CONSERVATIVE PARTY TREASURERS AND PEERAGES, 1986-2016 (REVISED

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Content: CONSERVATIVE PARTY TREASURERS AND PEERAGES, 1986-2016 (REVISED) Dr Seth Alexander Thйvoz 5 April 2017 Working Paper 2017-04 A Gwilym Gibbon Centre for public policy Working Paper
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! "Every Treasurer of the Party has Gone to the Lords, and I Hope I Don't Set a Precedent by Being the First Who Doesn't": Conservative Party Treasurers and Peerages, 1986-2016! ! by! ! Dr Seth Alexander Thйvoz ([email protected]) ! ! !Preface! Despite the central constitutional role of Conservative Party Treasurers in keeping the wheels of party political finance rolling, often doubling up as legislators, I have been surprised by the lack of even basic information about these individuals. Who are they? What do they do? Why do so many of them end up in the House of Lords? What sort of peers do they make? This paper seeks to start to address such basic yet fundamental !questions. ! The paper represents the first draft of an evolving piece of work in this area, which I hope !to refine and develop, and I would warmly welcome all comments and feedback.! It is inevitable that any work like this, focusing on an area which has received surprisingly little scrutiny, will have its fair share of errors or omissions, all responsibility for which remains my own. If you have any comments, corrections or feedback, I would be delighted to hear from you. I would be particularly keen to hear from former (or indeed current) !!!Treasurers of the Conservative Party, and those who have worked with them.!
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior !reference to the author. !Introduction! It is curious that one of the most reliable routes to gaining a peerage today is to serve as a Treasurer of the Conservative Party. No other British political party has such a consistent record of putting up its Treasurers for peerages. This is doubly odd, given how relatively !inactive most Conservative Treasurers have been in the Lords. ! In the last 30 years, 5 Prime Ministers have retired, yet only one of them has become a peer. By contrast, 17 of the 21 Conservative Party Treasurers during that time have been nominated for peerages -- some 81.0%. Few other jobs have come with such a comparably reliable route to ennoblement; and all of them have involved working in some senior role for the state rather than for political parties, i.e. Archbishop of Canterbury (3 out of 3 who retired in the last 30 years have received life peerages), Cabinet Secretary (5 out of 5), Governor of the Bank of England (3 out of 3), Lord Advocate of Scotland (6 out of 8), Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales (7 out of 7, including the incumbent), Private Secretary to the Sovereign (3 out of 4), and the Speaker of the House of Commons (3 out of 3). The Conservative Treasurership offers even better odds of peerage nomination than having been a Cabinet Minister during the last 30 years (only 100 out of 189 have been ennobled, or 52.9%; or if we disregard the 46 former Cabinet Ministers still sitting in the Commons, that still makes 100 out of 143, or 69.9%). Furthermore, with the exception of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, a select handful of Cabinet posts, and the more complicated case of Archbishops of Canterbury (who typically go through 2 types of peerage), most of these roles involve being given a peerage on retirement, whereas the Conservative Treasurership often involves a peerage being bestowed during the period in !office. ! Conservative Party Treasurers have never received any dedicated study of their own. They recur in Michael Pinto-Duschinksy's landmark study of British Political Finance, 1830-1980.1 They are prone to occasional coverage in political gossip columns. Yet they rarely describe the mechanics of their job -- only two former Conservative Treasurers have written a memoir describing the role in any detail, both in the last 20 years.2 They !have eluded any sustained, standalone, serious study. ! So why are the Conservative Party's chief fundraisers so conspicuously adept at being elevated to the House of Lords; and what kind of contribution do they make in the House !of Lords? ! !About the Conservative Party Treasurer! The Conservative Party seldom advertises its Treasurers -- there is no externallyaccessible list of recent Treasurers, not even in political reference works like British Political Facts, or the Almanac of British Politics. Indeed, so low-profile is the Conservative
!1 See Michael Pinto-Duschinsky, British Political Finance, 1830-1980 (Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1980).
!2 See Alistair McAlpine, Once a Jolly Bag Man (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997); Michael Ashcroft, Dirty Politics, Dirty Times: My Fight With Wapping and New Labour - New Updated Edition (Chichester: MAA Publishing, 2006).
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. Party Treasurer that one nominee for the role (who ended up resigning 6 weeks before being due to take up the post in 2010), was described as, "Notoriously camera shy", with !the only publicly-available image of him at the time dating from 39 years earlier.3 ! Conservative Treasurers are appointed by the Party Leader. There is no mechanism for electing them or for removing them, save by lobbying the Leader. Like peerages, the position is entirely in the Leader's gift, and depends on their patronage; Margaret Thatcher explained the job was, "Hers to dispose of as she wished."4 The role is primarily that of the !party's principal fundraiser. ! The role has existed since 1911, when the constitutional crisis of the preceding two years triggered a reorganisation of the Unionists. The party management and fundraising functions which had previously been handled by the Conservative Chief Whip in the House of Commons were delegated to 2 newly-created roles: the Chairman and the Treasurer. !The party's first Treasurer, Lord Farquhar, served 12 years in post.5! Pressure to raise funds is considerable. Former Treasurer Lord Beaverbrook told a House of Lords debate on party funding in 1997, "I have been responsible for the raising of very substantial sums for the Conservative Party", but that, "Contrary to popular perception, however much we raised for the Conservative Party it never seemed to be enough. The ever increasing cost of running the central organisation of a major political party tends to !mean that whatever one raises has already been spent."6! Treasurers have a tendency to face a mountain of debts on their arrival. When Lord McAlpine was appointed in 1975, the Conservative Party was Ј500,000 in debt.7 When Lord Hambro took over in 1993, the Conservative Party had a Ј19 million overdraft.8 When Lord Ashcroft became Treasurer in 1998, the Conservative Party was teetering at the limit of a Ј4 million overdraft, spending Ј14 million a year compared to only Ј6 million a year in !income.! Lord McAlpine was arguably the first truly "modern" Conservative Party Treasurer. A close friend of Margaret Thatcher's, he served throughout most of her 15 years as Conservative Leader. His fundraising techniques were memorably larger-than-life, and the title of his memoirs, Once a Jolly Bag Man, was a sly reference to his reputation for fundraising in the
!3 Paul Lewis and Rob Evans, `David Rowland: Multimillionaire Who Courted Controversy Throughout His Rise', The Guardian, 20 August 2010.
!4 McAlpine, Bag Man, p. 201.
!5 Pinto-Dusckinsky, Finance, pp. 45-46.
!6 Hansard, HL Deb, 5 February 1997, vol 577, col 1694.
!7 McAlpine, Bag Man, p. 202.
!8 `Obituary: Lord Hambro', The Times, 11 November 2002, p. 28.
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
City of London with the use of a large sack as a prop.9 At the time, there were no legal requirements for political parties to publish accounts, or for parties to declare donations; so the Conservative Party only published abbreviated accounts every few years, which never !revealed the source of donations.10!
The Treasurer's role has evolved over the years. Originally, there was just one Treasurer. Since 1947, the post has usually been a job-share between 2 (or 3) individuals, often described as "Co-Treasurers", with one being the "Senior Treasurer"; although the distinction is a somewhat informal one. Since 2010, the Senior Treasurer has been Howard Leigh. There has also long been a separate Party Treasurer who works as a paid member of staff, dedicated to ensuring legal compliance (a role whose duties have increased since 2000 -- see below), and is credited as "Treasurer" in internal party documents, and is termed the Treasurer with regards to the party's statutory obligations, but who has minimal involvement in fundraising. This study does not focus on the last !category of individual. !
In recent years, the duties of the Conservative Party Treasurer have increased due to the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (PPERA). A number of the reforms introduced by the Act were a conscious bid by the then Labour Government to end several previously-existing practices among Conservative Treasurers. Amongst the reforms was the compulsory public declaration of all donations above a certain threshold (Ј7,500 to a national political party, or Ј1,500 to a party accounting unit); and a ban on overseas donations (with the requirement that donors either be individuals registered to vote in the UK, or that they be companies trading in the UK). Lord McAlpine was strongly opposed to !these reforms, favouring the pre-existing system of preserving individual donor anonymity: !
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The Treasurers had rules that any donation from an individual was a !
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matter kept confidential between the donor and Treasurers. This was the !
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rule long before I arrived at Central Office and I sincerely hope that rule !
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will always be kept. A citizen is entitled to privacy as to which political !
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party they support at the ballot box, so why should they declare which !
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political party they support financially?11!
McAlpine remained famously secretive, restricting the donors' lists to himself, and to the party's Director and Deputy Director of Finance, with copies kept in safes in Smith Square, and at their homes. McAlpine's Co-Treasurers were not allowed to see the lists.12 However, although the party maintained strict internal and external secrecy prior to 2000 over the sources of donations, its former Chairman, Lord Fowler, insisted in 1993 that it
!9 See McAlpine, Bag Man, pp. 201-269 for his account of his tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer. The provenance of his "Bagman" nickname in the City of London was given to me by someone who worked as a City trader in the 1980s, who prefers to remain anonymous.
