Created Equal: A History of the United States, J Jones, PH Wood, T Borstelmann, ET May, V Ruíz

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Content: Created Equal: A History of the United States (Third Edition) Jacqueline Jones, Peter H. Woods, Thomas Borstelmann, Elaine Tyler May, and Vicki L. Ruiz Index by S. Jane Henderson, Indexplorations
Note: Italicized page numbers indicate tables or illustrations that are not discussed in the text on that page. Maps are indicated by an italicized page number followed by (map).
A Abalone Alliance, 850 Abbey, Edwin, 221 ABC (American Broadcasting Company), 839 Abenaki Indians, 98 Abolition movement, 128, 376, 377, 383­384, 406, 410. See also Slavery Abortion, 628, 769, 800­801, 884, 918 Abortion pill, 919 Abortion rights, 828 Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 717 Abstinence movement, 282 Abstract expressionism, 800 Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse scandal, 933 Academies for young ladies, 285 Acadia National Park, 634 Acadians, 146, 156, 320 Accault, Michel, 76­77 Acheson, Dean, 755­756 Acoma pueblo, 43, 44 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 884 Act Concerning Religion (Maryland), 66 "Act for the Government and Protection of the Indians," 395 ACT-UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power), 886 Adams, Abigail, 184, 286, 305 Adams, Henry, 534 Adams, John and American experiment, 240 and bicameral system, 254 Continental Congress and, 207 as diplomat, 229­231 elected president, 265 and election of 1800, 289 as Federalist candidate for president, 269 and individual demands for liberty, 184­185 and Massachusetts constitution, 218­219 seizure of sloop owned by, 190 Supreme Court appointments of, 292 Tea Act and, 192 and XYZ Affair, 270 Adams, John Quincy, 309­310, 330­331, 337­338, 378 Adams, Samuel, 188­189, 195, 237 Adams, Will, 40 Adamson Act (1916), 634 Addams, Jane, 551­552, 608, 618, 636 Addison's disease, 802
Administration of Justice Act, 192­193 Adoptions, skin color and, 600­601 Advertisements and advertising advent of, 512 for bathtubs, 516 for cigarettes, 512, 670 for consumer products, 492 image of "American" beauty in, 494 mass, 515 popular culture and, 945 for prospective voters, 574 for runaway slaves, 365 sexualized images in, 670 Advocate (Cherokee newspaper), 397 Aesoamerican calendar, 11 Affirmative action policies, 864, 949­950 Affluence. See Income gaps; Wealth Afghanistan, 869, 871, 889, 926, 932 (map), 935 AFL. See American Federation of Labor (AFL) Africa. See also African Americans France and, 72 goods traded in, 115 slave trade, 199 slave trade regions, 116 (map) WWII and, 716 African-American Female Intelligence Society, 406 African American fiddlers, 124 African American newspapers, 406 African Americans. See also Black Panthers; Black power; Free blacks; Lynchings; Slaves in 369th Infantry Regiment, 643 anticommunist position of, 772 Black Codes in postwar southern states, 462 black law of Indiana and, 280 in British colonies, 145 as buffalo soldiers, 533 caricatures off, 324 children, low self-esteem of, 789 children killed in church bombing, 805 citizenship rights and, 396, 488 civil rights and, 471, 652, 848 in Civil War, 443­444, 445 class divisions among, in New Orleans, 467 communities of, 467, 469, 648, 662, 664 as cowhands, 479 culture of, 319
African Americans (continued) Democratic party and, 709 discrimination against, 527, 531, 533, 626, 750 education, access to, 381 employment and earnings of, 901­902 exclusion of, 573, 705 as field hands, 464 filmmaking by, 663 as freedom fighters, 424, 446 frustration of, in fight for equality, 811 Great Depression and, 686 Harlem Renaissance and, 662­664 improving status of, 951 inaccurate voter lists and, 922 and the Jazz Age, 651 jobs of, in the North, 347 Andrew Johnson's plans for, 461­462 Knights of Labor and, 544 labor unions and, 709, 733 leaders, militancy of, 458 legal and social standing of, 107 literary societies of, 406 massacre of soldiers at Fort Pillow, 451 men and women at service club, 628 New Deal vs. Communist party, 701 New Light ministers and, 159 in New Netherland, 52 in the New South, 530­532 Thomas Paine's view on, 207 in postbellum South, 463 in postwar America, 459 Powhatan Indians and, 562 Progressive Era and, 634­635 punishment for petty crimes, 402 racial discrimination protest, 826 rejection of votes by, 922 response to Fugitive Slave Act (1850), 415 and Revolutionary War, 204­205, 222­223 in Revolutionary War, 272 right to vote guaranteed, 483 as sailors, 301 at San Juan Hill, 581­582 and self-sufficiency, 465­466 sense of group solidarity, 406 as sharecroppers, 674 and slavery, 271, 274 social status of, in 1850s, 403 street demonstrations by, 182 as strikebreakers, 640 struggles for liberation, 442­445 suburban home ownership and, 782
African Americans (continued) suffrage and, 462 Sunday School pupils, 457 support for Kennedy, 803 traditions preserved by, 290 treatment of, in flood relief camps, 666­667 unemployment rate, 712 value on family, 320 violence against, 612­613, 648 voluntary migrations of, 364, 533, 634­635, 724 in War of 1812, 308 and well-intentioned whites, 822 worker at cotton exchange, 502 in WWI, 640, 642 in WWII, 715, 736, 737 African American women college completion by, 785 and defense industry, 734 domesticity, meaning of, 785­786 earnings of, 685 enslaved, 322 following WWII, 769 in military service, 738­739 and suffrage, 553 wishing to care for their families, 465­466 African musical instruments, 124 African National Congress, 623 Africans, 24, 103, 105, 123, 155 African slaves, 56, 104­105, 110, 112, 118 (map), 411 (map) Agee, Philip, 852 Age of the Common Man, 327­329, 344­351 Agnew, Spiro, 836, 839, 844 Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933), 696 Agricultural regions, of the Midwest and Northeast, 497 (map) Agriculture, innovations in, 495, 497. See also Farming Aguinaldo, Emilio, 581­582, 586 Ah Quin, 529 Ah Sue, 529 Aidid, Mohammed Farah, 916 AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), 884 AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACTUP), 886 Aid to Families with dependent children (AFDC), 705, 811, 899, 912 Air conditioning, 770 Aircraft industry, 734, 762, 938 Aircraft Repair Unit (ARU-145), Guadalcanal, 732 Air Force One, 810
2
Air traffic controllers' strike, 880 Alabama (ship), 442 Alamo, the, 82, 385 Alaska. See also Russian Alaska Alcan, 769 colonial contact along coast of, 168 expeditions to, 172 explorations of, 173 (map) land bridge, Siberia to, 3 Trans-Alaska Pipeline system, 857 U.S. purchase from Russia, 480­481 Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, 857 Alaska Native Brotherhood, 752 Albany, New York, 85 Albany Congress of 1754, 193 Albany Plan, 161 Albemarle Sound, 99 Albuquerque, New Mexico, 80, 509 Alcan (Alaska-Canada) Highway, 769 Alcatraz Island, occupation of, 823 (map) Alcohol, 277, 303. See also Temperance movement Aldrin, Edwin "Buzz," 836 Aleutian Islanders, 172 Aleut people, 481 Alexander, Mary Spratt Provoost, 145 Alexandria, port of, 148 Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, 917 Algeria, 803 Algonquin Indians, 49­50, 276. See also Ohio Confederacy Ali, Mohammed (Cassius Clay), 822, 825 Alien and Sedition Acts, 270­271 Alien Contract Law (1885), 520 Alien Land Act (California), 623­624 Alito, Samuel, 934 Allen, Ethan, 203 Allende, Salvador, 842 Alliance for Progress, 804 Allied powers, 758 (map) in Persian Gulf War, 895 (map) plans for postwar era, 740 and Russian civil war, 646 in WWI, 635­636, 641 (map) in WWII, 727­729, 727 (map), 729 (map), 730­ 731, 756 All in the Family (TV show), 834 All Saints Parish, 319­320 All the President's Men (film), 851 Almshouses, 153 Al Qaeda, 917, 926­927, 930 Alta California, 315, 372
Altgeld, John P., 545 Alzheimer's disease, 891 Amador, Martin, 515 Amador, Refugio, and family, 515 Amalgamated Association of Steel and Iron Workers, 492 America, in the millennium before Columbus, 10 (map) America First Committee, 718 American Anti-Slavery Society, 376 American Bottom, 14 American Broadcasting Company (ABC), 839 American character, 311­312, 317, 352, 356, 404, 777 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 668, 891 American Colonization Society, 346­347 American democracy, contradictions in, 344 American Department, 188 American Dictionary of the English language (Webster), 239 American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (Myrdal), 735 American Duties Act (1764), 178 American Expeditionary Force (AEF), 641­642 American Federation of Labor (AFL), 546, 572, 612, 629­630, 647, 707, 736 American GI Forum, 752, 772 American Glanzstoff plant strike, 675 American independence, terms of, 231. See also Declaration of Independence American Independent party, 835 American Indian Movement (AIM), 831, 852, 864 American Indian Religious Freedom Act, 908 American Indians. See Native Americans Americanism, 707, 710­711 American Legion, 648 American Medical Association, 770 American Museum of Natural History, 577 American National Exhibition, Moscow, 776 American nationalism, 592­593 American (Nativist) party, 422 American party, 379, 413, 414 American Railway Union (ARU), 546, 569 American Relief Administration, 690 American Renaissance, 355 American Revolution. See Revolutionary War American Road Builders' Association, 780 Americans, earliest, 3 American Spelling Book (Webster), 239 Americans with Disabilities Act (1990), 899 American system of manufacturing, 496 American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), 664 American Tobacco Co., 633 3
American War in Vietnam. See Vietnam War American way of life, 776­777, 780, 846, 942 American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), 482, 573 America Online, 900 Amherst, Jeffery, 164, 175­177 Amistad case, 377­378 Amistad (ship), 378 Amnesty for draft evaders, 855 Amusement parks, 511­512, 617, 779 Anabaptists, 62 Anaconda Copper Co., 868­869 Anarchism, 545, 610, 647, 654­655 Anasazi Indians, 10 (map), 11­13 An-Choi, 395 Ancient America, 5­9 Anderson, John B., 872 Anderson, Marian, 694, 695 Anderson, Zelda Webb, 738 Andrй, John, 226­227 Andrew (slave), 190 Andros, Sir Edmond, 92 Angel Island, 563­564 Angelou, Maya, 734 Anglican Church (Church of England), 32, 57­58, 156, 282­283 Anglo-Dutch Wars, 84 Angola civil war, 846 Aniaga (African prince), 114­115 Annapolis, port of, 148 Anne (Queen of England), 93 Anorexia nervosa, 919 Anthony, Susan B., 384, 482­483, 486 Anti-abolitionists, 376 Anti-abortionists, 884, 918 Anti-American sentiment, 871, 896, 916 Antiapartheid movement, 885 Antiballistic missile (ABM) treaty, 841 Antibiotics, 759, 920 Anti-Chinese protests, 554 Anticolonial revolts, 579, 644 Anticommunism American leadership and, 772 Bolshevism and, 646­647 during the Cold War, 770­771 Cold War and, 746 democracy vs., 818 Ford and, 846 homosexuality and, 771, 800 Kennedy and, 804 labor unions and, 753 League of Nations and, 645 pamphlet of, 804
