Cranmer Memorial Bible College and Seminary

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Content: Cranmer Memorial Bible College and Seminary Thesis Proposal Research into Huguenots History and Theology: The Huguenots fight for religious liberty in France from 1555 to 1789 and, Calvin theological legacy. Presented to the Faculty By Mr. Tiowa Diarra October 2003
Chapter I. Introducing the problem: In 1998, the French people celebrated the 4th centennial of the Edict of Nantes, signed by Henry IV on April 13, 1598. This was a significant event to remember the great combat fought centuries ago by the Huguenot people for religious liberty in France. The promulgation of the Edict was a major step in religious freedom. It ended the thirty years of religious war and brought the reformed worship into legality in many part of the Kingdom at that time. However, Ludwig XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes on October 22, 1685 nearly a century later, delaying the religious liberty process. Recently, a celebration held in Basel, Switzerland has remarkably shown the importance of the Huguenots' contribution in that city. A lecturer pointed out the outcome of the Huguenots contribution to the cities where they reached out as refugees like this: This city shows how much the fleeing of brains can be profitable. We can find some in history; thus, when Ludwig XIV, the Sun-King, revoked the edict of Nantes, the French Protestants did not have another choice than to convert or leave the country. Many among them were the best in arts, in science and, in business. Their escape as refugees in Switzerland, in hospitable cities such as Geneva, Zurich, Berne or Basel. These forced immigrants contributed to the taking off of Geneva banks, developed the horology and, the erection of the Swiss industry fleuron, raised the level of the Swiss know-how to the point that, after that, Basle was going to become the world-wide center of chemistry. (Address of the Confederacy President Pascal Couchepin to the occasion of the opening ceremony 11th European Congress of Biotechnologies, Basel, August 24, 2003) The contribution did not make people forget the battle, which brought to such brilliant result. Reformation did not take place smoothly everywhere. People within the Catholic Church, the monarchy, and their subjects did not accept the new religious ideas born in Germany and France. This is a complex historical phenomenon in the earlier modern period of history, because it involved political, theological, social and ecclesial issues as pictured in the following presentation of the protestant man by Janine Garrisou-Estebe : Once he has chosen the reformation theses, the Protestant is regarded as a politic and religious hors-la-loi. Not only a heretic but, a seditious 'disturber of the public order', which one is established on a powerful king that support the religion and the Catholic hierarchy. Then begins the hunt to the 'poorly-feeling of the faith', then begins the big book of the reformed martyr loge, then open themselves the ways of the exile and Diaspora. Nevertheless, despite the pursuits, the trials and, the woodsheds,the 'heretic vermin' stems out. The small communities organize themselves in the cities and in the towns that trained pastors in the pure doctrine come secretly from Geneva to encourage and discipline. (Janine Garrisou-Estebe, L'Homme Protestant (Paris: Hachette,1980), p.12. The Huguenots' story is relevant for many reasons. First, it raises the question of the church persecution and related subjects such as religious toleration, minority freedom of worship, and the subtle link between Church and State. Second, the story tells the case of Calvinistic ideas' implementation in another European context that is not Switzerland.
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Third, and this is not the least, Huguenots history is the demonstration of the Reformation response to the Catholic political and religious supremacy. thesis statement: Despite the determination of the Roman Church and the French monarchy to extinguish what was called at that time a heresy, why did the Huguenots reached religious liberty in France? The thesis attempts to explore the history of the Huguenots, the reasons that led to the establishment of the Reformed Church religious liberty in France, despite the absolute opposition of the Roman Church and the Monarchy as the tried to exterminate it. The periods that the analysis will cover are the 16th, 17th, 18th centuries. Hypothesis: Although the determination of the Roman Church and the French Monarchy to put out what was called at that time a heresy; the Huguenots have reached religious freedom in France, because: -The French Reformed received assistance from the Reformed Church leaders in Geneva who trained their pastors, sent advisors, and enabled them to organize the Church. The Geneva backbone ran along the perturbed story of the Huguenots movement at its birth, its development, its shaking and finally its religious freedom. (Ecclesiastical issue) -They used a political arm to free themselves from the power of the Monarchy close to the Roman Church. They had a penchant for republican doctrine and, protestant state under the political thinking of Calvin. (Political issue) -The French Huguenots were committed to the teachings of the reformers, precisely Calvin, and his disciples. So, the Huguenots have written the reformed Church discipline and faith confession, adopted creeds and apologies to support their ideas against the Roman Catholic Church and its Theology. (Theological issue) The Thesis will attempt to answer the following questions: 1.What were the main purposes and trends of the Huguenots movement at its birth? 2. Why the edict of Nantes was promulgated? 3. Why the edict of Nantes was revoked? 4. How was religious toleration brought out in 1789? 5. Should we talk rightly about the Huguenots' forerunners? 6.What is the Huguenots' legacy to the Christendom? 7. What is the importance of edicts in the process of Huguenot religious freedom? 8. Why are there many dates for the starting of the Huguenot Church in France? 9. How did the Huguenot movement survive the destruction attempted by the Catholic Church? 10. Is toleration the effect of the enlightenment thought or the outcome of the Huguenots combat? 11. What were the effects of the counter-reformation on the Huguenots movement?