!10 John Walker, The Queen Has Been Pleased: The British Honours System at Work (London: Secker & Warburg, 1986), pp. 164-206.
!11 McAlpine, Bag Man, p. 251.
!12 Martin Linton, Money and Votes (London: Institute for Public Policy Research, 1994), p. 74.
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
had "Very strict rules" banning anonymous donations.13 Lord Beaverbrook concurred, insisting in 1997 that rigorous checks were undertaken on donors, and that, "No political party accepts money which it knows is tainted. To do so would create a time bomb. If it !goes off, it has quite the opposite effect to gaining more votes."14!
!On the subject of corporate donations, McAlpine added:!
!
The law [as framed 1967-2001] says quite clearly that such a donation !
!
must be declared in the accounts of the company concerned. The onus for !
!
deciding whether a donation is political or not lies with the directors of the !
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company who give the donation. It is not the responsibility of the Treasurers !
!!
of the Conservative Party.15!
This was, however, somewhat disingenuous. Since the 1967 Companies Act, companies have had a statutory duty to declare all sizeable political donations made out of company funds, in their Annual ReportS. However, until 2001 there was no central registry of such donations, and so historically, the only way such donations could be checked was by manually ordering from Companies House each annual report for Britain's one million or so registered companies, at a cost of Ј1 per query, and checking whether any political donations were listed for that year. Such arrangements were therefore far from transparent. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Labour Research Department embarked on a trawl of annual reports from the 2,000 largest major public companies. By matching those records to the Conservative Party accounts in years when accounts were published (like 1980), they found that around two-thirds of the company donations in the party accounts were covered by these 2,000 firms' donations. The remaining third of company donations !were impossible to trace.16!
Further doubt was cast on the Conservative Party's commitment to transparency in 1993, when The Independent obtained a copy of a scheme proposed by Conservative Central Office to boost donations. Companies were invited to deposit money in an account with the party's bankers, and instead of deriving interest, the interest would go towards offsetting the Conservative Party's Ј19 million overdraft. As Robert Monks and Nell Minnow pointed out, "One of the advantages cited by the Conservative Central Office? The !proposed interest-free loans would not need to be disclosed to shareholders."17!
On the topic of overseas donors, McAlpine had this to say, implicitly acknowledging that some of the Conservative Party's 1980s donors were indeed based overseas, and that not !all of them were trading in the UK:!
!13 Anthony Bevins, `Tory Scandal: Web of Secrecy Cloaks the Truth About Policy on Donations', The Independent, 23 January 1998.
!14 Hansard, HL Deb, 5 February 1997, vol 577, col 1695.
!15 McAlpine, Bag Man, pp. 251-252.
!16 Walker, Pleased, pp. 168-171.
!17 Robert A.G. Monks and Nell Minow, Corporate Governance, 5th Edition (Oxford: Wiley, 2011), p. 40.
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
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In recent years, there has been much talk of rich foreigners supporting the !
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Conservative Party. It is true that foreigners, some richer than others, do. !
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In my day they mostly owned companies in Britain.18!
The enforcement of PPERA from 2001 has, however, fundamentally transformed the role of Treasurers and donors within the Conservative Party; and all sizeable donations have had to be declared in full with the Electoral Commission. The removal of anonymity for donors since 2001 has accordingly created extra challenges for Treasurers in wooing "shy" !donors. ! !
!Peerages for Conservative Party Treasurers, 1986-2016!
As noted, the Conservative Party's Treasurers seem to be appointed to the Lords with striking predictability. In 1999, Conservative Party Treasurer Michael Ashcroft famously told the Mail on Sunday, "I think every Treasurer of the [Conservative] party has gone to
the Lords and I hope I don't set a precedent by being the first who doesn't."19 Although
Ashcroft was not quite correct -- there were at the time a handful of non-ennobled Treasurers, whether due to premature death, resignation, or other factors-- Table 1 makes it clear just how strong the link is. (The fuller list of Tory Treasurers in Appendix 1A gives a !longer-term Historical Perspective.)!
Not only have 17 of the 21 Conservative Party Treasurers of the last 30 years been nominated for peerages, but the average time to nomination is some 3.2 years after taking office as Treasurer. 5 of the 17 nominated Treasurers have had to wait longer than this average, and the other 12 have been nominated more quickly than the average would suggest. Indeed, there seems to be some indication that the "lag time" is being further reduced, and the recent ennoblement of Andrew Fraser, in the same year that he became Treasurer, is a case in point. However, this is an inexact science, not least due to the effects of rounding, and because the peerage vetting process can take a variable amount !of time between initial nomination and final announcement. !
11 of the 17 peerage nominations were made during the occupant's term as Treasurer; only 6 were made once they had retired. As noted, this makes it very different to many honours that are almost automatically bestowed on people upon retirement, rather than when they are still in post. Indeed, of the various "typical" categories of skill sets found in the House of Lords, it is only professionals (doctors, barristers, etc) and businessmen who !have tended to be appointed mid-career whilst they are still practising.!
None of the 17 life peerage nominations were made before these people had assumed the Treasurership. In other words, there was no predisposition to select people who were already life peers; although there was one individual Treasurer who was a third-generation hereditary peer when he was appointed to the post, and if we go further back several decades, past Treasurers had been appointed to the Lords before taking up the Treasurership-- but the practice has not been present in the last 30 years. Even if we go back further into the 20th century, when people who were already peers or baronets were
!18 McAlpine, Bag Man, pp. 251-252.
!19 Ashcroft later repeated the comment in his autobiography, Ashcroft, Dirty Politics, p. 100, adding, "It is a
quote that has often been used in profiles of me over the years, but I meant what I said."
!
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. appointed Tory Treasurers, we find that they typically received additional peerages to promote them up the ranks of the aristocracy -- so Baron Farquhar became first Viscount Farquhar and then Earl Farquhar, Sir George Younger became Viscount Younger of Leckie, Sir Samuel Hoare became Viscount Templewood, Baron Greenwood became Viscount Greenwood, Baron Marchwood became Viscount Marchwood, Baron De L'Isle !and Dudley became Viscount De L'Isle; in each case after assuming the Treasurership. ! Whether the Conservative Party is in office or in opposition does not seem to materially affect whether Conservative Treasurers are eventually put forwards for peerages. However, Treasurers who serve when the Tories are in opposition sometimes have longer to wait. Alistair McAlpine, who served his first 4 years in opposition, had to wait a further 5 years into the Thatcher government to receive a peerage, some 9 years into his time in post. Howard Leigh, who served 10 years in opposition, had to wait some 13 years into his stint as Treasurer. And Michael Spencer, who served 3 years as Treasurer in opposition, had his name put forward three times, believed to be 6, 8 and 9 years respectively after becoming Treasurer. But not all Treasurers in opposition have so long a wait -- Graham Kirkham, Michael Ashcroft, Stanley Kalms and Jonathan Marland were all promptly !ennobled in less than average time in opposition.! !Table 1 -- Conservative Party Treasurers and Peerages, 1986-2016!
Name
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/ Co-Treasurer
Year of peerage awarded
Number of years between beginning tenure as Treasurer, and being awarded a peerage
Alistair McAlpine, Baron
1975-1990
1984
9
McAlpine of West Green
Oulton Wade, Baron
1982-1990
1990
8
Wade of Chorlton
Charles Johnston, Baron
1984-1987
1987
3
Johnston of Rockport
Hector Laing, Baron Laing
1988-1993
1991
1
of Dunphill
Max Aitken, 3rd Baron Beaverbrook
1990-1992
1985 N/A
(hereditary peerage;
(already a hereditary peer)
ineligible to sit after
declaring bankruptcy in
1992)
Tim Smith MP
1992-1994
(not a peer; stood down as Treasurer to become a minister; subsequently embroiled in "cash for questions" affair)
N/A (not a peer)
Philip Harris, Baron Harris
1993-1997
1995
2
of Peckham
Charles Hambro, Baron
1994-1997
1994
1
Hambro of Dixton and
Dumbleton
Graham Kirkham, Baron
1997-1998
1999
2
Kirkham of Old Cantley
!
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
Name
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/ Co-Treasurer
Year of peerage awarded
Number of years between beginning tenure as Treasurer, and being awarded a peerage
Michael Ashcroft, Baron
1998-2001
2000
2
Ashcroft of Chichester
Howard Leigh, Baron
2000-present
2013
13
Leigh of Hurley
Stanley Kalms, Baron
2001-2003
2004
3
Kalms of Edgware
George Magan, Baron
2003-2007
2011
8
Magan of Castletown
Jonathan Marland, Baron
2005-2008
2006
1
Marland of Odstock
Michael Spencer
2007-2010
(not a peer; nominated for a peerage in 2013, 2015 & 2016, but reportedly vetoed by HoLAC each time)
N/A (nominated for a peerage 6, 8 & 9 years after he began his tenure as Treasurer)
Richard Harrington
2008-2010 (not a peer; elected an MP in
N/A
2010)
Stanley Fink, Baron Fink
2010-2013
2011
1
of Northwood
Peter Cruddas
2011-2012 (not a peer; dismissed as
N/A
Conservative Party
Treasurer after a "cash for
access" scandal)
Michael Farmer, Baron
2012-present
2014
2
Farmer of Bishopsgate
James Lupton, Baron
2013-2016
2015
2
Lupton of Lovington
Andrew Fraser, Baron
2016-present
2016
0
Fraser of Corriegarth
!
