Civil Engineering Heritage: Scotland-Lowlands and Borders

Tags: Scotland, book, Thomas Telford, civil engineering, Acknowledgements, Northern Lighthouse Board, William, Dumfries and Galloway, Partners, Alexander, Institution of Civil Engineers, Royal Commission, Sir William, British Waterways, Naughton Estate Footbridge, Richard Chown, Scottish Borders, Sam Callander, New Lanark Conservation Trust, John Williamson, Michael Jones, Jim Bowie, G. Cobb, James Crawford, Dumfries, Paul Dunkerley, Devorgilla Bridge, Dumbarton Council, Steve Kirkcaldy, Halcrow Group Ltd, Michael Gould, David M. Walker, Jim Cornell, Ronald Birse, Peter Cross-Rudkin, RCAHMS, Blyth & Blyth, Ross Cunningham, Tay Road Bridge, Anne Ormston, Alex Heron, David G. C. Mackenzie, Lighthouse, Bill Jamieson, Willie Johnston, Brian O'Laughlin, Steve Hawkin, John Hume, Langholm Bridge, Dumfries Railway Station, D. Buchan, Sir Walter Scott, Provan Works, Southerness Lighthouse, Chris Ford, Carol Morgan, A. A. Cullen Wallace, Margaret Miller, David Small, Duncan Stirling, George Wilson, Lorna Davidson, Royal Highland & Agricultural Society of Scotland, Peter Stubbs, Institution of Civil Engineers Library, George Watson, Peter Russell, A. D. Harper, Miles Oglethorpe, Claire Cook, Dumfries Suspension Bridge, Loch Ken Viaduct, Institution of Civil Engineers Panel for Historical Engineering Works, Railway Heritage Trust, Charles Waterston, Mike Chrimes, Strathclyde Regional Council Water Services, civil engineer, civil engineers, Institution, Thomas Telford House, D. Smith Northern England, E. A. Labrum Ireland, Central England, Borders Published, R. Paxton, Borders R. Paxton, Borders, Rendel Palmer, Fox & Partners, Alexander Meadows, Hall, John, Guthrie Brown, Charles Alexander, Sir Alexander, Sir James, Charles de Neuville, Architects Adam, John F., John, David Alan, Merz & McLellan, Robert, & Partners, Heron Quay, J. Shipway, North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board, British Aluminium Co. Ltd, Jim Stirling, Alex Anderson, Jim Arnold, Ronald Noble, Sorn Castle Estate Office, Bill Purves, Motherwell Bridge Company, Tayside Regional Council Roads Department, Robert Fraser, Geoffrey Bailey, John B. Henderson, David Middleton, David Forfar, Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd, Hanna, Donald & Wilson, MacDonald, John, accurate guide, Panel for Historical Engineering Works, M. H. Gould London, Rennison Southern England, James, Holst & Co., David Devereux, Birmingham City Archives, Galloway Hydros Visitor Centre, Buccleugh Estates Office Langholm, City of Edinburgh Council Bridge Maintenance Dept, Norman Butcher
Content: Civil Engineering Heritage Scotland ­ Lowlands and Borders R. Paxton and J. Shipway
Other books in the Civil Engineering Heritage Series: Eastern and Central England. Edited by E. A. Labrum Ireland. Edited by R. C. Cox and M. H. Gould London and the Thames Valley. Edited by D. Smith northern England. Edited by R. W. Rennison southern England. Edited by R. A. Otter Wales and West Central England. Edited by R. Cragg Scotland ­ Highlands and Islands. By R. Paxton and J. Shipway Scotland ­ Lowlands and Borders Published for the Institution of Civil Engineers by Thomas Telford Ltd, Thomas Telford House, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD First published 2007 A CIP record exists for this book ISBN: 978-0-7277-3487-7 # The authors and Institution of Civil Engineers 2007 All rights, including translation, reserved. Except as permitted by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Publishing Director, Thomas Telford Publishing, Thomas Telford Ltd, 1 Heron Quay, London E14 4JD. This book is published on the understanding that the authors are solely responsible for the statements made and opinions expressed in it and that its publication does not necessarily imply that such statements and/or opinions are or reflect the views or opinions of the publishers. While every effort has been made to ensure that the statements made and the opinions expressed in this publication provide a safe and accurate guide, no liability or responsibility can be accepted in this respect by the authors or publishers. Typeset by Academic ю Technical, Bristol Printed and bound in Great Britain by MPG Books, Bodmin, Cornwall
Foreword The contribution of the civil engineer to the creation of the fabric of our civi- lisation has been immense. From land drainage to land forming; from river training to flood defences; from lighthouses to offshore oil rigs; from mill races to hydro schemes; from waggonways to high-speed rail links; from cart tracks to motorways; from fishing ports to container terminals; from standpipes and wells to piped water supply schemes for cities, these are the very Building Blocks of the quality of life: our Life Support Systems. Scottish civil engineers have been major players in the transformation of Britain from a rural agrarian community to one of the strongest economies in the world, and Scotland has offered challenges of geography and geology that civil engineers have been inspired to overcome, bridging the great river estuaries; building dams in inhospitable mountainous terrain; driving roads, canals and railways through fearsome ground conditions, often in extreme weather. This is truly a story of transformation that has maintained Scotland's place as a vibrant and successful economic unit within Europe, despite being at its outer edge. The record of this remarkable achievement is all around us and this volume is a gazetteer and guidebook to inform anyone with an interest in civilisation. It is a privilege for me to write this foreword for many reasons: as the 141st President of this Institution in direct line from our first President, another Scot, the great Thomas Telford; as the 23rd President to be born in Scotland (Scots have a very creditable share of the highest honour bestowed on civil engineers); as a Commissioner on the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (many of the illustrations coming from this fine organisation); as a friend and occasional collaborator with the editors; and as an enthusiast and supporter of engineering history. Understanding the past is the key to managing the future. Without this retentiveness, as George Santayana has said, `those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it'. This book is essential reading, not just for civil engineers but for all historians, social commentators, industrial archaeologists, economists, politicians and those with a general interest in the history and development of Scotland. It describes the visionary projects iii