Anticommunism (continued) preoccupation with, 778, 798­799 in Reagan era, 873­874 revival of, 869­870 and Vietnam War, 815 Yalta Conference and, 740 Antidepressants, 919­920 Anti-Federalists, 257, 258­260. See also Democratic- Republicans Antifeminists, 863­864 Anti-German sentiment during WWI, 639 Antiglobalization protesters, 938 Antigovernment extremists, 917­918 Anti-homosexual attitudes, 952 Anti-immigrant sentiment, 651­653, 655, 848, 899 Anti-imperialists, 584­585 Antinomian Crisis, 62 Anti-Saloon League, 653 Anti-Semitism, 501, 605­606, 702, 717, 726­727 Antislavery sentiment, 248, 376­378 Anti-unionists, during WWI, 639 Antiwar movement, 821, 852 Antiwar protests, 823 (map), 826, 834, 836­837 Antrobus, John, 323 An Wang, 833 Anza, Juan Bautista de, 173­174, 174 (map) Apache Indians horses and, 138 and Pueblo Revolt, 79­80 in San Antonio, 136 Father Santa Ana and, 81, 137, 425, 474, 475­ 476, 560 (map) Apalachee, 83 Apartheid, 857 (map) Apex Mining Act (1872), 479 Apocalypse Now (film), 851 Apollo 11 (spacecraft), 837 Appalachian Mountains, 223, 334 Appleby, J. F., 495 Apprenticeship, of black children, 401­402 Arabella (ship), 59­60, 109 Arabian immigrants, 603 (map) Arab-Israeli conflict, 856 Arab-Israeli peace talks, 923 Arafat, Yasser, 915 Aramepinchone (Marie), 76­77 Arapaho Indians, 373, 413, 451­452, 474, 560 (map) Arbenz, Jacobo, 798 Archaic Indians, 7­9 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 928, 943 Ardra, slave trading depot at, 117 Arikara Indians, 299, 476 Aristotle, 183 4
Arizona, 81­82 Arkansas, and reconstruction, 469 (map) Ark (ship), 66 Armey, Dick, 953 Armour, P. D., 495 Armour Meatpacking, 492 Arms race. See Nuclear arms race Armstrong, Neil, 836 Army-McCarthy hearings, 771 Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), 817, 818­819 Arnold, Benedict, 203, 206, 215, 226­227 Arrow Lake Indians, 699 Arteaga, Ignacio de, 173, 173 (map) Arthur, Chester A., 520 Articles of Confederation, 217­218, 234, 253, 257 Artifacts of human habitation, 6 Artificial sweeteners, 851 Artisan-politicians, 283­284 Artisans, 263, 267, 283, 315, 316 Artists, 618­619 Art Nouveau, 618 ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam), 817­819 Ashcan school, 618, 619 Ashcroft, John, 923, 928 Asher, Gad, 272 Asher, Jeremiah, 272 Ashkenazi Jews, 156 Ashley-Cooper, Anthony, 87 Asia, 758 (map), 819, 888 Asian Americans, 782, 833, 886 Asian immigration, 886, 909 Asian Pacific Legal Center, 905 Asiento contract, 106, 114 Asociacнon Nacional Mйxico-Americana (ANMA), 788 Assassinations attempted, of Ronald Reagan, 919 CIA plots, 798, 852, 854­855 of James A. Garfield, 520 of John F. Kennedy, 806 of Robert Kennedy, 806 of Martin Luther King, Jr., 806, 834 of Abraham Lincoln, 455 of Malcolm X, 806 of Ngo Dingh Diem, 817 of Anwar Sadat, 890 of William McKinley, 591 Assembly line production system, 616, 707 Association of American Painters and Sculptors, 618 Astronauts on the moon, 836 Aswan Dam, 798 Atahualpa, murder of, 27
Athabaskan people, 481 Atlanta, Georgia, 453, 574, 612 Atlanta Compromise, 565 Atlantic Charter, 719 Atlantic coastal settlements, 87­93 Atlantic navigation chart, 18 Atlatl, 7 Atomic Age, 739, 778, 795 Atomic Energy Commission, 760 Atomic weapons, 738­740, 741­742, 760. See also Nuclear arms Attack of the Crab Monsters (film), 760 Attica prison uprising, 823 (map), 837 Attlee, Clement, 741 Attucks, Crispus, 190 Atwater, Lee, 892 Auburn Ravine, panning for gold in, 394 Audubon Society, 849, 878 Auschwitz, 714, 742 Austin, Moses, 334, 336 Austin, Stephen, 334, 336, 398 Austria, 717, 748 (map) Austro-Hungarian Empire, 622, 631, 644 (map) Automobiles American culture and, 780 boom in, 664­665 and economies of western states, 770 imports, 847 manufacturers of, in WWII, 731 and national speed limit, 851 and pollution, 942 and sexual behavior, 617 and suburban shopping malls, 879 Avenue of the Americas, 832 Awakening, The (Chopin), 566 Axis powers, 716­718, 727 (map) Ayllуn, Lucas Vбsquez de, 28, 33 (map) Azores islands, 17, 18 Aztec Indians, 10 (map), 11, 25­27 B Babbitt (Lewis), 673 Babcock, S. M., 495 Babel, ancient tale of, 165 Baby and Child Care (Spock), 769 Baby boom, 679, 769, 777­778, 920 Backlash, against domination by white nations, 623 Backlash, against social change, 832­834, 863 Backlash (Faludi), 881 Bacon, Nathaniel, 90­91, 111 Bacon's Rebellion, 87, 89­91, 111, 134 Bad Axe River massacre, 346 Baez, Joan, 826
5
Baghdad, Iraq, looting of, 933 Baker, Howard, 843 Baker, Josephine, 663 Baker v. Carr, 814 Bakke case, 864 Bakker, Jim, 884 Balboa, Vasco Nъсez de, 25 Baldwin, F. L., 423 Baldwin-Felts, strikebreaking by, 648 Balkans, 916 Baltimore, Lord, 65­66 Baltimore, port of, 148 Bambara, Samba, 125 Bandung, Indonesia, 796­797 Banjo, African, 124 Bank of the United States, 265, 305 Bank of the United States, Second, 335, 343 Banks. See also individual banks failures of, 675, 695, 712 federal government and, 343, 633 and loans, 335­336 monster, 343­344 red lining by, 781­782 wildcat, 335 Banks, Nathaniel, 445, 460 Bannock Indians, 480 Baptists, and family metaphor, 281 Baranov, Alexander, 172 Barbados island, 114 Barbary wars, 292 Barnwell, South Carolina, 943 Barracoons, 116 Barrй, Isaac, 179­180 Barry, Leonora, 540 Bartram, John, 240 Bartram, William, 239, 240, 943 Baseball, 440, 512, 512, 648, 752 Basketball, 566, 885 Bass, Morris, 606 Bataan Death March, 729 Batista, Fulgencio, 798 Battle of the Sexes, 863 Battle pictographs, 371 Battles. See also specific wars of Almanace, 185 of Austerlitz, 300 of Blair Mountain, 648 of Britain, 717, 719 on Lake Champlain, 49 of Little Big Horn, 475, 476 of Trafalgar, 300 Bauer, Sybil, 651 Baum, L. Frank, 515
Baumfree, Isabella (Sojourner Truth), 406, 407, 482 Baxter, Eli H., 365 Bayard, Judith, 52 Bayer, Karl J., 495 Baylor, John R, 431 Bay of Pigs invasion, 804 Beach, Marjorie, 790 Beamer, Todd, 926 Beatles, 826 Beats, the, 800, 802 Beauregard, P. T. G., 430 Beaver hats, 230 Beaver Wars, 50 Beecher, Catharine, 351, 381, 406­407 Beecher, Eunice, 482 Beecher, Henry Ward, 482, 522 Begin, Menachem, 856 Behel, Jacob, 495 Beissel, Conrad, 155 Belcher, Andrew, 96 Belgium, 857 (map) Bell, Alexander Graham, 495­496 Bell, John, 420 Bellamy, Edward, 542, 554 Belle (ship), 74­75 Belligerency, logic of, 636­638 Benavides, Cristobal, 435 Benavides, Refugio, 435 Benavides, Santos, 435 Benedict, Ruth, 735 Benezet, Anthony, 130 Benjamin, Judah P., 435 Benson, A. L., 636 Benz, Karl, 495 Berger, Victor, 639 Bering, Vitus, 171­172, 173 (map) Beringia, 6 Bering land bridge, 6 Berkeley, John, 86 Berkeley, Sir William, 89­91 Berlin, 728, 804 Berlin Wall, 804, 889, 892 Bernstein, Carl, 843 Berry, Chuck, 752, 801 Berryman, Hugh, 4 Bessemer process, 496 Bethabara, North Carolina, 150 Bettering House, 154, 289 Bias. See Discrimination; Prejudices Bible, 58, 883 Bicycle, design of, 496 Biddle, Francis, 721­722 Biddle, Grace, 288­289 6
Bidwell, John, 568 Bie, Ruthie, 693 Big business in U.S., 500 Bight of Biafra, 117 Bigler, Henry William, 394 Big Stick Diplomacy, 593 Big Three, 643­645 Bikini Islands, 760 Billboard, and breadline, 683 Billboard (magazine), 751 Bill Haley and the Comets, 801 Bill of Rights, U.S., 260, 261, 264 Bingham, George Caleb, 409 Bingham, Mark, 926 Bingham Canyon mines, 505 Bin Laden, Osama, 917, 926, 928, 930, 947 Birmingham, Alabama, 701, 805 Birth control, 483, 628, 769, 814 Birth control pills, 801, 827 Birth of a Nation, The (film), 626 Birthrates, 143, 735, 778 Bison jumps, 7 Black Americans. See African Americans Blackbeard, 96 Black Belt, 399­400 Black Codes, 462 Black Elk, 499 Blackfoot Indians, 138, 480 Black Hawk (Sauk chief), 345, 352, 360 Black Hawk (Sioux chief), 402 Black Hawk War, 346 Blackheath encampment, 147 Black Hills, 476 Black Kettle (Cheyenne chief), 451, 474­475 Black Muslims, 822 Black Panthers, 823, 823 (map), 852 Black power movement, 821, 822­824, 826 Black Republicans, 544 Black scare, 648 Black Sox, 648 Black Star Line, 657 Black Tuesday, 675­676 Blackwell, Henry, 482 Blaine, James G., 521, 521, 578 Blair, Tony, 929 Blazing Saddles (film), 851 Blob, The (film), 760 Blockades, 427, 441­442, 637 Bloody shirt, waving of, 517 Bloomers, 383 Blues, the, 663 Blue Water raid, 413 Blunt, Maria, 440
Boardinghouses, for mill girls, 349­350 Boardman, Elijah, 265 Board of Customs for British North America, 188 Board of National Popular Education, 381 Bob Jones University, South Carolina, 875 Boehlert, Sherwood, 928 Boeing Aircraft, 938 Boesky, Ivan, 879 Boland Amendments, 873­874, 890 Bolden, Charles "Buddy," 619 Bolsheviks, 642­643, 646 Bonanza farms, 500 Bondelid, Almira, 734 Bongiorno, Annunziata, 724 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), 699 Bonsack, James, 530 Bontemps, Arna, 662 Bonus Army, 692, 692­693, 712 Book of Mormon, 354 Boom towns, 479 Boone, Daniel, 223, 242­243 Booth, John Wilkes, 455 Border Patrol, 887. See also Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) Border Ruffians, 417 Borglum, Gutzon, 700 Bosnia, 916, 916 (map), 923 Bosque Redondo reservation, 439 Boston, Massachusetts annual expenditures and debt, 510 deepwater port at, 148 gap between rich and poor, 96 Irish population in, 362 police strike in, 647 in Revolutionary War, 196, 205­206 runaway slaves in, 364 school busing and violence in, 848 as seaport, 167 shipyards of, 95 Stamp Act repeal celebrations in, 182 State Street in, 506 Boston Marathon, 103 Boston marriages, 618 Boston Massacre, 186­187, 189­190 Boston Port Act (1774), 192­193 Boston revolt, 92 Boston Tea Party, 167­168, 192­193, 196 Boudinot, Elias, 366 Bougainville, Louis Antoine de, 169, 196 Bound workers, types of, 271. See also Slaves Bourgmont, Etienne, 140 Bourke-White, Margaret, 683, 700 Bourne, Randolph, 636 7
Bow, Clara, 661 Bowdoin, James, 252 Bowerman, Bill, 851 Boxer Rebellion, 584, 586 Boxing, as regulated sport, 513 Boycotts of 1980 Olympics, 871 of anti-union hat factories, 541­542 of British goods, 188­189, 193 bus, 791­793 consumer, 831 prohibition of secondary, 753 women and colonial, 199 Boyd, Belle, 435, 446 Bozeman Trail, 369 (map), 474, 474 (map) Bracero program, 725, 769 Braddock, Edward, 162 Bradford, William, 57 Bradley, Aaron A., 458 Bradstreet, Anne Dudley, 60­61 Brady, James, 919 Brady Bill, 919 Brain Trust, 696 Branch Davidians, 923 Brandeis, Louis, 626, 707 Brandeis University, 626 Brando, Marlon, 800, 801 Brandywine Creek, Delaware, 318 Brandywine Springs Amusement Park, 511­512 Branson, Charles, 495 Brant, Joseph (Thayendanegea), 164, 225, 275­276 Brant, Molly, 164 Braun, Carol Moseley, 909 Bray, Thomas, 128­129 Brazil, 134 Breadline, and billboard, 683 Bread riots, 446 Breckinridge, John C., 414, 420­421 Breed's Hill, 205­206 Brest-Litovsk Treaty (1918), 642 Bretton Woods monetary system, 847 Breyer, Stephen, 912, 921 Brezhnev, Leonid, 841­842 Briand, Aristide, 659 Britain. See also England 18th-century possessions, 199 and American Civil War, 442 armed forces expenses (1775-1782), 217 attack on U.S. Capitol, 307 Canada and, 234 cessions of, 397 (map) colonialism of, 196, 622, 753 conflicts with France and U.S., 217, 303
Britain (continued) conquests of New France, 162 (map), 164­165, 176 contract to supply African slaves to Spanish colonies, 134 domestic opposition to conflict in America, 217 economic and military aggression against U.S., 300 and Entente, 622 financial collapse in, 821 formal union of England and Scotland, 98 former colonies of, 857 (map) Great Depression and, 684 impressment of American sailors, 267 negotiating end to America's War for Independence, 229­231 North American colonies of, 143, 175­176 Ohio Confederacy, support for, 267 Oregon Territory compromise, 386 Pacific explorations by, 169, 202 (map), 915 Proclamation Line, 177 promises to black Loyalists, 203 Royal Army's struggle to control Boston, 205­ 206 tensions between U.S. and, following Revolutionary War, 267 transatlantic slave trade and, 118­119 (map), 319 Treaty of Ghent and, 309­310 and U.S. invasion of Iraq, 929 war declared on Germany, 717 war with American colonies, 300 war with Spain, 126 withdrawal from Greece, 754­755 withdrawal from Palestine, 758 in World War I, 636­637 British Caribbean, and transatlantic slave trade, 319 British colonies, 194 (map) economic regions of, 149 (map) expansion of, 98 in mid-18th century, 181 (map) non-English newcomers in, 145 population structure by gender and age, 144 settlements in mid-18th century, 162 (map) as societies with slaves, 151 southern limit of, 132 (map) transatlantic slave trade, 18th century, 118­119 (map) British forts, 275 (map) British imports, prohibition of, 195 British military forces, 195, 206, 208­210, 222­223, 229 British model of government, 264 British Royal Air Force (RAF), 717 8