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Source: Who's Who and Who Was Who.!
As to why so many Treasurers have been advanced to the peerage, it is instructive to look
!at the reasons given to Michael Ashcroft by William Hague for nominating him:!
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This was, he said, in recognition of my work and support for the !
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Conservative Party. He particularly wanted to acknowledge publicly his !
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gratitude for my work as Treasurer which, although time-consuming and !
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pressurised, is of course unpaid.20!
This is a revealing rationalisation of such peerages, putting them on a par with volunteers,
and organisers in the voluntary sector. There is, of course, a long-standing convention of
awarding honours to those in the voluntary sector, in recognition of their work and of the
payment they have often forgone in pursuit of voluntary work. But such honours are
typically at the lower end of the scale, often limited to MBEs and OBEs, and they rarely
!20 Ibid., p. 79.
!
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. involve more than a knighthood. Outside of the Conservative Party Treasurership, elevation to the peerage for voluntary work is very rare indeed. If we put party Treasurers to one side, then since 1986, of the 807 peers appointed, merely a handful have been appointed from the voluntary sector; most conspicuously, Victor Adebowale, Amir Bhatia, John Bird and Nicky Chapman, who were all put forward under the "People's Peer" scheme introduced in 2001. Aside from Treasurers, political parties have been noticeably reluctant to appoint peers whose primary expertise is in the voluntary sector -- although !many party political peers maintain charitable and voluntary interests on the side. ! By contrast, of the other parties during this time, only 2 of Labour's 6 Treasurers have been ennobled, along with 4 of the Lib Dems' 6 Treasurers (although 2 of the 4 Lib Dems were already peers when appointed Treasurer); while the SNP boycotts Lords appointments entirely, so all 6 of its Treasurers for the last 30 years have instead sought !elected public office rather than a peerage, with 5 of the 6 being successful. ! !Conservative Party Treasurers Without Peerages! There have been 4 individuals who have served as Conservative Party Treasurer in the !last 30 years, yet have never been nominated for a peerage. ! One is Max Aitken, the 3rd Baron Beaverbrook, Treasurer in 1990-2, who most obviously did not need a life peerage, as he was already a hereditary peer; although he was debarred from sitting in the Lords for several years when he declared bankruptcy in !October 1992, 5 months after standing down as Treasurer.21 ! Secondly, there was Beaverbrook's successor, Tim Smith MP. Like Beaverbrook, Smith served only 2 years as a Treasurer, in his case standing down to take up a ministerial position. However, his chances of being ennobled remain slim after his embroilment in the "cash for questions" scandal. Although Smith was cleared by Sir Gordon Downey of the original allegations against him, a House of Commons Standards and Privileges Committee report found that Smith had accepted undeclared cash payments of Ј18,000Ј25,000 from Harrod's owner Mohamed Al Fayed in exchange for lobbying services, and had sought to conceal his financial interest in Al Fayed's House of Fraser department store chain.22 Smith retired from the House of Commons in 1997, and has subsequently left !politics altogether. ! Thirdly, there was Richard Harrington, Treasurer in 2008-10, who stood down after having been elected an MP. As he gained a seat in the House of Commons, there was no need for him to be given a seat in the House of Lords; and indeed, any peerage for him while !sitting as an MP would have triggered a by-election.! Fourthly, there was Peter Cruddas, Treasurer in 2011-2. Cruddas was dismissed by David Cameron as Treasurer after the Sunday Times printed a covert recording of him as part of a "cash for access" sting operation. Cruddas successfully sued the Sunday Times over the
!21 Stephen Ward, `Beaverbrook Preparing to Declare Bankruptcy', The Independent, 15 October 1992; Lin Jenkins, `Beaverbrook Goes Bankrupt', The Times, 16 October 1992, p. 5.
!22 House of Commons Select Committee on Standards and Privileges, Complaints from Mr Mohamed Al Fayed, The Guardian and Others Against 25 Members and Former Members; 1997-1998 Session, Seventh Report (1997).
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A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. story a year later, though last year, the Court of Appeal upheld a ruling of libel and malicious falsehood against the Sunday Times, for making wrongful allegations around overseas donations as part of this story; but they also ruled that the Sunday Times' main accusation against Cruddas, of his having offered donors access to ministers in exchange for cash had indeed been justified, and they demanded that he return Ј130,000 of the Ј180,000 in damages he had previously been awarded.23 Throughout this legal case, it has been reported that Cruddas has maintained he was "Hung out to dry" by the Conservative Party.24 Nonetheless, he has continued to donate money to the Conservative !Party, as recently as 2016.25! Additionally, there is the singular case of Michael Spencer, Conservative Party Treasurer from 2007-10. Spencer has reportedly had his nomination for a peerage blocked by the House of Lords Appointments Commission (HoLAC) at least 3 times.26 Friends of Spencer's argue that he has been treated unfairly, highlighting that Spencer himself was wholly acquitted of any wrongdoing in the Libor scandal, and that he has consistently had a peerage blocked over unfounded and disproved allegations. If it is the case that Spencer has been vetoed by HoLAC 3 times (which is hard to verify, given HoLAC's refusal to confirm or deny names, but is consistent with FoI responses I have received from HoLAC over the party composition and spread of blocked peerage nominations),27 then he would !be the only person to have been proposed and blocked for a peerage 3 times. ! Finally, it is worth noting the case of Michael Ashcroft. He was appointed Conservative Party Treasurer in June 1998, and was proposed for a peerage by William Hague early in 1999, but was blocked in May of that year over concerns about his tax status. Hague's
!23 Adam Sherwin, 'Peter Cruddas Did Offer Access to David Cameron for Donations, Court of Appeal Rules', The Independent, 17 March 2015.
!24 `Peter Cruddas Wins Ј180k in Libel Damages', Sky News, 31 July 2013.
!25 Electoral Commission database, http://search.electoralcommission.org.uk/.
!26 There was also a report in the Daily Mail alleging that Spencer had had an earlier peerage nomination blocked by HoLAC in 2010, but this is almost certainly erroneous, as HoLAC blocked only 1 Conservative nominee in 2010, and a leak from HoLAC reportedly named that nominee-- with the identity of that name subsequently also repeated by a Conservative Party spokesperson. See Andrew Pierce, `Humiliated: Billionaire Crony of Cameron Sees Dream of Peerage Shot Down for FOURTH Time', Daily Mail, 3 August 2016. The Financial Times reported that Spencer had been blocked 3 times, including once in 2016, once in 2013, and once prior to that. See Oliver Ralph and George Parker, `Michael Spencer's Allies Decry `Unfairness' in Lack of Peerage; Founder of ICAP has Failed to Make it to House of Lords, Unlike Other Former Tory Party Treasurers', Financial Times, 24 July 2016.
!27 Response under the Freedom of Information Act 2000, Ref: HOLACFOI10, HOLACFOI11, from House of Lords Appointments Commission to Seth Alexander Thйvoz, 28 September 2015. The response confirms the party composition of the blocked nominees, as well as listing how many nominees have been blocked in each month. It states that only 2 peerages were blocked in 2010, both in May of that year. It also confirms information already released under previous FoI responses (as of 2014), that a total of 6 Labour nominees had been blocked over the years. As a series of leaks from HoLAC have already confirmed the identities and distribution spread of those 6 Labour nominees (4 in 2006, 1 in 2010, 1 in 2013), and as no parties other than Labour and the Conservatives had yet had peerages blocked prior to 2015, that indicates that the 1 remaining peerage blocked by HoLAC in May 2010 was a Conservative nominee. Additionally, the response confirmed that at that time, no single nominee had ever been blocked for a peerage by HoLAC more than twice.
!
10
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. plans to renominate him were delayed whilst Ashcroft also resolved a libel action against The Times over the summer of 1999, but Hague then duly re-nominated him a second time.28 On 3 March 2000, Tony Blair initially wrote to William Hague to say that Ashcroft had again had his peerage vetoed by the Political Honours Scrutiny Committee for a second time, over concerns on his tax status.29 However, after further discussion and negotiation, on 22 March 2000 Ashcroft offered in writing, "My clear and unequivocal assurance that I have decided to take up permanent residence in the UK again before the end of the calendar year", and that this was a "Solemn and binding undertaking". It was generally assumed that this was an indication that he would become domiciled in the UK for tax purposes (although Ashcroft's letter did not explicitly state this), and his peerage was duly announced on 31 March 2000.30 The episode was the last major incident in the old vetting system for peerages, with vetting powers shifting from 2001 to the newly- !created House of Lords Appointments Commission. ! As an addendum, in March 2010, Lord Ashcroft publicly admitted that he was not domiciled in the UK for tax purposes, that he did not pay UK tax on overseas income, and he had not done so for the last decade, although would do so from 2010 onwards under the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010 (CRGA), which forced peers to do pay tax on all their income if they wished to keep their seats.31 On 3 April 2015, Ashcroft retired from the House of Lords under the new retirement options offered by the House of Lords Reform Act 2014 -- one of the first Conservative peers to do so, and the only former Treasurer to do so.32 (It should, however, be noted that Lord McAlpine agreed to a form of forced retirement in 2010, as he was unwilling to give up his non-domiciled tax status, and !so he was unseated from the Lords under the terms of CRGA.)33! !Seen and Not Heard? Conservative Treasurers in the House of Lords! Conservative Party Treasurers have maintained a low profile in the public eye, with this often being reflected in their parliamentary involvement. The Times' obituary for Lord Chelmer noted that, "After being created a life peer in 1963, he attended the House of Lords for some thirty years without ever making a maiden speech."34 The obituary went on to repeat a common misconception, "It had earlier become an unwritten rule that the
!28 Ashcroft, Dirty Politics, p. 173, "It had also been made clear to me that the whole matter of revisiting my peerage nomination was on hold until my defamation action had been resolved."
