the amount donated by individuals in certain cases. Sources of funding for charitable and non-profit organizations vary significantly according to the particular sector, each receiving greater or lesser levels of support in the form of government subsidies or grants, corporate donations, foundation grants, etc. Despite this diversity, almost all organizations count on individual donations to fulfil their mission and achieve their objectives. In that regard, gaining a better understanding of donors and their motivations can help organizations to make informed decisions. This article looks at different aspects of charitable giving by Canadians in 2010. First, it provides information about donors and donations, comparing them with those in 2007. It also profiles the types of organizations that received the largest amounts of donations,
distinguishing between religious and other types of organizations. People who give to religious organizations differ in some respects from those who give to non-religious ones. The last section looks at what motivates people to donate and the reasons they cite for not giving more, including things that may have bothered them when they were approached. This information is important to many non-profit organizations that aim to improve their practices in such a way that donors have confidence in them and continue to give. All the data presented in this article are drawn from the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP). Respondents were asked to report the amount of money they had given to charitable and non-profit organizations--and which ones. Not all donations reported to the CSGVP are eligible for a tax receipt and thus these data are not directly comparable to data collected from income tax returns. For more information on CSGVP data and for definitions of the different concepts used in this article, see "What you should know about this study." Donations totalled about $10.6 billion in 2010 In 2010, the total amount of financial donations that individuals made to charitable or non-profit organizations stood at $10.6 billion, about the same amount as in 20071 (Table 1).
The average annual amount per donor was $446 in 2010, while the median amount was $123. A median amount means that half of donors gave less than this amount and the other half gave more.2 In addition to financial donations, many people gave clothing, toys or household items to charitable or non-profit organizations (79%) and others gave food (62%) (Chart 1). Overall, almost all Canadians aged 15 and over (94%) gave goods or food, or made a financial donation. There are many reasons why some people give more than others: level of awareness that a need exists, feeling that one is able to make a difference, relative cost of the donation as a proportion of disposable income, strength of altruistic or pro-social values, desire for social recognition, psychological benefits related to giving, being solicited and how this is done.3 Studies have shown that in addition to benefiting the community, the act of giving could increase the psychological wellbeing, self-esteem or social status and reputation of donors themselves.4 The factors that motivate giving obviously do not influence everyone i n t h e s a m e w a y. N e v e r t h e l e s s , they shed light on why some sub-groups of the population are more likely than others to make donations to charitable or nonprofit organizations, and why it is often these same sub-groups that are inclined to give larger amounts.
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What you should know about this study
This study is based on data from the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating (CSGVP), which was conducted on a sample of persons aged 15 and over, totalling 15,482 respondents in 2010 and 21,827 respondents in 2007. Classification of organizations Respondents were asked to provide the names of the organizations to which they had made donations during the year. Based on survey results from previous years, it was possible to classify a large number of organizations according to their purpose and main activity (since some are active in several fields). For organizations that were not classified, respondents were asked to specify what the organization did. The international classification of non-profit organizations was used to divide organizations into 15 main activity groups: Arts and culture: This category includes organizations and activities in general and specialized fields of arts and culture, including media and communications; Visual Arts, architecture, ceramic art; Performing Arts; historical, literary and humanistic societies; museums; and zoos and aquariums. Sports and recreation: This category includes organizations and activities related to amateur sports (including fitness and wellness centers) and recreation and social clubs. Education and research: This category includes organizations and activities administering, providing, promoting, conducting, supporting and servicing education and research. This includes: (1) primary and secondary education organizations; (2) organizations involved in other types of education (that is, adult/continuing education and vocational/technical schools); and (3) organizations involved in research (that is, medical research, science and technology, and social sciences). Universities and colleges: This category includes organizations and activities related to higher learning. This includes universities, business management schools, law schools and medical schools. Health: This category includes organizations that engage primarily in outpatient health-related activities and health support services. This includes: mental health treatment and crisis intervention and other health services (that is, public health and wellness education, outpatient health treatment, rehabilitative medical services, and emergency medical services).
Hospitals: This category includes hospitals, nursing homes, psychiatric hospitals and activities related to rehabilitation such as in-patient health care and rehabilitative therapy. Social services: This category includes organizations and institutions providing human and social services to a community or target population. Three subgroups are included: (1) social services (including organizations providing services for children, youth, families, the handicapped and seniors, and self-help and other personal social services); (2) emergency and relief; and (3) income support and maintenance. Environment: This category includes organizations promoting and providing services in environmental conservation, pollution control and prevention, environmental education and health, and animal protection. Two subgroups are included: environment and animal protection. Development and housing: This category includes organizations promoting programs and providing services to help improve communities and promote the economic and social well-being of society. Three subgroups are included: (1) economic, social and community development (including community and neighbourhood organizations); (2) housing; and (3) employment and training. Law, advocacy and politics: This category includes organizations and groups that work to protect and promote civil and other rights, advocate for social and political interests of general or special constituencies, offer legal services, and promote public safety. Three subgroups are included: (1) civic and advocacy organizations; (2) law and legal services; and (3) political organizations. Grant-making, fundraising and voluntarism promotion: This category includes philanthropic organizations and organizations promoting charity and charitable activities including grant-making foundations, organizations promoting and supporting voluntarism, and fundraising organizations. International: This category includes organizations promoting cultural understanding between peoples of various countries and historical backgrounds, as well as those providing emergency relief and promoting development and welfare abroad. Religion: This category includes organizations promoting religious beliefs and administering religious services and rituals (for example, churches, mosques, synagogues,
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What you should know about this study (continued)
temples, shrines, seminaries, monasteries and similar religious institutions), in addition to related organizations and auxiliaries of such organizations. Business and professional associations, unions: This category includes organizations promoting, regulating and safeguarding business, professional and labour interests. Groups not elsewhere classified Definitions Average annual donation This is the average amount donated by donors to charitable and other non-profit organizations during the 12-month reference period preceding the survey. It is not the average over the entire population. Donors These are people who made at least one financial donation to a charitable or other non-profit organization in the 12-month reference period preceding the survey. This definition excludes
people who donated loose change in coin collection boxes located beside cash registers at store check-outs, in malls at Christmas, at entrances to stores, etc. Financial donation A financial donation is money given to a charitable or other non-profit organization during the 12-month reference period preceding the survey. Money given to the same organization, on multiple occasions, through the same solicitation method, is considered only one donation. For example, all money donated to a particular religious institution through a collection at the place of worship, over the 12 month period preceding the survey, would be considered a single donation. In order to compare the amounts donated in 2010 to those donated in 2007, the amounts for 2007 were adjusted using the Consumer Price Index to account for inflation. Top donors Top donors are defined as the 25% of donors who contributed the most money.