British ships, 114 British slavery regime, 132 (map) British slave trade, 109 British West Indies, 248­249, 251 Brock, Isaac, 305 Brooklyn Bridge, 505, 506 Brooklyn Dodgers, 752, 752 Brooks, Preston S., 417 Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 736 Browere, Albertus, 381 Brown, Ed, 674 Brown, Jacob, 306 Brown, James, 801 Brown, Jere A., 544 Brown, John, 191, 418­420 Brown, John (Ohio abolitionist), 417 Brown, Joseph, 433 Brown, Linda, 789 Brown, Michael, 850 Brown, Moses, 267 Brown, Robert McAfee, 882 Brown, William, 648 Brown, William Henry, 334 Brown, Willie Mae, 674 Brown (Providence merchant), 249 Brown v. Board of Education, 788­790, 811, 813 Bruce, Blanche K., 472 Bryan, William J., 570, 585, 592, 596, 637, 668­669 Bryan-Chamorro Treaty, 624 Bryant, William Cullen, 355 Buccaneers, 95, 97 Buchanan, James, 414, 417, 422 Buchanan, Pat, 884, 920 Buchenwald concentration camp, 742 Buck, Carrie, 668 Buck v. Bell, 666 Budget deficits, 928 Budget impasse in Clinton years, 912 Buffalo Bill's Wild West traveling show, 513 Buffalo (bison), 373­374, 478, 499 Buffalo soldiers, 533, 534 (map) Buford, Harry T. (Loreta Janeta Vel бsquez), 435 Bulgaria, 644 (map) Bulimia, 919 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 780 Bull Moose party, 596 Bundy, William, 855 Bunker Hill, 196 Burford, Robert, 877 Burger, Warren, 838 Burgoyne, John, 210, 214­215 Burke, Aedanus, 238 Burlingame, Anson, 477
Burlingame treaty, 477 Burnett, Peter, 370 Burnside, Ambrose E., 447 Burr, Aaron, 289, 302 Burroughs, George, 94­95 Buses, 791 Bush, George H. W. (41st pres), 741 in 1992 election, 911 foreign policy, 892 and the Middle East, 893 as president, 889 presidential campaign of, 892 Supreme Court nomination of Clarence Thomas, 908 as vice president, 856, 876, 891, 896 Bush, George W. (43rd pres), 592 campaign for reelection, 934 declared president by Supreme Court, 899 elected president, 920­921, 934 response to Al Qaeda attacks, 926 reversal of Clinton-era policies, 923 and war on terror, 927­928, 943 Bush, Jeb, 920 Bush, Prescott, 891 Bush-Brown, H. K., 163 Business and businesses. See also individual companies of America, 652 big, in U.S., 500 corporate mergers, 900 executive compensation, 878, 898, 901, 902 family-owned, 267 globalization and, 938 government subsidies for, 880 multinational corporations, 938 policies favorable to, 794 Business Week (magazine), 878 Busing, court-ordered, 836, 848 Butler, Benjamin, 438, 445 Butler, John, 225 Butler, Pierce, 254 Butler Act (Tennessee), 668 Butterfield, Alexander, 843 Butterfly ballots, 920, 921 Byrd, William, 112­113 C Cabarets, 617 Cabeza de Vaca, бlvar Nъсez, 28­29, 33 (map) Cable Act (1922), 628 Cable News Network (CNN), 936 Cable television, 936 Cabot, John, 20­21 9
Cactus Hill, Virginia, 6 Caddo Indians, 141 Cadillac (founder of Detroit), 78 Cady, Elizabeth, 351, 383, 407, 482, 573 CafйFrancis, The (Luks), 619 Cahokia, Illinois, 14, 78 Cajuns, 146 Calhoun, John C., 330­331, 343, 363, 388­389 California. See also individual cities Alien Land Act, 623­624 coastal colonization by Spain, 172­175 denial of citizenship rights in, 396 Foreign Miners Tax, 395 immigrants in, 477, 953 migration to, 360, 396, 422 Proposition 13, 875 Proposition 187, 909 recall process, 607 right to vote, 396 statehood of, 395, 410 sterilization policies of, 668 Workingmen's Party of, 528 California Sanitary Canning company, 733 California Trail, 369 (map) Californios, 396, 398 Calley, William, 819 Calvert, George (Lord Baltimore), 65­66 Calvert family, 93 Calvin, John, 31, 58 Calvinists, 31, 58 Cambodia, 837, 846 Cambridge, Massachusetts, 60 Cameron, Lucille, 609 Camp, Walter, 513 Campaign financing, 899, 912, 939­940 Campbell, Ben Nighthorse, 911 Camp Cedar Grove, 574 Camp David Accords, 856 Camp meetings, 353 Camp Northumberland, 429 Campus Crusade for Christ, 828, 883 Canada, 203, 231, 234, 241 Canal diggers, 283 Canals, 331, 332 Canary islands, 17, 18 Cancer, 760, 850, 942 Cannery work, 687 Canty, Hattie, 903 Cape Coast Castle, West Africa, 84, 117 Cape St. Vincent, 18 Cape Town, 47 Capitalism, 526, 628­629, 682­683, 745­746, 777, 936
Capital punishment, 852, 918, 947 Capone, Al, 654 Caravels, 17, 18 Carbon dioxide emissions, 928, 942. See also Global warming Carey, Hugh, 850 Caribbean region, 18, 24, 105­106, 319, 581 (map), 624­625 (map) Caribs, 24­25 Carleton, Guy, 230 Carleton, James H., 439 Carlisle, Lord, 217 Carlisle Commission, 217 Carlisle Indian boarding school, 556 Carlos III (King of Spain), 173 Carlos II (King of Spain), 76 Carlson family fallout shelter, 795 Carmel, California, 350 Carnahan, Mel, 923 Carnegie, Andrew, 492, 500, 518­519, 530, 568 Carnegie, Margaret, 492 Carnegie, Tom, 492 Carnegie, Will, 492 CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE, 492 Carolina colony, 85, 87 Carolina Piedmont, 150 Carolinas, the, 98 (map) Carpenters Hall, Philadelphia, 193 Carpetbaggers, 463 Carrington, Morris, 571 Carson, Kit, 439 Carson, Rachel, 786­787 Cartels. See Trusts Carter, Jimmy, 741, 856 in 1980 election, 872 campaign for presidency, 853 crisis of confidence, 858 Iran hostage crisis, 871 presidency of, 853­854, 872 promise of honesty, 853­855 response to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 871 Carter, Robert, 274 Carter, Rosalynn, 853 Carter Doctrine, 871 Carteret, Sir George, 86 Carthage, Illinois, 368 Cartier, Jacques, 28, 33 (map) Cary's Rebellion, 99 Casey, William, 873, 890 Casino economy, 878, 952 Casino Sandia, New Mexico, 900 Cass, Lewis, 365, 410 Cassettari, Rosa, 502­503 10
Cassettari, Santino, 502 Castro, Fidel, 798, 804­805, 852, 854, 874 Casualties in principal wars, 448 Catcher in the Rye (Salinger), 800 Cathay, 15 Catherine of Aragon, 32 Catherine the Great (Empress of Russia), 234 Catholic Church, 58, 106, 363, 565, 616, 915, 928­ 929 Catholic immigrants, 156 Catholicism, 73­74, 379, 858 Catholic missionaries, in Congo-Angola, 117 Catholic missions in Spanish Florida, 46 (map), 78 Catholics, 66, 77, 91, 363, 379, 772 Catlin, George, 372 Cato's Letters: Essays on Liberty (Trenchard and Gordon), 183­184 Catt, Carrie Chapman, 627 Cattle drives, 479 Cattle ranching, in Florida, 47, 82 Cayuga Indians, 225. See also Iroquois Confederacy Cayuse Indians, 371 CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps), 697, 731 cell phones, 936­937 Census, 255, 263, 899, 948 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) assassination plots of, 852, 854­855 Osama bin Laden and, 917 Jimmy Carter and, 856 coup in Iran and, 871 covert operations of, 798 Tom Dooley and, 799 funding of Afghan guerrillas, 871 invasion of Cuba, 804 Iran-Contra scandal, 890 military coup in Chile, 842 Nicaraguan Contras and, 873­874 Richard Nixon's use of, 843 Operation Chaos, 852 Central Pacific Railroad, 473, 473, 476­477 Central Park, 505 Central powers, in WWI, 641 (map) Ceremony of tears, 699 Chaco Canyon, 12 Chafee, Lincoln, 928 Champlain, Samuel de, 49 Chandeliers, 206 Chaney, James, 822 Chaplin, Charlie, 707­708 Chapman, John Godsby, 327 Charbonneau, Toussaint, 299 Charity girls, 617 Charles II (King of England), 83, 85­86, 91, 114
Charles I (King of England), 54, 59, 63, 65, 83 Charleston, South Carolina, 87, 126, 148, 182 Charleston (dance), 651 Charlestown (Charleston), South Carolina, 87, 205­ 206 Charles V (Emperor of Spain), 28 Charlie Company, 819 Charter of Punta del Este, 804 Charts of early explorations, 29­30 Chase, Samuel, 258 Chбvez, Cesar, 737, 830, 830 Chбvez Ravine, 783 Checks and balances, 254 Chemical industry, 495, 633, 786, 850 Cheney, Dick, 920­921, 928, 943 Cheney, Mary, 952 Cheraw District, South Carolina, 210­211 Chernobyl nuclear accident, 869, 878, 885, 889 Cherokee Female Seminary, 397, 564 Cherokee Indians, 100. See also Five Civilized Tribes; Rogers, Will acculturation of, 277, 344 confiscation of culture, 367 deerskin trade, 150 division of labor among, 287 gold discoveries on land of, 341­342 home territory of, 313, 341, 366 (map) in Indian Territory, 312, 397 lands of, 560 (map) and literacy, 345 massacre of, 175 in Revolutionary War, 201, 223 in service of the Confederacy, 434 War of 1812 and, 307, 309 Cherokee Nation Treaty Party, 366 Cherokee Phoenix (newspaper), 345 Cherokee War Woman, 312 Chesapeake Bay, 53­54, 107, 148, 149 (map), 151­ 152 Chesapeake Bay colonies, 64­68, 98 (map) Chesapeake region, 65 (map), 112, 121 (map), 122 Chesapeake (ship), 301 Chesnut, Mary Boykin, 427, 434, 444 Chew, William, 763 Cheyenne Indians horses of, 373 Kansas-Nebraska Act and, 413 lands of, 560 (map) at Little Big Horn, 476 massacres of, 451­452, 474­475 Plains Indian Wars and, 475 Father Santa Ana and, 425 Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek, 474
11
Chicago, Illinois, 505­507, 635, 725, 783 Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, 510 Chicago White Sox, 648 Chicano Moratorium, 831 Chicano movement, 737, 830­831 Chickasaw Indians, 139, 277, 307, 309, 366 (map), 434. See also Five Civilized Tribes Chief Joseph, route of, 474 (map) Child, Lydia Maria, 380 Childhood overweight rates, 919 Child labor, 401­402, 503, 608 Children living in poverty, 880 Children of striking coal miners, 630 Children's Bureau, 628 Children shipped to Jamestown, 56 Chimney sweeps, 316 Chin, Vincent, 848 China American culture and, 948 Christian Missionaries in, 760 Japanese war against, 717­718 Jewish refugees in Shanghai, 727 Henry Kissinger and, 841­842 Korean War and, 766 Richard Nixon and, 840, 841­842 overseas exploration, 15 resistance to invasion by Japan, 761 trade with, 249, 760, 914 Chinatown (film), 851 Chinatowns, 763 Chinese Americans, 763 Chinese civil war, 730, 760­763 Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 761 Chinese Exclusion Act, 501, 520, 523, 528, 554, 602, 725 Chinese for Affirmative Action, 905 Chinese immigrants areas of settlement by, 503 (map) Civil Rights Acts and, 529 as cooks, 624 as coolies, 395 employment of, 504 exclusion of, 603 (map) as Forty-niners, 395 hostility toward, 501­502, 554 lawsuits by, 528­530 as railroad labor force, 476­477 return migration of, 598 and San Francisco Presbyterian Chinese Mission Home, 574 social status of, 403 as strikebreakers, 486 Chinese Nationalists, 730
Chinese women, as comfort women, 731 Chippewa Indians, 225, 907 Chiricahua Apache students, 556 Chisholm Trail, 479 Chivington, John M., 451­452 Choctaw Indians, 125, 277, 307, 309, 366 (map), 434. See also Five Civilized Tribes Chopin, Kate, 566 Chow mein, creation of, 624 Christiana riot, 415 Christian Broadcasting Network, 881­882 Christian crusades, 16 Christian denominations, 950 Christian fundamentalism, 883­885 Christian immigrants, 156 Christianity, 58­59, 94, 127, 155, 158­159 Christian missionaries in China, 760 Christian Science faith, 567 Chronometer, 153, 170 Chrysler Corp., 880, 900 Chumash Indians, 277, 345 Church, Frank, 852, 854­855 Church, Frederic E., 577 Church Committee, 854­855 Churches, established, 282 Churchill, Winston, 719, 728, 741, 749, 756 Church of England (Anglican Church), 32, 57­58, 156, 282­283 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), 353­354, 367­368, 369 (map), 505, 946 Church of San Miguel, 45 CIA. See Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Cigarette advertisements, 512, 670 Cigarettes, machine-made, 530 Cigar Makers' International Union, 546 Cincinnati Club, 238 Cincinnati Daily Commercial, 418 Cincinnatus, 238 Cinco de Mayo celebration, 888 Cinquй, rebellion of, 378 CIO. See Committee of Industrialized Organizations (CIO); Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Circular Church, Charleston, South Carolina, 455 Circular Letter, 188 Circuses, 513­514 Cisneros, Henry, 385, 887 Cities, 492, 505­506, 531, 750, 768, 886 Citizenship double standard for, 627­628 economic independence and, 266 ideal of, in post-Revolutionary America, 286