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12. Should we talk about a genuine Huguenot theology? -Justification of the Chronological limits: To set up the chronological limits one must look at the major dates of the Reformed Church in France. Four main dates are at stake when historians are talking about the starting of the Huguenots Church in France. Some indicate the dates 1545, 1550 or 1555 (the birth of the clandestine reformed congregation in Paris) and others show the date 1559 (the first synod held in Paris to establish the Confession of faith and the Constitution of the Reformed Church in France). Anyway, we have chosen the earliest dates of the possible beginning of the Huguenots movement and 1789 to highlight the outcome of the combat for religious freedom through the Edict of Toleration. It is obvious that the Huguenots history did not end at the later date and religious freedom has been threaten over again, but by other causes. Defining key terms Huguenots: The etymology of the word is uncertain as asserted by many historians. Some believe that it is a popular corruption of the German word Eidgenossen (conspirators, confederates), which was used at Geneva to designate the champions of liberty and of union with the Swiss Confederation, as distinguished from those who were in favour of submission to the Duke of Savoy. Others found that it is the form eigenots (or aignots), which became Huguenots under the influence of Hugues, Bezanson Hugues being one of their chiefs. Some others think that the word might come from Hugon, a Count of Tours. Anyway, the term came to be applied to a precise group in France that are the French Protestant influenced by the teaching of the Reformer John Calvin. See the development of the question in Catholic Encyclopedia and also Emile G Leonard, Histoire Gйnйrale du Protestantisme en France, ( PUF: Paris, 1961) p. 97. Sect: This is a synonym of heretic somehow as it describes people separated from a larger group especially a religious one: " perhaps deriving from the past participle either of secare, "to cut, to separate," or of sequi, "to follow")...The sect's identity is further derived from its principal leader or from a distinctive teaching or practice. The term has regularly been applied to groups that break away from existing religious bodies, such as the Early Christians who separated from Judaism or the Protestants who separated from the Roman Catholicism." H.K. GALLATIN , "Sect, Sectarianism" in Walter A. Elwell, Ed. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, (Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, 1985), p.995.
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Heresy: The French Protestants were mainly accused of heresy against the Catholic Government and the established religion of France. "From the original Greek word `hairesis' that means `party' the word came to be used to mean a separation or split resulting from a false faith. It designated a doctrine or the doctrine holding the doctrine, a doctrine that was sufficiently intolerable to destroy the unity of the Christian Church". (Harold O.J. Brown, Heresies (Hendrickson Publisher: Peabody, 1988), p.2 Reformation: Reformation is the vast large movement, which happened in 1517 after Martin Luther a German Monk posted 95 theses on the door of the Church of Wittenberg. Since, the movement spread in Europe. The purpose of the Reformation as the word indicates, is a renewal of the Church life and teaching. The Reformation is mainly characterized by the doctrine of justification by faith. "Historically, reformation refers to the renewal of the Church in the sixteenth century by revitalization from its source in the word." A. Skevington Wood, "Reformation" in Baker's Dictionary of Theology, Everett F. Harrison Ed. (Baker Book House: Grand Rapids), p.439 Philip Schaff indicates the duration of the Reformation affirming that "The Reformation period begins with Luther's Theses, A.D. 1517, and ends with the Peace of Westphalia, A.D. 1648. The last event brought to a close the terrible Thirty Years' War and secured a legal existence to the Protestant faith (the Lutheran and Reformed Confession) throughout Germany." (Schaff, Philip, History of the Christian Church, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1997. Counter-Reformation: Counter-Reformation is the Roman Catholic movement, which intended to renew the Church in reaction to the Protestant Reformation. It is "the label for the Catholic revival of the sixteenth century. It emphasizes that the reaction to the Protestant challenge was the dominant theme of contemporary Catholicism. The movement is also labeled the catholic reformation and the Catholic renaissance, since elements of Catholic reform and revival predated the Protestant Reformation and were, like Protestantism, a response to the widespread aspiration for religious regeneration pervading late fifteenth century Europe." F.S. Piggin, "Counter-Reformation" in Walter A. Elwell, Ed. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, (Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, 1985), p.275 Reformed Church: The Reformed Church is the result of the Calvinist Reformation in the sixteenth century. The Reformed movement started mainly in France and made its home in Switzerland. Edict: An order or official statement issued by an authority. In Church history, the notorious edicts where the Edict of Milan in the fourth century and the Edict of Nantes promulgated and Revoked in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Religious freedom (liberty)/Toleration
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"Indulgence of belief or conduct other than one's own. The term is variously defined from being an attitude of forbearance in judging the beliefs and behavior of others to one of respect for the opinion and practices of others when they are in conflict with one's own. The problem of tolerance is deeply rooted in the history of religions, in which coercion, intolerance, and persecution have played a prominent role. Religious intolerance, generally born out of the denial of the right of dissent in faith or practice is as old as religious diversity." J.E.Wood.JR, "Tolerance", in Walter A. Elwell, Ed. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, (Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, 1985), p.10981100. Chapter II: Defining of the research methodology and the thesis outline. As presenting an historical work, the thesis will use description, analytical narrative, exposition and, argument to develop the process of the Huguenots religious freedom. It will use an analytical exposition to to underline Calvin Theological legacy. Outline: Introduction Development: Part One : Ecclesiastical issues of the Huguenots combat for religious freedom. 1. The historical background of the Huguenots movement. 2. Geneva : The backbone of Calvinism internationalization. 3. The Reformed Church in France from the underground period to her apogee. Part Two: Political issues of the Huguenots combat for religious liberty. 1. The main edicts and the Huguenots religious freedom. 2. Huguenots political combat within the fluctuations of the Monarchy. 3. Toward religious toleration in 1789. Part Three: Theological issues of the Huguenots combat for religious freedom. 1. Calvin theological influence in the Huguenots theology. 2. The Huguenots legacy to the Christendom. 3. Religious freedom, the Church combat and, the enlightenment thought Conclusion:
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Chapter III: Review of the Literature.