Table 1 Donors and donations, population aged 15 and over, 2007 and 2010
2010
2007
Donor rate total population (thousands) Total number of donors (thousands) Donor rate (percentage) Number of donations Total number of donations (thousands) Average number per donor (donations) Amount of donations1 Total amount (thousands of dollars) Average annual amount per donor (dollars) Median annual amount per donor (dollars) Average amount per donation (dollars)
28,285 23,789 84 91,357 3.8 10,609,533 446 123 114
27,069 22,841 84 87,789 3.8 10,429,330 457 125 119
statistically significant difference (=0.05) from 2010 1. In 2010 dollars. Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007 and 2010.
Women slightly more likely to give than men In 2010, as in 2007, women were more likely than men to have made at least one financial donation (86% of women compared with 82% of men) (Table 2). This difference, which has been observed in other countries, might be explained by the fact that women, on average, have stronger pro-social values.5 However, as regards the average and median annual donations, there was no statistically significant difference between men and women in either 2010 or 2007 (Table 2).
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Chart 1 Percentage of people giving to charitable and non-profit organizations, by type of donation, population aged 15 and over, 2007 and 2010
percentage
100
90
84 84
80
79 79
85 86
94 94
70
60
60 62
2007 50
2010
40
30
20
10
43
0
Financial Donations of Food donations Financial Goods and food All types of
donations clothes, toys and
donations as part donations donations
household items
of a will
Type of donation Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007 and 2010.
Charitable giving, income and education According to results of earlier studies, being employed, having a university degree and belonging to a higherincome household increase both the probability of making donations and the amounts given.6 Thus, in 2010, people whose Annual Household Income was $120,000 or more donated an average amount of $744, compared with $427 for those whose income was between $80,000 and $99,999. Having greater financial resources makes it possible to make larger donations. Because donations to charitable organizations are tax deductible and the tax system is progressive, the real cost of donations to registered charities diminishes as income level rises. Studies have shown that people with higher incomes are more often approached for donations, which also increases their opportunities to donate and the social pressure to do so.7
Table 2 Donor rate, average and median annual donations, by personal and economic characteristics, population aged 15 and over, 2007 and 2010
Donor rate
Average annual donation1
Median annual donation1
Personal and economic characteristics Total Age group 15 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 to 74 years 75 years and over Sex Men Women Marital status Married or common law Single, never married Separated or divorced Widow or widower
2010
2007
percentage
84
84
73*
71*
80*
83*
89
87
88
89
87
88
88
89
86
87
82*
82*
86
87
88
89
73*
75*
84*
84*
89
86
2010
2007
dollars
446
457
143*
148*
305*
333*
431
462
477
570*
626*
521
592*
602*
725*
699*
465
473
428
441
492
531
254*
237*
419
428*
753*
611
2010 dollars 123 30E* 100* 127 150 175* 200* 231* 120 125 150 55* 124* 200
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Table 2 Donor rate, average and median annual donations, by personal and economic characteristics, population aged 15 and over, 2007 and 2010 (continued)
Donor rate
Average annual donation1
Median annual donation1
2010
2007
percentage
Education
Less than high school
74*
72*
High school diploma
77*
80*
Some postsecondary
83*
83*
Postsecondary diploma or certificate
88*
89*
University degree labour force status
91
91
Employed
87
87
Unemployed
76*
81
Not in the labour force Household income
77*
77*
Less than $20,000
67*
71*
$20,000 to $39,999
81*
81*
$40,000 to $59,999
83*
84*
$60,000 to $79,999
86
88
$80,000 to $99,999
89
88
$100,000 to $119,999
91
90
$120,000 or more
87
90
Presence of children in household2
No children
84
85
Pre-school aged children only
88*
88*
Both pre-school and SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN
86
82
School-aged children only Religious attendance
82
83
Does not attend services weekly
83
82
Attends services weekly
93*
94*
Language most frequently spoken at home
English
85
86
French
86
85
Other
76*
72*
Annual number of volunteer hours
None
79
79
1 to 59 hours
89*
88*
60 hours or more
91*
93*
2010
2007
dollars
229* 373* 366* 361* 715 454 176E* 360* 248E* 257* 380 403 427 473 744* 491 343* 433 370* 313 1,004* 523 184* 414 288 422* 784*
225* 351* 405* 444* 743 474 338E 383* 219* 309* 367* 460 474 515 834* 477 426 444 418* 308 1,085* 550 207* 366* 290 432* 816*
2010 dollars 55* 100* 92* 125* 220 130 60* 100* 50* 80* 114* 107* 126* 150* 228 135 111 E 100* 100* 100 350* 150 75* 124 90 124* 235*
reference group * statistically significant difference (=0.05) from the reference group statistically significant difference (=0.05) from 2010 1. Estimates of average and median donations are calculated for donors only. 2. "Pre-school aged" is defined as ages 0 to 5, while "school-aged" is defined as ages 6 to 17. "Both pre-school and school-aged children" indicates the presence in the household of at least one child from each age range (i.e., at least one child aged 0 to 5 and at least one child aged 6 to 17). Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007 and 2010.
