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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Katz, Randy H., Contemporary logic design / Randy H. Katz--2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 0201308576 1. Electronic digital computers--Circuits--Design. 2. Integrated circuits-- Very large scale integration--Design--Data processing. 3. Logic design--Data processing. 4. Computer-aided design. I. Title.

TK7888.4.K36 2005 621.39'5--dc22

2004063209

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KATZ_0201308576_MF.fm Page v Tuesday, November 16, 2004 8:05 PM Contents

Preface xiii

Chapter 1

Introduction 1 1.1 Dissecting the Title 2 1.1.1 Design 2 1.1.2 Logic Design 4 1.1.3 Contemporary Logic Design 6 1.2 A Brief History of Logic Design 8 1.3 Computation 9 1.3.1 Switches, Relays, and Circuits 10 1.3.2 Transistors 12 1.3.3 Digital Representations 13 1.3.4 Encoding 14 1.4 Examples 15 Chapter Review 25 Further Reading 27 Exercises 28

Chapter 2

Combinational Logic 33 2.1 Outputs as a Function of Inputs 34 2.1.1 Combinational Logic Defined 34 2.1.2 Examples of Combinational Logic 34 2.2 Laws and Theorems of Boolean Logic 37 2.2.1 Axioms of Boolean Algebra 39 2.2.2 Theorems of Boolean Algebra 42 2.2.3 Duality and DeMorgan's Law 45 2.3 Realizing Boolean Formulas 46 2.3.1 Logic Gates 46 2.3.2 Logic Blocks and Hierarchy 49 2.3.3 Time Behavior and Waveforms 50 2.3.4 Minimizing the Number of Gates and Wires 52 2.3.5 Case Study: 7-Segment Decoder 54

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2.4 Two-Level Logic 56 2.4.1 Canonical Forms 56 2.4.2 Incompletely Specified Functions 63 2.5 Motivation for Two-Level Simplification 65 2.5.1 Graphing Boolean Expressions 66 2.5.2 Boolean Cubes 67 2.5.3 Karnaugh Maps 69 2.6 Multilevel Logic 76 2.7 Motivation for Multilevel Minimization 80 2.7.1 Factored Forms 80 2.7.2 Criteria for Multilevel Simplification 81 Chapter Review 83 Further Reading 84 Exercises 85

Chapter 3

Working with Combinational Logic 93 3.1 Two-Level Simplification 93 3.1.1 Formalizing the Process of Boolean Minimization 99 3.1.2 K-Maps Revisited: Five- and Six-Variable Functions 102 3.2 Automating Two-Level Simplification 103 3.2.1 Quine-McCluskey Method 104 3.2.2 Espresso Method 108 3.2.3 Realizing S-o-P and P-o-S Logic Networks 111 3.3 Multilevel Simplification 114 3.4 Automating Multilevel Simplification 122 3.4.1 Multilevel Logic Optimization Scripts 122 3.4.2 Realizing Multilevel Logic Networks 126 3.5 Time Response in Combinational Networks 129 3.5.1 Gate Delays 129 3.5.2 Timing Waveforms 130 3.5.3 Analysis of a Pulse-Shaper Circuit 131 3.5.4 Hazards and Glitches 132 3.5.5 Hazard Detection and Elimination in Two-Level Networks 133 3.5.6 Static Hazards in Multilevel Networks 136 3.5.7 Designing Static Hazard-Free Multilevel Circuits 137 3.5.8 Dynamic Hazards 138

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3.6 Hardware Description Languages 139 3.6.1 Describing Structure 141 3.6.2 Describing Behavior 141 3.6.3 Delay 143 3.6.4 Event-Driven Simulation 143 Chapter Review 146 Further Reading 146 Exercises 147

Chapter 4

Combinational Logic Technologies 155 4.1 History 156 4.1.1 From Switches to Integrated Circuits 156 4.1.2 Packaged Logic, Configurability, and Programmable Logic 158 4.1.3 Technology Metrics 162 4.2 Basic Logic Components 164 4.2.1 Fixed Logic 164 4.2.2 Look-Up Tables 168 4.2.3 Template-Based Logic 179 4.3 Two-Level and Multilevel Logic 196 4.4 Non-Gate Logic 205 4.4.1 Tri-State Outputs 206 4.4.2 Open-Collector Outputs and Wired Logic 210 Chapter Review 212 Further Reading 213 Exercises 213