A. Online Bibliography *Calvin, John. Institutes of the Christian religion. The older Beveridge edition is available online at: http://ccel.wheaton.edu/calvinn/institutes/icr1.txt. **http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/earlymod.html Lecture 3: The Protestant Reformation: Luther and Calvin Steven Kreis **http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture6c.html Lecture 6: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars, 1560-1715 Steven Kreis **http://www.carcajou.org/racines/lectures/breve_histoire_des_protestants.htm Brиve histoire des Protestants en Nouvelle-France et au Quйbec (XVIи-XIXи siиcle) par Robert Larin Йditions de la Paix, 1998, 206 pages, **http://www.edi.admin.ch/discours-dfie/2003/030824Biotech-f.pdf Discours du Prйsident de la Confйdйration Pascal Couchepin а l'occasion de la cйrйmonie d'ouverture du 11иme Congrиs Europйen des Biotechnologies, Bвle, 24 aoыt 2003. **http://www.descroissette.com/huguenots2.html The Huguenots in France **http://www.descroissette.com/London1.html THE DE CROISETTES FAMILY REASONS FOR LEAVING FRANCE **http://www.descroissette.com/huguenot_crisis.html Huguenots crisis, Flight from France **http://www.descroissette.com/persecution.html Persecution of the Huguenots **http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1572stbarts.html Modern History Sourcebook: The Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, Aug. 24, 1572 **http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.html Internet Modern History source book
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**http://vanallens.com/exchristian/2002_04_13_archive.php The Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day **http://vanallens.com/exchristian/calvin.htm#I. PROTESTANT INTOLERANCE: AN INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW **http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13333b.htm Saint Bartholomew's Day **http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1572stbarts.html Modern History Sourcebook: The Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, Aug. 24, 1572 **http://vanallens.com/exchristian/2002_04_13_archive.php The Massacre of St. Bartholomew **http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=384865 Huguenots **http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=384865 Calvin, John ** http://www.lepg.org/religion.htm The reformation **http://www.lepg.org/sixteen.htm The sixteen Century ** http://www.lepg.org/wars.htm The wars of Religion, Part One **http://www.lepg.org/wars2.htm The wars of Religion, Part Two * The massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day *The Huguenots and French opinion 1685-1787 The enlightenment Debate on toleration Geoffrey Adam **www.le.ac.uk/hi/bon/resources/war/war06.htm The 1560s: the apogee of Huguenot power? Prof R.J. Bonney: Last updated 02 September 1997 **www.biblicalheritage.org Who were the Huguenots? www.wikipedia.org/wiki/protestant_reformation Protestant reformation
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Bibliography Research guides and Writing Manuals **Robert V. Daniels, Studying History How and Why ? (Printice Hall: London, 1972;1966) 120pp. **Jacques Barzun and Henry F. Graff, The Modern Researcher,(Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York, 1957, 386 pp. **Richard Marius, A short Guide to Write About History, Harper Collins College Publishers, New York, 1995, 205 pp. **Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1937; 1996, 308pp ** S. Joseph Levine, Writing and Presenting Your Thesis or Dissertation, East Lansing, Michigan. ** http://www.historyguide.org/guide/guide.html A student guide to the study of History **http://academic.bowdoin.edu/WritingGuides/writing/thesis/html/what.sht ml Patrick Rael, Reading, Writing, and Researching for History: A Guide for college students (Brunswick, ME: Bowdoin College, August 2000). Readings in history and theology ** Albert Berrus, La Revue Rйformйe, N°217-2002/2 mars 2002, Tome LIII « L'Eglise du dйsert » (1685-1787) pp.54-62. ** B.K. Kuiper, L'Eglise dans l'histoire, 462 pages. Adaptation de AR kayayan, Perspectives rйformйes. ** Daniel Bergese, Ichtus 1985-4 (N° 131) Juillet-Aoыt, « Tolйrance et Vйritй », p.10-15 ** Daniel BERGESE , La revue rйformйe, N° 174-1992/3-4 juillet 1992 Tome XLIII Conviction Chrйtienne et tolйrance (pp. 15-22) ** Emile G. Lйonard, Histoire Gйnйrale du Protestantisme T.I. La Rйformation (Des origines а 1564), PUF, Paris, 1961.