!29 Ibid., p. 184.
!30 Iain Cobain, `Lord Ashcroft's "Unequivocal Assurance" That Finally Secured Peerage', The Guardian, 18 March 2010, with a copy of Ashcroft's original letter of assurance hosted at http://image.guardian.co.uk/sysimages/Politics/Pix/pictures/2010/03/19/MAtoWH.jpg.
!31 `Lord Ashcroft Admits Non-Dom Status', BBC News, 1 March 2010.
!32 `Retired Members of the House of Lords', Parliament.UK, viewed 15 August 2016.
!33 Richard Kelly, House of Lords Reform Act 2014: House of Commons Briefing Paper Number 06832 (London: House of Commons, 1 July 2016), p. 23.
!34 `Obituary: Lord Chelmer', The Times, 5 March 1997, p. 21.
!
11
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. party's treasurers should not speak in Parliament, to avoid giving any impression that anything said could be connected with political fundraising."35 How true is the claim around this "unwritten rule" he observed? Although this is reflective of how Conservative Party Treasurers are perceived in the Lords -- effectively, seen and not heard -- it is !questionable, both of Chelmer and of Conservative Treasurers in general. ! It is also worth querying the logic behind the assumption that a Party Treasurer's financial role means that they should not speak, but that it presents no obstacle to their voting on an issue. This runs directly counter to a long-standing constitutional principle, that MPs and peers' declarations of interests be based on anything which may conceivably sway their vote. Describing the system prior to the 1975 introduction of a Register of Members' Interests, Andrew Roth wrote in 1963, "It is customary when debating an issue to state whether you have something like a Directorship in the field. It is only mandatory when you are voting on a subject."36 In other words, there has traditionally been a higher bar to parliamentarians declaring something that may sway their vote than that which may sway their speeches. The fact that this convention was rather laxer in the area of parliamentary speeches, and that it was not unknown for parliamentarians to `forget' to declare an interest when speaking on a topic without declaring an interest, and then pointedly refusing to vote on it (so as to not be forced to declare it), remained a point open to !considerable abuse before the adoption of Lord Nolan's recommendations in the 1990s.! The digitisation of Hansard makes it possible to see whether there is much in this alleged tradition of non-speaking Treasurers in the Lords. While the below data is merely indicative rather than definitive -- it bundles together different types of "contributions" listed in Hansard, including full speeches, brief oral interjections, oral questions, and written questions -- it nonetheless gives a strong sense of which Treasurers were active in the !Lords, and which were not.! A perusal of the figures makes it clear that such a precedent has been weak or nonexistent. It is true that Conservative Treasurers have tended to speak infrequently while they still hold office. But even the earliest Treasurers spoke, sometimes prolifically. Nor have they felt precluded from speaking on controversial topics such as party finance, with Lords Beaverbrook, Chelmer and McAlpine all doing so, referencing their experience as Treasurer.37 And in recent years, two Treasurers have been noticeably active; Lords Ashcroft and Marland. Ashcroft only spoke once when he was Treasurer, in 2000;38 but made 464 interventions between 2004 and his retirement in 2015. Meanwhile, at the time of writing, Lord Marland has so far made 962 contributions in the last decade. The only other Treasurer of recent years to come even close to such high levels of recorded activity is one of the current incumbents, Lord Farmer, who has made 39 recorded contributions in the last 2 years. !
!35 Ibid.
!36 Andrew Roth, The Business Background of Members of Parliament, 3rd edition (London: Parliamentary Profiles Services Ltd, 1963), p. xi.
!37 See Hansard, HL Deb, 5 February 1997, vol 577, col 1695 for Beaverbrook, Hansard, HL Deb, 7 June 1995, vol 564, c1365, for Chelmer, Hansard, HL Deb, 7 November 1989, vol 512, cc563-565 for McAlpine.
!38 Hansard, HL Deb, 12 December 2000, vol 620, cc250-252.
!
12
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior !reference to the author. !Table 2 -- Conservative Party Treasurers and their House of Lords interventions!
Name
Tenure as Conservativ e Party Treasurer/ CoTreasurer
Tenure sitting in the House of Lords
No. of contributions in the House of Lords recorded in Hansard, to July 2016
Before
During
After
Treasurershi Treasurershi Treasurershi
p
p
p
Horace Farquhar, 1st Earl
1911-1923 1898-1923
11
Farquhar of Marylebone
5
N/A
George Younger, 1st Viscount Younger of Leckie
1923-1929 1923-1929
1
112
N/A
Samuel Hoare, 1st Viscount
1929-1931 1944-1959
N/A
N/A
446
Templewood of Chelsea
Rowland Blades, 1st Baron
1931-1933 1928-1953
5
0
0
Ebbisham of Cobham
Hamar Greenwood, 1st Viscount 1933-1938 1929-1948
0
0
4
Greenwood of Holbourne
George Penny, 1st Viscount
1938-1946 1937-1955
1
54
7
Marchwood of Penang, and of
Marchwood
Christopher Holland-Martin MP
1947-1960
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(Not a peer)
William Sidney, 1st Viscount De
1948-1952 1945-1991
107
159
112
L'Isle of Penshurst
Oliver Poole, 1st Baron Poole of
1952-1955 1958-1993
N/A
N/A
24
Aldgate
Sir Henry Studholme MP, 1st
1956-1962
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Baronet (Not a peer)
Robert Allan, Baron Allan of
1960-1965 1973-1979
N/A
N/A
2
Kilmahew
The Hon Richard Stanley MP
1962-1965
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(Not a peer)
Eric Edwards, Baron Chelmer of 1965-1977 1963-1977
5
1
7
Margaretting
Sir Tatton Brinton MP (Not a
1966-1974
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
peer)
Arnold Silverstone, Baron
1974-1977 1975-1977
N/A
Ashdown of Chelwood.
1
N/A
William Clark, Baron Clark of
1974-1975 1992-2004
N/A
N/A
267
Kempston
Alistair McAlpine, Baron
1975-1990 1984-2014
N/A
5
0
McAlpine of West Green
Thomas Boardman, Baron
1981-1982 1980-2003
19
24
536
Boardman of Welford
Oulton Wade, Baron Wade of
1982-1990 1990-present
N/A
Chorlton
9
287
!
13
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
Name
Tenure as Conservativ e Party Treasurer/ CoTreasurer
Tenure sitting in the House of Lords
No. of contributions in the House of Lords recorded in Hansard, to July 2016
Before
During
After
Treasurershi Treasurershi Treasurershi
p
p
p
Charles Johnston, Baron
1984-1987 1987-2002
N/A
0
7
Johnston of Rockport
Hector Laing, Baron Laing of
1988-1993 1991-2010
N/A
Dunphill
7
17
Maxwell Aitken, 3rd Baron
1990-1992 1985-1999
1,917
1
9
Beaverbrook
Tim Smith MP (Not a peer)
1992-1994
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Philip Harris, Baron Harris of
1993-1997 1996-present
N/A
1
9
Peckham
Charles Hambro, Baron Hambro 1994-1997 1994-2002
N/A
1
1
of Dixton and Dumbleton
Graham Kirkham, Baron
1997-1998 1999-present
N/A
N/A
7
Kirkham of Old Cantley
Michael Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft 1998-2001 2000-2015
N/A
of Chichester
1
464
Howard Leigh, Baron Leigh of 2000-present 2013-present
N/A
N/A
79
Hurley
Stanley Kalms, Baron Kalms of
2001-2003 2004-present
N/A
N/A
13
Edgware
George Magan, Baron Magan of 2003-2007
2011-
N/A
N/A
2
Castletown
present
Jonathan Marland, Baron Marland of Odstock
2005-2008 2006-present
N/A
7
955
Michael Spencer
2007-2010
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Richard Harrington (Not a peer)
2008-2010
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Stanley Fink, Baron Fink of
2010-2013
2011-
N/A
Northwood
present
2
11
Peter Cruddas (Not a peer)
2011-2012
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Michael Farmer, Baron Farmer 2012-present 2014-present
N/A
of Bishopsgate
39
N/A
James Lupton, Baron Lupton of
2013-2016 2015-present
N/A
4
3
Lovington
Andrew Fraser, Baron Fraser of 2016-present 2016-present
N/A
N/A
N/A
Corriegarth
!