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS that created the opportunities for trade and wealth creation; it records Scotland's achievements as a civilisation ­ for what is this if not the enduring memorials of what we build; it celebrates the charismatic and persuasive men of genius that could see beyond the status quo to a new paradigm ­ the civil engineers who laid down the foundations of the civilised world we enjoy today. Gordon Masterton President 2005­06 Institution of Civil Engineers iv
Preface This is the penultimate book in the Civil Engineering Heritage series for the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. It is essentially a brief inventory or guide to our selection of historical engineering works executed in Scotland during the last six centuries and contains much new information based on site visits and Historical Research. As a general rule for inclusion in this series, historical engineering works (HEWs) have to be at least 30 years old, but we have made occasional exceptions, for example, the Falkirk Wheel because of its context in restoring the historic canal link between Edinburgh and the Clyde. Most works date from the start of modern civil engineering with the Industrial Revolution. John Smeaton, who is believed to have been the first person to begin describing himself as a `Civil Engineer' from ca.1754, often dubbed the `father of civil engineering', made a significant contribution to the Lowlands and Borders infrastructure through the Forth & Clyde Canal, and various bridges and harbours. Most of the entries bear a HEW number. This relates to records of the work made (mostly yet to be written up), by members or helpers of the Panel for Historical Engineering Works (PHEW) of the Institution of Civil Engineers and curated at its library at Westminster. The reader is referred to these, where they exist, and the `Further Reading' references for more information. The entries have been arranged geographically in seven chapters progressing more or less from south to north in a sequence convenient for visiting. Coverage starts in Chapter 1 with the Mull of Galloway Lighthouse and concludes in Chapter 7 with the Tay bridges at Dundee. The areas covered, shown on the chapter maps, largely follow the Scottish regional boundaries set up under the 1973 local government Act, although not necessarily under the names designated at that time. Coverage aggregates loosely to that of the Lowlands and Borders, except for a Baedeker-like excursion into the Perthshire valleys of the Tay and its tributaries and a sortie into Berwick-upon-Tweed. Angus and Aberdeenshire have been included in the companion book on the Highland and Islands, for which there is a precedent in John Hume's two-volume The industrial archaeology of Scotland, 1976­7 (Batsford, London). v
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS For each work we have given its location, scale, the names of its Engineer and Contractor where known, and our comment. To help illustrate the written word we have included more than 300 images and have occasionally leavened entries with a little digressive seasoning and a line or two of verse! Here and there are examples of earlier works at the same site where significant in terms of their engineers or genre, for example, the development of engineering practice at Leith Docks from 1800­1970 (3-50), and the first publication of James Watt's drawing for long gone Rutherglen Bridge (4-17). Every effort has been made to trace the origin of the illustrations but, given the wide variety of sources, it is possible that some information and ascribed acknowledgements are incorrect or incomplete. We should therefore be pleased to hear from anyone with information which either corrects or enhances that provided. Copyright acknowledgements appear under each image in our cases, our respective names. A `Further reading' reference number indicates that copyright is believed to be with the reference author. Unless indicated otherwise, the illustrations have been scanned from images in Roland Paxton's possession. We acknowledge a significant input into this book from the PHEW Scottish group members past and present; the ICE Library; the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) via Miles Ogelthorpe for supplying the maps and numerous high-quality images and Heather Stoddart the originator of the maps; the School of the Built Environment at Heriot-Watt University for its research and manuscript preparation facilities and Thomas Telford Publishing via Ben Greshon and Stephen Nixey. We thank them and the many other persons and organisations listed in the acknowledgements, for their enthusiastic and valuable support. In conclusion, we hope that the book will serve not only for reference but also, as many of the works are in picturesque locations, as a recreational guide, and that it will convey an idea of the invaluable contribution of civil engineering to the transport, water and power infrastructure of our civilisation which is so essential to Scotland's well-being and yet so often taken for granted! Roland Paxton Jim Shipway vi