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**Emile G. Lйonard, Histoire Gйnйrale du Protestantisme TII. : L'Etablissement (De 1564-1700), PUF, Paris, 1961. **Emile G. Lйonard, Histoire Gйnйrale du Protestantisme TIII. : Declin et renouveau PUF, Paris, 1961 **Everett F. Harrison, Baker's Dictionary of Theology, (Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, 1960, 1985), pp.118, 525-526. **Harold O. J. Brown, Heresies (Hendrickson Publishers: Grand rapids, 1984,1988), pp.xxiii-23, 296-338. **J. Salwyn Schapiro, « Huguenots », The World Book Encyclopedia, H.8, p.375 Field Enterprise Educational Corporation, 1963. **Jean Calvin, L'Institution de la Religion Chrйtienne : Livre premier et second ( Editions Kerigma et Editons Farel : USA) 1978. **Jean Calvin, L'Institution de la Religion Chrйtienne : Livre Troisiиme ( Editions Kerigma et Editons Farel : USA)1978. **Jean Calvin, L'Institution de la Religion Chrйtienne : Livre Quatriиme ( Editions Kerigma et Editons Farel : USA) 1978. ** Jean Marc-DAUMAS, La Revue Rйformйe, N°182-1994/4 Septembre 1994, Tome XLV, « Le Prophйtisme Huguenot » pp.37-45. ** Jean Marc-DAUMAS, La Revue Rйformйe, N° 2-1999-1, Janvier 1999, Tome L « Flash sur l'Edit de Nantes », pp. 63-69. **Janine Garrison-Estebe, L'homme Protestant , (Hachette :Paris ; 1980), 250p. **Jean Bauberot, Jean-Paul Willaine, Le Protestantisme (MA Editions, Paris), 1987), pp. 52-53, 96, 136-159, 179-180. **Jean Calvin, La Vraie faзon de Rйformer l'Eglise, (Labor et Fides, Genиve), 1957, 98 pp. ** Jean Pierre Graber, Ichtus 1985-4 (N° 131) Juillet-Aoыt, « L'Etat, l'Eglise et la Libertй Religieuse », pp.19-29. **Roger Mehl, La Thйologie Protestante,(PUF :Paris, 1983), pp. 90-100 **Schaff Philip, History of the Christian Church, Vol. VII, Harbor,WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1910; 1997
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**Schaff Philip, History of the Christian Church, Vol. II, Harbor,WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.) 1910;1997 ** Pierre Courthial, Ichtus 1985-4 (N° 131) Juillet-Aoыt, « l'Edit de Nantes et sa Rйvocation », pp.3-9 ** Pierre Petit, La Revue Rйformйe, N°142-1985/2 Juin 1985, Tome XXXVI « Les Pasteurs du Bas-Languedoc et des Cйvennes au temps de la Rйvocation » pp.92-109. ** Pierre Serryn, Renй Blasselle et Jacques Boudet, Atlas historique, Bordas Paris, 1982. **Janine Garrison-Estиbe, L'homme Protestant, Hachette, paris, 1980. **Walter A. Elwell, Editor, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MIchigan, 1985. pp. 135-136, 185-188, 233-237, 919-924.
Huguenots *Antoine COURT, Histoire des troubles des Cйvennes ou de la guerre des camisards sous le rиgne de Louis le Grand, Montpellier : Presses du Languedoc, 2002. 652 p. *BAIRD, Henry History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France (2 volumes, 1886, 1895) *De Thou, Histoire des choses arrivйes de son temps (Paris, 1659), 658 sq. *G.A Rothrock, The Huguenots: A biography of Ministry (Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1979),pp. vii-110 *GOUBERT, Pierre, (CARTER, Anne. transl.). 1970. Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen. Penguin Press. *H. C. Viljoen; The contribution of the Huguenots in South Africa *HASSALL, Arthur. 1902. The French People. William Heinemann. *J.H. Robinson, Readings in European History 2 vols. (Boston: Ginn, 1906), * Jean Mason, An Introduction to Early Modern European History (16th & 17th Centuries)
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*J.L.M Franken: The Huguenots and the Cape, Government Printer, Pretoria, 1978 *Lynne Bryer and Francois Theron: The Huguenots and their Heritage, Chameleon Press 1987. *Myriam YARDENI, Le Refuge huguenot. Assimilation et culture, (Vie des huguenots 22), Paris : Champion, 2002. 232 p. *Patrick CABANEL Philippe JOUTARD (dir.), Les camisards et leur mйmoire, 17022002, Presses du Languedoc, 2002. 278 p. *Pieter Coertzen: The Huguenots of 1688-1988, Tafelberg Publishers 1988 *RAYNER, Robert M. 1964. European History 1648-1789. Longmans. *STOYE, John. 1973. Europe Unfolding 1648-1688. Fontana. *TREASURE, G. R. 1966. seventeenth century France. Rivingtons (Publishers) Limited. *Yves KRUMENACKER, Des protestants au siиcle des Lumiиres. Le modиle lyonnais, (La vie des huguenots 21), Paris : Champion, 2002. 358 p. History and Theology *Avis, Paul D. L. The Church in the Theology of the Reformers. Basingstoke, 1981. *Anderson, Marvin W. 'Peter Martyr, Reformed Theologian (1542-1562): His Letters to Heinrich Bullinger and John Calvin'. Sixteenth Century Journal 4 (1973): 41-64. *Andrew Pettegree, Alastair Duke, & Gillian Lewis, ed., Calvinism in Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 199_ ) *Ames, William The Marrow of Theology, trans. John Dykstra Eusden (Durham, NC, 1983). *Bauman, M., M. Klauber, ed., Historians of the Christian tradition (Nashville, 1995). *Berkhof, L., The History of Christian Doctrines (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1969).