12
Citizenship (continued): limited to free white males, 271­272, 328 meaning of, to postbellum black communities, 467 Puerto Rico residents and, 623 slaves barred from, 328 Citizenship Act, 628 Citizenship rights African Americans and, 488 limitations of, 420­421 Native Americans and, 549 people of "white blood" and, 403 in Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 396 in various countries, 483 women and, 328 Ciudad Juarez, 936 Civil disobedience, 904 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 697, 731 Civil marriage vs. civil union, 906­907 Civil rights, 471, 652, 722, 770 Civil rights activism, 613, 657, 694, 778 Civil Rights Acts, 487­488, 520, 529, 811­812 Civil Rights Bill, 463, 805 Civil Rights Commission, 922 Civil rights movement, 787­788, 790­791, 791 (map), 805, 822 Civil rights workers, 792­793, 808­809, 812, 823 (map) Civil service reform, 520, 523, 770 Civil unions vs. civil marriage, 906­907 Civil War. See also Civil War battles African Americans as soldiers in, 445, 450 battle fronts and home fronts, 446­450 casualties of, 440, 445, 448 effect of, on political parties, 458 immigrants in, 434­435 manufacturing and commerce during, 436­437 North's blockade of southern coastline, 441­442 Pelican Company F, 439 physical environment of the South, 452­454 policy of "hard war," 450­455, 453 preparations for, 428­430 ravages of, 438­430 Sherman's field order revoked, 465 and social transformations, 443 soldiers, occupations of, 430 southern mobilization for, 430­434 suspension of habeas corpus during, 436 Union loyalists in the south, 427­428 Union officers' methods of dealing with slavery, 437­438 Union soldiers, 429
Civil War (continued) Union soldiers, occupational categories of, 430 unrest in the North, 449 women as secret agents in, 435 Civil War battles Antietam, 439­440, 441 Bull Run, First, 430 Elkhorn Tavern, 434 Fort Pillow, 450, 451 Fort Wagner, 442, 450 Gettysburg, 447 La Glorieta Pass, 431 Manassas, second, 439 Petersburg, 454 Civil Works Administration (CWA), 697 Clamshell Alliance, 850 Claremont, California, 782 Clark, George Rogers, 225­226 Clark, Harvey E., 750 Clark, Kenneth, 789 Clark, Tom, 771 Clark, William, 298­299, 299 Clarke, Richard, 935 Clark Fork River, 942 Class conflict, 567­570, 732, 752­753, 834 Class system in U.S., 329 Clay, Cassius (Mohammed Ali), 822, 825 Clay, Henry, 309­310, 330, 338, 343, 345, 375, 385 Clay, Joseph, 248 Clayton Anti-trust Act, 633­634 Clean Air Act and amendments, 813, 835, 899 Clean Water Act and amendments, 813, 835 Clemenceau, Georges, 643­644 Clerical work, 496 Clerks, department store, 515 Clermont (steamboat), 314 Cleveland, Grover, 521, 522­523, 568­570, 578 Clifford, Clark, 804, 841 Cliff Palace, 12 climate change. See Global warming Clinton, George, 258, 300 Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 832, 910­912, 923 Clinton, Sir Henry, 208, 217, 223, 226, 229­230 Clinton, William Jefferson "Bill" domestic agenda of, 911­912 foreign policy of, 914­917 impeachment of, 913, 923 presidency of, 899, 910­911 protection of federal lands, 943 in Vietnam, 915 Cloning, 920 Clovis, New Mexico, 5 Clovis people, predecessors to, 6­7 13
Clovis points, 5 Coal consumption, 623 Coca-Cola, 753 Code talkers, 730 Cody, William "Buffalo Bill," 513 Coercive Acts, 192­193, 195 Coeur d'Alene, 494, 568 Coffin, Levi, 411 Coffles, 115, 116 Coit Tower, San Francisco, 703 Colbert, Jean-Baptiste, 72, 74 Cold War American way of life and, 780 anticommunism and, 745­746 colonialism and, 757 Europe divided by, 754 (map) Kennedy and, 803 military expenditures of, 815 Nixon and, 840 onset of, 756 politics of, 770­771 Reagan and, 870 renewing of, 873­874 spheres of influence, 796­797 (map) tensions of, 778 U.S. foreign policy and, 852 Cold water pledge, 552 Colfax, Schuyler, 487 Collective bargaining rights, 541 College of New Jersey (Princeton University), 158, 523 College of William and Mary, 158 Colleges. See also specific college names athletics in, 566 degrees earned by women, 785 enrollment of veterans, 751 evangelism on campuses, 883 football, 523, 566, 945 land-grant, 437 Collier, John, 698­699 Collins, Susan, 934 Colonial conflicts of mid-18th century, 161 Colonial economies, 148 Colonial epidemics, 143 Colonial families, and wars in England, 95 Colonial governments, 103 Colonialism, 240­241, 338, 719, 757, 803. See also individual nations Colonists, shared identity as Americans, 166, 168, 183 Colonization, and mixing of ethnic groups, 137­138 Colorado, Mangas, 439 Colorado Cottage Home, 552
Colorado Fuel and Iron Co., 629 Colorado River, 712 Colorado River Relocation Center, 722 Colorado Territory, 479 Color bar, as barrier to opportunity, 811 Colored American, 406 Colored Farmers' Alliance, 539­540 Colored National Labor Union, 485 Colored Orphan Asylum, 449 Color quebrados, 271 Columbia, as term, 239 Columbia, South Carolina, 239, 454 Columbian Exchange, 21­22, 82 Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 557­558, 586 Columbia River, origin of name, 249 Columbia (ship), 248, 249 Columbia University, 239 Columbine High School shootings, 919 Columbus, Bartholomew, 18 Columbus, Christopher, 3, 18­19, 20, 20­21 (map), 239 Comanche Indians horses and, 81, 139­140, 372, 373 lands of, 560 (map) Santa Fe officials and, 140 and Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek, 474 as Union troops, 434 Wichita and, 141 Comancherнa, 140­141 Combat veterans. See Veterans Comfort women, 731 Comintern, establishment of, 646 Command of the Army Act, 470 Commission for Relief in Belgium, 689 Committee of Fifteen, 488 Committee of Five, 207 Committee of Industrialized Organizations (CIO), 712 Committee of Public Safety, 193 Committee on Postponed Matters, 255 Committee on Public Information (CPI), 639 Committee on the Philippines, 582­583 Committees of Correspondence, 191 Committee to Alleviate the Miseries of the Poor, 154 Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP), 843 Common land, loss of, 525­526 Common school system, 380 Common Sense (Paine), 207 Communes, 827 Communication, 495 Communism, 679, 682, 716, 745­746, 756. See also Anticommunism; Red scare Communist bloc countries, 758 (map) 14
Communist party, 700­701, 748 Communist rule overturned in eastern European countries, 893 Communitarians, 382 Communities and community African American, 457­458, 469, 648, 662, 664 destruction of, by urban renewal, 783 labor unions as model of, 647 Mormon, 367­368 Native Americans' value of, over individual, 356 new forms of, 360 Oneida, 382 sense of, 352 Commuters, 781 Company towns, 349, 507 Compassionate conservatism, 928 Complex marriage, 382 Compromise of 1820, Dred Scott decision and, 417­ 418 Compromise of 1850, 395, 410­412, 422 Compromise of 1877, 487 (map), 488 Computers, 936 Comstock, Anthony, 483 Concentration camps, 713­714, 726 (map), 741, 742 Concessions and Agreements, West Jersey, 86 Conestoga Indians, 177 Coney Island amusement park, 617 Confederacy capital of, 427 central paradox of, 430 defeat of, 450­455 disaffection in, 446­447 hopes for diplomatic recognition, 442 Indians in service of, 434 last days of, 454­455 multicultural character of, 435 strategy of, 428­430 strengths of, 455­456 Confederate Army, 431, 446, 450­452, 453 Confederate press masters, 432 Confederate soldiers, occupational categories of, 430 Confederate States of America, 244, 425 Confederate surgeons, 434 Confederate Territory of Arizona, 430 Confederate treasury, 432 Confederation Congress, 218, 256­257 Confessions of Nat Turner, The (Gray), 347 Conformity of mainstream society, 672, 777, 826 Congo Square, 322­323 Congregational Church, in New England, 156 Congregationalism, 58 Congregationalist missionaries, 457 Congreso de Pueblos de Habla Espaсol, El, 709, 712
Congress, U.S., 272, 302­303, 470, 899 Congressional electoral commission, 488 Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 707­ 708, 752­753 Congress on Racial Equality (CORE), 791 (map), 792 Conjurers, 324 Connecticut, 243­244, 257, 272, 279 (map), 346 Connecticut colony, 88 Connecticut Wits, 239 Conner, Howard, 730 Connor, Bull, 805 Conrad, Carolyn, 906 Consciousness, exploration of, 826 Consciousness raising, 829, 860 Conservationism, 595, 872­873, 943 Conservative Christians, 883­885, 927, 934 Conservative revival, 832 Conspicuous consumption, defined, 567 Conspiracy theories, 806 Constitution, U.S. amendments to (See also Amendment number) in chronology, 261 fears of opponents of, 258 loose construction of, 341 ratification of, 199, 257­260 southern whites and postwar amendments to, 488 for white men with property, 260 Constitutional Convention, 253­256, 254, 256, 261 Constitutional Union party, 420, 421 Consumer boycotts, 831 Consumer credit, 652, 685, 939 Consumer culture, 511­517, 617, 651, 670, 672 Consumer products, marketing of, 492 Consumer spending, 778­781, 938­939 Continental Army African Americans soldiers in, 272 class divisions in, 220 discipline in, 221 dissidents within, 235­237 enlistment terms, 213­214 Foreign officers in, 220­222 formation of, 202 mutinies and strikes in, 226 retreat toward Philadelphia, 212 Continental Congress, 168, 202­204, 207, 215, 217­ 218, 234 Continental Navy, 223 Contraception, 483, 769, 814 Contraceptive pills, 801, 827 Contract with America, 912, 923 Convict lease workers, 531 Conway, Thomas, 220
15
Conway Cabal, 220 Cook, James, 169­171, 173 (map), 196, 578 Cook, Nathan, 365 Cooke, Jay, 480 Coolidge, Calvin, 652, 659, 676 Coolies, 395 Cooper, James Fenimore, 355 Copley, John Singleton, 219 Copperheads, 441, 449 Copyright laws, 239 Corn, 67, 81, 151 Cornell University, 496, 826 Cornwallis, Charles, 213, 226­227, 228, 228­229 Coromantee (Akan) people, 125 Coronado, Francisco Vбsquez de, 30, 33 (map) Corporations, 900, 938. See also Business and businesses Corps of Engineers, 453 Corruption, 471, 478­479, 481, 486­488, 654, 844­ 845 Cortйs, Hernбn, 26­27 Cortina, Juan, 399, 403 Cortina's War, 399 Corvair, 813 Cosmopolitan (magazine), 829 Cost-plus contracts, 639 Cotton, John, 62 Cotton, William, 495 Cotton belt, 364, 468 Cotton fields, 464 Cotton gin, 267 Cotton mills, 315 Cotton plantation economy, 267, 280, 318­325 Cotton production, 199, 334, 502, 532 Cotton States Exposition, 565 Cotton trade, 335 Coughlin, Charles E., 701­702 Coulter, Inga, 918 Councils for Trade and Plantations, 85­86 Counterculture, 826­828 Counter-reformation, 31­32, 50 Countries gaining independence after WWII, 758 (map) Country-born slaves, 120 Country marks, 104 County Election (Bingham), 409 County of Kerry, Ireland, 362 Court of Private Land Claims, 526, 560 Court packing plan, 706­707 Coverture, 85 Cowboys, 538, 542 Cox, Archibald, 843 Cox, James M., 657
Coxey, Jacob S., 569 Coxey's Army, 569 Coyotes, 271 Crack cocaine, 884­885, 892 Craft, Ellen, 376 Craft, William, 376 Crandall, Prudence, 376 Crane, Stephen, 566 Crazy Horse, 475, 476 Credit card debt, 939 Crйdit Mobilier, 486­487 Creek Indians. See also Five Civilized Tribes and acculturation, 277 deerskin trade, 150 home territory of, 366 (map) and Treaty of Horseshoe Bend, 308 War of 1812 and, 307, 309 Creel, George, 639 Creoles, 322­323 Crews, Henry, 674 Crisis, The (journal), 613, 621 Crisis of confidence, 851 Crittenden, John J., 426 Crittenden Compromise, 426 Croatia, 916, 916 (map) Crockett, David "Davy," 327­328, 335­336, 342, 385 Crockett, Elizabeth, 336 Croix de Guerre (Cross of War), 643 Cromwell, Oliver, 83 Cronkite, Walter, 821 Crook, George, 475­476 Cross of Gold speech, 570 Crowell, John, 877 Crow Indians, 476, 480 Crown Point, Lake Champlain, 164 Crozat, Antoine, 78 Crude oil reserves, 929 Cuba alliance with Soviet Union, 798 American ambassadors' proposal for seizure of, 412 economic hardship of, 914 Kennedy and, 804­805 Rough Riders' incursion into, 581 uprising against Spanish, 579 U.S. influence over, 582 U.S. occupation of, 624 Cuban immigrants, 503­504, 874, 914 Cuban missile crisis, 778, 795, 804­805 Cuban Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolutionario Cubano), 579 Cu Chi, 818 16
