Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative, S Dennis

Tags: St Dennis, Hendra, clay industry, settlement, Hensbarrow, Hendra Downs, Restormel Borough Council, Fore Street, historic buildings, Conservation Area, Trelavour Square, industrial settlement, The village, china clay, china stone, Hensbarrow Area, Hensbarrow Council, Industrial history, Cornwall, Goss Moor, Bridget Gillard, tin streaming, Trelavour downs, tin production, industrial workers, archaeological importance, Carne Hill Hill, Hendra Corner, Methodist Chapel, Commercial Inn, period, Free Methodist church, Hendra Lane, Trelavour, Road St Dennis Carne Hill Carne Hill Carne Hill Church Road Church Road Church Road Carne Hill Hall, Hendra Clay, Reason, Wellington Road House, Historic Environment Service, Road Trelavour Trelavour Trelavour Carne Hill Site, Hendra Cottage, Carne Hill Methodist Carne Hill Bible Christian Chapel, Nonconformist Chapel Hendra Road Nonconformist Chapel, Wesleyan Methodist Fore Street Nonconformist Chapel, Cornwall County Council
Content: Report No: 2004R097 Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative St Dennis (Hensbarrow Area) 2004
CORNWALL INDUSTRIAL SETTLEMENTS INITIATIVE Conservation Area Partnership
Name:
St Dennis
study area: Hensbarrow
Council: Restormel Borough Council NGR:
SW 95113 57667 (centre)
Location: St Dennis is situated in Mid Existing
No
Cornwall, 6 miles north west CA?
of St Austell, 14 miles north
east of Truro and 2 miles
east of Indian Queens.
Main period of industrial settlement growth:
1842-1946
Main industry:
China-clay
Industrial history and significance St Dennis belongs to a recognisable type of churchtown settlement affected by industrialisation ­ they are found throughout the various industrial areas of Cornwall; they often became the principal `industrial' settlements of an area not because they were closest to the working sites, nor because they housed the most workers, but because they enhanced an already existing role as parochial, ecclesiastical, educational, commercial and social centres, the focus of trades, exchange and recreation.
St Dennis stands apart from most such settlements, however. It is not strictly a churchtown ­ the church was never in any of the constituent settlements; it is a polyfocal settlement ­ comprising at least two early medieval hamlets and a 19th century off-shoot. The churchtown functions as in all true polyfocal settlements were divided amongst the various constituent parts, and it has never fully lost the separate identities of those parts. It is in a rare, if not unique class of Cornish industrial settlement.
Other comments At present heavy traffic passes through the centre of the settlement to the detriment of the historic fabric. In recent years a series of demolitions along the main street has resulted in the village lacking a proper discernible centre. Pressure for development within a restricted area is threatening extremely important areas of informal open space/remnant ancient common land within the village. Recommendations Historic areas · Designate a Conservation Area · Prepare a full Conservation Area appraisal · Protect open areas that contribute to character · Protect historic landscapes around the village · Review Minerals Local Plan designations · Article 4 Direction to control alteration and partial demolition of walls in CA
1
· Article 4 Direction to control PD on single dwelling houses and alteration and partial demolition of small buildings in Conservation Area Historic buildings · Revise Statutory List · Prepare list of locally significant buildings Policy and management · A full survey of archaeological potential · Proposals affecting areas of derelict land to be based on a thorough understanding of the unique historical and archaeological importance of the sites · Limit or restrict development in the outskirts · Recognise back-land areas and rear lanes as an important aspect of St Dennis' character · Develop interpretation of the village, and other promotional initiatives · Further study to promote other aspects of St Dennis' history. · Site-specific design guidance for the village · Full survey of existing trees and ornamental landscapes with appropriate protection measures · Restoration/enhancement schemes to enhance some of St Dennis' important focal points · Develop a co-ordinated policy for the conversion, restoration, retention and/or re-use of shops and shopfronts 2
Conservation Area Partnership Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative ST DENNIS (Hensbarrow Area) Bridget Gillard, Historic Environment Service and The Cahill Partnership 2004 Report No: 2004R097 3
Acknowledgements This report presents the results of an assessment carried out by Bridget Gillard (HES) advised by Nick Cahill of the Cahill Partnership following desktop research by Bryn Perry Tapper (HES). Assistance was also provided by Terry Clarke, Restormel Borough Council. The report text and map drafts were prepared by Nick Cahill and Bridget Gillard, and edited by Nick Cahill and Peter Herring (CISI Project Manager HES). The report maps were produced by John Brinkhoff (CCC Planning Directorate Technical Services Section) from roughs prepared by Bridget Gillard. Front cover illustration: St Dennis from the air (HES ­ F50/P82) ©Cornwall County Council 2004: Historic Environment Service, Planning, Transportation and Estates, Cornwall County Council, Kennall Building, Old County Hall, Station Road, Truro, Cornwall TR1 3AY. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission of the publisher. 4
Contents Page 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................7 1.1 Background................................................................................................................................7 1.2 Project Aims ..............................................................................................................................7 1.3 Project methodology ................................................................................................................7 1.4 Date of Assessment ..................................................................................................................7 2 Location and setting ....................................................................................................8 2.1 Geographical location ..............................................................................................................8 2.2 Landscape setting......................................................................................................................8 3 History..........................................................................................................................8 3.1 Historical context......................................................................................................................8 3.2 Agriculture .................................................................................................................................8 3.3 Tin ...............................................................................................................................................9 3.4 Building stone quarries.............................................................................................................9 3.5 China clay and china stone ....................................................................................................10 3.6 Transport..................................................................................................................................11 4 Physical Development (Fig 2)..................................................................................... 12 4.1 Pre 1809....................................................................................................................................12 4.2 1809-42 .....................................................................................................................................12 4.3 1842-79 .....................................................................................................................................13 4.4 1879-1907.................................................................................................................................14 4.5 1907- 46....................................................................................................................................15 4.6 Post 1946..................................................................................................................................15 5 Current Character (Figs 3 & 4) .................................................................................... 16 5.1 General .....................................................................................................................................16 5.2 Built environment ...................................................................................................................16 5.2.1 Public/ecclesiastical buildings ..........................................................................................16 5.2.2 Commercial buildings ........................................................................................................17 5.2.3 Housing................................................................................................................................17 5.2.4 Industrial remains ...............................................................................................................18 5.2.5 Paving/street ephemera.....................................................................................................18 5.2.6 Materials and local details..................................................................................................19 5.3 Streetscape................................................................................................................................19 5.4 Views, Vistas and Green Space.............................................................................................20 5.4.1 Views and vistas..................................................................................................................20 5.4.2 Greenery ..............................................................................................................................20 6 Industrial significance................................................................................................ 21 7 Designations .............................................................................................................. 21 7.1 Scheduled monuments ...........................................................................................................21 7.2 Historic Buildings (Fig 4).......................................................................................................21 7.3 Historic Area Designations (Fig 4).......................................................................................21 7.4 Other designations..................................................................................................................21 8 Current issues and forces for change.........................................................................22 8.1 Current Issues..........................................................................................................................22 protected areas within China Clay Industry.................................................................................22 8.2 Forces for Change...................................................................................................................23 9 Recommendations .....................................................................................................23 9.1 Historic areas ...........................................................................................................................23 9.2 Historic buildings....................................................................................................................24 5
9.3 Policy and management......................................................................................................... 25 10 References .................................................................................................................. 27 10.1 Primary Sources...................................................................................................................... 27 10.2 Publications............................................................................................................................. 27 Appendix: Gazetteer of Archaeological Sites and historic buildings................................. 29
List of figures 1. Location map 2a. Historical development 2b. Historical development 3a. Surviving historic components 3b. Surviving historic components 4a. Gazetteer sites, existing designations and recommendations 4b. Gazetteer sites, existing designations and recommendations