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*Bradley, James E. and R.A. Muller, Church History: An Introduction to Research, Reference Works and Methods (Grand Rapids, 1995). *Bromiley, G., Historical Theology: An Introduction (Grand Rapids, 1978). *Bouwsma, William J. "Renaissance and Reformation: An Essay in Their Affinities and Connections." In Luther and the Dawn of the Modern Era. ed. -Heiko Oberman (Leiden, 1974). *Bainton, R.H. The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston, 1952. *Burchill, Christopher J. 'The Urban Reformation and its Fate: Problems and Perspectives in the Consolidation of the German Protestant Movement'. The Historical Journal 27 (1984): 997-1010. *Beza, Theodore. The Christian faith. trans. James Clark (East Sussex, 1992). *Beza, Theodore. A Little Book of Christian Questions and Responses, trans. K. M. Summers (Allison Park, PA: Pickwick, 1986). *Brady, T. A., H. A. Oberman, J. D. Tracy ed.,, Handbook of European History 1400-1600, 2 vol. (GR: Eerdmans, 1996). *Bucanus, William. Institutions of the Christian Religion. trans. R. Hill. (London, 1606). *Breen, Quirinius. Christianity and Humanism. Grand Rapids, 1968. *Balke, W. Calvin and the Anabaptist Radicals. trans. W.J. Heynen (Grand Rapids, 1981). *Baird, Henry Martyn. Theodore Beza. The Counselor of the French Reformation. New York, 1899. *Barth, Karl., The Theology of John Calvin, trans. Geoffrey W. Bromiley (Grand Rapids, 1995). *Battles, Ford Lewis. 'God Was Accommodating Himself to Human Capacity'. Interpretation 31 (1977): 19-38. *Battles, Ford Lewis. 'Calculus Fidei'. Calvinus Ecclesiae Doctor. ed. W. Neuser. Kampen, 1978. *Barbara B. Diefendorf, Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth Century, (New York: Oxford University Press, 19__)
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*Baker, D., Reform and Reformation: England and the Continent (Oxford, 1979). *Battles, Ford Lewis. The Piety of John Calvin (Grand Rapids, 1978) *Bavinck, Herman. 'Calvin and Common Grace' Calvin and the Reformation trans. G. Vos. London, 1909. *Beardsley III. John W. Reformed Dogmatics: J. Wollebius, G. Voetius, F. Turretin. New York, 1965. *Beeke, Joel R. Assurance of Faith: Calvin, English Puritanism and the Dutch Second Reformation. New York, 1991. *Beeke, Joel R. 'Faith and Assurance in the Heidelberg Catechism and its Primary Composers: A Fresh Look at the Kendall Thesis', Calvin Theological Journal 27 (1992): 39-67. *Bierma, Lyle D. 'Federal Theology in the Sixteenth Century: Two Traditions?' Westminster Theological Journal 45 (1983): 304-321. *Bierma, Lyle D. 'The Role of Covenant Theology in Early Reformed Orthodoxy'. The Sixteenth Century Journal 21 (1990): 453-462. *Bouwsma, William J. 'Calvin and the Renaissance Crisis of Knowing'. Calvin Theological Journal 17 (1982): 190-211 *Bouwsma, William J. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. Oxford, 1988. *Bray, John S. Theodore Beza's Doctrine of Predestination. Nieuwkoop, 1975. *Breen, Quirinus. John Calvin: A Study in French Humanism. Grand Rapids, 1931 *Bagchi, D.V.N. Luther's Earliest Opponents (Phila: John Knox Press) *Butin, Philip. W. , 'John Calvin's Humanist Image of Popular Late-Medieval Piety and its Contribution to Reformed Worship'. Calvin Theological Journal 29 (1994): 419-31. *Benedict, Philip. Christ's Church Purely Reformed: A social history of Calvinism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002). *Cross, F.L. and E. A. Livingstone, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
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*Cunningham, William. Historical Theology, 2 vol (1862. Edinburgh, repr. 1977. *Cameron, Euan 'The Late Renaissance and the Unfolding Reformation in Europe'. ed. Derek Baker. Reform and Reformation: England and the Continent c.1500- c.1750. Oxford, 1979. *Cameron, Euan. The European Reformation. Oxford, 1991. *Cameron, Euan The Reformation of the Heretics (Oxford, 1984) Chadwick, Owen. Reformation (New York, 1964) *Clark, R. S. "Regensburg and Regensburg II," Modern Reformation (September/October, 1998). *Cochrane, Arthur C. ed. Reformed Confessions of the Sixteenth Century. Philadelphia, 1966. *Cunningham, Andrew and Ole Peter Grell, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Religion, War, Famine and Death in Reformation Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001). *Cunningham, William. The Reformers and the Theology of the Reformation. Edinburgh, 1967. Cambridge, MA, 1963. *Duke, Alistair, Gillian Lewis and Andrew Pettegree. ed. Calvinism in Europe 1540-1610: A Collection of Documents. Manchester, 1992. *Dorner, I.A. History of Protestant Theology. 2 vol. trans. George Robson and Sophia Taylor. Edinburgh, 1871. *Dowey, Edward A. The Knowledge of God in Calvin's Theology. New York, 1952. *Dickens, A.G. - Reformation and Society (New York, 1966) *Dickens, A.G. The Counter Reformation. London, 1968. *Dixon, C. Scott, ed.,The German Reformation (Oxford: Blackwells, 1999) *Douglas, J.D., ed., New International Dictionary of the Christian Church (Grand Rapids,1978
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*Elwell, W., ed., Handbook of Evangelical Theologians (Grand Rapids, 1993). *Emerton, E. Humanism and Tyranny (Gloucester, MA, 1964) *Ferguson, S. New International Dictionary of Theology. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1988. *Ferm. V., ed., An Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Philosophical Library, 1945*Gerrish, B.A. 'Biblical Authority and the Reformation' Scottish Journal of Theology 10 1957: 337-51 *Frederic J. Baumgartner, France in the Sixteenth Century (St. Martin's Press, 1995). *Fleischer, M. The Harvest of Humanism in C. Europe (St Louis, 1992) *Gerrish, B.A. ed., Reformers in Profile (Phila: Fortress, 1967) *Ganoczy, Alexandre. The Young Calvin. trans. David Foxgrover and Wade Provo. Edinburgh, 1977. *George, Timothy. ed. John Calvin and the Church. A Prism of Reform. Louisvile, 1990. *Gerrish, B.A. Grace and Gratitude. Edinburgh, 1993. *Godfrey, W. Robert. 'Biblical Authority in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: A Question of Transition', Scripture and Truth ed. D.A. Carson and John D. Woodbridge (Grand Rapids, 1983). *Grohman, D.D., The Genevan Reactions to the Saumur Doctrines of Hypothetical Universalism: 1635-1685. Th.D. thesis, Knox College, Toronto School of Theology, 1971. *GOUBERT, Pierre, (CARTER, Anne. transl.). 1970. Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen. Penguin Press. *Friedman, J. ed. Regnum, Religio et Ratio: Essays Presented to Robert M. Kindon, (Kirksville, 1987). *Gregory, Brad S. Salvation at Stake: Christian Martyrdom in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1999).