Acknowledgements Alex Anderson; Jim Arnold; Geoffrey Bailey; Barr Limited; Maurice Berrill; Birmingham City Archives; Ronald Birse; Cameron Black; Blyth & Blyth; Jim Bowie; British Aluminium Co. Ltd; British Waterways; Buccleugh Estates Office Langholm; D. Buchan; Norman Butcher; Sam Callander; Richard Chown; Mike Chrimes; City of Edinburgh Council Bridge Maintenance Dept; G. Cobb; Claire Cook; Jim Cornell; James Crawford; Peter Cross-Rudkin; Crouch, Hogg, Waterman; Ross Cunningham; Lorna Davidson; David Devereux; Tom Dougal; Dumbarton Council; Paul Dunkerley; The Engineer; Engineering; Chris Ford; David Forfar; Robert Fraser; Fay Fyfe; Michael Gould; Halcrow Group Ltd; A. D. Harper; Steve Hawkin; John B. Henderson; Alex Heron; John Hume; the Institution of Civil Engineers Library Staff; Bill Jamieson; Willie Johnston; Michael Jones; John Kerr; Steve Kirkcaldy; Ian McDougall; David G. C. Mackenzie; Gordon Masterton; Sir William McAlpine Bt; Sir Robert McAlpine Ltd; Richard McBay; Kenneth McCrae; Robert McWilliam; Hamish Mearns; David Middleton; the late Norman and Margaret Miller; G. A. Milne; Ian Moffat; Carol Morgan; Motherwell Bridge Company; Bob Mowat; Network Rail; New Lanark Conservation Trust; the late Ronald Noble; the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board; the Northern Lighthouse Board; the late Brian O'Laughlin; Miles Oglethorpe; Anne Ormston; Sandra and Bill Purves; the Railway Heritage Trust; W. M. Reid; Roads and Road Construction; the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland; the Royal Highland & Agricultural Society of Scotland; Ted Ruddock; the late Peter Russell; Scottish Power ­ Galloway Hydros Visitor Centre; David Small; Duncan Sooman; Sorn Castle Estate Office; Geoffrey Stell; Duncan Stirling; Jim Stirling; Heather Stoddart; Matthew Stoddon; Colin Stove; Strathclyde Regional Council Water Services; The Structural Engineer; Peter Stubbs; Tayside Regional Council Roads Department; Transco Scotland, Provan Works; Alastair Turner; David M. Walker; A. A. Cullen Wallace; Charles Waterston; Anne and George Watson; Mark Watson; Alastair White; John Williamson; George Wilson; Mike Winney; and the late Alan Woodhead. vii
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS
Map Crown Copyright RCAHMS
1. Dumfries and Galloway 2. Scottish Borders and Berwick-upon-Tweed 3. Lothian and Edinburgh 4. Lanarkshire and Glasgow, Renfrewshire, and Dunbartonshire viii
5. Ayrshire and Bute 6. Stirling, Perthshire and Kinross, and Clackmannanshire 7. Fife
Contents
Foreword
iii
Preface
v
Acknowledgements
vii
Metric Equivalents
xi
1. Dumfries and Galloway
1
2. Scottish Borders and Berwick-upon-Tweed
59
3. Lothian and Edinburgh
108
4. Lanarkshire and Glasgow, Renfrewshire, and Dunbartonshire
181
5. Ayrshire and Bute
273
6. Stirling, Perthshire and Kinross, and Clackmannanshire
295
7. Fife
347
Note on Authors
375
Name Index
377
Subject Index
383
ix
Institution of Civil Engineers Panel for Historical Engineering Works: B. Crossley (Chairman); R. A. Paxton (Vice-Chairman); R. C. McWilliam (Technical Secretary); C. Morgan (Secretary); R. P. Adam; I. Anderson; B. M. J. Barton; R. C. Cox; R. Cragg; P. S. M. Cross-Rudkin; P. Dunkerley; A. B. George; M. H. Gould; D. J. Greenfield; J. T. Hodgson; A. I. B. Moffat; R. A. Otter; J. B. Powell; F. Robinson; J. S. Shipway; D. S. Smith; P. D. Stephens; T. Swailes; K. J. Thomas. To Ann Paxton for her patience and support Front cover: Craigillachie Bridge (Crown Copyright RCAHMS) Title page: Maryhill Locks and Kelvin Dry Dock (British Waterways Scotland)
Metric equivalents
Imperial measurements have generally been adopted to give the dimensions of the works described, as this system was used in the design of the great majority of them. Where modern structures have been designed to the metric system, these units have been used in the text. The following are the metric equivalents of the Imperial units used.
Length
1 inch ј 25.4 millimetres 1 foot ј 0.3048 metre 1 yard ј 0.9144 metre 1 mile ј 1.609 kilometres
Area
1 square inch ј 645.2 square millimetres 1 square foot ј 0.0929 square metre 1 acre ј 0.4047 hectare 1 square mile ј 259 hectares
Volume
1 gallon ј 4.546 litres 1 million gallons ј 4546 cubic metres 1 cubic yard ј 0.7646 cubic metre
Mass
1 pound ј 0.4536 kilogram 1 Imperial ton ј 1.016 tonnes
Power
1 horsepower (hp) ј 0.7457 kilowatt
Pressure
1 pound force per square inch ј 0.06895 bar
xi
Map Crown Copyright RCAHMS
Dumfries and Galloway
1. Mull of Galloway Lighthouse 2. Port Logan Mole and Lighthouse 3. Portpatrick Harbour 4. Laird's Bay Cable House, Port Kale 5. Corsewall Lighthouse 6. Cree Bridge, Newton Stewart 7. Big Water of Fleet Viaduct, Gatehouse 8. Port McAdam and the Fleet Canal, Gatehouse 9. Tongland Bridge, Kirkcudbright 10. Tongland Dam 11. Glenlochar Barrage 12. Glenlee Tunnel 13. Clatteringshaws Dam 14. Earlstoun Dam 15. Carsfad Dam 16. Kendoon Power Station 17. Ken Dam 18. Deuch Dam 19. Loch Doon Dam 20. Ken Bridge, New Galloway 21. Loch Ken Viaduct, Parton 22. Glenlochar Bridge 23. Glenlair Bridge 24. Old Bridge of Dee 25. Threave Bridge, Castle Douglas 26. Southerness Lighthouse
27. Dumfries Suspension Bridge 28. River Nith Caul, Dumfries 29. Devorgilla Bridge, Dumfries 30. Buccleuch Street Bridge, Dumfries 31. Arrol-Johnson Works, Heathhall 32. Dumfries Railway Station 33. Carron Viaduct 34. Drumlanrig Tunnel 35. Enterkinfoot Retaining Wall 36. Auldgirth Bridge 37. Creel Bridge, Drumlanrig 38. Knockenjig Waste Treatment Plant, Kirkconnel 39. Raehills Three-way Footbridge, St Ann's 40. Beattock Bridge 41. Beattock Inn 42. Dinwoodie Toll House 43. Dinwoodie Green Milestone 44. Mein Water Bridge, Ecclefechan 45. Hoddom Bridge, Ecclefechan 46. Annan Bridge 47. Skippers Bridge, Langholm 48. Langholm Bridge 49. Duchess Bridge, Langholm Lodge 50. Westerkirk Parish Library, Bentpath 51. Malcolm Monument, Whita Hill
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS
Map Crown Copyright RCAHMS
1. Charlestown Harbour 2. Glen Bridge, Dunfermline 3. Rosyth Dockyard 4. Burntisland Harbour 5. Inchkeith Lighthouse 6. Methil Docks 7. Largo Canal, Upper Largo 8. St Monance Wind Engine Tower 9. Anstruther Harbour
Fife 10. Crail Harbour, Fife 11. Isle of May Lighthouse 1816 12. North Carr Rock Beacon, Fife Ness 13. Guard Bridge 14. Garlie Bank Road, Cupar 15. Cupar Footbridge 16. Naughton Estate Footbridge (Private) 17. Tay Bridge (Railway) 18. Tay Road Bridge
346