Abbreviations in main text
AGHV
Area of Great Historic Value
AGSV
Area of Great Scientific Value
AONB
Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
CA
Conservation Area
CAU
Cornwall Archaeological Unit (Historic Environment Service, CCC)
CCC
Cornwall County Council
CISI
Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative
GPDO
General Permitted Development Order
HES
Historic Environment Service, Cornwall County Council
HERS
Heritage Economic Regeneration Scheme (English Heritage)
HLF
Heritage Lottery Fund (ing)
LB
Listed Building
OALS
Open Areas of Local Significance to Settlement Character
OS
Ordnance Survey
PD
Permitted Development
SPG
Supplementary Planning Guidance
THI
Townscape Heritage Initiative (Heritage Lottery Fund)
UNESCO United Nations Education, Social and Cultural Organisation
WHS
World Heritage Site
[1]
Site number on Figure 4a and 4b and in the gazetteer (Appendix)
6
1 Introduction 1.1 Background Cornwall's industrial settlements are the subject of a Conservation Area Partnership under the heading Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative (CISI). This partnership between English Heritage (with the Heritage Lottery Fund), Cornwall County Council, and the District Councils is intended to assess the character and significance of the County's 112 industrial settlements. These include villages, ports and towns associated with Cornwall's 19th century industrial revolution, based on metalliferous mining, slate and granite quarrying, and china clay extraction. The historic importance and distinctive character of such settlements has previously been undervalued, and their existing status does not adequately represent the industrial history of the county. CISI is aimed at redressing this imbalance. The Cornish Mining World Heritage Site Bid is being prepared for submission to UNESCO by February 2005 (for inscription in June 2006). The bid areas will include the full range of 18th-20th century mining landscape components, including the settlements that were created or rapidly expanded as a result of mining and associated industries. All mining settlements are of significance to the World Heritage Site Bid - those that fall in the final Bid areas will be covered by the WHS Management Plan, while those that fall outside these areas will form part of the context for the World Heritage Site and will need to be sensitively managed in the light of this. 1.2 Project Aims The aim of CISI is to produce a settlement-by-settlement analysis in order to obtain an overview of the history, present character and importance of Cornwall's industrial settlements. This will help determine where, for example, new Conservation Areas should be designated (and existing ones revised), and could provide the basis for Conservation Area Statements (to be drawn up subsequently by District Conservation Officers). 1.3 Project methodology The methodology involved historical research, followed by a site visit(s). For the historical research, a date range of 1750 to 1945 was chosen, as this represented the period of industrial growth and decline in Cornwall. Archaeological and historical sources housed at CCC (see Section 10.1) were consulted, together with Listed Building data supplied by the District Councils. Using this information, Ordnance Survey base maps were hand coloured to show: the different phases of historical development; surviving historic components from each development phase; archaeological sites, key historic buildings, and statutory designations. These maps (which formed the basis for Figures 2-4), together with copies of the primary sources consulted, were bound into a folder for each settlement, for use during site visits. The focus of the site visits was to assess settlement character and consider ways in which this could be protected and enhanced in the future. This was achieved using a checklist drawn from Conservation Area Practice: English Heritage's guidance on the management of Conservation Areas (1995) and Conservation Area Management - A Practical Guide (published by the English Towns Forum, 1998). The maps compiled during the historical phase were enhanced during the site visits, particularly with information relating to the survival and significance of historic buildings, and a general photographic record (colour prints) was made of each settlement. Meetings on site were arranged with the District Conservation Officers in order to discuss current initiatives and recommendations for future management. 1.4 Date of Assessment St Dennis was assessed as part of CISI during March 2004 7
2 Location and setting 2.1 Geographical location St Dennis is situated just off the A30, 6 miles north-west of St Austell, 14 miles north-east of Truro and 2 miles east of Indian Queens. It is in Restormel Borough and gives its name to the parish in which it lies. 2.2 Landscape setting The village is located on the south-western slopes of Carn Hill, on whose summit stands the parish church in a probable Iron Age hillfort, commanding the flat open land of Goss Moor to the north, the upper valley of the Fal to the west, and rolling hills of agricultural land to the east. Similar land lies to the south and further west, but this has been distorted and re-shaped over the years into geometrical hills and vast open pools by the excavation, processing and waste dumps of the china clay and china stone industries. 3 History This section should be read in conjunction with the mapped historical development in Figure 2. 3.1 Historical context Whereas much of the china clay area was always largely a relatively sparsely populated upland, in contrast St Dennis is set in an anciently settled landscape. The small parish is part of the ancient lands of Brannel ­ the church did not become fully independent from the mother church of St Stephen's until 1852. More densely settled throughout antiquity than most of Hensbarrow (the only known Iron Age Hillfort on Hensbarrow is at St Dennis), here was a landscape and settlement pattern already well established by the early medieval period. Domesday Book (1086) recorded an unusual concentration of small manors in the parish, and there is a dense cluster of early medieval settlement names (Domellick, Carnegga, Hendra, Trelavour) and fossilised medieval field systems. This was an ancient farming system based on the home farm or hamlet (the meaning of the name Hendra), with outlying wastes and moors (Goss Moor, Carn Hill and Hendra Downs). By the time the clay industry came to St Dennis in the late 18th century, this was a relatively stable and well-established countryside of ancient hamlets, enclosed arable field systems and attached upland grazing, with some tin steaming in the valleys. Although it is elevated, at about 500 feet, the church overlooks the broad, gently sloping and fertile lands of the upper Fal valley, and these remained some of the best agricultural lands in an area largely of upland grazing, with the flat waterlogged expanse of Goss Moor beyond it to the north. The parish scarcely intrudes into the high uplands of the Hensbarrow massif, shielded from it and the great china clay pits around Littlejohns and Goonvean by Hendra/Trelavour Downs. Until the mid-late 19th century, the focus of the parish was towards St Columb Major to the north, not St Austell and the clay lands to the south. 3.2 Agriculture Probably in response to the wealth created by the tin industry, Roche, St Dennis and St Stephen churches were all largely rebuilt in the late 14th/early 15th centuries, while the landscape saw increasing agricultural production with intakes from the waste, increasing sizes of farms and enclosure of the ancient strip-fields; little seems to have changed as the area receded into an industrial and agricultural backwater in the 16th-17th centuries. The 19th century expansion of the clay industry actually intensified the exploitation of this ancient landscape; as great a change was taking place in the surrounding agricultural countryside as in the clay pits and the villages. Much of the open common land in the parish was enclosed, as 8
at Gothers, or the lands east of Hendra, but especially around the church on Carn Hill. This was almost certainly taken-in around 1826, the same time as the churchyard was enclosed with a wall identical to the drystone walls of the new grid of fields. Former squatter cottages around the commons became Small Farms. Farmers and agricultural labourers together outnumbered the purely industrial workers in the parish until the late 19th century and there were very many more farms and farmers in the parish in 1893 than there had been in 1856. There was also a large class of cow keepers (dairying and leather for the numerous shoemakers and for industrial uses), and new farms were still being created even on the outskirts of St Dennis/Trelavour in the early 20th century. The increasing services and trades in the villages were servicing this expanding agricultural population as much as the industrial. Until well into the 20th century, both expanding settlement and expanding clay industry (the latter fortunately centred on the extensive moors and wastes) were fitted into the existing landscape; the competition for land and resources with agriculture is a later 20th century phenomenon. 3.3 Tin St Dennis is broadly similar in its historic and landscape context to nearby Roche, and it was in these peripheral areas of the Hensbarrow massif that the medieval tin industry was most developed. Goss Moor and the Fal valley shared with the eastern valleys (Par River headwaters) the main alluvial tin streaming areas that made the Blackmore Stannary (i.e. Hensbarrow) the most important in Cornwall in the late Middle Ages when over 50% of all south-west tin was produced here; early lode-back and shallow mining also concentrated in these areas (there is evidence of working on Trelavour downs). Although in the 16th to 18th centuries tin production declined almost to extinction in Blackmore, and most of Hensbarrow became something of a rural backwater, what little activity remained was still concentrated in areas like the Fal valley and Trelavour Downs. In 1800, the Hendra Downs clay company also leased the tin bounds on Hendra Common, and in fact it was the tin profits that kept the company going over the French War years when the clay industry all but collapsed. There remained a close relationship between the clay companies and tin production ­ many setts turned from either tin to clay, or the other way around depending on what was more profitable in the initial stages of opening up the works. And all the while tin streaming was still being carried out all over the area. The First edition 1" OS map (surveyed in 1809) shows tin streaming on Goss Moor and a stamping mill in the Fal valley just north of Trerice. It is perhaps significant that the pub in Hendra was called the Miner's Arms, and the 1841 census returns reveal a number of miners, tinners and tin steamers in the parish. As late as 1856 the Post Office directory made the bald statement `This is a mining district.' The truth is, however, that it remained a marginal and now largely anonymous enterprise, with few records or indications of extent (most sites now lie under the china clay works); it is difficult to know if all the old tin works had stopped by the end of the century, or how much the early 20th century schemes to start tin dredging in Goss Moor affected St Dennis, but not a single tinner or miner is recorded in 1891, though there were three iron miners (there were short-lived but prosperous iron works near Roche). 3.4 Building stone quarries There had been limited local quarrying of stone since the Middle Ages; china stone, or St Stephen's porcelain, had been used for church interiors and fittings and other quality building works in a wide area. The exact location of these early quarries is not known; there are probable shallow quarries on the west side of Trelavour/Whitepit/Hendra, on the edge of the former commons, although it is unclear if these could have been for clay, china stone, or granite. 9