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*Hдgglund, Bengt, History of Theology. trans. Gene L. Lund 3rd edn (St Louis, 1968). *Hart, D.G. and M. Noll, ed. Dictionary of the Presbyterian and Reformed Tradition in America. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1999. *HEER, Friedrich. The Medieval World. Mentor. 1961. *Hart, Trevor. ed. Dictionary of Historical Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001). *Hillerbrand, H., ed., The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation (Oxford, 1996). *Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe. Lefйvre: Pioneer of Ecclesiastical Reform in France. Grand Rapids, 1984. *Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe "Jacques LeFиvre d'Etaples (c.1455-1536)." Calvinus Reformator: His Contribution to Theology, Church and State. Pochestroom, 1982. *Houldon, Leslie, P. Byrne, Companion Encyclopedia of Theology (London, 1995). * Heiko Oberman The Waning of the Renaissance 1550-1640 (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000). *Heppe, Heinrich. Reformed Dogmatics, trans. G.T. Thomson (Grand Rapids, ). *Hall, P. ed. The Harmony of Protestant Confessions (repr. 1842, 1992) *Hillerbrand, Hans J. The World of the Reformation. London, 1975. *Hillerbrand, Hans J. .The Protestant Reformation. ed. New York, 1968. *Hsia, R. Po-Chia. Social Discipline in the Reformation: Central Europe 1550-1750. London, 1989. *Helm, Paul. Calvin and the Calvinists. Edinburgh, 1982. *Helm, Paul. 'Calvin (and Zwingli) on Divine Providence'. Calvin Theological Journal 29 (1994): 388-405. *Heppe, Heinrich. Reformed Dogmatics Set Out and Illustrated from the Sources. trans. G.T. Thomson. ed. E. Bizer. London. 1950. *Hцpfl, Harro. The Christian Polity of John Calvin. Cambridge, 1982.
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*Jeon, J. K. Covenant theology : John Murray's (1898-1975) and Meredith G. Kline's (1922-) Response to the Historical Development of Federal Theology in Reformed Thought (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1999). *Jones, S. Calvin and the Rhetoric of Piety (Louisville: WJKP, 1995). *John T. McNeill, ed., Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion, 2 vol., Library of Christian Classics (Nashville: Westminster John Knox, 1960) *Johnson, W.S. and J.H. Leith, ed., Reformed Reader: A Sourcebook in Christian Theology, vol.1. (Louisville, 1993). *Kelley, Donald R. Foundations of Modern Historical Scholarship (New York, 1970) *Kelley, Donald R. The Beginning of Ideology. Cambridge, 1981. *Kantzer, Kenneth S. 'John Calvin's Theory of the Knowledge of God and the Word of God'. Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University, 1950. *Klauber, Martin I. - The Binding of God: Calvin's Role in the Development of Covenant Theology (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001). *Kidd, B.J. ed. Documents Illustrative of the Continental Reformation. Oxford, 1911. *Knox, R. Buick. ed. Reformation, Conformity and Dissent. Knox. London, 1977. *Kidd, B.J. The Counter Reformation 1550-1600. London, 1933. *Kristeller, Paul Oskar. Renaissance Thought and its Sources, ed. Michael Mooney. New York, 1979. *Kirk, James. ed. Humanism and Reform: The Church in Europe, England and Scotland, 1400-1643. Oxford, 1991. *Lindsay, Thomas M. A History of The Reformation. 2 vol. New York, 1922. *Littell, F.H. ed. Reformation Studies. Essays Honoring Roland H. Bainton (Richmond, 1962) *Littell, Franklin H. ed., Reformation Studies. Essays in Honor of Roland
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H. Bainton (Richmond, 1962). *Linder, Robert D. "Calvinism and Humanism: The First Generation." Church History 44 (1975): 167-81. *Lortz, Joseph. The Reformation in Germany. 2 vol. trans. Ronald Walls. London, 1968. *Kidd, B.J. Documents of the Continental Reformation (Oxford, 1911). *Kepple, R. Reference Works for Theological Research (Lanham, MD, 1981). *Loetscher, L. , ed., The Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 2 vol. (Grand Rapids, 1955). *McGrath, Alister E. A Life of John Calvin: A Study in the Shaping of Western Culture. Oxford, 1990. *McKim, Donald K. ed. Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith. Louisville, 1992. *McKim, Donald K. 'William Perkins and the Theology of the Covenant'. Studies of the Church in History. ed., Horton Davies. Allison Park, Pennsylvania, 1983. *McNeill, J.T. 'The Church in Sixteenth Century Reformed Theology'. Journal of Religion 22 (1942): 251-69. *McNeill, J.T. The History and Character of Calvinism. Oxford, 1954. *Muller, Richard A. 'Duplex Cognitio Dei in the Theology of Early Reformed Orthodoxy'. Sixteenth Century Journal 10 (1979): 51-61. *Muller, Richard A. 'Fides and Cognitio in Relation to the Problem of Intellect and Will in the Theology of John Calvin'. Calvin Theological Journal 25 (1990): 207-224. *Maltby, William S. ed. Reformation Europe: A Guide to Research II (St. Louis, 1992). *McKim, D., and D. Wright, ed., Encyclopedia of the Reformed Faith (Louisville, 1992). * McKim, D., and D. Wright, ed., Historical Handbook of Major Biblical Interpreters. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity, 1998. *Muller, R.A., Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics 4 vol. 2nd edn (Grand Rapids, 2003).