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There were also significant differences based on donors' education levels. In 2010, 77% of people whose highest level of education was a high school diploma had made a financial donation and their average donation was $373. In comparison, 91% of those with a university degree had given and their average donation was $715 (Table 2). On average, university graduates have higher incomes, enabling them to make larger donations. Beyond income, people with a higher education level have other social characteristics and attitudes that have been found to be associated with larger donations. Among these are a greater tendency to trust others generally, and hence a higher degree of social trust,8 and more extensive and diversified social networks, which contribute to increased solicitations.9 Religiously active donors make donations averaging $1,004 People who are more religiously active (i.e. those who attend religious meetings or services at least once a week) are more inclined to donate and, on average, they make larger donations. In 2010, 93% of them had given money to one or more charitable or non-profit organizations, and their average annual donation was $1,004. In comparison, 83% of donors who attended less often or not at all had donated, and their average annual donation was $313. Studies have shown that people with strong religious convictions also often have stronger pro-social and altruistic values, which motivate them to give more of their time and money to others.10 Also, because they are integrated into networks of congregational members, they would appear to be solicited more often and to feel more social pressure to give and to meet the group's standards.11 This being said, there are many reasons that might explain the gap between religious people who practice regularly and those who are
less active,12 and these reasons may have different effects depending on religious affiliation.13 Donations tend to increase with age In 2010, as in previous years, people aged 15 to 24 (73%) and 25 to 34 (80%) were, on average, less likely to donate. Among people in the over-35 age groups, donor rates varied little, in the range of 88% (Table 2). The average and median amounts of annual giving tend to increase with age. For example, people aged 75 and over had made average annual donations of $725, compared with $431 for those aged 35 to 44 and $143 for those aged 15 to 24. The respective median amounts for these three age groups were $231 for people aged 75 and over, $127 for 35- to 44-year-olds and $30 for 15- to 24-year-olds (Table 2). Not only do older people give more, but they are also more likely to be religiously active. In 2010, 32% of people aged 75 and over and 27% of those between 65 and 74 years of age were religiously active, compared with 13% of those between 35 and 44 years of age. Moreover, when looking solely at religiously active people, there are no appreciable differences in the average amounts given by different age groups. Religiously active people aged 75 and over donated an average of $1,178 in 2010, an amount very similar to that given by all other age groups (except 15- to 24-year-olds, who gave a smaller amount). The fact that baby boomers are less religious than their parents might, in the medium term, have a negative effect on the amounts they will donate as seniors.14 Some research findings suggest that seniors give more because they may become more aware of the needs of people outside their family circle when their own childrens' financial situations stabilize.15 Even though some seniors may have precarious financial situations, especially
women living alone,16 many seniors are mortgage-free and have no dependents, which may enable them to make larger donations. People who do volunteer work donate more It is well-known that giving, volunteering and helping others are all strongly associated: people who participate in one of these activities are also more likely to participate in another. In addition to having stronger pro-social values, people who do volunteer work are more likely to be solicited for a donation in the course of their activities and to experience social pressure (especially if this pressure comes from people they know well).17 Thus, in 2010, among people who had performed 60 or more hours of volunteer work in the previous year, 91% made donations, giving an average of $784 (Table 2). In comparison, 79% of those who had not volunteered during the year had made donations, averaging $288. Donors in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan give more In 2010, residents of Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island were among the most likely to have made one or more donations to charitable or non-profit organizations (92% and 91% respectively) (Table 4). Conversely, residents of the Northwest Territories (60%) and Nunavut (59%) had the lowest likelihood of making donations. In 2010, the average amounts donated were highest in three provinces: Alberta ($562), Saskatchewan ($544) and British Columbia ($543) (Chart 2). Alberta and Saskatchewan also had the highest proportion of their populations belonging to the top donors group (Table 4). Conversely, the lowest average amounts were recorded in Quebec ($208) and Newfoundland and Labrador ($331).
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Table 3 Percentage of people who are top donors and distribution of top donors, by personal and economic characteristics, population aged 15 and over, 2010
Personal and economic characteristics Total Age group 15 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 to 74 years 75 years and over Sex Men Women Marital status Married or common law Single, never married Separated or divorced Widow or widower Education Less than high school High school diploma Some postsecondary Postsecondary diploma or certificate University degree Labour force statusl Employed Unemployed Not in the labour force Household income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $59,999 $60,000 to $79,999 $80,000 to $99,999 $100,000 to $119,999 $120,000 or more Presence of children in household1 No children Pre-school aged children only Both pre-school and school-aged children School-aged children only Religious attendance Does not attend services weekly Attends services weekly Language most frequently spoken at home English French Other
People who are top donors 21 6* 14* 22 25* 29* 29* 32* 21 21 25 10* 20* 32* 11* 16* 17* 20* 33 23 8 E* 16* 8* 14* 19* 19* 23 25 33* 23 18* 17* 18* 16 46* 25 9* 17*
Distribution of top donors percentage 100 5* 11* 18 23* 21 13* 10* 49 51 75 12* 6* 7* 9* 12* 7* 33* 39 74 1 E* 25* 3* 11 16* 13 13 13 31* 67 7* 5* 21* 64 36* 82 10* 8*
Distribution of population 15 years and over 100 16 17 17 19 15 10 6 49 51 64 26 7 4 17 16 8 34 24 66 2 32 9 17 18 14 11 11 20 61 8 6 25 84 16 68 22 9
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Table 3 Percentage of people who are top donors and distribution of top donors, by personal and economic characteristics, population aged 15 and over, 2010 (continued)
Annual number of volunteer hours None 1 to 59 hours 60 hours or more
People who are top donors 14 22* 37*
Distribution of top donors percentage 35 25* 40*
Distribution of population 15 years and over 53 24 23
reference group * statistically significant difference (=0.05) from the reference group 1. "Pre-school aged" is defined as ages 0 to 5, while "school-aged" is defined as ages 6 to 17. "Both pre-school and school-aged children" indicates the presence in the household of at least one child from each age range (i.e., at least one child aged 0 to 5 and at least one child aged 6 to 17). Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
Table 4 Donor rate and percentage of population who are top donors, by province or territory, population aged 15 and over, 2007 and 2010
Donor rate
Population who are top donors
Province or territory Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut
2010
2007
2010
2007
percentage
92*
91*
91*
89*
88
87
88*
88
85
84
84
86
86
87
84
84
84
85
80*
79*
82
78
60*
68*
59*
66*
18*
17*
26
27
23
22
22
20*
9*
11*
25
25
25
26
26
25
27
26
22*
23
25
24
16*
18*
14*
19*
reference group * statistically significant difference (=0.05) from the reference group statistically significant difference (=0.05) from 2010 Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007 and 2010.