Source: Hansard, compiled with the assistance of Hansard 1803-2005, http://
hansard.millbanksystems.com/, and with data since 2000 provided by https://
!
www.theyworkforyou.com/. !
!
!
14
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
!Conservative Treasurers and their Donations!
Although the link between Treasurers and peerages is clear from the above data, one might ask how Treasurers differ from other members of the peerage? One very noticeable way is through their own party political donations. We have noted that a Treasurer's role involves soliciting donations, but most Treasurers are also substantial donors themselves. !The known donations are listed below for the post-1986 Treasurers (Table 3).!
The presence of such donations invariably lays the donors open to various accusations and suspicions of the party being in their debt, even when completely unfounded -- no doubt one of the reasons why the Conservative Party went to great lengths, prior to the 2001 change in law, to guarantee the anonymity of its donors. As Lord McAlpine !complained in 1989, when speaking in favour of state funding for political parties:!
!
It is all left, so to speak, to the voluntary effort. All money going into political !
!
parties whether from Trade unions or from industry is tainted money. It all !
!!
springs from self-interest. It is not there in the national interest.39!
Table 3 -- Conservative Party Treasurers and their Donations, 1986-2016 40 41 !
!
Name
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/CoTreasurer
Total in donations to the Conservative Party
Notes
Alistair McAlpine, Baron McAlpine of West Green
1975-1990
??? Term of office predates Electoral Commission records.
Oulton Wade, Baron Wade of Chorlton
1982-1990
??? Term of office predates Electoral Commission records.
Charles Johnston, Baron Johnston of Rockport
1984-1987
??? Term of office predates Electoral Commission records.
Max Aitken, 3rd Baron Beaverbrook
1990-1992
??? Term of office predates Electoral Commission records.
Hector Laing, Baron Laing of Dunphill
1988-1993
??? "The largest corporate donor to Conservative party funds"40
Term of office predates Electoral Commission records.
Philip Harris, Baron Harris of Peckham
1993-1997
Ј710,409.04 Term of office predates Electoral Commission (2004-2015) records.
!39 Hansard, HL Deb, 7 November 1989, vol 512, c566.
!40 David McKitterick, `Obituary: Lord Laing of Dunphail: Businessman and Pioneer of Corporate Social Responsibility Who Became Tory Party Treasurer', The Independent,12 July 2010.
!41 Robert A.G. Monks and Nell Minow, Corporate Governance, 5th Edition (Oxford: Wiley, 2011), p. 40.
!
15
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
Name
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/CoTreasurer
Total in donations to the Conservative Party
Notes
Charles Hambro, Baron Hambro of Dixton and Dumbleton
1993-1997
Over Term of office predates Electoral Commission $1,000,000.00 records. Hambro served on the board of P&O (c.Ј650,000.00) and Taylor Woodrow.41 (1997) from P&O and Taylor Woodrow
Graham Kirkham, Baron Kirkham of Old Cantley
1997-1998
Ј4,000,000.00 (prior to 1996)
Term of office predates Electoral Commission records. It has been stated by former Labour MP Martin Linton under parliamentary privilege that Kirkham donated Ј4,000,000.00 to the Conservatives prior to his 1996 knighthood.42
Michael Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft of Chichester
1998-2001
Ј8,000,000.00 Term of office mostly predates Electoral (1980s-2000) Commission records, but he states in his memoirs that he donated Ј1,000,000.00 during the Thatcher government, Ј1,000,000.00 during the Major government, and Ј6,000,000.00 during his stint as Treasurer under William Hague.
Howard Leigh, Baron Leigh of Hurley
2000-present
Ј159,602.79 Term of office partially predates Electoral (2001-2015) Commission records. plus Leigh is a Director of Cavendish Corporate Ј167,499.60 Finance (UK) Ltd, as well as being its majority (2002-2015) shareholder. from Cavendish Corporate Finance (UK) Ltd
Stanley Kalms, Baron Kalms of Edgware
2001-2003
Ј812,287.12 (2001-2015)
George Magan, Baron Magan of Castletown
2003-2007
Ј1,490,800.00 (2002-2008)
Jonathan Marland, Baron Marland of Odstock
2005-2008
Ј304,788.67 Additionally, the J.P. Marland Charitable Trust (2003-2015) donated an additional Ј10,000.00 to Conservatives for Change Ltd.
Michael Spencer
2007-2010
Ј314,989.59 IPGL Ltd, of which Spencer is founder and (2001-2010) Chairman, also donated a further Ј60,000.00 plus to No Campaign Ltd. ICAP plc also donated a Ј4,189,240.46 further Ј24,307.94 to the Conservative Party. (2008-2016) from IPGL Ltd.
Richard Harrington
2008-2010
Ј36,149.42 (2006-2010)
Stanley Fink, Baron Fink of Northwood
2010-2013
Ј3,341,007.26 (2003-2016)
Peter Cruddas
2011-2012
Ј1,509,948.66 Also donated an additional Ј350,000.00 to the (2009-2016) Vote Leave campaign.
Michael Farmer, Baron Farmer of Bishopsgate
2012-present
Ј8,790,510.34 Also donated an additional Ј300,000.00 to the (2001-2016) Vote Leave campaign.
James Lupton, Baron Lupton of Lovington
2013-2016
Ј3,020,435.32 (2009-2016)
!
16
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
Name
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/CoTreasurer
Total in donations to the Conservative Party
Notes
Andrew Fraser, Baron Fraser of Corriegarth !
2016-present
Ј300,000.00 Also donated a further Ј100,000.00 to the (2014) Better Together campaign for Scotland to remain in the union, plus Ј20,000.00 to Let's Stay Together
!
Source: Electoral Commission database, http://search.electoralcommission.org.uk/. !
Accordingly, over the years, there have been a string of accusations levelled at donors to
all parties, suggesting "cash for honours" and "cash for peerages", with allegations of titles
being illegally sold by all major UK parties to maintain party funds.42 Historically, these
could be quite specific. For instance, in 1962, Liberal MP Jeremy Thorpe claimed of Harold
!Macmillan's premiership:!
!
Under Mr Macmillan we seem to be reverting -- at least in the lower !
!
echelons -- to something not far removed from the sale of honours. !
!
Though the honours are not actually sold, cheques are signed by!
!
honorary chairmen and treasurers in confident expectation of favours !
!!
to come. And the Tory Party acquires a lot of funds as a direct result.43!
With Conservative Party Treasurers being in charge of fundraising, and with their often
being major donors themselves who are frequently in receipt of peerages, they have
almost invariably found themselves on the receiving end of such accusations. There have
been robust, emphatic denials of any such practices having ever been carried out by any
Tory Treasurers, or of any link between money and honours. Lord Chelmer told the House
!of Lords of his lengthy stint as Conservative Treasurer: !
!
During that time no one person gave me any money in connection with !
!
some benefit that he or she might receive. One man--and it is greatly to !
!
his dishonour--entered into a deed to give me Ј1 million under certain ! !
!
circumstances, which I was not able to fulfil. When he died, on his !
!!
gravestone he was still "Mr".44!
!Additionally, Lord McAlpine had this to say in his memoirs:!
!
The Conservative Party did not sell honours when I was Treasurer. The !
!42 See, for instance, Walker, Pleased; Bobby Friedman, Democracy Ltd: How Money and Donations Corrupted British Politics (London: OneWorld, 2013), pp. 93-107; Martin Williams, Parliament Ltd: A Journey to the Dark Heart of British Politics (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2016), pp. 174-186.
!43 Quoted in James McMillan, The Honours Game (London: Leslie Frewin, 1969), p. 143. There is a certain irony to these allegations having been made by Thorpe, since there is some evidence that he himself may have engaged in the sale of peerages when he became Liberal Party Leader 5 years later. See Michael Bloch, Jeremy Thorpe (London: Little, Brown, 2014), pp. 257, 268n; Seth Alexander Thйvoz, `What Price a Lib Dem Peerage?', Liberator, 371, April 2015, pp. 6-7.
!44 Hansard, HL Deb, 7 June 1995, vol 564, c1365.
!
17
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
!
evidence clearly shows that top industrialists receive honours, and that !
!
the companies where these top industrialists work often give money to the !
!
Conservatives. Separately both conclusions are accurate; to link them is a !
!
dangerous error. Sir James Goldsmith and Sir James Hanson, now Lord !
!
Hanson. Both of these men's companies contributed to the Conservatives, !
!
both of these men received their knighthoods under Labour governments. I !
!
am sure that if party political donations were abolished it would not change !
!!
the complexion of the Honours List one jot nor title.45 !
A 2015 statistical analysis I undertook with Oxford University economiSt Andrew Mell and University of Southern California political scientist Simon Radford was the first long-term study of the link between donations and peerages, covering data pertaining to peers appointed between 2005 and 2014. It turned out that one in nine peers were "big donors" to political parties; or if one discounted "the usual suspects" made up of retired politicians, and people in occupations which invariably result in a peerage, then the ratio increased to one in three. We found that the odds of so many donors all being appointed to the Lords by coincidence -- and it is often maintained by all parties that the high number of donors in the Lords is nothing more than a coincidence -- were absolutely astronomical, being in the region of one in 73,500 decillion (or in layman's terms, approximately the odds of a person entering the National Lottery for 5 weeks running, and winning the jackpot back to back for each of those 5 weeks running). It is possible that it is mere coincidence. Just
!staggeringly improbable.46 !