Chapter 5

Case Studies in Combinational Logic Design 221 5.1 Design Procedure 222 5.2 A Simple Process Line-Control Problem 224 5.3 Telephone Keypad Decoder 227 5.4 Leap Year Calculation 231 5.5 Logic Function Unit 234 5.6 Adder Design 238 5.6.1 Half Adder/Full Adder 238 5.6.2 Carry-Lookahead Circuits 240 5.6.3 Carry-Select Adder 244 5.6.4 BCD Adder Design 245

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5.7 Arithmetic Logic Unit Design 246 5.7.1 A Sample ALU 247 5.8 Combinational Multiplier 249 Chapter Review 253 Further Reading 253 Exercises 254

Chapter 6

Sequential Logic Design 259 6.1 Sequential Logic Elements 260 6.1.1 Simple Circuits with Feedback 260 6.1.2 Basic Latches 265 6.1.3 Clocks 267 6.1.4 Combining Latches 268 6.1.5 MasterSlave Latches and Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops 270 6.1.6 Timing Definitions 273 6.2 Timing Methodologies 278 6.2.1 Cascaded Flip-Flops and Setup/Hold/ Propagation 279 6.2.2 Clock Skew 281 6.2.3 Asynchronous Inputs 282 6.2.4 Metastability and Synchronizer Failure 284 6.2.5 Self-timed and Speed-independent Circuits 285 6.3 Registers 289 6.3.1 Storage Registers 289 6.3.2 Shift Registers 291 6.4 Hardware Description Languages 295 Chapter Review 298 Further Reading 299 Exercises 300

Chapter 7

Finite State Machines 307 7.1 Counters 308 7.1.1 Counter Design Procedure 310 7.1.2 Counters with More Complex Sequencing 312 7.1.3 Self-Starting Counters 314 7.1.4 Counter Reset 316 7.1.5 Counter Variations 316

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7.2 The Concept of the State Machine 321 7.2.1 Odd or Even Parity Checker 321 7.2.2 Timing in State Machines 324 7.3 Basic FSM Design Approach 326 7.3.1 Finite State Machine Design Procedure 327 7.3.2 Moore and Mealy Machines 332 7.3.3 State Diagram Representation 333 7.3.4 Comparison of the Two Machine Types 334 7.4 Motivation for Optimization 339 7.4.1 Two State Diagrams, Same I/O Behavior 339 7.4.2 Advantages of Minimum States 340 7.4.3 State, Input, and Output Encoding 341 7.4.4 Factoring State Machines 342 7.4.5 A Traffic-Light Controller 342 Chapter Review 346 Further Reading 347 Exercises 348

Chapter 8

Working with Finite State Machines 355 8.1 State Minimization/Reduction 356 8.1.1 Row-Matching Method 356 8.1.2 Implication Chart Method 360 8.1.3 Equivalent States in the Presence of Don't Cares 365 8.1.4 When State Minimization Doesn't Help 366 8.2 State Assignment 367 8.2.1 Sequential Encoding 369 8.2.2 Random Encoding 370 8.2.3 One-Hot Encoding 371 8.2.4 Output-Oriented Encoding 372 8.2.5 Heuristic Methods 374 8.3 Finite State Machine Partitioning 380 8.3.1 Finite State Machine Partitioning by Introducing Idle States 381 8.4 Hardware Description Languages 386 Chapter Review 391 Further Reading 392 Exercises 392

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Chapter 9

Sequential Logic Technologies 401 9.1 Basic Sequential Logic Components 402 9.2 FSM Design with Counters 406 9.3 FSM Design with Programmable Logic 409 9.3.1 Mapping a State Machine into a ROM Implementation 409 9.3.2 ROM Versus PLA-Based Design 410 9.3.3 Alternative PAL Architectures 415 9.4 FSM Design with More Sophisticated Programmable Logic Devices 421 9.4.1 PLDs: Programmable Logic Devices 422 9.4.2 Altera Erasable Programmable Logic Devices 422 9.4.3 Actel Field-Programmable Gate Arrays 429 9.4.4 Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Arrays 432 9.5 Case Study: Traffic-Light Controller 439 9.5.1 Problem Decomposition: Traffic-Light State Machine 439 9.5.2 PLA/PAL/ROM-Based Implementation 442 9.5.3 Counter-Based Implementation 443 9.5.4 FPGA-Based Implementation 445 Chapter Review 446 Further Reading 447 Exercises 447

Chapter 10 Case Studies in Sequential Logic Design 452 10.1 A Finite String Recognizer 452 10.2 A Complex Counter 460 10.3 A Digital Combination Lock 463 10.4 A Memory Controller 467 10.4.1 RAM Basics: A 1024 Ч 4-Bit Static RAM 467 10.4.2 Dynamic RAM 470 10.4.3 DRAM Variations 474 10.4.4 Detailed SRAM Timing 475 10.4.5 Design of a Simple Memory Controller 477 10.5 A Sequential Multiplier 482 10.6 A Serial Line Transmitter/Receiver 487 Chapter Review 499 Further Reading 499 Exercises 500