Building stone quarrying remained a local but unquantifiable element of economic activity in the parish throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. 3.5 China clay and china stone This is not the place to give a generalised history of china clay and china stone, reference should be made to the bibliography. A working knowledge of the technologies and general trends of development is assumed in the reader, and only specific trends and sites relating to St Dennis will be analysed here. Throughout, references to the china clay industry are taken to incorporate the working and employment generated by china stone quarrying, a major activity in this part of Hensbarrow. By 1748 William Cookworthy had discovered good quality china stone and clay in the western part of the Hensbarrow area, in St Stephen's parish (especially around Carloggas - Cookworthy's first mineral sett). By 1775 the pottery manufacturers of Staffordshire started to take direct interest in the production and shipping of china clay and stone, starting with Josiah Wedgwood himself, who in 1798 set up the Hendra Company in partnership with the Minton and the New Hall Potteries, working both clay and china stone on Hendra Downs. St Dennis is therefore one of the primary clay-producing areas. Despite the acute historic interest and importance of the early stages of the clay industry, the impact on local economies, and in particular on settlement, can be easily overstated. Even here in the heartland of the new industry, it remained very localised and small-scale until the mid-late 19th century. Trethosa Pit was one of the largest works but in 1810 it was only about nine feet deep, produced only 300 tons of clay per year and employed only 13 people with, from time to time, the casual employment of women and girls. Even after a period of enormous investment and expansion in the 1820s and 1830s one of the largest pits, Goonvean, still only employed 34 people. It is too easy to see the simple record of more and larger pits, larger and more capital-intensive companies, increasing miles of tramways and so on as a continuous graph-line of expansion and improvement, but this disguises a whole series of boom and bust periods, not unlike the contemporary tin and copper industries in Cornwall. The industry was always badly affected by foreign wars which hit both markets and coastal shipping. It had all but stopped by 1814 and the end of the French Wars, while in 1917 production levels were about half what they had been in 1912. Kaolin was in the 19th century in many respects a specialised product and suffered badly in general trade recessions, as happened in the 1830s, and which badly affected an industry which was already overstretching itself, entering a period of organisational and profit crisis. Despite a continued trend for larger and larger companies over the whole 150 years or so covered by this report, most remained small, duplicating resources and infrastructure and poorly capitalised ­ there were still 41 separate companies in 1939. However, the St Stephen/St Dennis area (Treviscoe, Hendra Downs and Trelavour Downs) always remained a core area of the Hensbarrow china clay industry; and perhaps weathered the fluctuations better than most. Even when the scale of production was greater in the central and eastern parts of Hensbarrow, much of the industry was run and serviced from here, particularly around Nanpean/Drinnick to the south of St Dennis, based on large amalgamated companies like the Cornwall China Stone and Clay Co. and the West of England Clay Co. The cycle of boom and recession continued, but with a general trend towards expansion. By 1853 the larger companies were making good profits and labourers were in a good position to demand wage increases, but this was heyday of high numbers employed before technological change developed ­ the first recorded coal-fired pan-kiln, which would eventually transform the scale and nature of the industry, was at Greensplat in 1854. The end of the tin boom in 1873 saw further diversion of investment into clay, especially in the use of steam engines (then going cheap second hand from redundant mines). 10
Trade recession, investment in labour-saving technologies and overproduction could lead to crises, such as in 1876 when there were pit and quarry closures, and the once-powerful labourers saw wages decline with strikes and riots (much of it centred on nearby Roche). From 1880 onwards there was a slow revival in the trade; more machinery was bought, and the companies got still larger - by 1880 the West of England Clay Co based on the St Stephen pits controlled about half of all south-west clay and china stone. The huge levels of capital investment did not necessarily employ more workers ­ about 4000 or so were employed in the clay industry over the whole Hensbarrow area in the early 1900s, less than in the 1850s when 7,200 men women and children had been employed. From about 1900 there was a great increase and diversification of uses and therefore demand for china clay, and, despite the disquiet and violence associated with the famous strike of 1912, working conditions, pay and housing were again relatively good in the clay industry and, indeed, it entered a boom period in the years up to the First World War. The inter-war years saw further rationalisation of the industry, creating massive conglomerates like English China Clays (1919). Again, despite the spread of the industry all over Hensbarrow, the concentration of resources around Drinnick and Nanpean, including the West of England brickworks, cooperages, stores, saw mills etc meant that the St Dennis/St Stephen area saw much of this increased investment, but there was still crisis in the early 1920s exacerbated by the pressures of finding jobs for 300 returning service men. The industry had only just stabilised by the start of WWII, during which production fell to the lowest level since 1876 (175,000 tons). Export industries were vital to national economic recovery after 1945, and government subsidy regenerated the clay industry on a hitherto unknown scale. By 1966 2,000,000 tons per year were produced from only 24 highly mechanized `super pits', while other uses were sought for sand waste - including `Cornish unit' housing, kerbs, blocks and so-on. While St Dennis is now an `island settlement' set at a safe distance from the pits, the landscape to the south is dominated by the ever-growing clay pits, china stone quarries and terraced dumps of the still active industry. 3.6 Transport Despite the small scale of the pits, the aggregate scale of the industry was already by the early 19th century beginning to have discernable economic, population and settlement effects and to make demands on the local transport infrastructure. The cost of transport was a critical aspect of the industry, because of its low bulk value (compared to metal ores, for instance), and the distance to a port or railhead could be the single most important determining factor in the success of any particular pit. By 1800 the Hendra and Trelavour Downs Co. had its own ships exporting clay, mainly to Bristol. In 1791 Charles Rashleigh developed Charlestown; by 1829 rival ports like Pentewan, Par and Newquay (between 1825 and 1833) were being developed, with new tram roads proposed at an early stage to link them to the clay areas (the Pentewan tram road was intended to come into St Dennis to Rostowrack/Treviscoe). Local transport demands were adding a source of profit to local farmers and tradesmen ­ much of the clay industry around St Dennis and St Stephen was based on Lady Grenville's estates, and her tenant farmers were given preference in transport contracts. Many of the port and rail schemes were a speculation on the potential of the area as much as a reaction to the existing levels of production, and in fact, much of the development was slow, piecemeal and achieved only after often ruthless competition and wasteful duplication of resources. The Cornwall China Stone and Clay Co. were promoting a tramway from Pentewan to Little Treviscoe, but this was baulked by Joseph Treffry's Newquay Tramway. This was pursued only with difficulty and slowly ­ it did not reach Hendra Downs until 1852. Other proposals to unite the tramways and improve communication with the clay ports on both north 11
and south coasts were no less desultory. The Newquay and Cornwall Junction Railway coming from the St Austell main line by 1867 had only built two miles to Higher Carpalla (it was supposed to join up with the Newquay tramway at Hendra Downs) and was abandoned by 1869. Even the Cornwall Mineral Railway opened in 1874, failed to reach its anticipated levels of mineral (and passenger) capacity. The Hendra Downs branch of the Newquay railway was already disused by 1879 ­ that to the adjoining Treviscoe Pit was disused by 1907. Later 19th century developments included the introduction of slurry pipelines to ship wet clay from the pits to more distant kiln drys, but much of the clay continued to be moved by wagon until well into the 20th century, when motorised road transport took over. 4 Physical Development (Fig 2) 4.1 Pre 1809 `The church is erected on a bleak elevation, and is surrounded with a direful strag of rocks visible above ground, of various shapes and sizes, affording shelter and pasture for little else besides sheep, rabbits, hares, goats, and horses' Hals, quoted in Lake 1872. St Dennis is a small parish. In 1811 there were only 478 people recorded in the Census. Carn Hill, on which the parish church stands (then still a chapelry attached to St Stephen) was open and unenclosed; there were a number of small squatter cottages ringed around the edge of the commons here and on the edge of the open Hendra and Trelavour Downs, but most of the population clearly lived as they always had in the ancient scatter of farming hamlets in their relict medieval field systems circling the hill. There was no churchtown as such; there was indeed not much to choose between the surrounding hamlets, although Trelavour and Hendra were both larger and more densely built-up than the other places. Although Trelavour was closer to the church, probably already had an inn and held the parish pound, Hendra was around this time (1820) described as the only village in the parish. The typical rural crafts and services associated with churchtowns elsewhere (including cattle fairs held twice a year) were split between the two villages. Between them, in the area later known as Whitepit, there was but a single building ­ a large square building precisely on the site of the present large square Methodist Chapel dated 1839, but for which no evidence of a foundation date as early as 1809 is yet known. Only on the very edges of the parish were there signs of industry ­ tin streaming and stamping mills to the north in the Fal valley, clay pits and tin streaming on the Downs to the south. Neither had any settlements clearly associated with them, and the handful of workers would have been indistinguishable from agricultural labourers. The pits were small and on marginal land ­ the largest of them (Trethosa) regularly employed only 13 people. We should not look, therefore, for much effect on the settlements at St Dennis at this time; the vast impact china clay had in the later 19th/20th centuries tends to give a distorted view of its landscape and settlement importance at this early stage. 4.2 1809-42 In keeping with the steady, but not spectacular growth in industry and agriculture, the population of the parish grew at a fairly steady rate throughout the period from 478 in 1811 to 828 in 1841. In the years before 1820 Hendra was described as the only village in the parish; by 1842, it was smaller in size than Trelavour. The two settlements had expanded (modestly) in size, but there was also much infill of cottage rows within existing plots, especially in Trelavour, where the town-place in front of the Commercial Inn, and the site of the village pound, if accurately identified, were built over. 12