On average, Quebec residents donate smaller amounts than residents of other regions. This finding was mentioned in previous studies18 and confirmed through other data sources.19 The practice of giving to charitable organizations arises from a process of socialization and is influenced by a person's social and cultural environment. For example, a European study found that social norms encouraging charitable donations were stronger in Protestant countries and regions and that Catholics living in communities where they were strongly in the majority were less likely to make charitable donations.20 At the national level, similar proportions of francophones and anglophones had made donations21. However, anglophones gave significantly larger average amounts than francophones, $523 versus $184 (Table 2).
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Chart 2 Average and median annual donations, by province or territory, donors aged 15 and over, 2010
Alberta Saskatchewan British Columbia Ontario Manitoba Yukon Prince Edward Island Northwest Territories F New Brunswick Nova Scotia Nunavut Newfoundland and Labrador Quebec
165 150 125 150 146 175 140
105
110
100
100
75
208
562
544
543
526
519
514
479
412
380
369
344 331
Median annual donation Average annual donation
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
dollars
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
Chart 3 Distribution of donors and of total annual donations, by size of donation, donors aged 15 and over, 2010
percentage
70 63
60 50 50
Distribution of donors Distribution of total annual donations
40
30
25
19
20
15
12
10
5
0 $123 or less
$124 to $357
$358 to $994
Size of donation
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
10 $995 or more
The top donors contribute 83% of total donations Donors can be categorized by the amount that they gave during the year. The top donors are considered to be those who belong to the upper quartile, that is, the 25% who donated the largest amount during a given year. In 2010, the top donors are those who gave at least $358. While top donors constitute only one-quarter of all donors, the cumulative amount of their donations comprised 83% of the total amount collected by all charitable and nonprofit organizations. An examination of the decile (10%) of people who made the largest donations shows that this group alone contributed 63% of all donations (Chart 3). This sizable contribution of the top donors was practically unchanged from 2007. The people who were more likely to belong to the top donor category had mostly the same characteristics as those who tended to make the largest donations. They included people aged 75 and over (32% of whom were top donors in 2010), widowers and widows (32%), university graduates (33%) and people whose household income was $120,000 or more (33%) (Table 3). Also, top donors were proportionally more numerous in the provinces where the highest average amounts were given. Religious organizations receive 40% of the total value of annual donations As in the United States and some European countries,22 religious organizations receive the largest share of the total value of donations. Of the $10.6 billion given by Canadians in 2010, $4.26 billion was given to religious organizations. This constituted 40% of the total value of donations, down from the 46% recorded in 2007 (Table 5). Of donations to non-religious organizations, the most common are donations to organizations in the health sector (excluding hospitals). In 2010, those organizations garnered $1.59 billion or 15% of all donations.
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Table 5 Donor rate and total amounts donated, by type of charitable or non-profit organization, population aged 15 and over, 2007 and 2010
Donor rate
Total amount donated1
Type of organization Total Arts and culture Sports and recreation Education and research Universities and colleges Health Hospitals Social services Environment Development and housing Law, advocacy and politics Grant-making, fundraising and voluntarism promotion international organizations Religion Business and professional associations, labour unions Other non-classified groups Residual amount--different organizations Donations toward natural disaster relief
2010 2007
percentage
84
84
3
3
14
14
20
14
1
1
53
56
18
18
42
39
7
7
2
2
3
5
13
10
11
9
33
36
0E
0E
3
2
...
...
20
..
2010
2007
thousands of dollars
10,609,533 107,795 E 230,229 309,091 116,783 E 1,592,685 614,507 1,155,532 274,416 104,182 99,036 617,339 879,106 4,260,848 8,085 E 114,565 E 125,335 570,676
10,429,330 105,009 236,717 257,329 68,190 1,579,616 603,902 956,433 203,752 85,706 136,028 485,811 647,275 4,804,211 9,974 E 63,087 E 186,290 ..
2010
2007
percentage distribution
100
100
1
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
15
15
6
6
11
9
3
2
1
1
1
1
6
5
8
6
40
46
0
0
1
1
1
2
..
..
statistically significant difference (=0.05) from 2010 1. Excludes donations toward natural disaster relief. Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007 and 2010.
Canadians also gave $615 million to hospitals (6% of the total amount donated). Ranking third among types of organizations receiving the largest cumulative amounts were organizations and institutions providing social services to a community or a target group (children, disabled people, lowincome households, etc.). In 2010, 11% of the total amount donated by Canadians aged 15 and over, or $1.16 billion, was given to social services organizations. This was a 21% increase over the amount collected in 2007. For the first time in 2010, CSGVP participants were asked whether they had made donations to assist the victims of a natural disaster, such as in Haiti or Chile. In 2010, 20% of
people aged 15 and over had given money to assist victims of a natural disaster. The total amount reached $571 million (an amount not included in the total amount of donations in order to maintain the historical comparability of the data). Women are more inclined than men to give to organizations in the health sector In general, women were more likely than men to donate to charitable and non-profit organizations (86% and 82% respectively). The largest differences are observed with respect to specific types of organizations. For example, in 2010, 57% of women had made at least one donation to a health organization, compared with 49% of men (Table 6). Women were also more likely than men to have
given to organizations involved in social services and to hospitals. C o n v e r s e l y, m e n w e r e m o r e inclined to donate to sports and recreation organizations and to those involved in grant-making, fundraising and volunteerism promotion. Age also had an effect on the types of organizations that donors preferred to support. For example, 49% of people aged 75 and over made one or more donations to religious organizations, compared with 35% of people aged 35 to 44 (Table 6). Older seniors also had a relatively high propensity to make at least one donation to hospitals, with 25% of them having done so compared with 16% of people aged 35 to 44. It could be that seniors are more aware of the needs of hospitals than are younger people.