Cuffee (slave), 126 Culpeper, John, 99 Culpeper's Rebellion, 99 Cultural conflict, 399, 562, 881­882, 899 Cultural diffusion, 17 Cultural diplomacy, 799­800, 841 Cultural diversity in American cities, 506, 886 Cultural identity, migrants and, 372 Cultural rebellion, 826­828 Cultural values in America, 238­240, 354­356, 505­ 511, 767 Culture wars, 881, 911 Cumberland Road (National Road), 314, 332 Cuming, F. H., 333­334 Cumming, Kate, 439 Currency crisis in U.S., 821 demand for reforms in, 252 Hamilton's monetary policies, 265 hard money policies, 343 and political processes, 596, 939 state laws, 251 of U.S., 250­251 withdrawn from circulation, 485 Currency Act, 178, 196 Custer, George, 458, 474­475, 533 Customs Act, 188 Customs officials, absentee, 178 Cutler, Manasseh, 247 Cut Nose (Arapaho), 397­398 Czechoslovakia, 645, 717, 892 D Dachau camp, 713­714, 741 Da Gama, Vasco, 18, 20­21 (map) Daily Graphic (newspaper), 482 Daimler, Gottlieb, 495 Daimler-Benz, 900 Dakota Indians, 521 Daley, Richard, 834 Dallas, Texas, 806 Dallas (TV series), 879 Dalton, Mrs. L. L., 552­553 Dampier, William, 97 Dams Aswan, 798 Church Rock, failure of, 868 and ecological transformations, 941 Fort Peck, 700 Glen Canyon, 813 Grand Coulee, 699 Hoover, 699, 712
Dams (continued) Milltown, 942 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 697, 698 (map) on Toulumne River, 595 "Danger of an Unconverted Ministry, The" (Tennent), 158 Danish immigrants, 360 Danish Virgin Islands, 624 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 917 Darien, Panama, 25 Darrow, Clarence, 668 Darwin, Charles, 522 Daughters of Liberty, 189, 199 Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), 695 Davidson, George, 248 Davis, Bette, 710 Davis, Gray, 607 Davis, Jefferson, 398, 425, 449, 455 Davis, John W., 659 Dawes, William, 195 Dawes Severalty Act, 521, 523, 551, 561 (map), 600, 698 Day After, The (TV drama), 889 Day care centers, government-funded, 734, 861 Dayton peace accords, 917, 923 D-Day, 728 DDT pesticide, 786, 835, 851 Deaf people, as home front workers, 733 Dean, James, 800 Dean, John, 843 Death penalty, 852, 918, 947 Debs, Eugene V., 569, 593, 597, 610, 636, 639, 657 Debtors' prison, 336­337 Declaration of Independence, 168, 199, 207­208 Declaration of Independence, The (Trumbull), 208 Declaration of Rights, 194­195 Declaration of Sentiments, 407, 482 Declaratory Act (1766), 182, 196 Deerfield Village, Michigan, 616 Deer Island, 88 Deerskin trade, 108, 150 Defense of Marriage Act, 907 Defense-related jobs, 900 De Grasse, Franзois, J. P., 228 De Kalb, Johann, 220 DeLarge, Robert G., 470 De Laval, Gustaf, 495 Delaware Indians, 154, 224, 257, 276. See also Ohio Confederacy Delaware River, Washington's crossing of, 213 Delaware River valley, English settlement in, 85 DeLay, Tom, 934
17
Deliver Us from Evil (Dooley), 799 DeMille, Cecil B., 661 Democracy, 642­643, 645, 649 Democracy in America (Tocqueville), 344 Democratically elected governments, overthrow of, 798, 842 Democratic Convention, Chicago, 834 Democratic Leadership Council, 910 Democratic party Atlantic City convention, 822 challenges to, by Free-Soil party, 410 and environmental protection, 943 Irish immigrants and, 363 loss of white southerners from, 420, 770 on scalawags, 463 in Second Party system, 360­361 supporters of, 375 and tariffs, 517 unraveling of, 842 Democratic-Populist party, 592, 596 Democratic-Republicans, 264­267, 269, 270­271, 289, 338 Dempsey, Jack, 651 Denmark, 118­119 (map), 319, 727 Denton, Vachell, 109 Department stores, 514­517 Deportations, 648, 687, 709, 724, 773 Deregulation, 880 Desegregation Civil Rights Act of 1964 and, 811­812 Eisenhower's hands-off policy on, 790­791 experiments in, 782 federal civil service, 770 organized resistance against, 790 of public life, 950­953 of schools, 752, 790­791 white attitudes toward, 782 Desert Land Act, 479 Deslondes, Charles, 324 De Soto, Hernando, 28­29, 33 (map) Dйtente with Soviet Union, 841, 852, 889 Detroit, Michigan, 78, 177, 635, 823. See also Fort Detroit Dewey, George, 580­581 Dewey, Thomas E., 728, 770 DeWitt, John L., 721­722 Dhahran, Saudia Arabia, 917 Dias, Bartolomeu, 18 Diaspora, 134 Diaz, Josй, 737 Dнaz, Porfirio, 624 Dickinson, John, 187­188 Didrikson, Mildred "Babe," 710
Dies, Martin, 709 Diesel, Rudolf, 495 DiMaggio, Joe, 710 Diner's Club, 767 Diplomacy, 593, 596, 799­800, 841­842 Direct democracy, 607 Direct election, 255 Discourse for a Discovery for a New Passage to Cathay (Gilbert), 36­37 Discrimination. See also African Americans; Prejudices and American individualism, 402 against ethnic minorities, 605, 656, 752, 772, 781 in granting mortgage loans, 782 Reagan administration and, 875 social changes and, 950­953 Union wartime policies and, 445 against veterans, 752 on WPA jobs, 709 Disease, 21­22, 448 Disney Corporation, 946 Distilleries, 152 District of Columbia, 239, 395 Divorce, 574, 618, 653, 778, 862 Dix, Dorothea, 383, 437 Dixicrats, 770 Dodge, Grenville, 458 Doheny, Edward L., 659 Dole, Robert "Bob," 912, 913 Dollar. See Currency Dollar Diplomacy, 596 Dollinger, Genora Johnson, 708 Domesticated animals, 8 Domestic workers, 674­675, 705­706 Dominican Republic, 481, 624, 727, 825 Domнnguez, Father, 174 (map) Dooley, Tom, 799 Doolittle, Amos, 195 Dorchester Heights, 206 Double-heading railroad cars, 518 Dough-faces, 414 Douglas, Stephen A., 410, 412, 418, 419, 420­421, 422 Douglas Aircraft Co., 762 Douglass, Anna, 376 Douglass, Frederick, 322, 376, 401, 406­407, 482, 486 Dove (ship), 66 Dow Jones, 923 Draft, Confederate, 433 Draft resisters, 639, 825 Draft riots (1863), 449 Dragging Canoe, 223, 243 18
Drake, Sir Francis, 33 (map), 35, 37, 41, 54 Drake Hotel, Chicago, 508 Dreiser, Theodore, 618­619 Drinker, Elizabeth, 289 Drought of 1886, 538 Drugs, illegal, 919 Drug trade, 892 Drug use, 884­885 Du Bois, W. E. B., 565, 586, 613, 621, 735, 772 Dueling, 302 Dukakis, Michael, 891­892 Duke, James B., 530, 760 Dulles, John Foster, 798 Duniway, Abigail Scott, 553 Dunmore, Lord, 203, 205, 208 Du Pont Chemical Co., 633 Durbin, Richard, 940 Dust bowl, 687­689 Dutch, 51, 56, 85, 106 Dutch East India Company, 47 Dutchman's Point, 275 (map) Dutch Reformed Church, 31, 85 Dutch Republic, 215 Dutch West India Company (DWIC), 51­52 Duties, 196 Dwight, Timothy, 239 Dylan, Bob, 826 Dynasty (TV series), 879 E Earhart, Amelia, 710­711 Earl, Ralph, 265 Earth Day, 835 Earth First!, 904 Earthquake, San Francisco, 595 Easter Rising, Dublin, 632 East Florida, 165, 194 (map) East Germany, 892 East India Company, 191 East Jersey, 86 Eating disorders, 919 Ebony (magazine), 778, 785 Ecology, growing interest in, 849­850 Economic changes of postbellum era, 484 Economic depressions, 247­248, 335, 485, 540, 569, 576­586 Economic development, 458, 817 Economic diversity, 274, 399­400 Economic expansion, 767, 809 Economic growth, 267, 481, 494, 778, 941 Economic interests, and foreign policy, 652 Economic policies, pro-business, 794 Economic recession, 876
Economic revolution of late 19th century, 495 Economic trends of 1980s, 875 Economy, national, 285, 313­314, 402, 840, 847 Ecosystems, 940 Eddy, Mary Baker, 567 Edens, Bessie, 675 Edenton, North Carolina, 193 Edenton Ladies' Tea Party, 193 Ederle, Gertrude, 651 Edgar Thomson Steelworks, 492, 500­501 Edict of Nantes, 49, 74, 91, 145 Edison, Thomas A., 496, 523, 617 Edisto Island Commissioners, 465 Edisto Island residents, 461 Edmunds Act, 520 Edo (Tokyo), Japan, 40 Education. See also Schools; specific school names access to, 285­287, 351, 381­382, 862 higher, 381, 565, 785 public, 380­382, 564­565 spending on, following Sputnik launch, 794 Edwards, Jonathan, 157­158 Efficiency experts, 504 Egypt, 798, 848­849 Ehrenreich, Barbara, 874­875 Ehrlich, Paul, 835 Ehrlichman, John, 844 Eighteenth Amendment, 639, 653, 696 Eight-hour workday movement, 544­545, 639 Einstein, Albert, 739 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 741 in 1952 election, 771 in 1956 election, 793 foreign policy of, 794­799 hands-off policy on desegregation, 790­791 intervention in southern Vietnam, 815 popularity of, 767 presidency of, 778, 793­794 and Sputnik, 794 suspicion of neutral countries in Cold War, 797­ 798 on TVA, 697 and Earl Warren, 813 in WWII, 728 Eisenhower Doctrine, 798­799 Eldrige, Elleanor, 288 Election fraud, 471 Election of black officials, 470, 824 Electoral college, 255, 920, 922, 934 Electoral system, flaws in, 920­921, 922 Electrical engineering, 496 Electrical power, 523, 859 (map), 942 Electric light, invention of, 496
19
Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 811 Eliot, John, 63 Elizabeth I (Queen of England), 32, 54 Elizabethton strikes, 675 Elliott, Robert B., 470 Ellis Island, 563, 586, 605 Ellsberg, Daniel, 836 Elmina, Ghana, 18, 114, 117 El Paso, Texas, 936 Emancipation Proclamation, 441, 445 Embargo Act, 301­302, 305 Emergency Banking Act, 695 Emergency Relief Appropriation, 705 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 404­405 Emmons, Delos, 722 Empire State Building, 700 Employment. See also Jobs; Labor unions categories of, 573 of college-educated women, 784­785 immigrants and, 953 by industry type, 504 Empress of China (ship), 249 Enclosure movement, in England, 35, 53 Encomienda system, 44, 79, 81 Endangered Species Act, 835 Endowments, Position and Education of Woman, The (Howe), 404­405 End Poverty in California (EPIC) plan, 703 Enemy aliens, 724 Energy. See specific types of energy Energy consumption in the U.S., 941, 943 Engineers, in 19th-century America, 523 England. See also Britain ambitions of, 40 American empire of, 83­87 and Atlantic slave trade, 114 brutality toward Indians, 64 civil war in, 83 colonial commerce, 83­84 colonization by, 43, 47 colonizaton in America, 53­57 and commercial rivals, 84 enclosure movement in, 35, 53 expansion by, 34­35 and Gulf of Mexico, 77 national economy, in 1600s, 59 as a nation-state, 32 North American colonies of, 48 Parliament, dissolution of, 91 and St. Augustine, 82 union of Scotland and, 98 warfare under reign of William and Mary, 93 English Barbados, slavery in, 134
English Civil War, 63 English common law, 56 English East India Company, 47 English Jamaica, slavery in, 134 English Quakers, 52 English rule, married women and, 85 English settlement, by 1650, 65 (map) English-Spanish competition, 132 (map) English Turn, 77 English Whigs, 183 Enlightenment, 155 Enslavement, 106, 117. See also Slavery Entente (Allies), 622, 642 Entertainment, 512­514 Environment, natural, 498­499, 594­595, 786­787 Environmental consciousness, 943 Environmental degradation, 813, 849. See also Pollution Environmental disasters, 868, 878 Environmentalists, 595, 899, 937 Environmental movement, 794, 846­847, 849­851, 885, 904 Environmental organizations, 878 Environmental policies, 876­878 EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), 835, 850­ 851, 857, 877 Ephrata Community, 155 Epidemics, colonial, 143. See also specific illnesses Episcopal Church, 861, 883, 929 Epps, Charles H., 574 Equality, in post-Revolutionary period, 291 Equal opportunity, promise of, 564 Equal Pay Act, 805 Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), 652­653, 862, 863­864, 883, 894 Equal Rights Association, 482 Era of Good Feelings, 310­318, 337 Erie Canal, 331­334, 332 Eriksson, Leif, 15 Erik the Red, 15 Ervin, Sam, 843 Escalante, Father, 174 (map) Escobar, Carmen Bernal, 687 Escobedo v. Illinois, 813 Eskimo mother and baby, 35 Eskimo people, 481 Espionage, domestic, 852 Espionage Act, 639 Esteban (North African), 28­29 Estonia, 892 Ethiopia, 623 Ethiopian Regiment, 205, 233 Ethnic Communities, destruction of, 783