However, a crucial corollary of our findings was that they reflected practices across the data set as a whole -- 303 peerage nominations over a nine-and-a-half year period, from every major UK political party -- and that the findings for the whole data set could not be extrapolated to reflect on any individuals within that data set. Accordingly, while the Conservative Party made up the largest share of Lords nominations within the data set, it would be inappropriate (and incorrect) to infer conclusions about any particular individuals, or even subcategories, based on the wider trend. And, indeed, the small sample size of the subset of data we are dealing with (21 Treasurers, or 17 peerage nominees) makes it meaningless to infer too much from any trends among such a small pool of individuals. Furthermore, while the findings established a clear statistical relationship between !donations and peerages, they did not tell us what that relationship was.!
Additionally, there are naturally any number of perfectly innocent explanations for why Treasurers donate so much money. Most obviously, a common tactic among fundraisers is "matched funding" -- offering to effectively double the impact of a donation by finding another source to also donate the same amount. Personally offering matched funding yourself can often increase the impact of the offer. Lord Ashcroft explains the rationale: "How can I ask others to give to the party if I do not give myself? Am I to say: `I haven't
!45 McAlpine, Bag Man, p. 255.
!46 See Andrew Mell, Simon Radford and Seth Alexander Thйvoz, `Is There a Market for Peerages? Can Donations Buy You a British Peerage? A Study in the Link Between Party Political Funding and Peerage Nominations, 2005-14', (Oxford: Oxford University Department of Economics Discussion Paper 744, March 2015).
!
18
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. given because The Times will say it doesn't look good'?"47 On the other hand, Ashcroft also concedes that wealth in a Treasurer also has drawbacks: "My own wealth was a disadvantage rather than an advantage. I am certain that some donors felt that, if push came to shove, I would always pick up the tab for whatever bills arrived. These donors !were therefore not as generous as they might have been."48 ! As well as "matched" funding, there is also something of an expectation for Treasurers to act as a final guarantor of party funds. With the constant drain of party spending, if other donors fail to provide funds, then it often falls to the Treasurer to provide the shortfall, either as a donation or as a loan. There can be some resistance on both sides. For instance, one source close to David Cameron was quoted as saying that the Party Chairman was personally "Wary" of Ashcroft, and that of the millions of pounds provided by him in the 1990s, "`Much of it was in the form of loans and [Party Chairman Lord] Feldman made sure it was paid back as soon as possible so Ashcroft had no leverage !over us."49! There is also clear evidence that some Conservative Party donors have made substantial donations without expecting any kind of quid pro quo through the honours system. Although the most recent example concerned a knighthood rather than the peerage, there was the case of Ian Taylor, an oil executive who has donated Ј1,561,752 to the Conservative Party over the last decade. In July 2016, he was recommended for a knighthood in a leaked copy of David Cameron's resignation honours list. In the wake of the controversy, Taylor declared, "I think it is right I request that my name does not go forward, if indeed I was being considered for an honour. Tonight, I am writing both to the outgoing and the current prime minister requesting that I would not wish to be considered for an honour at this time."50 Although instances of major donors publicly declining an honour are rare, the presence of this example strongly suggests the absence of any !previous explicit agreement to that effect between Cameron and Taylor. ! It is also possible to suggest any number of other reasons why Conservative Party Treasurers donate so much, without any expectation of a title (although they must surely know the odds are, historically, overwhelmingly favourable to their receiving one). Simple patriotism is one explanation, a love of party is another, a love of fundraising is yet another. Another motive, suggested in the press, was that a Treasurer had hoped to be rewarded with a cabinet job as Defence Secretary; although the bulk of their donations were made over a decade prior to their party being in power, making it highly questionable to correlate the two events. The former Treasurer has not commented on the suggestion.51 !
!47 Michael Ashcroft, `I'm An Honourable Man, and I'm Staying Put', Daily Telegraph, 24 July 1999, p. 12, later also reproduced in Ashcroft, Dirty Politics, p.152.
!48 Ashcroft, Dirty Politics, p. 239.
!49 Simon Walters, `Squealer Ashcroft Wanted to Become Defence Secretary: Why Billionaire Donor Took Such Vicious Revenge on PM in Hatchet Biography', Daily Mail, 26 September 2015.
!50 Rowena Mason, `Conservative Donor Asks to be Removed from David Cameron Honour List', The Guardian, 3 August 2016.
!51 Walters, `Defence Secretary', Daily Mail.
!
19
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior !reference to the author. Finally, it should be pointed out that some Treasurers were obviously not in any way, shape or form "big donors" themselves. Most conspicuously, at a time when tens of millions of pounds were drawn in donations, Richard Harrington cannot be described as a "big donor", having registered a mere Ј36,149 in his own donations during his spell as Treasurer. His approach to the job was clearly one of fundraising rather than donating or matching any sizeable funding himself. As such, it would be misleading to generalise !about Conservative Party Treasurers' donations. ! !Conservative Treasurers and Wealth! Of course, it is always possible that the presence of so many donations from Conservative Party Treasurers is merely a proxy for (or a reflection of) their being very wealthy individuals in the first place. That, in itself, is a revealing characteristic. It is therefore worth !cross-referencing the position of these individuals in the Sunday Times Rich List.! Since 1989, the Sunday Times has published its landmark Rich List, edited by Philip Beresford, which seeks to conservatively but accurately estimate the net worth of the UK's wealthiest 1,000 individuals.52 Note that in some cases, a person's wealth includes wealth shared with their immediate family, or tied up in family trusts; but that a cornerstone of the Rich List has been to form conservative estimates which underestimate rather than overstate wealth. As such, it offers the most comprehensive and accurate public-domain !guide to wealth in the UK. (Table 4.)! An astonishingly high proportion of Conservative Party Treasurers are drawn from among Britain's super-wealthy -- some 14 out of the last 21. 12 of these 14 are ranked among the 1,000 richest people in the UK; and a further 2 are ranked in the top 1,400. This puts them !in the wealthiest 0.0015% of the UK population. ! This seems well beyond the boundaries of coincidence, but it is unlikely to be down to any single factor: a number of plausible hypotheses can be suggested. These include the party seeking wealthy individuals to underwrite its fundraising; the party seeking wealthy individuals to match its existing fundraising; or more simply, that in the search for large donations from wealthy individuals, the party needs to have fundraisers who already mix in the same social circles as the super-wealthy, and the best way to do this is to recruit from !among the ranks of the super-wealthy.! It is not possible to generalise any more -- for instance, the list contains a hybrid of names which one might consider both `old' and `new' money, and so it would be wrong to suggest that today's Conservative Party shows a marked predisposition to Treasurers from one background or another. Nonetheless, even by the standards of Britain's super-rich, !Conservative Party Treasurers are by and large quite staggeringly wealthy. ! Table 4 -- Conservative Party Treasurers since 1975, and their Sunday Times Rich List net worth, and ranking!
!52 Sunday Times Rich List, 1992-2016. In compiling this, I have had access to all Rich Lists from 1992 to the present. Note that in 2005 and 2006, a lengthier. book version of the Rich List was also published, listing the top 5,000 individuals in the UK rather than the usual 1,000. See Philip Beresford (ed.), Sunday Times Rich List, 2005-6 (London: A&C Black, 2005).
!
20
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior !reference to the author.
Name
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/ Co-Treasurer
Rankings in Sunday Times Rich List
Net value in last Sunday Times Rich List appearance
Alistair McAlpine, Baron McAlpine of West Green
1975-1990
201 (1992), 315 (1993), not listed (1994-6),149( 1997), 157 (1998), 163 (1999), 183 (2000), 201 (2001), 192 (2002), 228( 2003), 288 (2004), 366 (2005), 648 (2006), 627 (2007), 498 (2008), 575 (2009), 300 (2010), 248 (2011), 275 (2012), 288 (2013)
Ј295 million (2013)
Oulton Wade, Baron Wade of Chorlton
1982-1990
Not listed.
Not listed.
Charles Johnston, Baron Johnston of Rockport
1984-1987
Not listed.
Not listed.
Max Aitken, 3rd Baron Beaverbrook
1990-1992
Not listed.
Not listed.
Hector Laing, Baron Laing of Dunphill
1990-1992
76 (1992), 79 (1993), 107 (1994), 104 (1995),182 (1996), 287 (1997), 313 (1998), 439 (1999), 586 (2000), 619 (2001)
Ј58 million (2001)
Tim Smith MP
1992-1994
Not listed.
Not listed.