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Table 6 Donor rate for different types of organizations, by sex and age group, population aged 15 and over, 2010
Social
Education
Sports and
Health services Religion and research Hospitals recreation
percentage
Sex
Men
49* 38*
31
20
Women
57
45
34
21
Age group
15 to 24 years
31* 28*
24*
13*
25 to 34 years
46* 38
24*
20*
35 to 44 years 56
42
35
29
45 to 54 years
61* 46
33
23*
55 to 64 years
63* 47*
35
21*
65 to 74 years
63* 50*
42*
17*
75 years and over 58
45
49*
12*
15*
15*
20
14
8*
10*
16
13*
16
17
21*
17
20*
16
24*
14
25*
12*
Grant-making, fundraising and voluntarism International promotion organizations
14*
10*
12
12
6*
10
12*
10*
16
13
17
12
15
12
10*
12
7*
10
Environment 6* 8 3 E* 7 6 7 10* 8 9*
reference group * statistically significant difference (=0.05) from the reference group Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
Conversely, people aged 75 and over were less inclined to give to education organizations (12% compared with 29% of those aged 35 to 44) or sports organizations (12% versus 17% of those aged 35 to 44). Religiously active people contribute 71% of amounts donated to religious organizations The financing of religious organizations is dependant first and foremost on the contributions of people who attend religious meetings or services at least once a week, that is, those who are religiously active. In 2010, about 1 in 6 people could be considered religiously active (16%). This proportion of the population had contributed 71% of the amounts given to religious organizations. From the standpoint of average amounts, religiously active donors gave $688 annually to religious organizations, compared with $61 for those who were less religiously active or not active at all (Chart 4).
Chart 4 Average donations to religious and non-religious organizations, by religious attendance, donors aged 15 and over, 2010
average donation in dollars 800
700
688
600
Religious organizations Non-religious organizations
500
400
306
300
247
200
100
61
0 Attends services weekly
Does not attend services weekly
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
28 Canadian Social Trends
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008
Table 7 Distribution of donations to religious and non-religious organizations, by personal and economic characteristics, population aged 15 and over, 2010
Distribution of total donation amount
Personal and economic characteristics Total Age group 15 to 24 years 25 to 34 years 35 to 44 years 45 to 54 years 55 to 64 years 65 to 74 years 75 years and over Sex Men Women Marital status Married or common law Single, never married Separated or divorced Widow or widower Education Less than high school High school diploma Some postsecondary Postsecondary diploma or certificate University degree Labour force status Employed Unemployed Not in the labour force Household income Less than $20,000 $20,000 to $39,999 $40,000 to $59,999 $60,000 to $79,999 $80,000 to $99,999 $100,000 to $119,999 $120,000 or more Presence of children in household1 No children Pre-school aged children only Both pre-school and school-aged children School-aged children only Religious attendance Does not attend services weekly Attends weekly services
Distribution of population 15 years and over 100 16 17 17 19 15 10 6 49 51 64 26 7 4 17 16 8 34 24 66 2 32 9 17 18 14 11 11 20 61 8 6 25 84 16
All donations
Donations to religious organizations
percentage
100
100
4
4E
11
11
17
16
21
16
22
24
14
15
10
12
50
50
50
50
74
72
13
12 E
6
5
8
11 E
8
10 E
12
12
7
9
30
29
43
41
74
70
1
1E
25
29
4E
5E
9
12
15
18
13
12
12
12
12
11
34
30
67
67
6E
6
6
7E
20
19
59
29
41
71
Donations to non-religious organizations 100 5 11 18 25 20 12 8 50 50 74 13 7 6 7 12 6 30 45 77 1 22 3E 8 13 14 11 13 38 67 7E 5 21 79 21
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008
Canadian Social Trends
29
Table 7 Distribution of donations to religious and non-religious organizations, by personal and economic characteristics, population aged 15 and over, 2010 (continued)
Distribution of total donation amount
Language most frequently spoken at home English French Other Annual number of volunteer hours None 1 to 59 hours 60 hours or more
Distribution of population 15 years and over 68 22 9 53 24 23
All donations
Donations to religious organizations
percentage
82
83
10
5
8E
11 E
32
27
24
21
44
52
Donations to non-religious organizations 82 12 6E 36 26 39
1. "Pre-school aged" is defined as ages 0 to 5, while "school-aged" is defined as ages 6 to 17. "Both pre-school and school-aged children" indicates the presence in the household of at least one child from each age range (i.e., at least one child aged 0 to 5 and at least one child aged 6 to 17). Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
Nevertheless, on average, religiously active people also gave more to nonreligious organizations than did those not active or less active. Relative to their demographic importance, other groups in the population contributed a sizable share of all donations to religious organizations. This was the case, for example, with older seniors: whereas people aged 75 and over comprised only 6% of the population aged 15 and over in 2010, their donations comprised 12% of the total amount donated to religious organizations in 2010 (Table 7). This may be due to the fact that elderly people are more likely to attend religious meetings or services at least once a week. C o n v e r s e l y, f r a n c o p h o n e s ' financial contribution to religious organizations was low compared with their proportion within the population: while francophones constituted 22% of the population aged 15 and over, they contributed 5% of all amounts received by religious organizations. The share of donations to religious organizations compared to the total value of donations varied considerably from one province to another. Among the provinces
and territories, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador had the highest proportions of total donations made to religious organizations, at 52% and 51% respectively. By comparison, the
corresponding proportion was 20% for Quebec (Chart 5). Two groups of donors contributed the most to non-religious organizations relative to other groups: those with a pre-tax household
Chart 5 Percentage of the total amount donated to religious organizations, by province or territory, donors aged 15 and over, 2010
Saskatchewan Newfoundland and Labrador Manitoba Prince Edward Island New Brunswick Alberta Nova Scotia Yukon Nunavut Ontario Canada British Columbia Northwest Territories Quebec 0
52 51 50 50 48 48 45 44 43 41 40 37 31 20
10
20
30
40
50
60
percentage
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
30 Canadian Social Trends
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008