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*McGiffert, A.C. History of Christian Thought. 2 vol. (New York, 1954). *McGrath, A.E., ed., The Christian Theology Reader (Oxford: Blackwells, 1994) *McGiffert, A.C. Historical Theology (Oxford: Blackwells, 1998). *McGrath, Alister E. The Intellectual Origins of the European Reformation. Oxford, 1987. *McGrath, Alister E. Reformation Thought: An Introduction. Oxford, 1988. *McNeill, J.T. 'Natural Law in the Teaching of the Reformers'. Journal of Religion 26 (1946): 168-182. *Mцller, Bernd. Imperial Cities and the Reformation: Three Essays, trans., *Murray, John. 'Calvin's Doctrine of Creation'. Westminster Theological Journal 17 (1954): 21-43. *Murray, John. Calvin on Scripture and Divine Sovereignty. Grand Rapids, 1960. *Naphy, William G. Calvin and the Consolidation of the Genevan Reformation. Manchester, 1994. *Neuser, Wilhelm H. ed. Calvinus Sacrae Scripturae. Grand Rapids, 1994. *Neuser, Wilhelm H. 'Calvin's Teaching on the Notae Fidelium: An Unnoticed Part of the Institutio 4.1.8'. trans. Mark S. Burrows. In Probing the Reformed Tradition: Historical Studies in Honor of Edward A. Dowey, Jr. Louisville, 1989. *Nauert, Charles G. "The Clash of Humanists and Scholastics: An Approach to Pre-Reformation Controversies." Sixteenth Century Journal 4 (1973): 1-18. *Nicole, Roger. 'The Doctrine of Definite Atonement in the Heidelberg Catechism'. Gordon Review 3 (1964): 138-45. *Nicole, Roger. 'John Calvin's view of the Extent of the Atonement', Westminster Theological Journal 47 (1985): 197-225.
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*Niesel, W. The Theology of Calvin. trans. Knight. Philadelphia, 1956. *Nijenhuis, Willem. 'Calvin and the Augsburg Confession', Ecclesia Reformata. Studies on the Reformation. trans. Mary Foran. Leiden, 1972. *Nugent, D. Ecumenism in the Age of the Reformation: The Colloquy of Poissy. Cambridge, Mass. 1974. *Noll, M. ed. Confessions and Catechisms of the Reformation (Grand Rapids, 1991) *Olson, R. The Story of Christian Theology (IVP, 1999). *Olevian, A Firm Foundation, trans. and ed., L. Bierma (Grand Rapids, 1995). *Oberman , H.A. 'Europa Afflicta: The Reformation of the Refugees' Archive fьr Reformationgeschicte 83 1992: 91-111. *Oberman , H.A. Forerunners of the Reformation: The Shape of Late Medieval Thought. Philadelphia, 1981. *Oberman , H.A. - Masters of the Reformation: The Ermergence of a New Intellectual Climate in Europe. trans. D. Martin. Cambridge, 1981 *Oberman , H.A. - The Dawn of the Reformation. T & T Clark: Edinburgh, 1986. *Oberman , H.A. - Harvest of Medieval Theology. Cambridge, Mass, 1963. *Oberman , H.A. - Luther and the Dawn of the Modern Era. Leiden, 1974. *Oberman , H.A. - and T.A. Brady. ed. Itinerarium Italicum. The Profile of the Italian Renaissance in the Mirror of its European Transformations: Dedicated to Paul Oskar Kristeller. ed. H. A. Oberman and T.A. Brady. Leiden, 1975. *Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition. A History of the Development of Doctrine. 5 vol. Chicago, 1984. *Rayner, Robert M. 1964. European History 1648-1789. Longmans. *Rummel, E. The Humanist-Scholastic Debate (Cambridge, MA, 1995) *Ritschl, Albrecht. A Critical History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation. trans. John S. Black. Edinburgh, 1872.