20
Ethnic conflicts, 626, 916, 948 Ethnic cultural identity, 830 Ethnic diversity, 263, 399­400, 945 Ethnic niches, 503­504 Ethnic violence, in Iraq, 935 Etowah, Georgia, 14 Eugenics, 614­616, 667, 667­668 Eulachon (candlefish), 299 Europe, 114­115, 144, 292, 622, 644 (map) European colonialism, 3, 53 (map), 173 (map), 398, 478, 622­623, 815. See also individual countries European immigrants, 103, 399, 494, 501 European Jews, and the Holocaust, 714, 716­717, 725­727, 740, 742 European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan), 756 European Renaissance, 24 European revolutions, 363 evangelical Christians, 159, 375, 772, 882 Everglades wetlands, 672 Evolutionary theory, teaching of, 668­669 Exceptionalism, 558­559 Exclusion, 382, 602, 603 (map) Executions, 852, 918, 947 Executive branch, 837, 851 Executive compensation, 878, 898, 901, 902 Executive Order 7046, 709 Executive Order 9066, 722 Exercise, popularity of, 851 Exodusters, 534 Exoticism, 577 Expansion. See Territorial expansion Expansionists, 385­386 Extermination camps in WWII, 726 (map) Extractive industries, 478 Exxon Valdez oil spill, 878 F Factories, early use of word, 114 Factory closures, 879­880 Factory workers. See also Textile industry African Americans as, 634­635 first, 267 in the New South, 530­531 white, 505 women as, 349 during WWI, 634­635, 638 Fairbanks, Douglas, 661 Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC), 736 Fair Labor Standards Act (1938), 712 Fall, Albert, 658­659 Fallout shelters, 795 Faludi, Susan, 881
Falwell, Jerry, 858, 882­883, 884 Family, idealized, 777­779, 783 Family, redefinition of, following Revolutionary War, 281­282 Family and Medical Leave Act, 912 Family businesses, 267, 348 Family incomes, 939, 949 Family life, 539, 607, 722, 767­768, 861 Family metaphor, 281­282 Family values, 320, 320­321, 363, 465­466, 881 Fargo, North Dakota, 664 Farmers. See also Sharecroppers; Tenant farmers alliances of, 539­540, 554, 568 demand for money reforms, 252 and the Dust Bowl, 687­689 and Great Depression, 696 Midwestern, 485 Montgomery Ward catalogues and, 515 nuclear weapons tests and, 760 Panic of 1819 and, 337 Plains, 538 politics of, 538­539 and power of the few, 284­285 small, and American Revolution, 263 and whiskey tax, 268 Farm frontier, 154 Farming, 361, 401, 466­467 Farm Mortgage Act (1933), 696 Farm population, 665 Farm Relief Act (1933), 696 Farms, 500. See also Plantation system of agriculture Farm work, mechanization of, 783 Farm workers, 538, 655­656, 830­831 Farouk (King of Egypt), 798 Farragut, David G., 438, 452 Farrakhan, Louis, 907 Fascines, 206 Fascism, 715, 716­718, 748 Fast-food chains, 919, 946. See also specific chains Father's Day, 769 Faubus, Orville, 790­791 FBI. See Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Aid Highway Act (1956), 852 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as agents provocateurs, 834 AIM and, 831 Black Panther party and, 823 Branch Davidians and, 918, 923 Ku Klux Klan violence and, 822 Nixon's use of, 843 terrorists, suspected, and, 918 Women Strike for Peace and, 786­787 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), 880
21
Federal Drug Administration (FDA), 919 Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), 697 Federal employee loyalty program, 771 Federal government. See also United States (U.S.) government agencies balanced, 183 business subsidies for, 880 censorship by, 731, 733 and a central bank, 343 day care center funding, 734, 861 expanded powers of, 292 exploration sponsored by, 368­369 implied power of, 341 Indian education sponsored by, 556 Indian removal policies, 366 investments of, in 1950s and 1960s, 778 Nixon's use of, for harassment, 836 objections to a strong, 424­425 oil reserves, 658 relief, stigma of, 696­697 response to lynching, 532 role of, following War of 1812, 340 and settlement of the West, 560 subsidies by, 500, 569, 781, 880 and treaty promises to Native Americans, 367 violence sponsored by, 361 Federal Highways Act (1916), 664 Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 768 Federal Housing Authority (FHA), 781 Federalist, The, 257­258, 259, 261 Federalist party, 264­267 and bill of rights, 260 dissolution of, 310­311 and election of 1800, 289 Thomas Jefferson and, 293­294 resentments against policies of, 269 support of proposed constitution, 257 Federal lands, in the West, 274, 877 (map) Federally funded day care system, 734, 861 Federal One program, 706 Federal power, expansion of, under Andrew Jackson, 344 Federal Radio Commission, 664 Federal Reserve Act (1913), 633 Federal Reserve Banks, 633 Federal Reserve Board, 676, 821, 876 Federal safety standards, 813 Federal taxes, 268, 632, 691, 781, 938, 939 Federal Theater Project, 706 Federal Trade Commission, 633 Feeblemindedness, 616, 668 Feiffer, Jules, 819
Female academies, 285, 351 Female seminaries, 351, 397, 564 Feminine Mystique,The (Friedan), 785, 805, 828 Feminism, 839­840, 864, 881, 883 Feminist movement, 829. See also Women's rights movement Feminists and feminism, 829, 860 Ferdinand of Aragon (King of Spain), 18 Ferguson, Patrick, 226 Ferraro, Geraldine, 876 Fertility rates, 285 Feudalism, 87 Fiction, 618 Fieffer, Jules, 833 Field Labor vs. house service, 322 Fifteenth Amendment, 471, 482 5th Column, 721 "Fifty-four Forty or Fight," 385 Filipino immigrants, 909 Filipino nationalists, 594 Fillmore, Millard, 410, 414 Final Solution, 714, 725­727, 741 Financial panics, 595 Finney, Charles Grandison, 353 Finns, racial classification of, 600 Firearms, 141, 919 Fireside chats, 695 Firms, by industry type, 504 First Amendment, 260, 282­283 First Continental Congress, 193 First woman stories, 864 Fiscal policies of Confederation Government, 247­ 248 Fishing industry, 152 Fisk, Clinton B., 522 Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 672­673 Fitzgerald, Zelda Sayre, 672 Fitzhugh, George, 415­416 Five Civilized Tribes, 277, 309, 334, 345, 366, 396­ 397, 560 (map) Five-Power Naval Treaty, 657 Flanagan, Hallie, 706 Flappers, 650, 651 Flathead Indians, 371, 699 Fletcher, Charles, 495 Flint strike, 708 Florida. See also Spanish Florida and 2000 Presidential Election, 920, 921­922 borderland conflict in, 82­83 burning of Rosewood, 648 ceded to British by Spain, 103 claimed for Spain by Ponce de Leуn, 25 competing claims for, 32­34
22
Florida (continued) fall of British at Pensacola, 226 Andrew Jackson's capture of, 337 land boom in, 672 Spain and, 241 as Spanish colony, 78­79 Florida purchase, 397 (map) Florida (ship), 442 Florida Supreme Court, 921 Flowers, Gennifer, 913 Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, 612 Folk arts, experimentation in, 618 Follies Bergeres, 617 Folsom, New Mexico, 5 Folsom points, 5 Fong Dai Sing, 603 Football, 513, 523, 566, 772, 945 Forbes, Charles R., 659 Ford, Betty, 844 Ford, Gerald R., 741, 844, 845, 849, 853 Ford, Henry, 616, 665 Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, 383 Foreign-born population, 507 (map), 599­600, 887, 909 Foreign Miners Tax (California), 395 Foreign nationals in the U.S., 724 Foreign policy anticommunist priority, 798 of George H. W. Bush, 892 of George W. Bush, 927 of Jimmy Carter and, 855 of Bill Clinton, 914­917 Cold War and, 852 economic interests and, 652 effect of domestic developments on, 557 of Dwight Eisenhower and, 794­799 of John Kennedy, 803­805 of Richard Nixon, 835 oil dependence and, 941­942 Foreign tariffs, and stock market crash, 676 Foreign trade, 302, 317 Forest clearing, by region, 498 Forest Reserve Act (1891), 560 Forest reserves, 595 Forman, Stanley J., 848 Forrest, Nathan Bedford, 451 Forrest, R. W., 495 Forrest, W., 495 Forsyth, James, 537 Fort Caroline, 33 Fort Christina, 52 Fort Deadborn, 275 (map), 305 Fort de Chartres, 78
Fort Defiance, 306 (map) Fort Detroit, 225, 275 (map) Fort Donelson, 438 Fort Duquesne, 161, 164 Fort Erie, 306 (map) Fort Frontenac, 164 Fort George, 306 (map) Fort Greenville, 276 Fort Hall, 369 (map) Fort Henry, 438 Fort Laramie, 369 (map) Fort Laramie Treaty, 397, 422 Fort Louis, 78 Fort Loyal, 76 Fort Mackinac, 306 (map) Fort Mandan, 298 Fort McHenry, 307, 308 Fort Meigs, 306 (map) Fort Michilimackinac, 225 Fort Mims, 307 Fort Molden, 306 (map) Fort Mose, 125, 126, 132 (map), 133 Fort Necessity, 161 Fort Niagara, 164, 225, 275 (map), 306, 306 (map) Fort Orange, 51, 85 Fort Oswego, 275 (map) Fort Peck Dam, 700 Fort Peck Lake, 700 Fort Pillow, 450, 451 Fort Pitt, 164, 177 Fort Rosalie, 78 Fort Smith, 369 (map) Fort St. George, 54, 132 (map) Fort Stanwix, 201 Fort Stephenson, 306 (map) Fort Sumter, 427 Fort Ticonderoga, 203 Fort Toulouse, 78, 100 Fortune cookies, 624 Fort Wagner, 442, 450 "Fort Wilson" Riot, 220 Forty-niners, 394­395, 422 Fossil fuels, 849, 850, 941­942 Foster, William Z., 694 Foundation builders, 3 Four Corners region, 760 Four Freedoms (Rockefeller), 718 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, The (film), 661 Fourteenth Amendment, 463, 469 Fox Indians, 225, 276, 346, 352, 366 (map), 560 (map) Fox Studios, 617 Foxwoods (casino), 901 23
Fragging, 837 France. See also French entries ambitions of, 40 and the American interior, 72­78 and American Revolution, 201, 222, 228­229 British colonies acquired from, 181 (map) colonial capital of, in New Orleans, 125­126 colonial expansion by, 622 colonies of, 815 colonization by, 43, 47 forts of, 71, 73 (map) Jay's treaty, retaliation for, 269­270 and North American empire, 159 occupation of Vietnam, 815­816 Pacific explorations by, 169 posts of, 78 slave traffic from Loango and Cabinda, 117 southern strategy of, 76 tensions between Britain and, 217, 300 tensions between U.S. and, 266­267 transatlantic slave trade, 118­119 (map), 319 U.S. alliance with, 213­217 in WWI, 622, 642 in WWII, 717 Franciscan missionaries, 26­27, 43­44, 45­46, 81, 173 Franco, Francisco, 716­717 Franco, Jimmy, 905 Frank, Leo, 612 Franklin, attempted state of, 242 (map), 243 Franklin, Benjamin Albany Plan, 161 and alliance with France, 215 and bicameral legislature, 255 Continental Congress and, 207 as diplomat, 229­231 family life of, 143 on German immigrants, 138 on Governor Hutchinson, 192 in Philadelphia, 155 on Six Nations, 276 on Society of the Cincinnati, 238 on southern migration of colonists, 150 Franklin tree, 240 Free African Society, 273 Free blacks in American population, 272 industrial revolution and, 316 lynching of, 346 in northern colonies, 127 reenslavement of, 280, 395 restrictions on, 272­273, 280, 288, 328, 385 in southern population, 346