Philip Harris, Baron Harris of Peckham Charles Hambro, Baron Hambro of Dixton and Dumbleton Graham Kirkham, Baron Kirkham of Old Cantley Michael Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft of Chichester Howard Leigh, Baron Leigh of Hurley
1993-1997
125 (1992), 109 (1993), 113 (1994), 118 (1995), 123 (1996), 132 (1997), 131 (1998), 187 (1999), 179 (2000), 201 (2001), 193 (2002), 188 (2003), 192 (2004), 192 (2005), 206 (2006), 238 (2007), 357 (2008), 406 (2009), 328 (2010), 315 (2011), 520 (2012), 522 (2013), 571 (2014), 856 (2015), 885 (2016)
1993-1997
84 (1992), 89 (1993), 114 (1994), 122 (1995), 184 (1996),178 (1997), 203 (1998), 227 (1999), 377 (2000), 268 (2001), 272 (2002)
1997-1998
113 (1993), 41 (1994), 43 (1995), 43 (1996), 51 (1997), 94 (1998), 126 (1999), 120 (2000), 105 (2001), 105 (2002), 141 (2003), 172 (2004), 186 (2005), 227 (2006), 238 (2007), 270 (2008), 178 (2009), 158 (2010), 67 (2011), 67 (2012), 67 (2013), 86 (2014), 89 (2015), 95 (2016)
1998-2001
238 (1994), 289 (1995), 280 (1996), 93 (1997), 94 (1998), 14 (1999), 22 (2000), 24 (2001), 25 (2002), 48 (2003), 41 (2004), 54 (2005), 66 (2006), 89 (2007), 65 (2008), 37 (2009), 43 (2010), 46 (2011), 62 (2012), 64 (2013), 78 (2014), 74 (2015), 81 (2016)
2000-present
Not listed.
Ј110 million (2016) Ј120 million (2002) Ј1.15 billion (2016) Ј1.34 billion (2016) Not listed.
!
21
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
Name
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/ Co-Treasurer
Rankings in Sunday Times Rich List
Net value in last Sunday Times Rich List appearance
Stanley Kalms, Baron Kalms of Edgware
2001-2003
1,360 (2005)
Ј40 million (2005)
George Magan, Baron Magan of Castletown
2003-2007
1,248 (2005)
Ј45 million (2005)
Jonathan Marland, Baron Marland of Odstock
2005-2008
968 (2015)
Ј100 million (2015)
Michael Spencer
2007-2010
158 (1995), 348 (1996), 266 (1997), 313 (1998), 471 (1999), 276 (2000), 143 (2001), 94 (2002), 163 (2003), 122 (2004), 138 (2005), 98 (2006), 88 (2007), 62 (2008), 222 (2009), 431 (2010), 145 (2011), 162 (2012), 214 (2013), 189 (2014), 154 (2015), 153 (2016)
Ј747 million (2016)
Richard Harrington
2008-2010
Not listed.
Not listed.
Stanley Fink, Baron Fink of Northwood
2010-2013
555 (2002), 646 (2003), 443 (2004), 583 (2005), 511 (2006), 490 (2007), 698 (2008), 793 (2009), 653 (2010), 583 (2011), 624 (2012), 608 (2013), 691 (2014), 637 (2015), 685 (2016)
Ј150 million (2016)
Peter Cruddas
2011-2012
44 (2000), 73 (2001), 111 (2002), 210 (2003), 133 (2004), 41 (2005), 61 (2006), 65 (2007), 60 (2008), 40 (2009), 73 (2010), 178 (2011), 101 (2012), 193 (2013), 138 (2014), 105 (2015), 142 (2016)
Ј780 million (2016)
Michael Farmer, Baron Farmer of Bishopsgate
2012-present 703 (2011), 624 (2012), 522 (2013), 607 (2014), 637 (2015), 734 (2016)
Ј140 million (2016)
James Lupton, Baron Lupton of Lovington
2013-2016
767 (2006), 798 (2007), 969 (2008), 742 (2009), 714 (2010), 513 (2011), 569 (2012), 590 (2013), 666 (2014), 707 (2015), 936 (2016)
Ј105 million (2016)
Andrew Fraser, Baron Fraser of Corriegarth !
2016-present
Not listed.
Not listed.
Source: Sunday Times Rich List, 1992-2016. All data relating to net worth, and Rich List
!
rankings, is copyright of the Sunday Times. !
!Conclusion!
Given its pseudo-constitutional incorporation into the peerage, one might ask if the Conservative Party Treasurership should be regarded as an organ of the state, even when the party is in opposition? Certainly, officeholders seem to occupy a reserved position within the peerage. And if so, what are the implications for party finance, for the way Treasurers of other parties are recognised, and for how such appointments are !rationalised?!
!
22
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. The actual status of Conservative Treasurers in the Lords is disputed, with the rhetoric about conventions of not speaking being contradicted by over a century of practice. Nonetheless, it seems to be the convention that incumbent Conservative Treasurers usually keep a fairly low profile in the Lords while still in office, intervening only occasionally (and often specifically on matters of party finance), but becoming more active in the Lords once they have stood down as Treasurer. There is no enforceable ban on !them speaking at all, and there never has been.! As the party's chief fundraisers, Treasurers are both a gateway to party donations, and a source of donations themselves. There are multiple reasons for this, from the tactic of offering donors "matched funding", to their wanting to lead by example when beckoning other donors to dig deep. The high profusion of these fundraisers receiving peerages has also made them a popular target for accusations of "cash for peerages", but there remains !no evidence of any direct complicity around this having occurred in modern times. ! Most Tory Treasurers are also conspicuously wealthy, with 14 out of the last 21 being ranked in the Sunday Times Rich List. Again, there are multiple reasons for why this might be the case, not least that in seeking donations from the ultra-wealthy, it is advantageous for a party to recruit Treasurers who already move in the same social circles; and so by !definition, Conservative Treasurers tend to be ultra-wealthy themselves. ! However, Lord Ashcroft's much-quoted statement about all Conservative Treasurers being appointed to the Lords is not quite correct, even if the odds are astronomically high of their !being so. ! None of these conclusions is particularly surprising. Yet the very rudimentary nature of establishing these simple facts around the Conservative Treasurership -- the chronology of officeholders, the link between the post and the peerage, the recurrence of donations from Treasurers, the extraordinary personal wealth of so many Treasurers -- underlines !!the need for more research to grasp the nuances of this underexamined role.!
!
23
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior !reference to the author.
!
Appendices!
!Appendix 1A -- List of Conservative Party Treasurers, 1911-Present!
For the sake of completion, this list is provided, as no publicly-available list is known to !exist. !
Name and Full Title
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/Co-Treasurer
The Rt Hon Horace Farquhar, 1st Earl Farquhar of Marylebone, GCB, GCVO (MP, 1895-1898) (Died in post)
1911-1923
George Younger, 1st Viscount Younger of Leckie, 1st Baronet (MP, 1906-1922) (Died in post)
1923-1929
The Rt Hon Samuel Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood of Chelsea, GCSI, GBE, CMG, JP (MP, 1910-1944)
1929-1931
Rowland Blades, 1st Baron Ebbisham of Cobham, GBE (MP, 1918-1928)
1931-1933
The Rt Hon Hamar Greenwood, 1st Viscount Greenwood of Holbourne, KC (MP, 1906-1922, 1924-1929)
1933-1938
George Penny, 1st Viscount Marchwood of Penang, and of Marchwood, KCVO JP (MP, 1922-1937)
1938-1946
Christopher Holland-Martin (MP, 1951-1960) (Died in post)
1947-1960
The Rt Hon William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle of Penshurst, VC, KG, GCMG, GCVO, KStJ (MP, 1944-1945)
1948-1952
The Rt Hon Oliver Poole, 1st Baron Poole of Aldgate, CBE, TD (MP, 1945-1950)
1952-1955
Sir Henry Studholme, 1st Baronet (MP 1942-1966)
1956-1962
Robert Allan, Baron Allan of Kilmahew, OBE, DSO (MP, 1951-1966)
1960-1965
The Hon Richard Stanley (MP, 1950-1966)
1962-1965
Eric Edwards, Baron Chelmer of Margaretting Kt, MC
1965-1977
Sir Tatton Brinton (MP, 1964-1974)
1966-1974
Arnold Silverstone, Baron Ashdown of Chelwood (Died in post)
1974-1977
The Rt Hon William Clark, Baron Clark of Kempston, Kt. (MP, 1970-1992)
1974-1975
Alistair McAlpine, Baron McAlpine of West Green
1975-1990
The Rt Hon Thomas Boardman, Baron Boardman of Welford, MC, TD, DL (MP, 1967-1974)
1981-1982
Oulton Wade, Baron Wade of Chorlton, JP
1982-1990
Charles Johnston, Baron Johnston of Rockport, TD
1984-1987
Hector Laing, Baron Laing of Dunphill, FRSE, FRSA
1988-1993
Maxwell Aitken, 3rd Baron Beaverbrook
1990-1992
Tim Smith (MP, 1977-1979, 1982-1997)
1992-1994
!