But the most interesting development was the beginnings of a third, completely new settlement (perhaps the first in the parish since the early medieval period) around the chapel at Whitepit (eventually to become known as St Dennis). It was clearly built as something of a speculative venture along the main road, with alternate blocks of land taken from the old field system. The growth of these settlements was only partly a direct response to the increasing industrial population associated with the clay industry. True, clay labourers were the largest single group of workers in the study area (including the outlying scatter of cottages around the main hamlets), but only just, and this should not exaggerate their numbers. Only about 12 are recorded in the 1841 census within the study area, with two clay agents in Trelavour, a clay merchant in Whitepit and a Captain of Clay works in Hendra. This compares with 5 blacksmiths and no less than 11 carpenters (perhaps much involved with making wagons for clay transport), and farmers and agricultural labourers together still outnumbered the purely industrial workers in the parish as a whole. At this date, much of the visible growth in St Dennis was a secondary result of industrialisation rather than the creation of truly `industrial' settlements. The clay, china stone and tin workers were housed within the existing landscape by the traditional means of rented and leasehold or squatter cottages; no new settlements were created specifically for them. Their employers ran their businesses on traditional cost-book systems; such companies did not typically see the need nor have the capital available to build housing for workers. Even Whitepit was not at this stage an `industrial settlement' in the sense that it mainly housed industrial workers (less actually than the two older centres) ­ it was in effect an extension to the existing churchtown function split between Hendra and Trelavour. In all three there was a modest variety of trades people, from farmers through carpenters, milliners, draper, blacksmiths and shoemakers, with pubs in the two older centres ­ the Miners Arms in Hendra, two pubs, the Commercial Inn and the Globe (?) in Trelavour, and both had people of substance and independent means (members of the locally dominant Varcoe family especially). What is notable is the contrast between the three `village' settlements which were dominated by the trades and service providers and the outlying hamlets. These included both the old agricultural centres and the cottage groups on the edges of the commons, like Hendra Downs and Higher Trelavour and Hendra Lane, which were lived in almost exclusively by general and specialised clay, quarry and tin labourers. The distinction is reflected in the different Methodist sects that built chapels in the parish at this time. The Wesleyans, in the heart of the village at Whitepit by 1839, typically drew their congregations from the middle classes, trades and artisans as much, if not more, than from the working labourers; the Bible Christian (Bryanites), much more favoured by the industrial working classes, were located, like their congregation, on marginal land on the edge of the old common lands (Carn Hill Bible Christian Chapel, established by 1842). 4.3 1842-79 The population dynamics within St Dennis parish mirror the fluctuating economic fortunes of the clay industry. While the population rose through the mid 19th century, the rate of increase fluctuated wildly decade by decade ­ only modestly in the 1840s, nearly three times as fast in the boom years of the 1870s, reaching 1235 in 1881. Much of this increase was set in Whitepit, where the main road was lined with good sized cottages and houses and shops; the older hamlet centres had equally substantial houses and cottages added to them and there were isolated rows of cottages built along the main roads and lanes leading from the village centres, particularly along those leading to the railway and the pits (Hendra Prazey; Hendra Lane). This was not a settlement of long lines of humble cottage rows. 13
The shape and form of the village changed within this period; for the first time becoming known as St Dennis, a usage sanctified by the 1879 OS map, although the three constituent parts, Trelavour, Whitepit and Hendra were still recognisable (and named), and still not continuously joined up. The expanded village still retained that special mix of trades, services, social functions and middle class residents that distinguished a churchtown from a simple monoculture industrial settlement, but by the same token it had a much greater population of working people as the industrial population became a more significant element in the parish, with a range of facilities much more like the small mining towns of West Cornwall (St Agnes or St Day) than closer churchtown settlements less affected by industrialisation (Luxulyan, for instance). At the beginning of this period, there were a few craftsmen, shopkeepers and pubs, all surrounded by a vibrant farming community; the two non-conformist chapels were clearly commanding good congregations, since the parish church was rebuilt in 1847 virtually as a Methodist-style preaching hall, in an attempt by the (absentee) rector to attract back a flock. But by 1880 the range of facilities and public services had greatly expanded. St Dennis had become a fully independent parish, the Growing population stimulating an Anglican revival to match the growing Methodist presence (already enhanced by a Sunday school at the Whitepit Wesleyan chapel); the first rector, the Rev. John Glynn Childs, had built a `handsome and commodious residence', the Church of England school had been built in Trelavour, there were more shops and trades and a post office. 4.4 1879-1907 In the 1880s, the parish increased by only 67 people, a slower rate of growth than at any time thus far in the 19th century. In contrast, either side of 1900, the rate of growth exploded, increasing by about two thirds (from 1235 in 1881 to 2030 in 1911). What is clear from the census returns is that the population, in the built-up area as well as the scattered hamlets, was now completely dominated by clay and china stone workers, whether labourers, or engineers, managers and clay merchants. The specialist nature of the work continued to bring in more specialists and service industries on the back of it, stimulating construction and engineering skills as roads and railways were built and serviced. St. Dennis Junction mineral station was 2 miles west of St. Dennis, and the Fowey and Newquay lines of railway passed through the parish. Railway workers, engineers, engine drivers (both on the railways and static engines at the pits) formed a small but significant new element in the population of St Dennis in the late 19th century. Trelavour was now completely joined up with Whitepit by the development of the east side of Fore Street, and there was the detached row of substantial cottages built facing the old corner of common at Trelavour Prazey. Hendra remained somewhat detached, but a large new pub was built (the Boscawen Hotel), and another sizeable row of houses built along Hendra Lane. St Dennis by about 1900 was a long straggling village stretching a kilometre or more along the main road. The village was a complex and well-provided settlement in the years around 1900. The church was fully restored in 1899, the Free Methodist church was enlarged in 1892; the Whitepit Chapel Sunday school built 1893; the Bible Christian schoolroom was `being built' in 1893, Hendra Wesleyan chapel founded 1907; the St Dennis Reading Room and Recreation Society established in 1892, and a new Board School built at Trelavour by 1907. The St Dennis Band was reorganised, and entered its first contest in 1882; it became one of the most successful in the county. As well as the typical rural crafts, blacksmiths, carpenters and so on (and several masons and stone-cutters), there was the post office, many more shops, grocers and drapers, tailors, 14
saddlers, boot and shoe makers, a watchmaker and jeweller, preachers, schoolmistresses and even an organ builder. This was not a grim and harsh industrial settlement by any means ­ indeed the china clay country attracted tourists for its strange and exciting landscapes. An 1893 advert for the newly opened Boscawen Hotel perhaps sums up the sense of optimism and prosperity in St Dennis: `Boscawen Hotel (erected in 1893 in place of "Miners' Arms," now closed); every accommodation for commercials & tourists visiting the China Clay districts ; good stabling & posting establishment `. 4.5 1907- 46 Population in St Dennis continued to grow through this period, from 2030 in 1911 to 2359 in 1931, and this at a time when much of Cornwall had already experienced long decline in numbers, and when increasing investment and production in clay did not actually mean larger numbers employed. That St Dennis continued to expand was partly a reflection of the relative stability in the local industrial base, very much one of the core areas of production, management and service in the clay industry as a whole, and partly the working of a marked 20th century phenomenon in the china clay area which was already beginning to show itself. Much of the later industrial housing and early council housing in the larger settlements like St Dennis was not just for new population, but for the increasing numbers displaced as the ever-larger pits and tips began to destroy outlying and scattered cottages and hamlets. With the change from the smaller, traditional cost-book clay companies to larger, limited liability companies with greater capital resources came a move to construct company-owned housing on a new scale (ECC owned workmen's cottages sufficient to house 1,590 by 1919). This had marked effects on the nature of development: on the location of housing - selected by the company, usually on large blocks along the roads and lanes, not simply slotted into the existing streetscape as before; on style and form, with uniform terraces rather than the traditional rows of individually detailed cottages; and on materials, with extensive use of mass-produced brick and concrete, both by-products of the industrial complex, in addition to, and usually instead of, the traditional stone of the area. Alongside the equally regular rows of speculative villas and bungalows, these developments covered virtually all the lanes leading into and between the older core areas. By 1946 St Dennis was no longer a single-road settlement, and had become one of the largest villages in the whole Hensbarrow massif. The village (Whitepit was now considered to be the village centre) continued to be relatively prosperous and well provided-for ­ a Board of Trade report thought the 1912 strike had been ill-advised, since most workers were quite well off, owned their own houses, had savings, owned bikes, gramophones etc, and went on seaside trips in summer. By 1914 in addition to all the shops, crafts and services already established in the 19th century, there were two banks (Barclays; the Capital and Counties), and even a motor engineer's. During this period a vestry was added to the church (1910), a church institute founded in 1912, the Board School enlarged (1914), while the St Dennis Working Men's Club, the St Dennis Band Club, and the St. Dennis Association Football Club all flourished; the St Dennis Working Men's Institute was built in 1922, the Plaza Cinema stood on the corner of Robartes Road (where the surgery now is), while the ever expanding population required a large new cemetery. 4.6 Post 1946 The population of St Dennis declined in the post-war years for the first time in over 150 years (from 2534 in 1951 to 2015 in 1981), and has only in the last two decades begun to increase again (although still not reaching the 1951 maximum). The mid 20th century therefore saw the abandonment of shops, services (the cinema was demolished in 1964) and trades (an empty 15
forge stands in the village centre), and demolition of buildings rather than the creation of new ones. The recent population increase has seen a consequent large-scale construction of housing estates. The houses are not being built for clay workers, and, for the first time in the village's history not built along the roads and lanes, but on green fields; the intimate link with the history of the area has thus been broken in terms both of employment and the physical character and shape of the village and its surrounding landscape. 5 Current Character (Figs 3 & 4) 5.1 General It is still apparent that the modern village of St Dennis is a settlement of several different parts, but the mix of the various building styles makes unpicking the discrete elements difficult. In addition to this, the straggling nature of the settlement creates hesitancy, an uncertainty, as to where the village centre is. There are several potential centres; during the late nineteenth century the area known as Whitepit undoubtedly fulfilled this role, but the settlement has sprawled out, and years of closure of shops and other facilities, demolition and lack of co-ordinated and appropriate street works have muddied the waters. St Dennis is now a village with many arteries, but no clear heart. Part of the unresolved nature of the village lies in the survival in remnant form of the original separate settlement centred around the Commercial Inn in Trelavour, adjacent to the chapel in Whitepit and around the early farm and Miners' Arms in Hendra. The modern St Dennis we experience today is an amalgamation of these early foci, firstly by commercial premises and craftsmen's housing, and later by the strings of industrial housing. 5.2 Built environment 5.2.1 Public/ecclesiastical buildings Each part of the settlement has its own ecclesiastical presence. Although the church [4] was largely rebuilt following a fire in 1985, its fifteenth century tower dominates the skyline due to its prominent position on high ground at the northern tip of the settlement. It is highly visible from the village below and makes a strong and distinctive contribution to many of the views and vistas. Almost literally in the shadow of the church stands the Bible Christian Chapel [10], its dressed granite faзade making reference to the church above, but with a simple classical vocabulary of round arched windows rather than decorative Gothic. The slightly later attached Sunday School [11] is similarly restrained with simple rendered walls and a gabled porch. By contrast the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel [16] in Whitepit although still classical in style makes a strong visual statement, both in its size and decorative features such as the granite voussoirs and urn shaped finials. The attached Sunday School [97] has been recently partially demolished and only the gable end is still standing. The Hendra Methodist Chapel [13] is a simple one cell rendered building with segmental arched windows and a flat roofed porch. Set back from the road the chapel is so unobtrusive it initially appears to be a clubhouse or meeting room. Both schools make a strong contribution to the townscape of the settlement. The earlier building on Fore Street [15] is built of granite with a tiled, hipped roof. Its tall windows have china clay brick soldier arches, and there is a bellcote above the main porch. Built from similar materials but on a larger scale, the present school [32] has a series of pitched roofs, large square headed windows and decorative chimneys. Built about 1900, it is one of an important local group by B.C. Andrew, architect, of St Austell. In Fore Street the working men's club [105] of 1922 is still in operation - a double fronted structure with a central pediment and decorative roundel. 16