Free blacks (continued) threat of, to white southerners, 127 treatment of, in the North, 199, 272 as Union laborers, 445 Freed, Alan, 751­752 Freedman, Rose Rosenfeld, 611 Freedmen's Bureau, 350, 457­458, 463­464, 465­ 466 Freedom, meaning of, for former slaves, 466 Freedom fighters, 125 Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act, 918 Freedom of choice, consumer goods and, 945 Freedom of Information Act, 853 Freedom Rides, 791 (map), 792­793 Freedom's Journal, 406 Freedom Summer, 822 Freedom Trash Can, 829 Free labor ideology, 401­402 Free love advocates, 19th-century, 482­483 Freeman, Elizabeth (Mumbet), 256 Freeman, Rose Rosenfeld, 611 Free market economy, 682, 874­875. See also Capitalism Free men, in Bacon's Rebellion, 111 Free people of color, 346­348, 400, 468. See also Free blacks Free-Soil party, 410, 412, 417 Free speech, WWI restrictions on, 639­640 Free Speech Movement, 823 (map), 825 Free Speech (newspaper), 563 Free State of Jones County, 446 Free states and territories, 331 Free trade, 753­754, 912, 914, 923, 937­938 Freeway cloverleaf intersection, 768 Frйmont, John C., 414, 437 Frйmont, John C., 368­369 French and Indian War (Seven Years' War), 103, 160, 167, 175, 177 French colonists, 160­161 French Company of the Indies, 125 French explorations, 73 (map) French forts, 160­161 French Guadeloupe, 134 French Huguenots, 32­34, 49, 53, 72, 74, 145­146 French Louisiana, 122 French model of government, 264 French population in America, 160 French Protestants, 34, 49 French Revolution, 266­267, 293 French Saint Domingue, 134 French Senegal, 164­165 French settlements, 141 French settlements, in mid-18th century, 162 (map) 24
French traders, 141 Freneau, Philip, 239 Freud, Sigmund, 566 Frick, Henry Clay, 492, 568 Friedan, Betty, 785, 805, 828 Frobisher, Martin, 35, 36­37 Frontier Airlines, 840 Front Page (film), 710 Fuchs, Klaus, 771 Fugitive Slave acts, 263, 410­411, 414­415, 422 Fugitive slave commissioners, 410­411 Fugitive Slave Law (California), 395 Fuhrman, Mark, 909 Fulbright, J. William, 825 Fuller, Margaret, 383, 384 Full Metal Jacket (film), 817 Fulton, Robert, 314 Fur trade, 48­49, 50, 52, 89­90, 299, 372 Russian, 171 G Gabriel rebellion, 264 Gadsden, James, 365, 397 Gadsden Purchase, 397 (map), 398, 412, 422 Gage, Thomas, 177, 192­193, 195­196, 204, 205­ 206 Galarza, Ernesto, 665 Galloway, Joseph, 193, 195 Galloway Plan, 194 Gбlvez, Bernardo de, 226 Gambling facilities on tribal lands, 900 Garcйs, Father, 173­174 Garcйs, Father, 174, 174 (map) Garcia, John, 720 Garcнa, Herman, 869 Garfield, James A., 520, 523 Garland, Hamlin, 538 Garment industry, 610­611, 903­904 Garrison, William Lloyd, 376 Garvey, Marcus, 657, 657 Gaspйe (customs boat), destruction of, 190­191 Gates, Bill, 901 Gates, Horatio, 215, 220, 226­227, 236 Gates, Merrill, 557 Gay liberation movement, 830­831 Gay rights, 829, 884, 886 Gays. See Homosexuals and homosexuality Gender roles in post-Revolutionary America, 286 religious right and, 884 traditional, challenges to, 573­576, 785, 881 traditional, restrictions of, 829, 861
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 914 General Court, 60 General Electric, 850, 898 General Federation of Women's Clubs (GFWC), 573 Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles, The (Smith), 58 General Motors, 708, 767, 939 General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen, 283 General Trades Union, 375 Generation gap, 833 Genиt, Citizen Edmund, 267 Geneva Accords (1954), 815 Genizaros, 271, 288 Genocide, 24, 177, 725­727 Gente de razon (people of reason), 372 George, Henry, 507, 542 George III (King of England), 176­177, 192­193, 202, 240­241 George (runaway slave), 424­425 Georgia antislavery stance of, 133 Atlanta, 453, 574, 612 Constitution ratified by, 257 economy of, 319­320 expansion of slavery into, 132 (map) as experimental colony, 131 gold digging in, 363 growing season in, 148­149 land claims of, 242, 279 (map) launched as nonslave colony, 134 law enforcement in Cherokee territory, 341 John Ross imprisoned by, 366 as royal colony, 133 runaway slaves, 324 Savannah, 453, 454, 457­458 slave code of, 133­134 slavery curtailment opposed by, 256 Yazoo claim of, 242 Georgia colony, 130 Germain, Lord George, 209­210, 230 German American Bund, 718 German Americans, 263, 639, 724 German immigrants, 147, 360, 363, 398, 435, 502 German language, 639 German pietists, 156­157 German Protestants, 86­87 German-speaking immigrants, 147 Germantown, 214 Germany. See also Berlin; Berlin Wall and British War against American colonies, 210 colonial expansion by, 622 East, 892 25
Germany (continued) as fascist state, 716 and Great Depression, 684 Lenin's cessions to, 642 occupation of, by Allied powers, 748 (map) occupation of, by U.S., 764­765 reparations following WWI, 645­646 reparations following WWII, 755 sentiment against, during WWI, 639 sinking of Lusitania (ship), 637 surrender at Reims, France, 728 vacuum of power in, 747 West, 847 in WWI, 631, 636­637, 642, 644 (map) in WWII, 716­717 Geronimo (Chiricahua), 475­476 Gerry, Elbridge, 254, 256, 270 Ghost Dance, 534­535 Gibbs, Lois, 850, 860 GI Bill, 749, 751, 777 Gibson, Edward, 128 Gideon v. Wainwright, 813 Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, 36 Gilded Age, The (Twain and Warner), 519 Gilliam, Eliza, 371­372 Gilliam, Frances, 371­372 Gilliam, George, 371­372 Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 575 Gingrich, Newt, 912 Ginsberg, Allen, 802 Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, 912 Giuliani, Rudolph, 832 Glacier National Park, 561, 634 Glanzstoff strike, 675 Glasnost, 889 Glen Canyon Dam, 813 Glidden, Joseph, 495 Global circumnavigation, 249 Global communication, 936­937 Global conflict, 162­165 Global economy, post-Cold War, 900­901 Global expeditions, 20­21 (map) Globalization, 16­17, 935­937, 938­940, 945 Global military power of U.S., 764 Global navigation, 153 Global warming, 849, 850, 928, 940, 942 Glorious Revolution in England, 87, 91­93 Gnadenhutten massacre, 234, 245 (map) GNP (Gross National Product), 652, 685, 778 Godey's Lady's Book (magazine), 355 Godwyn, Morgan, 110
Gold discoveries of, 341­342, 394, 422, 476, 494 mining of, 363, 394­395, 494 Gold Coast, Africa, 116 (map), 117 Golden Gate Bridge, 700 Goldman, Emma, 546, 574, 610, 648 Goldstein, Mildred, 695 Goldwater, Barry M., 810­811, 884 Gompers, Samuel, 546, 630 Gomulka, Wladyslaw, 796 Gonzales, Elian, 914, 923 Gonzбlez, Lucia, 545­546 Goodman, Andrew, 822 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 888­889, 892 Gordon, Thomas, 183­184 Gore, Al, 911, 920­921, 923 Gore, Tipper, 911 Gorйe Island, 117 Gorras Blancas, las, 525­526 Gorsuch, Anne, 877 Gorsuch, Edward, 415 Gospel of wealth, 518­519 Government, federal. See Federal government Government, local, 510­511 Grady, Henry, 530 Graham, Billy, 772 Graham, Jim, 935 Graham, Sylvester, 382 Grain cultivation, 154 Granada, Nicaragua, 412 Granados, Balbina Duque, 936 Grand Banks, 152 Grand Coulee Dam, 699 Grand Federal Processions, 259­260 Grand Migration, 543 (map) Grandy, Moses, 363 Grange, Red, 651 Granges, 485, 521 Grant, Cary, 710 Grant, James, 175 Grant, Madison, 626 Grant, Ulysses S., 438, 449, 455, 470­471, 486, 487 Grantham, Thomas, 111 Grapes of Wrath, The (Steinbeck), 688 Grateful Dead, 826 Gravier, Jacques, 76­77 Gray, Robert, 248, 249 Gray, Thomas, 347 Great Awakening, 155, 156­157 Great Basin, 174 Great Britain. See Britain
26
Great Depression Birmingham, Alabama and, 701 causes of, 682­685 as global catastrophe, 684 migrants of, 705 presidential responses to, 682, 689 WWII and end of, 747 Great die up, 538 Great Flood of 1927, 724 Great Gatsby, The (Fitzgerald), 672­673 Great Labor Uprising of 1877, 517, 519 Great Lakes region, 275­277, 306 (map) Great Migration, 369­371, 634­635 Great Plague (1665), 84, 108 Great Plains, 168 Great Society, 809, 811­813, 847 Great Swamp Fight, 88 Great Uprising, 523, 554 Great Wagon Road, 148, 149 (map) Great War. See World War I Greeley, Horace, 486, 487 Greenback Labor party, 485, 520 Greene, Nathaniel, 227­228 Greenhouse effect, 942. See also Global warming Greenland, Norse settlements in, 15 Greenland Eskimos, 576­577 Green Mountain Boys, 203 Greenpeace, 878 Greensboro, North Carolina, 792 Green Spring faction, 90 Green Spring Plantation, 89, 90 Greensted, William, 104 Greenwich, England, 153 Grenada, U.S. invasion of (1983), 873 Grenville, Robert, 177­179 Grey, Edward, 631 Grid system of surveys, 244­245, 246 (map) Griffith, D. W., 626 Grimkй, Angelina, 376, 383 Grimkй, Sarah, 376, 383 Griswold v. Connecticut, 814 Gross national product (GNP), 652, 685, 778 Grotius, Hugo, 41 Groundwater pumping, 941 Guadeloupe, 164 Guam, 586 Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, 582, 927 Guatemala, 798 Guatemalan refugees, 874 Guerrilla warfare, 243, 365, 449, 817­818, 819 Guinan, Mary Louise, 654 Guiteau, Charles J., 520, 523 Gulf of St. Lawrence, 28
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 817 Gullah language, 323 Gun control debate, 919 Gun frontier meets horse frontier, 141, 142 (map) Guthrie, Woody, 688, 690­691, 699 Guy, Francis, 321 H Haida people, 481 Haight-Ashbury, San Franciso, 827 Haiphong Harbor, mining of, 837 Hair (musical), 827 Haiti (St. Domingue), 624 Hakluyt, Richard, 37, 54 Halberstam, David, 809­810 Haldeman, H. R., 844 Hale, John P., 412 Hale, Sarah, 354 Haley, Alex, 863 Haley, Bill, 752 Half freedom, 52 Half Moon (ship), 50 Hall, Charles Martin, 495 Hamer, Fannie Lou, 822 Hamilton, Alexander as abolitionist, 240 and Confederation finances, 236 and Constitutional Convention, 253­254, 257 death of, 302 Jefferson compared to, 265 Revolutionary War and, 221 and Whiskey Rebellion, 268 Hamilton, Henry, 224, 226 Hamm, Mia, 862 Hampton Institute, Virginia, 550 Hancock, Dolly, 168 Hancock, John and Boston Tea Party, 167 boycott against British goods and, 188­189 Declaration of Independence and, 168, 208 Revolutionary War and, 195, 201 Stamp Act repeal celebrations by, 182 Tea Act and, 192 Hancock, Winfield S., 520 Handguns, deaths from, 919 Hanford, Washington, 869, 943 Hanford nuclear facility, 850 Hanging chads, 922 Hanna, Marcus "Mark," 570 Hannibal, Missouri, 472 Hansberry, Lorraine, 782 Hardee, William J., 454 Hardin, Garrett, 813, 940 27
Harding, Warren G., 649, 657­659, 690 Hard money policies, 343 Harlan, John Marshall, 562 Harlem, 85 Harlem Renaissance, 660, 662­664 Harmar, Josiah, defeat of, 275 (map), 276 Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins, 532, 552 Harpers Ferry, Virginia, 418­420 Harper's Weekly, 427, 486 Harrington, James, 86­87 Harrington, Michael, 783, 811 Harris, David, 815 Harris, Katherine, 921 Harrison, Benjamin, 258, 522, 568 Harrison, John, 153, 170 Harrison, T., 495 Harrison, William Henry "Old Tippecanoe" advance on Prophet's Town, 304 death of, while president, 377 elected as president, 312 War of 1812 and, 300, 303, 306 Whig party and, 375­376 Hartford, Connecticut, 60 Hartford Convention, 342 Hartford Female Seminary, 351 Harvard College (University), 60, 62, 158, 523 Harvard Medical School, 785 Hatsfield, Robert, 495 Havana, Cuba, 164 Hawaiian Islands, 168­169, 171, 501, 578, 581, 586, 722 Hawkins, Benjamin, 309 Hawkins, John, 35 Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 676 Hay, John, 582 Hayes, Rutherford B., 487, 488, 520 Haymarket bombing, 544­547, 554 Hays, Mary "Molly Pitcher," 221 Hays, Willilam Harris, 680 Haywood, William, 612 Headright system, 113 Head-Smashed-In, 7 Head Start, 811, 899 Health care, 770, 813, 911­912, 929 Healy, Dorothy Ray, 733 Hearst, William R., 579­580 Hefner, Hugh, 801 Helsinki summit (1975), 846 Hemings, Sally, 289 Henri, Robert, 618 Henrietta Maria (Queen of England), 59 Henry, Patrick, 180, 191, 194, 258 Henry IV (King of France), 49