7. Fife Introduction Fife is largely bounded by the sea and its extensive coastline has given rise to many maritime works ­ harbours, docks and lighthouses, many of which have an ancient past, for example, the harbours at Burntisland (1-4) and Crail (1-10), and later Anstruther (1-9), much enlarged in the 18th and 19th century with a contribution by Robert Louis Stevenson. Charlestown (1761, 7-1) can be considered the first harbour of the Industrial Revolution in Scotland serving an extensive limeworks, the lime from which, including a naturally occurring hydraulic type, found its way into numerous early building projects. Towards the end of the 19th century and in the early 20th century huge docks were created at Methil (1894­1912) for the export of coal on a massive scale. Another mammoth project, created from 1908­17, is Rosyth Naval Dockyard (1-3), whose giant Titan crane is still a landmark, and which now also serves as the terminus of the Rosyth to Zeebrugge Ferry. Lighthouses are represented by the Isle of May (1635, 1816, 1844, 7-11) where its three towers are evocative of lighthouse practice over several centuries, with even a touch of Sir Walter Scott, and the fine architecturally styled Inchkeith (1804, 7-5), but beware of sea-birds when visiting! The North Carr Rock unlit cast-iron beacon at Fifeness (1821, 1-12) was eventually achieved by Robert Stevenson after a lengthy battle with the sea. It was the first of a type which was developed and used at numerous locations by the Northern Lighthouse Board. The earliest stone bridge included is the medieval Guard Bridge (ca.1440­ 60, 1-13). Examples of early iron bridges are at Naughton Estate (1818, 7-16) and Waterend Road, Cupar (ca.1850, 1-15). An impressive, typical for its date, early reinforced concrete bridge dominates the glen at Dunfermline town centre (1932, 1-2). Unusual works comprise improved road-making by Thomas Aitken at Garlie Bank, Cupar in the late 19th century just before the internal combustion engine brought a new lease of life to the national road network (1-14); St Monance Wind Engine Tower (1774, 1-8); the remains of Sir Andrew Wood's curious canal at Largo along which he travelled to church in style 347
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS (ca.1490, 1-7): and the River Leven Improvement, involving the partial drainage of Loch Leven in 1830 to reclaim land and regulate the water power to about 40 mills down to the sea ­ a project which exercised the skills of John Rennie, James Jardine, Robert Thom and others. To the north, Angus is reached from Fife either by road or rail via impressive bridges over the Tay some 112­2 miles long connecting with Dundee (2-1, 2-2). From the train can be seen the pier stumps of the 1878 bridge which fell the following year in one of the world's great bridge disasters, resulting from its design and construction being inadequate to resist strong wind pressure, and which ruined the reputation of Sir Thomas Bouch. 348
7. FIFE
1. Charlestown Harbour From 1757 to 1761, as the Industrial and AgriCultural Revolutions gathered momentum, the 5th Earl of Elgin developed lime production on his Broomhall Estate by quarrying limestone and building kilns, the village of Charlestown, and its harbour. Prior to this, limestone deposits had been exploited at nearby Limekilns but in a small way. The present pier there seems to be of third quarter 18th century construction with roughly squared dry (unmortared) sandstone block facings quarried nearby. From 1774, with the opening of the original Elgin Wagonway, Charlestown was supplied with coal for lime making via Limekilns, the exporting port for coal from pits west of Dunfermline. In 1799 this wagonway was extended along the shore to Charlestown Harbour, being replaced by 1820 with a more direct line to the west with an inclined plane down to the harbour, including a substantial three-span arch bridge. The rails, at first of wood, were replaced by cast-iron in ca.1804 and malleable iron from ca.1820. The imposing bank of draw kilns fronting the inner basin of the harbour were more or less continuously developed from 1759­90. The sickle-shaped in plan pier enclosing this basin is of similar construction to Limekilns Pier but
HEW 1623 NT 0660 8347 Charlestown Harbour
Roland Paxton
349
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS with some large blocks at the west end. Its top contains numerous mooring rings and is partly surfaced with old railway chair blocks. The inner basin entrance is 120 ft wide with an enclosed area 635 ft long by 100 ft to 180 ft wide, with a depth at Spring tides of 1612 ft in 1844. From ca.1813­34, as the Estate was becoming one of the largest industrial operations of its kind in Scotland, the 7th Earl engaged Charles Landale, civil engineer, to superintend work. In addition to maintaining the harbours, Landale introduced numerous improvements for transporting materials in, or to and from, the quarries and mines, including the inclined plane to the harbour and the ingenious inclined planes at Pittencrieff and Colton near Dunfermline. His salary was Ј250 per annum, plus expenses and the use of a horse! The outer basin was added later, the north-west pier dating from ca.1840 and the south-east pier after 1853. In 1859 the harbour became the property of the North British Railway Company, who provided a passenger service to Charlestown in 1894. The harbour now contains about 10 ft of mud and is unused apart from small sailing boats. [1­3]
NT 0888 8760
2. Glen Bridge, Dunfermline This elegant reinforced-concrete bridge, erected in 1931­32 carrying Bridge Street 80 ft above the Tower Burn, is 536 ft long and 40 ft wide. It has a main arch span of 185 ft with a rise of 3312 ft and is one of the largest bridges of its type in Scotland containing about 6750 tons of concrete and about 100 miles of steel reinforcement weighing 320 tons. Designer, F. A. Macdonald & Partners, Glasgow; D. H. Shaw, Burgh Engineer; Contractor, Street & Co., Dunfermline. [4]
NT 0986 8267 350
3. Rosyth Dockyard The need for an extensive naval base on the east coast of Scotland was foreseen prior to the 1914­18 war and construction began at Rosyth in 1909. Dreadnought battleships were part of the British fleet and the facilities required for their repair and refurbishment were formidable.