5.2.2 Commercial buildings The most prominent surviving commercial buildings in the village are the two public houses, representative of the pre- and post-industrial eras. The Commercial Inn [14] a long, low stone building crouches amongst the small-scale courtyard development in the original settlement of Trelavour in contrast to the prominent Boscawen Hotel [19] a solid four-square structure of granite blocks with a hipped slate roof. The original public house for Hendra the Miners' Arms is now a row of cottages [18], but its form of external chimney stack and long, low construction is similar to that of the Commercial Inn. A similarly built row of cottages [17] opposite the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel once housed the post office. Remnants of the thriving craftsmen's trade which once flourished in the settlement can still be found. On Trelavour Road there is a tall stone building [91] which might once have been a warehouse, and on Fore Street a single storey stone building [6] which was once the blacksmith's has survived virtually unaltered with extremely important survival of equipment and layout internally. The building at the foot of Trelavour Square [82] appears at one stage to have been a warehouse. Alleyways and old carriage entrances off Fore Street give glimpses of further workshops behind the street frontage. There is plenty of surviving evidence from the village's commercial heyday during the early twentieth century both in the form of buildings, now mostly converted to houses, but which retain their original commercial facades[104][148], and a large number of shops still in business. Some of the shops such as the Spar [64] and the post office [68] have modern facades, but others [47] [106] [114] have retained their original fascia boards stall risers and glazing bars. Surprisingly, given the number that once existed, few of the shopfronts from the mid nineteenth century survive. The better examples include the building [102] opposite the Spar Road which has a fish and chip shop in its side extension. There is evidence of former shopfronts, however, in the houses on the west side of Fore Street [70], on the building adjacent to the chapel [98], and next to the fish and chip shop [103]. 5.2.3 Housing The majority of historic houses in St Dennis date from the early twentieth century period, but because they mostly fringe the roads which project from the main streets, the houses from much earlier periods survive in prominent locations, creating a sense of a much greater mix of dates, forms and styles. One of the earliest houses is in Trelavour Square [77], a small stone building with thick granite lintels above irregularly positioned windows and an external chimney stack that has subsequently been merged into a later cottage row. Hendra Corner [116] has survived similarly unaltered. These buildings share many of the characteristics of Rose Cottage [42] which dates from the same period, but has been so comprehensively altered it appears almost modern. Carne Cottages [23] and no. 29 Hendra Prazey, [121] by the later tramway, would originally have been similar small-scale stone structures. Despite such incremental changes it is still possible to discern the small, scattered rural dwellings which once characterised the settlement, as well as those remnants within the old agricultural hamlets at Hendra and Trelavour. In addition to the cottages there is also a number of larger detached houses surviving from this period, or only shortly later in the early-mid 19th century, including the School House [71], the Old Rectory [20], Hall Farm [79], Trelavour Farm [40] and 9 Trelavour Road [93] ­ these all have similar constructions to the cottages, stone walls, slate roofs and fairly austere facades, but on a larger scale. The consistent importance of agriculture to the village throughout the `industrial' period is reflected in the surprisingly large number of farm, small holding and related buildings within and around the village. There are barns, outbuildings and yards, in Trelavour [40-41][79-80] [154] and 17
Hendra [115][116][126], as well as liberally scattered around the edge of the village ­ not all included within the study area. Trelavour Square is fascinating for within such a small area so many different periods of buildings are represented. Adjoining the earliest cottage [77] is a building from the early nineteenth century [76] which shares almost identical characteristics but has a regular window arrangement. Similar cottages to this built in pairs and rows can be found throughout the settlement [18][44][74][81][87][99][119][139]: stone built, two-storey structures, with slate roofs and external stacks, and regular window arrangements. Some have been subsequently altered and rendered, but their basic identity as solidly built workmen's cottages can still be seen. Some of the most attractive houses in the village date from the mid-nineteenth century and are well represented both in Trelavour Square [75] and on the western side of Fore Street [70]. Although still only two-storey these houses are built on a larger scale with various additions such as bay windows, decorative string courses, stone voussoirs and front gardens enclosed by stone walls. Some of the windows have brick soldier arches formed from waste materials from the local china-clay industry. The size of these cottages is unusual in Cornwall, seeming more reminiscent of villages in stone areas in the north such as Derbyshire, and probably reflect the growing commercial wealth in the settlement at that time. Very evident along the main roads of St Dennis are the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century workers' housing. Typical of this type is the row of cottages on the eastern side of Fore Street [72]. Like the mid-nineteenth century cottages they are stone with china-clay soldier arches, but further decorative features can be found such as the applied rose motifs on the keystones, crested ridge tiles and decorative brick chimneys. Similar rows are to be found to the west [57] and to the south [130]. More prosaic and larger in number are the semi-detached workers' houses from the early twentieth century. Both public [62] and private [94] building schemes from this period produced well proportioned but very plain housing which characterise both Robartes Road and Trelavour Road. In contrast some of the private villas built during this period [26][45][46][131] were extremely decorative with stone pillars, carved barge-boards, scrolled ironwork, crested and pierced ridge tiles and finials. 5.2.4 Industrial remains The names Whitegate and Whitepit both refer to the china clay industry, but the most prominent industrial remains are not within the settlement, but fringe the village to the east, south and west in the form of the irregularly shaped china clay dumps. The closest industrial activity is to the west and behind the houses on Hendra Road [6], but this does not permeate the village and only impacts in terms of the views. However, an early industrial feature in the form of the tramway site [7] still forms a boundary on the western side of St Dennis and its bridges [8][61][163] are still in place. The cottage at the foot of Whitegate [60] was possibly once the railway gatekeeper's cottage. 5.2.5 Paving/street ephemera Many of the major roads in St Dennis, such as Hendra Road, Carne Hill, Hendra Prazey and most of Fore Street do not have any paving with the houses and front gardens giving straight onto the street. The majority of the paving where it exists in front of the later developments is of tarmac with granite kerbs. There are however, scattered through the village, patches of earlier cobbled paving [146] which give an impression of the early nineteenth century streetscape. The surfacing in and around Trelavour Square [144][145] is amongst the best, and possibly the oldest, in the whole area. Outside the old Whitepit Methodist Chapel [16] the path is defined by an area of stable block [147] (moulded brick paving). 18
The fields around the church are enclosed by dry stone walls [152], interesting and important historic structures in their own right, relating to the enclosure of the ancient commons, and the construction of the first churchyard wall [140] in 1828. The churchyard wall has a more formal arrangement of stone gate piers and a cast iron gate. The high road leading to Carne Hill is bordered by stone walls, roughly castellated [142] similar to the walls built to enclose the tramway [7]. Stone is used again for the walls outside the cemetery [143] whose entrance is marked by stone gate piers with pyramidal copings. A charming survival at the head of Fore Street is the early twentieth century cast iron finger post [89]. 5.2.6 Materials and local details The majority of historic buildings in St Dennis are built from an altered granite (petunse) related to the china stone, used as rubble, or squared or ashlared, with use of unaltered granite in some cases, and with slate roofs. Some of the earlier roofs, such as the Methodist Chapel [16] are scantle slate. In many of the later buildings the granite lintels and voussoirs are replaced by creamy china clay bricks, some of which have decorative keystones with a rose relief. The same china-clay bricks are used for chimneys and many of these have bricks laid at an angle to produce an attractive chevron effect. Although not part of the historic study area mention should be made of the post-war housing at the eastern end of Hall Road. Here the public housing is constructed from pre-cast panels (Cornish unit style) formed from waste china-clay material. 5.3 Streetscape The streets in St Dennis have a variety of different characters. Robartes Road has an open suburban feel with the houses set back from the wide road behind front lawns. Trelavour Road feels slightly less open as the houses are taller and set on the side of the hill in close steps. More enclosed still is the northern end of Fore Street where the houses despite their front gardens present a very hard landscape straight up against the road. There are areas of the village such as Glynvale Terrace and the area around Carne Hill Chapel where the countryside permeates the settlement and wide ranging views are found. In contrast are the enclosed back lanes and alleyways around the Commercial Inn, some of which have survived since the medieval period. Until the building programmes of the later twentieth century nearly all the building occurred along the main streets through and leading into the village; the subsequent spread of estates onto the adjacent fields has little to do with the historic character and traditional streetscapes or pattern of development of St Dennis. The buildings and streetscapes in St Dennis can be superb; yet they can also be disappointing in the way they have been altered in recent years. The different degrees to which the three established foci in St Dennis have suffered from loss of historic fabric and character are instructive, and relate mainly, as so often, to traffic management schemes ill-considered in the historic context. Trelavour still appears much like a medieval agricultural townplace ­ a churchtown slightly removed from its church, but with ancient inn, townplace/square, alleys, walls, enclosure and mysterious and inviting footpaths, backed by mature trees and old hedges and farmsteads. It is picturesque in a way that compares well with the much better-known fishing villages of Cornwall ­ turn a narrow, cobbled path between ancient cottages and one almost expects to see the sea. Why should it have survived so well? Largely because the through road turns around the outside of the ancient townplace, in effect by-passing the hamlet centre, and because the commercial focus of St Dennis shifted to the new area to the south, Whitepit. At Whitepit itself, the street leading from Trelavour is sinuous and enclosed, bordered by good buildings, walls and gardens. Traffic squeezes through, although with over-large vehicles and at hair-raising speeds, despite this street being in effect by-passed by the main road narrow routed 19