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*Seeburg, R., History of Doctrines, 2 vol. (Philadelphia, 1904) *Shedd, W.G.T., A History of Christian Doctrine, 2 vol. (New York, 1909) *Stoye, John. 1973. Europe Unfolding 1648-1688. Fontana. *Spitz, Lewis W. The Religious Renaissance of the German Humanists. *Treseasure, G. R. 1966. Seventeenth Century France. Rivingtons (Publishers) Limited. *Tillich, Paul. A History of Christian Thought, ed. Carl E. Braaten (New York, 1972). *Oberman, H.A. and Frank A. James III Via Augustini: Augustine in the Later Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation (Leiden, 1991) *Raitt, J. ed. Shapers of Religious Traditions in Germany, Switzerland, and Poland 1500-1600 (New Haven, 1981) *Paul Oskar Kristeller. The Reformation. Roots and Ramifications. trans. Alan Colin Gow. Edinburgh, 1994. *Packer, J.I. 'Calvin the Theologian'. In John Calvin: A Collection of Essays'. Grand Rapids, 1966. *Parker, T.H.L. The Doctrine of the Knowledge of God. London, 1952. *Parker, T.H.L. John Calvin: A Biography (Philadelpia:Westminster Press, 1975). *Partee, Charles. Calvin and Classical Philosophy. Leiden, 1977. *Platt, John. Reformed Thought and Protestant Scholasticism. Leiden, 1982. * 'Perkins' A Golden Chaine: Predestinarian System or Schematized Ordo Salutis?' Sixteenth Century Journal 9 (1978): 69-81 *Porter, C.W. Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge. Cambridge, 1958. *Prestwich, Menna. ed. International Calvinism 1541-1715 (Oxford, 1985). *Prestwich, Menna. The Colloquy of Montbeliard. Religion and Politics in the Sixteenth Century. Oxford, 1993. *Schnucker, R.V. 'Christ in the Eschaton: Calvin and Moltmann on the Duration of the Munus Regium', Harvard Theological Review 74 (1981): 31-59.
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*Schnucker, R.V. The Unaccommodated Calvin: Studies in the Foundation of a Theological Tradition (Oxford: OUP, 1999). *Schnucker, R.V. Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics 2 vol. (GR: Baker, 1987-) *Schnucker, R.V. Calviniana: The Ideas and Influence of John Calvin. Kirksville, MO: Sixteenth Century Publishers, 1988. *Schnucker, R.V. ed. Calviniana. Ideas and Influence of Jean Calvin (Kirksville, 1988). Tamburello, D.E. Union with Christ (Louisville, 1994) *Scribner, R.W. The German Reformation. London, 1986. *Sessions, Kyle C. and Phillip N. Bebb, ed. Pietas et Societas: New Trends in Reformation Social History. Essays in Honor of Harold J. Grimm (Kirksville, 1985). *Spitz, Lewis W. ed. The Protestant Reformation. Englewood Cliffs, 1966. *Spitz, Lewis W. The Protestant Reformation 1517-1559. New York, 1985. *Spitz, Lewis W. The Renaissance and Reformation Movements. 2 vol. St. Louis, 1971. *Steinmetz, David C. Reformers in the Wings. Philadelphia, 1971.
*Schaff, P., ed., The Schaff-Herzogg Encyclopdia of Religious Knowledge, 13 vol. (New York, 1908-12). *The New Catholic Encyclopedia (New York, 1967-78). *Trevor A. Hart, ed., The Dictionary of Historical Theology (Carlisle UK and Grand Rapids: Paternoster and Eerdmans, 2000). *Trevor-Roper, H. R. Religion, the Reformation and social change. Second ed., London, 1972. *Van Stam, F. P., The Controversy over the Theology of Saumur, 1635-1650 Disrupting Debates Among the Huguenots in Complicated Circumstances (Amsterdam: Holland University Press, 1988). *W. Stanford Reid, John Calvin: His Influence in the Western World (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing, 1982).
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*Warfield, Benjamin B. Calvin and Calvinism. New York, 1931. *Weir, David A. The Origins of the Federal Theology in Sixteenth Century Reformation Thought. Oxford, 1990. *Wendel, Francois. Calvin: Origins and Development of His Religious Thought. trans. Philip Mairet. London, 1965. *WELLS, H. G. (1920). The Outline of History. Cassell and Company, Ltd. *Ozment, Steven E. ed. Reformation Europe: A Guide to Research. St. Louis, 1982. *Ozment, Steven E The Age of Reform 1250-1550: An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval and Reformation Europe. London, 1980. *Ozment, Steven E - ed. The Reformation in Medieval Perspective. Chicago, 1971. * Ozment, Steven E The Reformation in the Cities. The Appeal of Protestantism to Sixteenth Century Germany and Switzerland. London, 1975. * Pauck, W., The Heritage of the Reformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961). *Perkins, William. The Work of William Perkins (Oxford, 1970) *Polanus, Amandus. The Substance of the Christian Religion. trans. E.W. (London, 1595). *Rollock, Robert. Select Works of Robert Rollock. 2 vol. ed. William M.Gunn. (Ediburgh, 1849). *Ursinus, Zacharias. Commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism. trans. and ed., G. Willard (Philipsburg, 1985). *Vermigli, Peter Martyr. The Peter Martyr Library. ed. J. P. Donnelly and J. C. Mclelland (Kirksville: Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies, Truman State University. *Zwingli, H. Commentary on True and false religion, ed., Samuel Macauley Jackson and C.N. Heller (Durham, 1981). *Zwingli, H. and Bullinger (Library of Christian Classics) ed. G.W. Bromiley (Phila., 1953) *Zwingli, H. and Bullinger - Selected Works (Philadelphia, 1972).
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*Zwingli, H. and Bullinger Early Writings (New York, 1912). *Zacharias Ursinus (1534-1583) and the Reformation in Heidelberg'. Journal of Ecclesiastical History 37 (1986): 565-583. *Zwingli, H. and Bullinger On Providence and Other Essays, ed. S. M. Jackson, W.J. Hinke (Durham, NC, repr. 1983). NB: The student has already read the resources marked: (**). He will keep reading the remained marked: (*) as they are available.
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