income exceeding $120,000, and those with a university degree. In fact, university graduates, comprising 24% of the population, contributed 45% of the amounts received by non-religious organizations (Table 7). On average, they gave $441 to nonreligious organizations, compared with $265 to religious organizations (Chart 6). For people without a university degree, the gap between the average donations to religious and non-religious organizations was smaller. Top donors provided 92% of the amounts garnered by religious organizations In addition to relying more heavily for funding on particular subgroups of the population, religious organizations are more dependent on large donors than their nonreligious counterparts. As Chart 7 shows, top donors contributed a larger share of the donations to religious organizations than to nonreligious organizations. In 2010, top donors (those giving at least $358) had provided 92% of the total amount donated to religious organizations (Chart 7). By comparison, top donors had contributed 76% of the total value of donations received by nonreligious organizations. One-third of Canadians donate in response to canvassing at a shopping centre or on the street For charitable organizations that organize fundraising campaigns, it is important to know in what ways donors make their donations. In the Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, respondents were asked whether they had made a donation in response to various types of requests: through the mail, via door-to-door canvassing, by telephone, at work and so forth. In 2010, large proportions of Canadians made donations in response to canvassing at a shopping centre or on the street (32%) or by sponsoring someone (30%) (Table 8). Even though these two fundraising
Chart 6 Average donations to religious and non-religious organizations, by level of education, donors aged 15 and over, 2010
average donation in dollars
500
441
Religious organizations
400
Non-religious organizations
300
265
200
193
140
100
0 No university degree
University degree
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
Chart 7 Distribution of amounts donated to religious and nonreligious organizations, by size of donation, donors aged 15 and over, 2010
percentage 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
77 15 6 2 Religious organizations
53 23 16 8 Non-religious organizations
Size of donation $995 or more $358 to $994 $124 to $357 $123 or less
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008
Canadian Social Trends
31
Table 8 Donor rate and total amount of donations, by solicitation method or way of giving, population aged 15 and over, 2010
Solicitation method or way of giving Total Mail request Charity event In memoriam donation At work Door-to-door canvassing At shopping centre or on street Telephone request In a place of worship Television or radio request On one's own Donating stocks or options Sponsoring someone Other solicitation method
Donor rate percentage 84 23 23 21 22 26 32 5 30 8 10 0E 30 8
Total amount of donations
thousands of dollars
percentage
10,609,533
100
1,514,108
14
1,071,836
10
601,101
6
620,207
6
244,797
2
185,365
2
129,376
1
3,933,658
37
204,300
2
929,499
9
F
F
363,032
3
636,664
6
Note: Cumulative amounts may vary from one variable to the next due to missing values. Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
Table 9 Donor rate for different solicitation methods, by province or territory, population aged 15 and over, 2010
Mail request
At
Attending
shopping
In a Television
a
In
Door- centre
place or
charity memoriam At to-door or on Telephone of radio
event donation work canvassing street request worship request
On one's own
Sponsoring someone
percentage
Province or territory
Newfoundland and Labrador 19*
28*
34* 28* 55*
30
8*
40* 19*
6*
49*
Prince Edward Island
25
32*
39* 25
46*
27*
12*
41*
8*
6*
36
Nova Scotia
24
28*
29
25
37*
33
7
29
9*
8
45*
New Brunswick
22
26
33* 25
41*
31
9*
38*
7*
7*
32
Quebec
24
21
13* 17* 25
38*
4*
34* 15*
11
18*
Ontario
25
23
27
24
26
32
5
29
5
9
36
Manitoba
24
26
27
25
29*
26*
6
35*
6
11
34
Saskatchewan
23
28*
21* 23
38*
23*
7
30
10*
10
37
Alberta
21*
22
17* 26
27
26*
5
28
5
13*
33
British Columbia
20*
22
16* 18* 18*
31
6
21*
6
12*
26*
Yukon
17*
30*
14* 17* 26
37
4 E*
15*
5E
16*
24*
Northwest Territories
12*
8 E*
10E* 16
18E* 15*
F
24
F
7E
15*
Nunavut
7*
14E*
9E* 11* 10*
14*
F
29
4E
5 E*
16*
reference group * statistically significant difference (=0.05) from the reference group Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
32 Canadian Social Trends
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008
methods are widespread, they are not the ones that bring in the most money. Of the total amount of donations in 2010, only 3% had been collected through sponsoring activities and another 2% as a result of canvassing at a shopping centre or on the street. The fundraising method that raised the most money, in addition to being quite common, was collection at a church, synagogue, mosque or other place of worship. In 2010, 30% of people aged 15 and over had made such a donation. Overall, $3.9 billion was given through collection at a place of worship in 2010, a much higher figure than for all other methods. The way in which donors gave varied from one province to another (Table 9). For example, whereas 25% of Ontario donors made a donation in response to a request through the mail, this was the case for only 19% of Newfoundland and Labrador donors. Conversely, the latter donors were much more likely than their Ontario counterparts to have made a donation in response to doorto-door canvassing (55% and 26% respectively). Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec stood out from the other provinces by their donors' greater propensity to give in response to radio or television solicitation (19% and 15% respectively, compared with 5% in Ontario) Religious obligations less often cited as reason for giving Compared with 2007, there was little change in the reasons donors gave for making charitable gifts. Compassion toward people in need remained the reason given most often by donors (89%), followed by personally believing in the cause (85%) and wanting to "make a contribution to the community" (79%) (Chart 8). The only change from 2007 with respect to reasons for giving concerned the desire to give in order to fulfill religious obligations or other beliefs. In 2010, this reason
Chart 8 Reasons for making financial donations, donors aged 15 and over, 2007 and 2010
Income tax credit
23 23
2010
To fulfill religious
27
2007
obligations or beliefs
32
Personally affected by the
61
cause the organization supports
62
To make a contribution
79
to the community
80
Personally believes
85
in cause
86
Feels compassion towards people in need
0
20
40
60
80
percentage of donors
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007 and 2010.