through Prazey and Hendra. Historic buildings of great charm line the streets, yet at the very centre of the whole village, demolition has removed buildings from the street frontage ­ large gap sites are currently being re-developed; the road turning into Robartes Road has been widened and improved, the cinema long demolished, the sense of enclosure and interest given over to an unnecessarily wide, bland and uninviting road junction (part of the main route through the village). The centre of the village, by the bank/Boscawen Hotel, lacks the scale and enclosure seen elsewhere; a solitary, heavily lopped and disfigured tree sets the scene. Worst affected, and most to be regretted, is the decimation of the medieval hamlet of Hendra, once the principal settlement in the whole parish. The loss of historic buildings around the road junction has left a green space bereft of much streetscape value; historic buildings hard up against a busy traffic junction, some of them undervalued or underused as a result, and as in Whitepit, gap sites stand awaiting redevelopment. All result from the lack of recognition of St Dennis as an historic settlement. The lack of statutory designation and control raises issues of appropriate quality in new designs on these redevelopment sites. 5.4 Views, Vistas and Green Space 5.4.1 Views and vistas Due to its hill top position the views from St Dennis Church are far reaching and panoramic. To the north lies the open flat moorland of Goss Moor, to the east the rounded hills and patchwork fields of agricultural land, and to the south east the village stretches out below on the hillside with the land climbing in the distance to the conical and ramped hills of china clay waste. To the south west land slopes away through fields with dry stone walls to the flat bottomed valley below before rising to a horizon of flattened hills and further china clay sites. Below the church there are no further views of Goss Moor but the irregularly shaped hills to the south and west are visible throughout the town. Due to its open nature there are many far reaching vistas on the western side of the settlement out over the surrounding countryside, but views on the southern and eastern side tend to be more restricted. From the southern end of the village looking north the fourteenth century tower of St Dennis Church can frequently be seen on the skyline. In the older part of St Dennis, for instance around Trelavour Square, the intricate system of lanes and alleyways give more intimate views and glimpses. Despite the loss of some buildings in the centre of the village, and the opening out of the streetscape, St Dennis is above all a village of closed views, sinuous, twisting streets, interesting buildings set at strange angles to the road, affording glimpses into back yards and a green landscape close behind (much less so since the extensive housing developments of the last few year ­ thankfully many old hedges and trees have been retained to soften the change). 5.4.2 Greenery St Dennis has a number of formal green spaces - the cemetery, the recreation ground and the playing field. There are still areas in St Dennis where the farmland laps the edge of the historic settlement - on the eastern side of Wellington Road, and either side of Hendra Road. In addition there are areas of informal open green spaces such as adjacent to Carne Hill Chapel, to the west of the Junior School, in front of Glyn Vale Terrace, at the foot of Hendra Road and behind Hall Farm. The remnant areas of common land are of critical importance to the character of the village. They inform the whole history of development of the place, a living document of the way in which the surrounding landscape was enclosed, improved, set aside and shaped the growing village. They provide the setting for important groups of historic buildings, such as at Trelavour Prazey, or for outstanding individual buildings, such as the Old Rectory, or the Carn Hill chapel. 20
They tie disparate parts of the village together ­ the fields between the Church and the Old Rectory read almost like a park, footpaths link directly from one part of the village to another. The park like character is enhanced by the ornamental grounds to the rectory. Where they have been encroached upon, as at Trelavour Prazey, or entirely built over as at Hendra Prazey, the loss of special interest, character, history, visual amenity and the sheer joy of finding such informal and ancient sites within such a built-up village is incalculable. Although trees can be found as high up as the churchyard and around the backs of the streets and buildings, there are surprisingly few in the village itself, and the line of Fore Street is largely a hard landscape despite the number of front gardens. 6 Industrial significance Despite early tin streaming and clay pit activity in the area, these industries did not affect the early development of the villages which comprise St Dennis. Already substantial places in local terms, the first major development of the villages was as a secondary result of the surrounding industry - to service the requirements of those farmers improving the agricultural hinterland as well as local industrial workers who were housed close to the industrial sites themselves. From the mid nineteenth century until the early twentieth century St Dennis maintained its mixed economy, but became a more important centre for industrial housing. The village continued to grow during the twentieth century, as new houses were required for those whose villages had been lost to china-clay excavation. St Dennis belongs to a recognisable type of churchtown settlement affected by industrialisation ­ these are found throughout the various industrial areas of Cornwall; they often became the principal `industrial' settlements of an area not because they were closest to the working sites, nor because they housed the most workers, but because they enhanced an already existing role as parochial, ecclesiastical, educational, commercial and social centres, the focus of trades, exchange and recreation. St Dennis stands apart from most such settlements, however. It is not strictly a churchtown ­ the church was never in any of the constituent settlements; it is a polyfocal settlement ­ comprising at least two early medieval hamlets and a 19th century off-shoot. The churchtown functions, as in all true polyfocal settlements, were divided amongst the various constituent parts, and it has never fully lost the separate identities of those parts. It is in a rare, if not unique class of Cornish industrial settlement. 7 Designations 7.1 Scheduled monuments There is one scheduled monument, a medieval cross in the churchyard, in the study area. 7.2 Historic Buildings (Fig 4) The church is listed grade II*, and No 4 Rectory Road is listed grade II. There are five grade II monuments in the churchyard and a grade II listed font. There is no local list. 7.3 Historic Area Designations (Fig 4) There is no conservation area. 7.4 Other designations (All policy numbers refer to Restormel Local Plan adopted October 2001) 21
The area of land around the church within the graveyard walls is designated an Area of Informal Open Space. The area of land between the church and Carne Hill Chapel is designated an Area of Great Historic and Archaeological Value ­ policy 24. The above area and a further area which includes the whole of Fore Street is designated an Area of Local Historic and Archaeological Value ­ policy 32, SA3 SA36,N2,R9,R17,R28,R42,R71,R90,R101A,R117,R119. There is a tightly drawn Development Envelope ­ policy 3,34,58,71,72,75,76,106. The upper area of Fore Street has a Traffic Calming Measure/Local Safety Scheme ­ 53A, SA11, N13. The recreation ground to the south of Robartes Road is designated an Existing Formal Open Space ­ N29, SA43. The land to the east of Parc-an-Bre Drive is a Proposed Formal Open Space ­ N32, R36. The land beyond this area is proposed for new hospital facilities ­ policy R99. The site of the mineral railway is designated Land Proposed for Rail Route ­ SA12,N14. The site of the mineral line where it adjoins Hendra Road is a Proposed Footpath ­ policy N15. The Cornwall County Council Local Minerals Plane identifies St Dennis as an island settlement (policy CC5), partly enclosed by a buffer zone, with a restricted presumption in favour of minerals working (policy C7). 8 Current issues and forces for change 8.1 Current Issues One of the major issues in St Dennis at present is the heavy traffic that passes through its historic core. The local plan, however does propose traffic calming measures. A number of historic buildings have been lost in the Whitepit and Hendra areas of Fore Street including the old cinema and the early nineteenth century cottages next to the old Miners' Arms. A number of front garden walls have been removed to make provision for off-street parking. Many of the historic buildings in St Dennis have replacement windows and doors, including the Old Rectory (one of the best buildings of its type and date in the area). The remnant areas of common land have been too easily regarded as waste land, instead of the precious, historic and threatened resource they actually are. A critical part of the character of the village, they have been encroached upon, built upon, dumped upon and tidied up ­ all to one degree or another involving a loss of character. Protected areas within China Clay Industry As an Island Settlement, pressure on the limited land available in St Dennis will be increasingly high; the tight development boundary will alleviate this to some extent, but it does put pressure on low density sites. Without a full recognition of just how important such sites are, not just to the village but in a much Wider context, the historic character, and indeed the present quality of St Dennis, could easily continue to be erased. While there is a Buffer Zone (as defined by Policy C7 of the Minerals Local Plan) assuring the amenity and setting of the village, this needs to be extended, or added to by the designation of an area of special environmental concern (Policy CC3). Such designation should cover the full extent of the field systems identified by CAU (Herring and Smith, 1991), and associated 22
medieval settlements. Such designation should be backed up at Local Plan level by the use of designations such as open areas of local significance, historic landscape designations, or as an area of local architectural and historic character (by analogy with conservation area status, this may be applied to field systems and landscapes as much as built environments). At the same time, the surviving industrial sites of archaeological and historic importance around St Dennis should be recognised, protected (by the same designation procedures set out above) and integrated into any future development; parts of the area are allocated to plant and ancillary development rather than wholesale clay working or tipping; this should make it more easily achievable to integrate surviving landscape and structures into any future proposals. 8.2 Forces for Change It has been proposed that the Newquay Railway branch line should be re-routed via St Dennis along the route of the old tramway. If this takes place it will open up the village to new tourism opportunities. The District Council wishes to promote the area around Fore Street where it meets Robartes Road as a commercial centre, protecting the current provision of shops and encouraging the opening of new shops. This could contribute towards establishing a real heart for the settlement. The village has been consistently developed since the Second World War and as land and settlements continue to be lost to china clay workings in the wider area there could be ongoing pressure to house those displaced. Future development in the limited sites available within the village development envelope should take into account the importance of open spaces, direct views and communication to the countryside, the importance of landscaping, as well as historic and traditional buildings styles and layouts. 9 Recommendations 9.1 Historic areas Recommendation: 1 Conservation Area Designate a Conservation Area replacing and extending the existing area of local architectural and historic character, to include the whole of the settlement excluding the modern housing estates on the eastern side of the village. Reason: To recognise the areas of special architectural and historic importance in St Dennis, and to promote policies and schemes for the preservation and enhancement of those areas. Recommendation: 2 Conservation Area Appraisal Prepare a full and detailed conservation area appraisal to accompany Conservation Area designation. Reason: To accord with statutory requirements and departmental policy advice, to ensure a full and adequate understanding of the special historic and architectural importance of the Conservation Area, the range of historic fabric and archaeological potential, and to establish effective parameters for management and policy proposals. Recommendation: 3 Protect open areas that contribute to character Further designation of protected open areas that contribute to the character and setting of the proposed Conservation Area. There are currently formal and informal open spaces designated in St Dennis. In addition consideration should be given to designating the land within the proposed Conservation Area between Carne Hill and Rectory Road and the land between the tramway and Hendra Road. Reason: To manage and protect the setting of the proposed Conservation Area. 23