The original scheme comprised a large deep-water basin entered by a lock having a depth of water of 36 ft on the sill, two dry docks and provision for a third, and an emergency entrance for use in case of damage to the lock. Outside was a tidal basin for submarines and smaller craft. All sorts of ancillary buildings including cranes, a power station, a pumping station, workshops, storehouses, etc. were required. The site covered nearly 12 000 acres with some 212 miles of waterfront. The main contractor was Easton Gibb & Son Ltd, of whom the managing director, Alexander Gibb (later Sir Alexander) was later to achieve fame as a consulting engineer. The scheduled construction time was seven years, but the difficulties to be overcome were immense and the construction methods at first specified by the Admiralty had to be replaced by more practical schemes devised by the contractor. This caused considerable delay, even with a peak workforce of 6000 men and 24 hour day working for long periods. The project, the success of which owed much to the energy and resource of Gibb, was finally completed in March 1917. [5]
7. FIFE
4. Burntisland Harbour Burntisland, the best natural harbour on the Forth estuary, was known in ancient times as Portus Gratiae. In ca.1540 James V caused a bulwarks and piers to be constructed within it. The west quay was reputed to have been built by Cromwell and developments continued into the 19th century with shipbuilding and herring and whale fisheries. By 1836 Farnie's dry dock, 200 ft long with a 44 ft wide gate, existed. Nothing of the early harbour now exists. In 1876 the West Dock was opened and continued in use until 1962 when its entrance was widened to 80 ft and new gates were fitted. Burntisland also exported coal in large quantities, mainly through the larger East Dock, which was opened in 1903. A new industry began in 1917 when the British Aluminium Company opened a new plant for the processing of imported bauxite ore from West Africa, now demolished. Today the harbour is operated privately by the Burntisland Shipbuilding Company, who have modernised it for use on oil industry projects and shipbuilding.
NT 2302 8541
351
Name index Engineers Abercrombie, Charles (1750я1817), 132, 342 Aitken, Thomas, 368 Alsing, G., 205 Anderson, Dr Adam (ca.1780я1846), 315, 316 Anderson, R. S., 67 Armstrong, Sir W. G. (1810я1900), 142 Arrol, Sir William, & Co. Ltd, 118, 185, 251 Arup Scotland, 338 Babtie Group, 190 Babtie, Shaw & Morton, 34, 95, 206, 211, 232, 257, 265, 311, 331 Baird, Hugh (1770я1827), 173, 175, 176, 336 Baker, (Sir) Benjamin (1840я1907), 167, 199 Barbour, James, 34 Barlow, Crawford, 370 Barlow, W. H. (1812я1902), 370 Barry, Sir John Wolfe (1836я1918), 194 Barton, James (1826я1913), 5 Bateman, J. F. la Trobe (1810я89), 248, 249, 328, 332 Baxter, John (fl.1767я98), 297 Beatson, W., 156 Belfrage & Carfrae, 121 Bell, James (fl.1844я79), 37, 111, 118, 138, 146 Bell, James Jnr (d.1935), 111 Bell & Miller, 196, 198, 221, 222 Biggart, Andrew (1857я1917), 167 Binnie, W., 318
Blackmore, J. (1801я44), 90 Blair, J. F. (1831я76), 197 Blane, Adam, 11 Blyth, B. & E., 8, 26, 28 Blyth, B. H. (1819я66), 317 Blyth & Blyth, 14, 112, 125 Blyth & Cunningham, 193 Blyth & Westland, 146, 195, 358 Bostock, J. H., 162 Bouch, (Sir) Thomas (1822я80), 111, 137, 138, 166, 352, 368, 370 Boving & Co. Ltd, 66 Boyd, Thomas, 34 Brodie, J. B., 274, 275 Brown, Capt. Samuel (1776я1852), 69, 84, 85, 90, 91 Brown, James, 354, 355 (?я1889?) Brown, John S., 68, 77 Bruce & Cunningham, 71 Bruce, Sir George B. (1821я1908), 93 Bruce, Robert, 199, 200 Brunel, Isambard Kingdom (1806я59), 248 Buchanan, George (ca.1790я1852), 153 Buchanan & Partners (Edinburgh), 229 Burnett, J. J. (d.1916?), 262 Burns, T. F., & Partners, 265 Campbell, Capt. Archibald, 297 Campbell, J. A., 262 Carswell, James, 138, 217 Chapman, William (1749я1832), 158 Codrington, Thomas, 90 Conside`re Construction Ltd, 192, 222, 320 Cooper, J. (1817?я62?), 156 Craig, Alexander, 9 Crouch & Hogg, 190, 201, 204, 245, 339 Cubitt, William (1785я1861), 147 Cunningham, Blyth & Westland, 145 Cuthbertson, R. H., & Partners, 251 Deas, James (1827я99), 36, 37, 38, 260, 261 Desaguiliers, J. T. (1683я1744), 149 Doherty, W. T. (1838я98), 221 Donald, David, 214