24
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
Name and Full Title
Tenure as Conservative Party Treasurer/Co-Treasurer
The Rt Hon Philip Harris, Baron Harris of Peckham
1993-1997
Charles Hambro, Baron Hambro of Dixton and Dumbleton
1994-1997
Graham Kirkham, Baron Kirkham of Old Cantley, CVO
1997-1998
The Rt Hon Michael Ashcroft, Baron Ashcroft of Chichester, KCMG
1998-2001
Howard Leigh, Baron Leigh of Hurley
2000-present
Stanley Kalms, Baron Kalms of Edgware
2001-2003
George Magan, Baron Magan of Castletown
2003-2007
Jonathan Marland, Baron Marland of Odstock
2005-2008
Michael Spencer
2007-2010
Richard Harrington (MP, 2010-present)
2008-2010
Stanley Fink, Baron Fink of Northwood
2010-2013
Peter Cruddas
2011-2012
Michael Farmer, Baron Farmer of Bishopsgate
2012-present
James Lupton, Baron Lupton of Lovington, CBE
2013-2016
Andrew Fraser, Baron Fraser of Corriegarth !
2016-present
!
25
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior !reference to the author. !Appendix 1B -- Timeline of Conservative Party Treasurers, 1986-2016!
Year
Treasurer/Co-Treasurer
1986 1987 1988 1989
Alistair McAlpine, Baron McAlpine of West Green (cr. 1984) [Treasurer since 1975]
Charles Johnston, Baron Johnston (cr. 1987) [Treasurer since 1984]
Oulton Wade, Baron Wade of Chorlton (cr. 1990) [Treasurer since 1982]
1990 1991 1992
Max Aitken, 3rd Baron Beaverbrook (hereditary peer from 1985)
Hector Laing, Baron Laing of Dunphill (cr. 1991)
1993
Tim Smith MP
1994
1995 1996
Philip Harris, Baron Harris of Peckham (cr. 1995)
Charles Hambro, Baron Hambro of Dixton and Dumbleton (cr. 1994)
1997 1998
Graham Kirkham, Baron Kirkham of Old Cantley (cr. 1999)
1999
Michael Ashcroft, Baron
2000 Ashcroft of Chichester (cr. 2000)
2001
2002
Stanley Kalms, Baron Kalms of Edgware (cr. 2004)
2003
2004
2005
George Magan, Baron Magan of Castletown (cr. 2011)
!
26
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author.
Year
Treasurer/Co-Treasurer
2006 2007
Jonathan Marland, Baron Marland of Odstock (cr. 2006)
2008
Michael Spencer
(reportedly nominated for a
2009 peerage in 2013, 2015 & 2016)
2010
Richard Harrington (elected an MP in 2010)
Howard Leigh, Baron Leigh of Hurley (cr. 2013)
2011 2012
Stanley Fink, Baron Fink of Northwood (cr. 2011)
Peter Cruddas
2013
2014 2015
James Lupton, Baron Lupton of Lovington (cr. 2015)
Michael Farmer, Baron Farmer of Bishopsgate (cr. 2014)
2016 Andrew Fraser, Baron Fraser
of Corriegarth
(cr. 2016) !
!
Source: Who's Who and Who Was Who.!
Note that the above timeline does not include David Rowland, a donor of almost Ј3 million
to the Conservatives, who was appointed Conservative Party Treasurer in 2010, but after
intrusive press coverage he opted to resign before he could formally take up his post.
Rowland and his immediate family were most recently valued at Ј675 million in the 2016
Sunday Times Rich List, and their Rich List rankings since 1993 have been 201, 213, 152,
178, 203, 227, 64, 73, 38, 32, 53, 67, 87, 106, 117, 66, 85, [not ranked in 2011] 132, 126,
!163, 171 and 175.!
!
27
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior !reference to the author.
!
Bibliography!
Archival sources! Conservative Party accounts, 2009-2015, Electoral Commission website, http:// !search.electoralcommission.org.uk/.!
Books!
Michael Ashcroft, Dirty Politics, Dirty Times: My Fight With Wapping and New Labour - New
Updated Edition (Chichester: MAA Publishing, 2006). !
Michael Bloch, Jeremy Thorpe (London: Little, Brown, 2014).! Bobby Friedman, Democracy Ltd: How Money and Donations Corrupted British Politics (London: OneWorld, 2013).! Alistair McAlpine, Once a Jolly Bag Man (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1997).! James McMillan, The Honours Game (London: Leslie Frewin, 1969).! Robert A.G. Monks and Nell Minow, Corporate Governance, 5th Edition (Oxford: Wiley, 2011).! Michael Pinto-Duschinsky, British Political Finance, 1830-1980 (Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute Press, 1980).! Andrew Roth, The Business Background of Members of Parliament, 3rd edition (London: Parliamentary Profiles Services Ltd, 1963).! John Walker, The Queen Has Been Pleased: The British Honours System at Work (London: Secker & Warburg, 1986). ! Martin Williams, Parliament Ltd: A Journey to the Dark Heart of British Politics (London: !Hodder & Stoughton, 2016).!
Articles! `Lord Ashcroft Admits Non-Dom Status', BBC News, 1 March 2010. ! `Obituary: Lord Chelmer', The Times, 5 March 1997, p. 21.! `Obituary: Lord Hambro', The Times, 11 November 2002, p. 28.! `Peter Cruddas Wins Ј180k in Libel Damages', Sky News, 31 July 2013. ! Anthony Bevins, `Tory Scandal: Web of Secrecy Cloaks the Truth About Policy on Donations', The Independent, 23 January 1998.! Anthony Bevins, `The Mystery Swagman Who Raised Ј15 Million for the Tory Party', The Independent, 14 November 1997.! Iain Cobain, `Lord Ashcroft's "Unequivocal Assurance" That Finally Secured Peerage', The Guardian, 18 March 2010. ! Patrick Cosgrave, `Obituary: Lord Chelmer', The Independent, 6 March 1997.! Lin Jenkins, `Beaverbrook Goes Bankrupt', The Times, 16 October 1992, p. 5.! Geoffrey Levy and Richard Kay, `Why Was the Ј950m Digger King and Tory Donor's Peerage Bulldozed by the Taxman?', Daily Mail, 10 June, 2010.! Rowena Mason, `Conservative Donor Asks to be Removed from David Cameron Honour List', The Guardian, 3 August 2016.! David McKitterick, `Obituary: Lord Laing of Dunphail: Businessman and Pioneer of Corporate Social Responsibility Who Became Tory Party Treasurer', The Independent,12 July 2010. ! Andrew Pierce, `Humiliated: Billionaire Crony of Cameron Sees Dream of Peerage Shot Down for FOURTH Time', Daily Mail, 3 August 2016. !
!
28
A Gwilym Gibbon Centre Working Paper. Work in progress. All rights reserved. Not to be cited or copied without prior reference to the author. Oliver Ralph and George Parker, `Michael Spencer's Allies Decry `Unfairness' in Lack of Peerage; Founder of ICAP has Failed to Make it to House of Lords, Unlike Other Former Tory Party Treasurers', Financial Times, 24 July 2016.! Adam Sherwin, `Peter Cruddas Did Offer Access to David Cameron for Donations, Court of Appeal Rules', The Independent, 17 March 2015. ! Seth Alexander Thйvoz, `What Price a Lib Dem Peerage?', Liberator, 371, April 2015, pp. 6-7.! Kirsty Walker, `Peerage for a Top Cameron Donor Blocked by the Taxman', Daily Mail, 31 May 2010.! Stephen Ward, `Beaverbrook Preparing to Declare Bankruptcy', The Independent, 15 !October 1992.! Papers! Richard Kelly, House of Lords Reform Act 2014: House of Commons Briefing Paper Number 06832 (London: House of Commons, 1 July 2016). ! Andrew Mell, Simon Radford and Seth Alexander Thйvoz, `Is There a Market for Peerages? Can Donations Buy You a British Peerage? A Study in the Link Between Party Political Funding and Peerage Nominations, 2005-14', (Oxford: Oxford University Department of Economics Discussion Paper 744, March 2015).! Seth Thйvoz, Electing the Lords: How Did That Work Out for the Lib Dems? A Study into the Effectiveness of the Interim Peers Panel System for Electing Liberal Democrat Nominees to the !House of Lords, 1999-2015 (London: Social Liberal Forum, 2015).! Parliamentary Papers! House of Commons Select Committee on Standards and Privileges, Complaints from Mr Mohamed Al Fayed, The Guardian and Others Against 25 Members and Former Members; !1997-1998 Session, Seventh Report (1997).! Reference works! `Retired Members of the House of Lords', Parliament.UK, viewed on 10 August 2016. ! Debrett's People of Today. ! Hansard, hansard.millbanksystems.com (1803-2005) and https://hansard.parliament.uk/ (1998-present).! Sunday Times Rich List, 1992-2016.! Philip Beresford (ed.), Sunday Times Rich List, 2005-6 (London: A&C Black, 2005). [A much-expanded book version of the Rich List, chronicling the top 5,000 rather than the top 1,000.]! The Times digital archive. ! !Who's Who and Who Was Who. ! FoI responses! Response under the Freedom of Information Act 2000, Ref: HOLACFOI10, HOLACFOI11, from House of Lords Appointments Commission to Seth Alexander Thйvoz, 28 September !2015. ! Online resources! Electoral Commission database, http://search.electoralcommission.org.uk/.
!
29

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