89 90 100
was considered important by 27% of donors, down from 32% in 2007 (Chart 8). Saskatchewan donors more likely to plan to claim a tax credit In 2010, the fact that governments give a tax credit was an important motivation to donate for 23% of donors. Nevertheless, 46% of donors intended to claim a tax credit for a donation made in the previous 12 months. The likelihood that donors intended to claim a tax credit varied from one province to another. Donors in Nunavut (22%), Quebec (35%) and the Northwest Territories (37%) were the least likely to say that someone in their household would claim a tax credit (Chart 9). In comparison, the proportions were 56% for donors in Saskatchewan and 53% for those in Manitoba and Prince Edward Island. Little change in the main reasons for not giving more Various factors may limit the financial donations people can make or wish to
make during a given year. The CSGVP asked donors to say whether they agreed with one or more statements that explained why they had not given more. In 2010, as in previous years, the reason for not giving more that donors most often cited was that "they could not afford to give more" (71%, the same proportion as in 2007). The second most often cited reason was that they were happy with what they had already given (Chart 10). The next most often cited reason was that they had given money directly to people in need rather than to organizations (39%). Donors' perceptions of how organizations were using their money seemed less positive than in previous years. When asked in 2010 why they had not given more, 37% of donors said they agreed with the statement, "you did not think the money would be used efficiently", compared with 33% in 2007. Men were more likely than women not to have given more because they believed their money would not be used efficiently (Chart 11). Moreover,
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008
Canadian Social Trends
33
Chart 9 Percentage of donors who planned to claim a tax credit, by province or territory, donors aged 15 and over, 2010
Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta British Columbia Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut 0
46
53
47
42
35
49
53
56
50
52
45
37
22
10
20
30
40
50
60
percentage of donors
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
Chart 10 Reasons for not making more financial donations, donors aged 15 and over, 2007 and 2010
percentage of donors
80 71 71
70
65 64
2007
60
2010
50
40
40 39
34 33
37 33
32 31
30
24 24
20
12 12 11 10
10
0
Could not Happy Gave money Did not like Did not think Gave No one Did not know Hard to find
afford with directly to the way in money would voluntary asked where to a cause
to give what was people, not which be used time instead
make a worth
larger already through an requests efficiently of money
contribution supporting
donation given organization were made
Reasons for not making more financial donations Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007 and 2010.
this perception tended to increase with age. Among senior male donors, more than one-half said they had not given more because they believed their money would not be used efficiently. The peak was reached with men aged 75 and over, 56% of whom expressed this opinion, compared with 43% of women in the same age group. Organisations requesting the financial support of Canadians are undoubtedly concerned with ensuring that people experience their fundraising approach in a positive light. In 2010, one-third of donors said they had not donated more because they did not like the way they had been asked to contribute (Chart 10). That proportion was practically unchanged from 2007. People who did not like the way in which requests were made were asked to specify what they had not liked. As in previous years, the tone in which the request was made (rude, demanding, etc.) was the main source of irritation for donors who had not liked the solicitation methods used (47%, compared with 43% in 2007) (Chart 12). Next came the frequency or volume of requests (29%), followed by multiple requests from the same organization (20%) and the time of day the request was made (14%). Summary In 2010, 84% of Canadians aged 15 and over, or just under 24 million people, reported making at least one financial donation to a charitable or non-profit organization. The donor rate was also 84% in 2007. The total amount of donations was $10.6 billion in 2010, practically unchanged from 2007. The average gift was $446 in 2010, also the same as in 2007. Donors who were religiously active--those who attended religious meetings or services at least once a week--had given an average of $1,004 in 2010. In comparison, donors who
34 Canadian Social Trends
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008
Chart 11 Percentage of donors who did not give more because they thought their money would not be used efficiently, by age group and sex, donors aged 15 and over, 2010
percentage of donors
60
Men 50 Women
40
39
43 37
56 43
30
29
30
20
18
10
0 15 to 24 years
25 to 44 years
45 to 64 years
Age group
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2010.
65 years and over
Chart 12 Reasons for dissatisfaction, donors 15 and over who disliked the way in which requests were made, 2007 and 2010
percentage
50
45
2007
40
2010
35
30
25
20
15
14 12
10
29 24
47 43
20 15
5
0
The hour at which Frequency or volume of
Tone of requests
Multiple requests from
the request was made
requests
(impolite, too insistent) the same organization
Reason for dissatisfaction
Source: Statistics Canada, Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating, 2007 and 2010.
were either not active or less active religiously had given an average of $313. Donors likely to make the largest average donations included seniors, university graduates, people in higher-income households and those who did 60 or more hours of volunteer work per year. As in previous years, top donors played an important role in the funding of charitable or non-profit organizations (top donors are those who belonged to the quartile of donors who gave the largest amounts, that is at least $358 in 2010). More specifically, the 25% of donors who gave the largest amounts contributed 83% of the total amount of donations. Religious organizations remained the biggest beneficiaries. In 2010, they collected the largest amount of financial donations, at $4.26 billion. However, as a proportion of all donations made, the percentage of donations to religious organizations was down in 2010, to 40% from 46% in 2007. After religious organizations, those in the health sector (excluding hospitals) collected the largest amount in 2010, at $1.59 billion. The profile of donors who gave to religious organizations differed in several respects from that of donors who gave to non-religious organizations. In relative terms, seniors gave more to religious organizations. While people aged 75 and over comprised 6% of the population, they contributed 12% of the total amount of donations to religious organizations. The reasons why people donate to organizations have remained relatively unchanged in recent years. One exception is that religious reasons were slightly less often cited in 2010 than in 2007. With regard to the reasons why donors did not give more, there was an increase in the percentage of those who believed that their money would not be used efficiently. In 2010, 37% of donors expressed this viewpoint, compared with 33% in 2007.