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Epilogue 509

Appendix A

Number Systems 511 A.1 Positional Number Notation 511 A.1.1 Decimal Numbers 511 A.1.2 Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Numbers 512 A.2 Conversion Between Binary, Octal, and Hexadecimal Systems 513 A.2.1 Conversion from Binary to Octal or Hexadecimal 513 A.2.2 Conversion from Octal to Hexadecimal and Vice Versa 514 A.2.3 Conversion from Base 10 to Base 2: Successive Division 514 A.3 Binary Arithmetic Operations 516 A.3.1 Addition in Positional Notation 516 A.3.2 Subtraction in Positional Notation 518 A.4 Representation of Negative Numbers 520 A.4.1 Sign and Magnitude 520 A.4.2 Ones-Complement Numbers 521 A.4.3 Twos-Complement Numbers 522 A.4.4 Addition and Subtraction of Numbers 524 A.4.5 Overflow Conditions 526 A.5 BCD Number Representation 527 Appendix Review 528 Exercises 529

Appendix B

Basic Electronics 533 B.1 Basic Electricity 533 B.1.1 Terminology 533 B.1.2 Fundamental Quantities and Laws 534 B.2 Logic Gates from Resistors and Diodes 536 B.2.1 Voltage Dividers 536 B.2.2 Diode Logic 537 B.3 Bipolar-Transistor Logic 538 B.3.1 Basic Bipolar-Transistor Logic 539 B.3.2 Diode-Transistor Logic 539 B.3.3 Transistor-Transistor Logic 541 B.3.4 TTL Circuits and Noise Margin 542 B.4 MOS Transistors 543 B.4.1 Voltage-Controlled Switches 543 B.4.2 Logic Gates from MOS Switches 544

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B.4.3 CMOS Transmission Gate 546 B.4.4 Switch and Steering Logic 547 B.5 Elements of the Data Sheet 554 B.5.1 Simple Performance Calculations 556 B.6 Schematic Documentation Standards 556 B.7 Practical Aspects of Inputs, Outputs, and Clocks 560 B.7.1 Switches and LEDs as inputs and outputs 561 B.7.2 Debouncing Switches 562 Appendix Review 564 Exercises 565

Appendix C

Flip-Flop Types 566 C.1 Flip-Flop Components 566 C.2 Realizing Circuits with Different Kinds of Flip-Flops 568 C.2.1 Conversion of One Flip-Flop Type to Another 568 C.3 Shift Registers and Counters 570 C.3.1 Implementation with R-S Flip-Flops 572 C.3.2 Implementation with J-K Flip-Flops 574 C.3.3 Implementation with T Flip-Flops 576 C.3.4 Implementation with D Flip-Flops 576 C.3.5 Comparison and Summary 578 Appendix Review 579 Exercises 579

Index 581

KATZ_0201308576_MF.fm Page xiii Tuesday, November 16, 2004 8:05 PM Preface A Second Edition In the decade since the first edition of this book was published, the technologies of digital design have continued to evolve. The evolution has run along two closely related tracks: the underlying physical technology and the software tools that facilitate the application of the new devices. The trends identified in the first edition have continued stronger than ever and promise to continue for some time to come. Specifically, programmable logic has become virtually the norm for digital designers and the art of digital design now absolutely requires the software skills to deal with hardware description languages. No longer do we see the familiar yellow cover of the TTL Data Book on every designer's bookshelf. In fact, for many application areas, even small programmable logic devices (PLDs), the mainstays of the 1970s and early 1980s, are rapidly disappearing. The burgeoning market for smaller, lower power, and more portable devices has driven high levels of integration into almost every product. This also has changed the nature of optimization; the focus is now on what goes into each chip rather than on the collection of individual gates needed to realize the design. The optimizations of today are more and more often made at the architecture level rather than in the switches. Hardware designers now spend the majority of their time dealing with software. Specifically, the tools needed to efficiently map digital designs onto the emerging programmable devices that are growing ever more sophisticated. They capture their design specifications in software with language appropriate for describing the parallelism of hardware; they use software tools to simulate their designs and then to synthesize it into the implementation technology of choice. Design time is reduced radically as market pressures require products to be introduced quickly, at the right price and performance. Although the evergrowing complexity of designs necessitates more powerful abstractions, the fundamentals haven't changed. In fact, the contemporary digital designer must have a broader understanding of the discipline of computation than ever before, including both hardware and software. In this second edition, we provide this broader perspective. Changes from the First Edition There are many changes from the first edition. These were motivated by four concerns. First, we updated the hardware technologies