377
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS
Dredge, James (1840я1906), 244 Faber Maunsell, 299 Fairbairn, Sir William (1789я1874), 89 Fairhurst, W. A., & Partners, 29, 32, 184, 191, 372 Falshaw, Sir James (1810я89), 198 Forman, Charles de Neuville (1852я1901), 222 Formans & McCall, 222 Foules, W. (1838я1903), 225 Fowler, (Sir) John (1812я98), 167, 197 Fox, Sir Douglas (1840я1921), 5 Freeman, Fox & Partners, 170, 184, 318 Gale, J. M. (1830я1903), 248, 249, 250, 251, 329, 330 Gale, William, 251 Gibb, (Sir) Alexander (1872я1958), 351 Gibb, Sir Alexander, & Partners, 15, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 82, 238, 305, 309, 339 Glennie, G., 86 Golborne, John (1724я83), 258 Gordon, Lewis (1815я76), 248 Graham, George (1822?я99), 194, 204 Grainger, Thomas (1794я1852), 147, 153, 352 Green, John (1787я1852), 127 Guthrie Brown, J., 305, 339 Gwyn, John (1713я86), 312 Halcrow, Sir Wm., & Partners, 188, 216 Hall, John, 8, 25 Harrison, J. T., 146 Harrison, T. E. (1808я88), 93 Henderson, David (1735я88), 102, 144 Herring, W. R., 163 Hollis, T., 277, 278 Inglis, R. J. M. (1881я1962), 70 Jackson, William (1805я76), 121 Jardine, James (1776я1858), 29, 67, 95, 127, 129, 132, 136, 138, 140, 147, 311, 354, 355 Jessop, William (1745я1814), 277, 278, 280, 289
Jopp, Charles (c.1820я95), 61, 68, 81, 146 Keir, William, Jnr, 52 Kelly, William, 233 Kennedy & Donkin, 123 Kerensky, Oleg (1905я84), 184 Kibble, John (1817/18я94), 223 Kinipple, W. R. (1832я1901), 264 Kyle & Frew, 250 Landale, Charles (1764я1834), 350 Lees, Richard, 69 Leitch & Sharp, 320 Leslie, James (1801я89), 149, 158, 160, 198, 243, 256 Leslie & Reid, 74, 77, 134, 156 Locke & Errington, 150, 208 Locke, Joseph (1805я60), 188, 264 Lockhart of Birkenhead, Lanark, 230 Logan, David (1786/87я1839), 260 M'Taggart, Cowan & Barker, 71 McAdam, J. L. (1756я1836), 46 McCandlish, William, 286 MacDonald, A. B. (1847я1915), 199, 221 Macdonald, F. A., & Partners, 206, 207, 314, 319, 350, 368 Mackain, Daniel (1800я59), 248 Mackay, R. J., 367 Mackell, Robert (d. 1779), 237, 239, 257 McLellan, Dugald, 319 McLellan, William, 15 McLure, Hugh, 36 McNeill, J. S., 209 MacNeill, John (1793я1880), 336 Maillart, Robert, 221, 320 Martin, G. (1809/11я80), 195 Matheson, Donald A. (1860я1935), 194, 215, 275 Mathieson, Kenneth (d.1855), 29 Meikle, Andrew (1719я1811), 117 Melville, William, 198 Merz & McLellan, 15 Miller, James, 275
378
INDEX
Miller, John (1805я83), 36, 37, 38, 86, 111, 112, 117, 118, 130, 145, 170, 172, 173, 218, 277, 280, 286, 287, 288, 337 Mitchell, Joseph (1803я83), 115, 140, 300, 301, 304 Moon, Geo., 354 Mott, Hay & Anderson, 169я70 Mouchel, L. G., & Partners, 14, 94 MouchelяHennebique system, 141 Muir Wood, Sir A. M., 188 Murray, Robert (fl.1863), 72 Nasmyth, James (1808я90), 92 Newall, Walter, 31 Nicholson, Peter (1765я1845), 199 Noble, Ronald (1927я93), 326 Page, Thomas (1803я77), 198 Paterson, William (1809я81), 153 Pirie, J. S. (d.1943), 146 Provis, W. A. (1792я1870), 42 Queensbury, William, Duke of (1824я85), 72 Rankin, W. J. M. (1820я72), 127, 248 Rankine, David (d.1870), 127 Rendel, Alexander Meadows (1829я1918), 156 Rendel, J. (1799я1856), 156 Rendel Palmer & Tritton, 159 Rendel & Robertson, 162 Rennie, George (1791я1866), 117 Rennie, John (1761я1821), 3, 4, 8, 24, 86, 88, 89, 91, 116, 117, 125, 138, 142, 156, 159, 164, 165, 173, 199, 258, 262, 289, 318 Robertson, G. (1830я46), 156 Robertson, Robert (1843я1900), 290 Robson, Neil (1807я69), 200 Scott, Wilson, Kirkpatrick, 257 Shaw, D. H., 350 Simpson, Alexander, Jnr, 221 Simpson & Wilson (Glasgow), 216, 221, 282 Sinclair, George (ca.1625я89), 149