Open areas of local significance, or similar designations (land to be kept free of development/rural gap etc.) are an extremely important and useful policy both to contain the spread of development around settlements and to act, in effect, as a secondary layer of management and control around a Conservation Area, preserving the setting of such an area. Recommendation: 4 Review Minerals Local Plan designations Review Minerals Local Plan designations (buffer zone/ area of special environmental concern), and co-ordinate with Local Plan polices as outlined above (OALS/area of great landscape value/ area of local architectural and historic character etc). Reason: To retain both the discrete identity of St Dennis, and to manage and protect the setting of the proposed Conservation Area. Recommendation: 5 Protect historic landscapes around the village Pursue designations recognising the intrinsic value and importance of historic landscapes, including the remnant medieval field system and associated hamlets and important areas of industrial archaeological significance. Reason: To preserve and enhance the valuable historic landscapes and the historic context of St Dennis within the wider environment of the expanding china clay industry. Recommendation: 6 Article 4 Directions (Walls) Article 4 Directions to control the demolition of walls and hedges, especially for the creation of hard standings. Reason: To protect the character of St Dennis against inappropriate incremental alterations and demolition. Recommendation: 7 Article 4 Directions (Buildings) Extend Article 4 Directions to control the demolition and alterations to individual houses, to prevent demolition of freestanding outbuildings and to prevent the loss of such features as unlisted shop fronts, especially when now in residential use. Reason: To protect the character of St Dennis against inappropriate incremental alterations and demolition. 9.2 Historic buildings A fuller understanding of the stock of historic structures in St Dennis as elsewhere in Cornwall, is urgently required ­ local list surveys, thematic surveys, detailed recording as part of Article 4 Directions should all be viewed not only as a first stage to Listing, but as an end in themselves, as critically important elements in the creation of policies, in prioritising action, in targeting funding strategies, and as a means of successfully managing change and promoting opportunities. Recommendation: 8 Statutory listed building review Review the statutory list of buildings of special architectural or historic interest for the St Dennis area. Reason: To update the statutory list to reflect changes in understanding of the historic environment, in order to preserve or enhance the special character of the buildings and the area. The following list puts forward a range of structures that might be considered for listing - there are others not given here which on closer inspection might also be included; the intention here is to give an idea of the scale of any potential listing exercise. 48 Fore Street [6] 24
The Commercial Inn [14] Former school, Trelavour [15] The Methodist Chapel [16] The old Post office [17] Boscawen Cottages [18] The Old Rectory [20] Hall farm [79] 15 Trelavour Square [77] Hendra Cottage [113] Hendra Corner [116] Recommendation: 9 Non-statutory historic buildings survey (Local list) Prepare a list of locally significant structures which contribute substantially to the character of the settlement, based on the combined criteria of both listing and Article 4 Directions, and backed up by a Buildings-at-Risk survey, detailed Article 4 Directions and substantive and enforceable policies in the local plan. This could also back up applications for grant aid. Reason: To ensure a full and accurate record of the historic fabric of the settlement, to strengthen existing Local Plan commitments to prevent proposals that would harm the historic heritage of the village and guide development and promote change that will preserve and enhance the character of the village. 9.3 Policy and management Recommendation: 10 Archaeology Undertake a full survey of archaeological potential in St Dennis, backed up by an additional policy requiring proper recording of archaeologically sensitive sites before development. Reason: To comply with and strengthen existing Local Plan commitments to prevent proposals that would harm the archaeological heritage of the town, and thereby preserve the special character of St Dennis. Recommendation: 11 Derelict land Base proposals affecting the areas of derelict land that surround and permeate St Dennis on a thorough understanding of the unique historical and archaeological importance of the sites themselves, and also of their value to the setting of St Dennis. Conserve surviving historic fabric and landscape. Reason: To ensure that the sites retain both their historical relevance to St Dennis and Cornwall, and their own archaeological and historical integrity. Recommendation: 12 Limit or restrict development Further development on the outskirts should be avoided or limited in extent and, where necessary, be fully integrated into the historic topography and settlement form (including the highest standards of landscaping), and should be limited to those sites identified in the Local Plan. Reason: To retain both the discrete identity of St Dennis and comply with existing Local Plan commitments. 25
Recommendation: 13 Back-land and trackways Recognise the importance to historic character of back-land areas, tracks and lanes as an important aspect of St Dennis' character; preserve and enhance their informal qualities and important surviving buildings. Reason: To preserve and enhance the special character of St Dennis, especially in areas unlikely to attract private investment and attention. Recommendation: 14 Interpretation and Promotion The high quality of the architecture and the historic and archaeological topography of the village and surrounding area would merit a village trail, especially if integrated with existing interpretive information (such as that developed by the Wheal Martyn Museum), explaining and promoting not only the village, but its links with the surrounding landscapes and settlements (medieval to industrial). This would be of particular interest if the proposed rail link is realised. Reason: To present St Dennis' heritage to a wider audience and to attract new visitors and associated regeneration initiatives. Recommendation: 15 Further study (1) Undertake a wider study of the early history of the settlement especially concentrating on the area between Trelavour Square and the church. Reason: To further understand the village's development from Medieval times. Recommendation: 16 Further study (2) Undertake a more in depth study of the historic pattern of ownership and development of properties within the village; undertake fuller analyses of resources such as census returns. Study in detail the ownership and development of the shops and business premises in Fore Street. Reason: To determine exactly the historic role and functions of the settlement and to increase our understanding of how much the settlement was influenced by the clay industry and how much by landowners and to discover to what extent the town was a commercial centre for the area. Recommendation: 17 Design Guidance Produce design guidance specific to the village, based on a detailed audit of materials, designs, details and character, both of standing buildings and of street paving materials. Reason: To preserve and enhance the special character of St Dennis, and promote change that will preserve and enhance the character of the settlement. Recommendation: 18 Trees and ornamental landscapes Undertake a full survey of existing trees and ornamental landscapes and take protection measures where appropriate. Reason: To ensure that the contribution made by existing trees to the townscape on both private and public land is recognised and protected where necessary Recommendation: 19 Restoration/enhancement schemes Concentrate restoration/enhancement schemes at some of St Dennis' important focal points, such as the area around the junction between Fore Street and Robartes Road, or in the core of Hendra, or at approaches to the village from the north and west (Prazey/Carne Hill). Reason: To recognise and enhance the importance of focal points in the development of St Dennis' townscape and to develop a central area in the village. 26
Recommendation: 20 Shops and shopfronts strategy Develop a co-ordinated policy for the conversion, restoration, retention and/or re-use of commercial properties, workshops (particularly the old smithy [6]), shops and shopfronts in St Dennis, covering such issues as recognition of historic structures, including some of the important outbuildings, design and maintenance of forecourts, parking, access etc, signage and presentation within the streetscape, coupled with an extensive programme of shopfront restoration and/or improvement. Reason: To preserve and enhance this most important element of the special character and appearance of the proposed Conservation Area, enrich the character of the existing townscape, and act as a catalyst for drawing down regeneration grants from schemes such as English Heritage's Heritage Economic Regeneration Scheme (HERS) or the Heritage Lottery Fund's Townscape Heritage Initiative (THI). 10 References 10.1 Primary Sources 1809 OS 1 inch Map 1842 St Dennis Parish Tithe Map 1879 OS 25 inch map 1907 OS 25 inch map 1946 RAF aerial photograph Cornwall Sites and Monuments Record (computerised database of archaeological sites maintained by CCC HES) 10.2 Publications Barton R M, 1966, A History of the Cornish China-Clay Industry, Bradford Barton, Truro Polsue, J, 1872, Lake's Parochial History of the County of Cornwall, vol. IV Restormel Borough Council, 2001, Local Plan, 2001-2011 Herring, P & Smith J R, 1991, The Archaeology of the St Austell China Clay Area, CAU, Truro 27
28
Appendix: Gazetteer of archaeological sites and historic buildings
Codes: PRN: Primary Record Number in Cornwall Sites & Monuments Record. NGR: National Grid Reference. LB: Listed Building. SM: Scheduled Monument. Date: MD = medieval, PM = post-medieval, C = century, c = approximately.
Ref. Street no. 1
Name
Road St Dennis
Site type Standing Stone
Period BA
Status
SM or LB No
PRN 19857
2
Pound (site of)
St Dennis
Pound (site of)
MD
19865
3
Lann
St Dennis
Lann
EM
19800.01
4
St Dennis' Church
St Dennis
MD
LB II*
SW 95 NE 13/281
19800
19800.03
19800.04
5
Trelavour
Blacksmiths (now a house)
1809-42
33127
6
48
Fore Street
Blacksmiths
1809-42
33128
7
Tramway
Hendra
Tramway
1842-79
21108
8
Bridge/embankment
Hendra Prazey
Bridge to tramway
c.1850
27009.02
9
Clay pit
Hendra
Clay pit
1842-79
19905
10
Carne Hill Methodist
Carne Hill
Bible Christian Chapel
1872
LB II
SW95NE 13/279
138838
Chapel
11
Carne Hill Methodist
Carne Hill
Sunday School
Chapel Sunday School
1906
LB II
SW95NE 13/279
12
Hill fort
Carne Hill
Hill fort
IA
31137
13
Nonconformist Chapel
Hendra Road
Nonconformist Chapel
1879-1907
138839
14 10
The Commercial Inn
Trelavour Square Public House
Pre-1809
139371
15
Infant School
Fore Street
School
1842-79
139372
16
Wesleyan Methodist
Fore Street
Nonconformist Chapel (now a
1809-42
Chapel
house)
139373
17 28
Fore Street
House (sometime post office)
1809-42
139374
29
Ref. Street no. 18 1-2
Name Boscawen Cottages
Road Fore Street
19 20 21 4 22 23 1-2 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
Boscawen Hotel The Old Rectory Field System (not plotted on fig.4) Carne Cottages Toronto Carhart Villa, Gemstones Windy Ridge, Penrys War Memorial St Dennis Junior School Cemetery Hall Head, Rosemead, Pendower, Homestake Lane Lane Enclosure/hedges Kenwyn Dale, Cuddihy
Fore Street Rectory Road Rectory Road St Dennis Carne Hill Carne Hill Carne Hill Church Road Church Road Church Road Carne Hill Hall Road Hall Road Hall Road Hall Road Hall Road Trelavour Trelavour Trelavour Carne Hill
Site type
Period
Public House ­ the Miners' Arms 1809-42 (now house)
Public House
1879-1907
Rectory (now private house)
1852-6
House
1879-1907
Field system (fossilized strips) MD
Status LB II
House House Farm house House House House House War Memorial House (site of) School Cemetery House
Pre-1809 1907-46 1907-46 1907-46 1842-79 1907-46 1879-1907 1907-46 1809-42 1879-1907 1907-46 1907-46
Lane Lane Enclosure House
1809-42 1809-42 Date unknown 1907-46
SM or LB No
PRN 139375
SW 95 NW 12/289
139376 139381 139383 33044
30
Ref. Street no.