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xiv Preface

discussed in the book. Second, we added a more complete, if nevertheless introductory, treatment of the software tools that are now so commonplace in the designer's tool kit. Third, we responded to the comments and suggestions received over the years by the many faculty and practitioners who have used the book. Finally, we rationalized the organization of the text so that concepts, technologies, tools, and practical matters were more clearly defined. New Introduction The introduction has been changed from one that focused on the process of design to one that introduces the concepts of computation, encoding, sequencing, and instruction interpretation. This sets out a better road map to the rest of the book and provides a rationale for its organization. Rather than discussing the design process in the abstract, we now include many more case studies to help the student gain that understanding by seeing the process in action. Repartitioning of Material Each of the two major sections on combinational and sequential logic was divided into a set of chapters. These first cover the fundamental concepts, then describe the principles of manipulating the logic into different forms, followed by a discussion of the optimizations and tools that are available, and concludes with an overview of the technologies available to build logic circuits. Each is capped by a set of comprehensive design case studies that make each of the issues concrete. More Emphasis on Programmable Logic We have added new material on the latest programmable logic technologies that have quickly become the dominant style for realizing digital designs. We do not attempt to provide all the information needed to work with any one technology. Those used will vary dramatically from institution to institution. Therefore, the book needs to be supplemented with a laboratory guide that covers the specifics of a particular installation. In this text, we focused on the underlying concepts. We expect laboratory guides to be available in the form of web-based materials that can be easily customized to the variety already out there and updated as new technologies emerge. Inclusion of Hardware Description Languages HDLs are now given a more central role to reflect their total acceptance by the design community over the past 10 years. We describe only the basics of one of the dominant languages, namely Verilog, focusing on describing behavior, as well as covering the basics of HDL simulation models. We highlight the power of the languages in making designs more parameterizable and customizable and designers more efficient.

KATZ_0201308576_MF.fm Page xv Tuesday, November 16, 2004 8:05 PM New Design Case Studies Nothing helps students learn design as much as designing for themselves. The next best thing is to provide a large collection of examples where the intuitions and rules of thumb are discussed explicitly. The hope is that this will help bootstrap new digital designers into the world of practical applications rather than the drill problems with which were the norm in simpler times. There are many new and extensive Design Examples sprinkled throughout the text and in two large chapters focusing on combinational and sequential logic. Elimination of Chapters on Datapath, Control, and Register-Transfer We decided to remove the last two chapters of the first edition, that focused on datapath and register-transfer design, and a simple processor as an in-depth design case study of the interaction of control and datapath. While these topics are without a doubt important, on reflection we felt they are better left for a more extended study of digital design than could be included within the page limit of this edition. Instead, we chose more intensive coverage of programmable logic and HDLs, with extensive but smaller design examples spread throughout the text. We plan to make supplementary materials on the eliminated topics available on the web. Navigating the Book The book is organized into 10 chapters and three appendices. Chapter 1 is an overall introduction to the field. Chapters 2 through 5 cover combinational logic. Chapters 6 through 10 cover sequential logic. The three appendices provide some potentially useful background material that may have been part of other courses in a computer or electrical engineering curriculum. Chapter 1 is an ambitious attempt to introduce many of the concepts of digital design through a short history of the evolution of digital hardware and two simple examples. Many may find that it introduces too many concepts too quickly for students to grasp their importance. However, this was not the intent. We fully expect students to be somewhat overwhelmed by the number of new concepts that come up in the discussion of the example. The purpose of the chapter is to provide an aerial view of the field so that students find it easier to see how the pieces they will see, in much greater detail and depth in later chapters, fit together coherently. It is certainly possible to replace this chapter with a more traditional introduction. The next four chapters lay out the concepts of combinational logic design, closing with a set of comprehensive examples. Chapter 2 covers the basics of combinational logic from simple gates to their time behavior. It lays out the concepts of two-level and multilevel logic and motivates us as to why we would want to simplify logic. Some of the basic machinery for manipulating logic is presented with an emphasis on pencil-and-paper methods.