Slight, James (1784/5я1854), 30, 84 Smeaton, John (1724я78), 4, 32я3, 89, 97, 144, 201, 237, 239, 246, 257, 258, 297, 312, 332, 334, 341 Smith, James (Doune) (1789я1850), 256 Smith, Thomas (1752я1815), 291, 352, 353 Somers, T. P. M., 192, 199, 222 Sorocold, George (ca. 1668я1738?), 340 Stephenson, Robert (1803я59), 93, 248 Stevens, Alexander (ca.1730я96), 39, 82, 86, 133, 142, 230, 281 Stevenson, Alan (1807я65), 49, 99, 315, 354 Stevenson, Charles Alexander (1855я1950), 261, 267 Stevenson, David (1815я86), 95, 99, 155, 156, 198, 322, 361 Stevenson, David Alan (1854я1938), 119, 120, 261, 267, 283, 354 Stevenson, Robert (1772я1850), 3, 7, 30, 40, 49, 54, 91, 100, 116, 126, 133, 135, 150, 151, 152, 164, 165, 173, 191, 192, 195, 198, 199, 267, 291, 315, 322, 352, 353, 362, 363, 364, 365 Stevenson, Robert, & Sons, 96, 123, 126 Stevenson, Thomas (1818я87), 95, 99, 155, 156, 283, 361 Stewart, Allan Douglas (1831я94), 300 Stirling, Jim, 338 Stoney, F. G. M. (1837я97), 199 Strain, J. (1845я1931) & Robertson, 123 Sutherland, J. R., 330, 331 Syme, J. T., 96 Telford, Thomas (1757я1834. First President, ICE 1820я34), 4, 11, 12, 25, 42, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51, 52я3, 54, 69, 136, 137, 138, 153, 158, 173, 175, 194, 211, 212, 230, 232, 246, 252, 258, 264, 289, 323 Thom, Robert (1774я1837), 252, 256, 354 Thomas, J., 248 Thorburn Colquhoun, 226 Tone, John F. (1822я81), 63 Travers Morgan, 79
379
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS
Walker, James (1781я1862), 196, 199 Walker, Ronald, & Co., 221 Wallace, Alasdair, 190 Watt, James (1736я1819), 201, 241, 246, 249, 252, 257 Whitworth, Robert (1734я99), 238, 239, 243 Whyte, Peter (1845я1915), 156, 158 Willet, John (1815я91), 31 Williamson, John, 130 Wilson, A., 225 Wilson, John (1774/5я1840), 277, 278, 280 Wilson, W. S. (1850я1926), 282 Wylie, H. J. (1822я71), 13 Wylie, J. C. (1853я99), 41 Wylie & Peddie, 81 Architects Adam, James (1732я94), 134 Adam, Robert (1729я92), 134, 143, 281 Adam, William (1689я1748), 298 Baird, John (1798я1859), 214 Burn, William (1789я1870), 152 Clarke & Bell, 274 Elliot, A. (1763я1823), 150 Fowke, Capt. Francis (1823я65), 147 Graham, Gillespie (1776я1855), 298 Habershon, W. G. (1818/19я91), 53 Hamilton, Thomas (1784я1858), 146, 147 Henderson, David (ca.1735я88), 39, 143 Howe, 54 Kirkland, A. (1824я92), 195 Laing, Alexander (d.1823), 143 Mansfield, E. J. D., 188 380
Matthew, Robert, Johnson-Marshall & Partners, 123 Mylne, Robert (1734я1811), 86, 194 Mylne, William (1734я90), 144 Nasmyth, Alexander (1758я1840), 11, 12 Playfair, W. H. (1789я1857), 140 Playfair, Hamilton & Elliot, 150 Raithby, H. W., 146 Riss, Egon, 132 Slater, R. E., 184 Smith, George, 147 Contractors Abernethy, J., & Co., 31 A. C. D. Bridge Co., 170 Adam, John (1729я92), 194 Alexander, Michael, 205 Angus, John, & Sons, 125 Arrol, (Sir) William (1839я1913), 166, 167, 192, 282, 370я1 Arrol, Sir William, & Co. Ltd, 20, 34, 118, 132, 145, 146, 170, 185, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200, 201, 222, 229, 251, 307, 319, 339, 372 Atholl, John, Duke of, 309 Balfour, Beatty & Co. Ltd, 305 Balfour, Henry, & Co. (Leven), 236, 370 Barback & Primrose, 190 Barr Ltd, 29, 278 Begg, Adam, 129 Best, John, 74, 77 Blackstock, J., 93 Boyd, James, & Co. (Paisley), 224 Boyle, A. H. (Bonnybridge), 204 Brand, Charles, & Son Ltd, 188, 217 Brassey & Co., 197 Brebner & Scott, 3 Brown & Oliver, 37, 38 Brown, John, 245 Brown, Thomas, 132 Burrell, James, 94
INDEX