Name
Road
Site type
Period
Status
SM or LB No
PRN
39
Quarry
Trelavour
Quarry (site of)
1809-42
40
Trelavour Farm
Carne Hill
House (farmhouse)
1842-79
41
Trelavour Farm
Carne Hill
Farm buildings
1842-79
42
Rose Cottage
Carne Hill
House
Pre -1809
43 1-4 (cons) Windsor Terrace
Carne Hill
House
1907-46
44 1-3 (odd)
Trelavour Square House
1809-42
45 1-19 (odd)
Wellington Road
House
1907-46
46 2-12 (even)
Wellington Road
House
1907-46
47 14-16 (even)
Wellington Road
Commercial premises
1907-46
48 18-26 (even)
Wellington Road
House
1907-46
49 28-30 (even)
Wellington Road
House
1879-1907
50 32-36 (even)
Wellington Road
House
1907-46
51 1-4 (cons)
Carlton Terrace
House
1879-1907
52
Orana, Glyn Villas
Wellington Road
House
1879-1907
53 21-23 (odd)
Wellington Road
House
1842-79
54 25-27 (odd)
Wellington Road
House
1907-46
55 29-35 (odd)
Wellington Road
House
1879-1907
56 1-2
Glencoe Villas
House
1879-1907
57 1-11(cons) Glynvale
Glyn Vale Terrace House
1879-1907
58
Outbuilding
Rectory Road
Outbuilding
1809-42
59
Homelea
Whitegate
House
1907-46
31
Ref. Street no.
Name
Road
Site type
Period
Status
SM or LB No
PRN
60
White Gate House
Whitegate
Railway crossing keepers
c.1850
cottage
61
Bridge
Whitegate
Bridge (to former tramway)
c.1850
62 1-41 (cons)
Robartes Road
House
1907-46
63 43
Robartes Road
Fire Station (now redundant)
1907-46
64 44
Spar
Robartes Road
Commercial premises
1907-46
65 1-2
Stores Cottages
Fore Street
House
1842-79
66
Myra Villa
Fore Street
House
1879-1907
67 1-2
Kosi Kot
Trelawney Villas
House
1879-1907
68
Post Office
Fore Street
Commercial Premises
1907-46
69
Fore Street
Commercial Premises
1907-46
70 4-22 (even)
Fore Street
House (including sometime commercial premises)
1842-79
71
School House
Fore Street
School House (now house)
1842-79
72 1-35 (odd)
Fore Street
House (including sometime commercial premises)
1879-1907
73 1-3 (odd)
Trelavour
House
1879-1907
74 7-9 (odd)
Trelavour
House
1809-42
75 5-11 (odd0
Trelavour Square House (cottage row)
1842-79
76 13
Trelavour Square House
1809-42
77 15
Trelavour Square House
Pre-1809
78
Outbuilding
Trelavour Square Outbuilding
1809-42
79
Hall Farm
Trelavour
Farmhouse (now house)
1809-42
80
Outbuilding
Trelavour
Outbuilding
1809-42
81 4-8 (even)
Trelavour Square House (cottage row)
1809-42
32
Ref. Street no. 82 2
Name
83
84 18
85
Outbuilding
86 10-12 (even)
87 8
88 4-6 (even)
89
Finger post
90 1-3 (odd)
91
Outbuilding
92 9
93 11
94 6-42 (even),1355 (odd)
95 59-61 (odd)
96 63-67 (odd)
97
Sunday School
98 41-43 (odd)
99 45-49 (odd) 100
Road
Site type
Period
Status
SM or LB No
PRN
Trelavour Square
Commercial premises (now house)
1842-79
Trelavour
Commercial premises
1842-79
Trelavour
House
Pre-1809
Trelavour
Outbuilding
1809-42
Trelavour
House
1809-42
Trelavour Trelavour Trelavour Trelavour Trelavour Trelavour Road Trelavour Road Trelavour Road
House House Finger post House Outbuilding House House House
1809-42 1879-1907 1907-46 1842-79 1879-1907 1907-46 1842-79 1907-46
Trelavour Road Trelavour Road Fore Street Fore Street Fore Street
House House Sunday School (site of) Commercial Premises (now house) House House
1879-1907 1907-46 1842-79 1809-79 + 1809-42 1879-1907
33
Ref. Street no.
Name
Road
Site type
Period
Status
SM or LB No
PRN
101 1-2
Angove Villas
Fore Street
House
1842-79
102 55-57 (odd)
Fore Street
House (with commercial premises in extension)
1842-79
103 69-71 (odd)
Fore Street
House (sometime commercial premises)
1842-79
104 73-75 (odd)
Fore Street
Commercial premises (now house)
1907-46
105 77
Working Men's Institute
Fore Street
Working Men's Institute
1922
106 79
Fore Street
Commercial premises
1907-46
107
Boscawen Hotel Stables Fore Street
Stables (now hotel
1879-1907
accommodation)
108 1-3 (cons) Atlantic View
Fore Street
House
1879-1907
109 65-67 (odd)
Fore Street
House
1842-79
110 1-2
Brunswick Villas
Fore Street
House
1879-1907
111 87
Fore Street
House (sometime commercial premises)
1879-1907
112 1-3 (cons) Greenwich Cottages
Fore Street
House
1842-79
113
Hendra Cottage
House
Pre-1809
114
Hendra Bakery
Fore Street
Commercial premises
1907-46
115
Glen Gary
Fore Street
Small holding (now house and outbuilding)
1809-42
116
Hendra Corner
Hendra Prazey
Farmhouse (now house)
Pre-1809
117
Primrose Cottage
Hendra Prazey
House
1842-79
118
Moorview
Hendra Prazey
House
1879-1907
119 3-6 (cons)
Hendra Prazey
House (cottage row)
1809-42
34
Ref. Street no.
Name
120 1-2
121 29
122 15,24,25
Cosy Cottage, Alstone House
123
Lansdowne, Church View,
Kendor
124 1-4
Greenbank Terrace
125 2-4 (even)
126
Outbuildings
127
Tregulyys
128 6-10 (even)
129 1-4 (cons) Jubilee Terrace
130 18,20,3038 (even)
1-2 Bellevue, 1-4 (cons) Alexandra Terrace
131 9-15 (odd), 21, 27,33, 40-44 (even) 41,45
132 48-52 (even), 5860 (even)
133 54-56 (even)
134 62-72 (even)
Road Hendra Prazey Hendra Prazey Hendra Prazey Hendra Prazey Hendra Road Gully's Lane Gully's Lane Hendra Road Hendra Road Hendra Road Hendra Road Hendra Road Hendra Road Hendra Road
Site type House House House House House House Outbuildings House House House House House House House House
35
Period 1879-1907 Pre-1809 1842-79
Status
SM or LB No
PRN
1907-46
1842-79 1842-79 1842-79 1907-46 1879-1907 1879-1907 1879-1907
1907-46
1879-1907 1842-79 1842-79
Ref. Street no.
Name
Road
Site type
Period
Status
SM or LB No
PRN
135 74,76
Hendra Road
House
1879-1907
136 35-36 (odd)
Hendra Road
House
1879-1907
137 47
Hendra Road
House
1809-42
138 49-53 (odd)
Hendra Road
House
1879-1907
139 86,88
Hendra Road
House
1809-42
140
Church gate and walls
Gate and walls
1826
141
Stone stile
Stile (stone)
1809-42
142
Stone wall
Wall
1809-42
143
Wall and gate piers
Hall Road
Wall and gate piers to cemetery 1907-46
144
Paving
Trelavour Square Paving (cobbles)
Pre 1809
145
Paving
Trelavour Square Paving (cobbles)
Pre-1809
146
Paving
Fore Street
Paving (cobbles)
1809-42
147
Paving
Fore Street
Paving (stable block)
1809-42
148
Carne Hill
Commercial premises (now
1907-46
house)
149
Cross
MD
SM
150
Buildings (site of0
Rectory Road
Buildings (site of0
Pre 1809
151
Trelavour Prazey
Trelavour Prazey
Former common land
MD
152
Enclosure walls
Carne Hill/Trelavour Enclosure walls
c.1828
153
School wall
Trelavour
Wall
1879-1907
154
Walls/outbuildings
Trelavour
Walls/outbuildings
Pre 1809
155
Plot boundaries, r/o old
Trelavour
Plot boundaries (fossilised field Pre 1809
school and adj.
system)
156
Rose cottage ­ enclosure Trelavour
Plot boundaries
walls
Pre 1809
36
Ref. Street no. 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164
Name
Road
Outbuildings, Rear of bakery
Hendra
Buildings (site of)
Hendra
Buildings (site of)
Hendra
Buildings (site of)
Hendra
Buildings (site of)
Whitepit
Buildings (site of)
Whitepit
bridge
Hendra lane
Playing place, south-east of St Dennis church
Site type Outbuildings Buildings (site of) Buildings (site of) Buildings (site of) Buildings (site of) Buildings (site of) Bridge to tramway Playing place
Period 1907-46 Pre 1809 Pre 1809 Pre 1809 Pre 1809 Pre 1809 c. 1850 MD
Status
SM or LB No
PRN 33054
37

S Dennis

File: cornwall-industrial-settlements-initiative.pdf
Title: Cornwall Industrial Settlements Initiative
Author: S Dennis
Author: Bridget
Published: Wed Dec 15 19:08:28 2004
Pages: 39
File size: 1.11 Mb


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