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Chapter 3 delves into methods for working with combinational logic. It begins by describing the algorithms inside of today's CAD tools and ends with an overview of hardware description languages and uses Verilog to demonstrate key elements. Included is a discussion of the discrete simulation concepts that help to clarify the language constructs. There is probably not enough detail to make this book the sole resource for laboratory work with CAD tools. We wanted to keep the book focused on key concepts rather than on details of particular tools. It will need to be supplemented with appropriate manuals for the particular tools students will find in their own laboratories. This chapter also covers timing issues in more detail, including hazards and hazard-elimination strategies. Chapter 4 presents the full range of implementation technologies available to the logic designer for combinational logic. It is paired with Chapter 9 that does the same for sequential logic. Chapter 4 starts with basic logic gates (as in the traditional TTL-based courses), but quickly progresses to programmable logic (PLDs and two-level forms) and then to field-programmable gate arrays. We also discuss other types of logic constructs such as tri-state and open-collector logic. Basic electronics to support this discussion are in Appendix B. Chapter 5 culminates the combinational logic section of the book with seven examples of increasing complexity. We emphasize Problem Solving from the initial specification and have provided considerable discussion of how to transform an initial informal description of the problem into precise logical statements while keeping track of the assumptions that are being made. Our goal in this chapter is to show the range of logic design and how to judge Design Tradeoffs and take advantage of optimization opportunities. The remaining five chapters do the same for sequential logic what the Chapters 2 through 5 did for combinational logic. Chapter 6 begins this section by introducing the idea of circuits with feedback and how they can be analyzed. We develop the basic elements of sequential logic, latches, and flip-flops by recapitulating their evolution. This is coupled with a discussion of the timing methodologies that make it practical to build large sequential logic systems. These methodologies are illustrated with simple sequential systems of shift registers. The chapter concludes with a continuation of the exposition of hardware description languages started in Chapter 3 and now extended to basic sequential logic elements. Chapter 7 covers the central concept of finite state machines. It begins by using counters as a simple form of FSM and then moves on to the basic Moore and Mealy models for organizing sequential behavior. Like Chapter 2, it concludes by motivating the various optimization opportunities. Chapter 8 extends the basic ideas of Chapter 7 and expands on the details of FSM optimization by treating state minimization, state encoding, and FSM partitioning, in turn. Each of these is illustrated with examples that highlight the tradeoffs at each stage of optimization. An

KATZ_0201308576_MF.fm Page xvii Tuesday, November 16, 2004 8:05 PM additional section at the end of the chapter provides some guidelines for structuring FSM descriptions in HDLs. Chapter 9 concludes the discussion of implementation technologies. It recapitulates all the technologies used for combinational logic introduced in Chapter 4 but focusing on their sequential logic elements. Chapter 10 is a large chapter with six comprehensive design examples that bring to practice all the concepts in the text. It begins with the sequential logic example from Chapter 1, now discussed in full detail, to tie back to the start of the text and ends with the serial transmission of characters from a keypad to display. The latter examples focus on the partitioning of design problems into communicating pieces along two dimensions: parallel state machines and partitioning into datapath and control. The three appendices cover number systems, basic electronics, and flip-flop types. The first two are likely to cover concepts that students are likely to have already seen in mathematics, physics, electrical engineering, or computer science introductory courses. They are not intended to be extensive treatment of these topics but only provide the background most directly connected to the main topics of this text. The appendix on flip-flop types is provided for historical completeness. The Complete Teaching Package The material in this book easily fills a quarter-long course and, therefore, be comfortably covered in a semester-long course. In fact, it is likely that supplemental topics, governed by the place in the curriculum the semester-long course occupies, can and should be included. These could be: more in-depth discussion of CAD algorithms including their data structures, efficiency, and implementation; further discussion of design tradeoffs in a particular implementation technology such as FPGAs; a larger design problem that can serve as a term project to highlight issues of scale and debugging; and topics from computer organization emphasizing partitioning into data-path and control and optimized structure for both. Of course, individual instructors may also find that re-ordering some of the material makes more sense in their environments. For example, it is certainly possible to proceed by following the two sections in parallel rather than serially. Chapter 2 plus 6 and 7 can be paired, followed by 3 and 8, then 4 and 9, with the larger design examples of 5 and 10 together at the end. Many topics can also be skipped altogether. For example, CAD tools and their algorithms may be relegated to another course. Similarly, HDLs do not need to be included if the design environment focuses on schematiclevel design. In the technology dimension, FPGAs can be skipped as they may be included in a later course on more advanced design methods. Our goal in organizing the book was to make it easier to make these customizations.

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Finally, we are making a wealth of supplementary material available to course instructors and students. Our publisher's web site includes: · A set of CAD tools that supports all the concepts presented in this text; · A comprehensive set of lecture slides; · Samples of possible laboratory assignments and projects, and solutions to all the problems in the text; and · Supplementary material on computer organization for those that include that material in their introductory logic design classes. We hope you will agree with us that this second edition is a worthy successor to the first. RANDY H. KATZ GAETANO BORRIELLO

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