Butterley Engineering (Ripley, Derbys.), 338 Caird & Co., 274 Cairns, Christopher (Stirling), 332 Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. Ltd (Dundee), 372 Campbell, Thomas, 37, 38 Carmichael, A. M., Ltd, 20, 22, 23 Cementation Co. Ltd, 306 Clarke Chapman Ltd, 82 Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Co., 170, 318, 339 Cousin, G. & R., 146 Craven, Whitaker & Nowell, 175, 176 Crow, William, 97 Crowley Russell, 199 Crowley, Russell & Co., 112 Dean, J. W., 90 Dickson & Clyde, 71 Dorman Long, 170, 372 Drummond, Lithgow & Co., 207 Dumfries County Council, 41 Eadie, Alex., 204 Easton Gibb & Son Ltd, 351 Elliot, William (of Kelso), 86 Emery, John, & Sons, 221 English Electric Company, 229 Fairbairn Engineering Company, 301 Findlay & Co. (Motherwell), 221 Fox & Lowrie, 137 General Electric Company Ltd, 291 Gibb, John (of Aberdeen), 154, 171, 230 Gibb & Son, 172, 173, 194 Gibb, William (1736я91), 238, 239 Goodwins, Jardine & Co. (Motherwell), 204 Gosman, John, 362 Gowans & McKay, 301 Graham, Morton & Co. (Leeds), 163 Grant, James, & Sons Ltd (Alloa), 320 Gray, William (Saline), 343 Grey, Thomas (Lesmahagow), 332
Halliday, G., Ltd, 274 Hanna, Donald & Wilson (Paisley), 134, 196, 198 Henderson, David, 102 Hill & Son (Leith), 285 Hislop, Andrew, 64, 65 Holloway Bros (London) Ltd, 94 Holst & Co. Ltd, 206 Hopkins, Gilkes & Co., 13 Hotson, Robert, 51 Howard, John, & Co. Ltd, 19, 20, 170 Hutchison, Robert, 354 Hyslop, John, 51 Hyslop, S., 11 Kennedy, Hugh, & Sons (of Partick), 204, 221 Kennedy, Wm. (of Partick), 200, 201 Kinghorn, J., 274 Kinghorn, W. (of Leith), 126 Kirkwood, William, 254 Lancelot, Branxton & Burrell, 94 Lawrie, Alexander, 49 Lee & Freeman, 317 Lees, James, 133 Lilley Construction, 190 Lillie, F. J. C., Ltd, 245 Logan, Archibald, 137 Logan, Duncan (Contractors) Ltd, 372 Logan, Marples Ridgway, 191 Lorimer, George, 146 Lowry, John, 50 McAlpine, (Sir) Robert, & Sons (Ltd), 23, 24, 74, 77, 113, 123, 217, 225, 358 McCraken, John (fl.1789я1825), 21, 27, 29 McDonald & Grant, 162 Macdonald & Grieve, 302 MacDonald, John, 44, 45, 46 McDoull, Colonel, 3 MacFarlane, W., & Co. (Glasgow), 204 McGuffery, A., 11 Mackay, James, 93 McKean, Alex, 11 McKean, Samuel, 11, 27
381
SCOTLAND ­ LOWLANDS AND BORDERS
Mackenzie, Brassey & Stephenson, 188 Mackenzie Construction (Glasgow), 204 McKenzie, Murdoch, Ltd, 319 MacLellan, P. & W., 138, 200, 217, 309, 340 McNaughton, James, 288 March, William, Earl of, 72 Marshall & Co., 218 Mather, William, 85 Mathieson, Keith (Stirling), 322 Mathieson, Kenneth (1817?я91), 8, 24, 211 Mathieson, Kenneth (d.1885), 368 Meakin, G. (1808я73), 90 Melville, Dundas & Whitson, 192 Miller Construction (Northern) Ltd, 82, 318 Milligan, Peter, 30 Minto, William (1761я1847), 230 Mitchell, John, 336 Morrison Bachy-Soletanche, 338 Morrison & Mason, 194, 195, 199, 201 Motherwell Bridge & Engineering Company, 207, 291 Mowlem (Scotland) Ltd, 291, 331 Muir, John (Falkirk), 238, 239 Murray & Lees, 88
Robertson, William, 195 Robertson & Wilson (Glasgow), 236 Ross, William (1796я1859) & Mitchell, 153, 286 Scott, James, & Son (Aberdeen) Ltd, 8 Scott, William, 72, 196 Shanks, James, 326 Shanks McEwan Ltd, 21 Shellabear Price (Scotland) Ltd, 318 Shotts Iron Company, 128 Simon Carves Ltd, 291 Simpson, John, 25, 252, 278 Skene Iron Works, 162 Slack, T., 54 Smith, Gilbert, 34 Smith, J. & T. (of Darnick), 65, 77, 79, 83 Smith, William (of Montrose), 83 Somervail & Co. (of Dalmuir), 70, 121 Steedman, John (fl.1812я34), 198 Stephenson, John, & Co., 208 Stephenson, Mackenzie & Brassey, 188, 264 Stevens, Alexander (ca.1730я96), 133, 230 Stewart, William, 34, 39 Street & Co. (Dunfermline), 350
Nelson, Thomas, & Co., 26 Newton Chambers Engineerin Ltd., 225 Norwest Holst, 35 Nuttall, Edmund, Sons & Co. Ltd, 159, 265 Oliver & Arrol, 95
Tancred, Arrol & Co. (1840я1910), 167 Tawse, Wm. (Aberdeen), 309 Taylor, Wm., & Son, 222 Thomson, Andrew, 51 Thornburn, James, & Sons (of Dalkeith), 134 Trowsdale & Son, 68
Park, John (Highstoneridge, Dumf.), 211 Parks Masons, 48 Pease, Hutchison & Co., 162 Peddie, R., & Co., 64 Redpath & Brown, 68, 77 Redpath, Stephen, 103 Ritson, William, 61, 62, 63 Robertson & Co., 67
Walker & Burns, 354 Watson & Robertson (Biggar), 236 Watt & Wilson, 340 Whatlings Ltd, 32, 314 Wilson, Alexander, 302, 303, 304 Wilson, Wm. & Charles, 222 Wimpey, George, & Co., 306 Young, C. D., & Co., 86, 100 Young, James, & Sons, 74
382

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