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008
Canadian Social Trends
35
Finally, almost all Canadians (94%) aged 15 and over gave material goods or food or made a financial donation in 2010. CST Martin Turcotte is a senior analyst in Statistics Canada's Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division. 1. All amounts for 2007 presented in this article have been adjusted to take account of inflation between 2007 and 2010. 2. The difference between the average (or mean) and the median is due to the fact that some donors who make relatively large donations pull the average upward. 3. For a thorough and recent review of the literature on the mechanisms and factors that influence charitable donations, see: Bekkers, Renй and Pamala Wiepking. 2010. "A literature review of empirical studies of philanthropy: eight mechanisms that drive charitable giving." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Vol. 40, no. 5. 4. S e e Wi e p k i n g, Pa m a l a a n d I n e k e Maas. 2009. "Resources that make you generous: effects of social and human resources on charitable giving." social forces. Vol. 87, no. 4. 5. Bekkers, Renй and Pamala Wiepking. 2011. "Who gives? A literature review of predictors of charitable giving." Voluntary Sector Review, Vol.2, no.3; Piper, Greg and Sylke V. Schnepf. 2008. "Gender differences in charitable giving in Great Britain." Voluntas. Vol. 19. 6. Bekkers, Renй and Pamala Wiepking. 2011; Borgonovi, Francesca. 2008. "Divided we stand, united we fall: religious pluralism, giving and volunteering." American Sociological Review. Vol. 73, no. 1.
7. B r y a n t , K e i t h W. , H a e k y u n g J e o n Slaughter, Hyojin Kang and Aaron Tax. 2003. "Participation in philanthropic activities: donating money and time." Journal of Consumer Policy. Vol. 26. 8. Wang, Lili and Elizabeth Graddy. 2008. "Social capital, volunteering, and charitable giving." Voluntas. Vol. 19; Bekkers, Renй. 2003. "Trust, accreditation, and the philanthropy in the Netherlands." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Vol. 32, no. 4; Brooks, Arthur C. 2005. "Does social capital make you generous?" Social Science Quarterly. Vol. 86, no. 1; For a review of other similar studies, see Bekkers, Renй and Pamala Wiepking. 2010. 9. The reason for this is that people who have more diverse and extensive networks are more likely to be solicited and subsequently to donate. See Bekkers, Renй and Pamala Wiepking. 2010; Wiepking, Pamala and Ineke Maas. 2009; and Wang, Lili and Elizabeth Graddy. 2008. 10. B e k k e r s , R e n й a n d T h e o S c h u y t . 2 0 0 8 . "A n d w h o i s y o u r n e i g h b o r ? Explaining denominational differences in charitable giving and volunteering in the Netherlands." Review of Religious Research. Vol. 50, no. 1; Brown, E. and J. Ferris. 2007. "Social capital and philanthropy: an analysis of the impact of social capital on individual giving and volunteering." Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Vol. 36, no. 1. 11. Bekkers, Renй and Pamala Wiepking. 2010; Bekkers, Renй and Pamala Wiepking. 2011. 12. Reitsma, Jan, Peer Scheepers and Manfred Te Grotenhuis. 2006. "Dimensions of individual religiosity and charity: crossnational effect differences in European countries?" Review of Religious Research. Vol. 47, no. 4.
13. Berger, Ida E. 2006. "The influence of religion on philanthropy in Canada." Voluntas. Vol. 17. 14. W i l h e l m , M . O . , P. M . R o o n e y a n d E.R. Tempel. 2007. "Changes in religious giving reflect changes in involvement: age and cohort effects in religious giving, secular giving, and attendance." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. Vol. 46, no. 2. 15. Auten, G.E. and D. Joulfaian. 1996. "Charitable contributions and intergenerational transfers." Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 59. 16. Milan, Anne and Mireille Vйzina. 2010. "Senior Women." Women in Canada: A Gender-Based Statistical Report. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-503. 17. Bekkers, Renй and Pamala Wiepking. 2010; Brooks, A. 2005. "Does social capital make you generous?" Social Science Quarterly. Vol. 86, no.1. 18. Kitchen, Harry. 1992. "Determinants of charitable donations in Canada: a comparison over time." Applied Economics. Vol. 24. 19. For more information, see CANSIM tables 111-0001 (administrative data) and 203-0001 (Survey of Household Expenditures data). 20. Wiepking, Pamela and Renй Bekkers. 2009. "Explaining differences in charitable giving in Europe." Nederland in Vergelijkend Perspectief. Harry Ganzenboom and Marion Wittenberg (eds). Tweede Nederlandse workshop. European social survey. DANS: Den Haag. 21. In this study, "francophone" refers to people for whom the language most often spoken at home is French and "anglophone" to people for whom the language most often spoken at home is English. 22. Giving USA. 2011. The Annual Report on Philanthropy for the Year 2010 ­ Executive summary. Giving USA Foundation: The Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University; Wang, Lili and Elizabeth Graddy. 2008.
36 Canadian Social Trends
Statistics Canada -- Catalogue no. 11-008

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