Henry (Prince of Portugal), 16, 20­21 (map), 38 Henry VIII (King of England), 32, 34 Henry VII (King of England), 20­21 Hepburn, Katharine, 710 Herault, P. L. T., 495 Hereditary racial slavery system, 112 Heretics, 32 Hernandez, Antonia, 905 Herndon, Angelo, 701 Heroes of America, 446 Herrera, Juan Jose, 525 Herrera, Nicanor, 525 Herrera, Pablo, 525 Hersh, Seymour, 852 Herzegovina, 916 (map) Herzl, Theodor, 623 Hessians, 210 Hetch Hetchy Valley, 595 Hewes, George, 167­168, 192 Hickey, Thomas, 211 Hidatsa Indians, 299 Higginson, Humphrey, 105 Higher education, 381, 565, 785. See also individual colleges and universities High schools, 565, 919 Hight, John J., 453­454 Hill, Anita, 892, 908­909 Hill, Julia "Butterfly," 904 Hillman, Sidney, 707 Hillsborough, Lord, 188­189, 191 Hindman Settlement School, 574 Hine, Lewis, 608, 618 Hine, Thomas J., 480 Hippies, 826­828 Hirano family, 722 Hiroshima, U.S. bombing of, 679, 742 His Girl Friday (film), 710 Hispanics, 399. See also Mexicans and Mexican Americans Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), 18 Hitler, Adolf, 714, 716­717, 725­727, 728, 740. See also Nazis HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), 884 Hobos, 686 Hochelaga, 28 Ho Chi Minh, 645, 749, 804, 815, 818 Hodges, William, 170 Hogarth, William, 130, 176 Hohokam, 12 Hohokam Indians, 10 (map) Holland, 40, 47, 48, 222. See also Dutch Hollywood, 617, 660­661 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 668
28
Holocaust, the, 714, 716­717, 725­727, 740, 742 Home Insurance Building, Chicago, 505 Homelessness, 880 Homemaking, 784­785 Home Owners' Loan Corporation, 697­698 Home sales, discriminatory restrictions on, 781 Homestead Act (1862), 437 Homesteaders, 335 Homestead Steelworks strike, 568 Homosexuals and homosexuality American Psychiatric Association and, 831 anticommunists and, 771, 800 in Battle of the Sexes, 863 the Beats and, 802 charges of, against von Steuben, 220­221 civil unions, 906­907 gay men, 618 Hitler's campaign of terror against, 716 increasing acceptance of, 929 Moral Majority on, 883 religious right and, 884 and U.S. military, 911 Honeymooners, The (TV show), 778 Hong Kong, immigrants from, 886 Honor wives, 288 Hooker, Joseph, 439, 447 Hooker Chemical Company, 850 Hoover, Herbert, 659­660, 664, 667, 676, 689, 691­ 692 Hoover, J. Edgar, 722 Hoover Dam, 699, 712 Hoovervilles, 676 Hope, Bob, 732 Hope, John, 565 Hope, Lugenia Burns, 574 Hope (steamship), 576­577 Hopewell Indians, 10 (map), 13­14 Hopi Indians, 908 Hopkins, Elizabeth, 39 Hopkins, Harry, 697 Hopkins, Stephen, 39 Horizontal integration, 501 Hormone replacement therapy, 920 Horse frontier meets gun frontier, 142 (map) Horses Native Americans and, 81, 373­374, 476, 509­ 510 reappearance of, 21, 22 as sacrifice, 137­138 spread of, across the West, 103, 138­142 Horticultural societies, 8 Horton, Willie, 892 House Committee on Indian Affairs, 345
Household industry, 267, 348 Household structure, in the cotton belt, 468 House of Burgesses, 56 House Reconstruction Committee, 471 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), 709­710, 712, 771, 786­787 Housing acts, 782 Houston, Sam, 385 Howard, Oliver O., 458, 461 Howe, George, 404­405 Howe, Richard, 210­211 Howe, William, 205­206, 210­211, 212­214, 217 Howl (Ginsberg), 802 How the Other Half Lives (Riis), 547­549 Hoxie, Arkansas, 790 Hudson, Henry, 50 Hudson River, 209­210, 850, 942 Hudson's Bay Company, 85 Huerta, Dolores, 830, 830 Huerta, Victorians, 626 Hughes, Charles E., 636, 657 Hughes, Langston, 662, 662­663 Hughes, Robert P., 582 Hughson, John and Sarah, 126 Huguenots, 31 Hull House, 551­552, 574, 608 Human ancestors, earliest, 3, 5­6 Human genome project, 910­911, 920 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 884 Humanitarian intervention, 916 Human rights, promotion of, 852, 855­856, 938 Humboldt State University, 904 Humphrey, Hubert H., 834, 835 Hungary, 796, 892 Hunt, William, 109 Huronia, 50 Huron Indians, 49­50, 163 Hurricane Katrina, 666, 934­935, 944 Husband, Herman, 185 Hussein, Saddam, 893­894, 932 Huston, John, 733 Hutchinson, Anne, 61­63 Hutchinson, Thomas, 182, 191, 193 Hyde Amendment (1976), 863 Hydraulic mining, 498 Hydrogen bomb, 760 I "I, too, sing America" (Hughes), 662­663 Iberian peninsula, 16 Iberville, 73 (map) Iberville, Bienville d', 70, 77­78 Iberville, Pierre le Moyne d', 70, 77­78
29
Iceland, colonization of, 15 Ickes, Harold L., 696, 699 Ideal American, 356 Identity and identities, 371­372, 628­629, 680­681, 949­950 "I Have a Dream" speech (King), 805­806 Illinois, 246, 275 (map), 612­613. See also Chicago, Illinois Illinois Country, 78 Illinois Indians, 76, 276 Imamura, Ichiro, 741 Immigrants. See also Foreign-born population in 1800s, 501 from 1821 to 2000, 597 from 1830 to 1850, 361 in 1890s, 563 in 1980s, 886 in 2000s, 953­954 and African Americans, 674 allocation for, based on national origin, 773 attitudes toward non-European, 887 in the Civil War, 434­435 countries of origin, 656 cultural influence of, 946 Democratic party and, 709 economic status of, 902 enclaves of, 502 family in tenement flat, 607 as FDR supporters, 694 as laborers in meat packing industry, 590­591 perceived as racially inferior, 598­599 points of entry for, 599 Protestant, from Switzerland, 99 return migration, 598 undocumented, by state, 903 (map) and urban growth, 507 Western European, 362­363 Immigration. See also individual source nations and regions areas excluded from, 603 (map) Asians, 501, 602­605 global, in 1980s, 887 Italian, 503­504, 598, 606­607, 606 (map) national origins system eliminated, 812 opposition to, by nativists, 378­380 and population growth, 144 restrictions on, 655, 656, 714, 725 from Russia, 624 to southern states, 400 WWI and, 634­635 Immigration Act (1965), 812, 833 Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 887 "I'm No Man's Mamma Now," 663
Impeachments, 471, 844, 913, 923 Imperialism global challenges to, 647 limits of, 167­169 Southeast Asia in the age of, 585 (map) U.S., 558­559, 577­579, 584­586, 593 Impressment, 267, 301, 432 Inca empire, 9 Inca Indians, 10 (map) Income gaps, 881, 898, 901, 939, 952 Indebtedness credit cards and, 939 and debtors' prison, 336­337 following Revolutionary War, 199, 236, 245, 247­248, 251, 265 loans, and cycle of, 485 national, 265, 876 Indentured servants, 108, 112, 520 Independence movements. See Nationalist movements Indiana, 246, 275 (map), 277, 280 Indian agencies, 474 (map) Indian Bible, 63 Indian boarding schools, 550­551, 556­557 Indian Brigade, 434 Indian-British alliance, in War of 1812, 305 Indian Claims Commission, 772 Indian College, 60, 63, 88 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, 901 Indian immigrants, 603 (map) Indian pueblos, 278 (map) Indian raiding parties, 177 Indian Removal Act, 342 Indian Reorganization Act, 698, 712 Indian reservations, 474, 549, 551, 561 (map), 831. See also individual reservations Indian Reserve, under British Rule, 194 (map) Indians. See Native Americans Indian Territory, 199, 366 (map), 434, 479, 560, 560 (map) Indian Wars, 352 Indigo, 123, 150, 319 Individualism, 402, 404­405, 406­407, 896­897 Individual rights, Warren Court and, 813­814 Indochina, Japanese invasion of, 717 Indochinese Communist party, 815 Indonesian immigrants, 603 (map) Industrial capitalism, 628­629 Industrial chemicals, 495 Industrial Christian Home Association, 552 Industrial expansion, 494
30
Industrialization and ecological transformations, 940 Embargo Act and, 302 and men's roles, 576 movement against, 526, 537 and new order, 517­523 in Philadelphia, 314 and pollution, 498, 928, 942 process of, 401 in the South, 316­317 Industrialized warfare, in WWI, 631 Industrial Revolution, 267, 311, 314­317, 501 Industrial workers, 504, 540, 675 Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), 546, 611, 629, 640 Industries of California (Stackpole), 703 Inflation, 847, 849, 858, 872 Influenza epidemics, 632, 647 Ingersoll, Thomas, 128 Initiative process, 607 Injunctions, federal, against strikes, 569 Inland commerce, 148 Inquisition, 32 Installment buying, 670, 676 Integration. See Desegregation Inter Caetera (papal bull), 18­19 Interdisciplinary ethnic studies programs, 830 Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty, 889 Intermixing, 909 Internal combustion engines, 942 Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 843 Internal Security Act (1950), 771 International air travel, 937 International conference of colored peoples, Bandung, Indonesia, 796­797 International Labor Defense (ILD), 686 International terrorism, 917­919 Internet, 936­937, 946 Internment of Japanese Americans, 679, 721­722, 723 (map) Interpretation of Dreams, The (Freud), 566 Interracial housing cooperatives, Claremont, California, 782 Interracial marriage, 272, 545, 782, 814 Interstate Commerce Act (1887), 521­522, 523 Interstate Highway Act, 780 Intolerable Acts (1774), 193 Inventions of late 19th century, 495 Iowa Indians, 560 (map) Iran CIA-engineered coup in, 798 illegal sale of U.S. arms to, 842, 890 overthrow of Shah Reza Pahlavi, 870­871
Iran (continued) revolution in, 858, 869 Soviet-influenced uprising in, 754 Iran-Contra scandal, 889, 890­891 Iraq, 932 (map) after WWI, 645, 645 (map) growing insurgency in, 934 invasion of Kuwait, 893­894 looting of Baghdad, 933 in Persian Gulf War, 895 (map) U.S. bombing of, 894 U.S. invasion of, 926, 929­933 Ireland, 15, 35, 362, 362 Irish Catholics, displacement of, 147 Irish confetti, 376 Irish immigrants, 360, 364, 401, 476, 504 Irish migration, 362 Iron Curtain, 748 (map), 756 Iron mining camps, 502 Iron range, European immigrants and, 600 Iron Teeth (Cheyenne), 397 Iroquois Confederacy, 49­50, 99, 161, 163, 225, 275­277 Iroquois Indians, 49, 76, 164, 201, 243, 952 Iroquois settlements, 162 (map) Irrigation systems, 497 (map) Irving, Washington, 355 Isabella of Castile (Queen of Spain), 18 Islam, 16, 858 Islamist revolutionaries, 890, 917 Islamist terrorists, 926, 928 Israel, 758­759, 848­849, 915 Israeli-Arab conflict, 848­849 Israeli War of Independence, 759 Italian Americans, 563, 654, 724 Italian immigration, 503­504, 598, 606­607, 606 (map) Italy, 622, 631, 716 Itinerant ministers, 158­159 Izard, Alice, 286 J Jackson, Andrew "Old Hickory" and the "common man," 337 elected president, 312, 328, 343­344 inauguration of, 339­340 Nullification Proclamation and, 343 political career of, 310 as president, 297 Supreme Court ruling rejected by, 342 and tuburculosis, 375 veto of bill to recharter Second Bank of United States, 343 31
Jackson, Andrew "Old Hickory" (continued) victory over British at New Orleans, 308 views on Native Americans, 307 War of 1812, 300 Jackson, Graham, 747 Jackson, Helen Hunt, 521 Jackson, Jesse, 885 Jackson, Thomas J. "Stonewall," 428­430, 447 Jacksonian American party system, 408­409 Jacksonian Democrats, 374 Jackson State College, Mississippi, 837 Jackson-Vanik Amendment (1974), 852 James, Henry, 551, 566 James, Mollie Brown, 935­936 James, William, 566 James (Duke of York), 85­86 James II (King of England), 87, 91­92 James I (King of England), 54, 56, 64 James River, 54 Jamestown colony, 54­56, 64, 90 Japan attack on Pearl Harbor, 715­716, 719­720 in Axis alliance, 717 economy of, 847, 888 invasion of China, 717­718 isolationist policy of, 42 peace overtures by, 742 propaganda drive by, WWII, 732­733 propaganda of, 732 surrender of, 742­743 torture by, in WWII, 730­731 U.S. bombing of, 679 U.S. military base in, 764 U.S. occupation of, 756­757 vacuum of power in, 747 in WWI, 623 in WWII, 716, 729 (map), 760 Japanese American Citizens League, 772, 905 Japanese Americans, 503­504 civil rights suspended, 722 discrimination against, 605 exclusion of, 603 (map) in Hawaii, 722 internment of, 679, 721­722, 723 (map) property losses of, 723 in U.S. military, 723, 741 vilification of, 731 Jay, John, 229­231, 240, 257, 269 Jay Treaty, 269­270 Jazz, 619 Jazz Age, the, 663, 673 Jazz Singer, The (film), 661 Jefferson, Lisa, 926
Jefferson, Thomas Alien and Sedition Acts and, 271 as candidate for president, 269 compared to Hamilton, 265­266 Continental Congress and, 207 on divisiveness of slavery, 329 on early Chesapeake housing, 67 elected president, 289­290, 294, 300 and Embargo Act, 302 as enigma, 290­292 and heart of America, 508 and international affairs, 292 John Ledyard and, 250 Lewis and Clark Expedition, 298­299 Notes on the State of Virginia, 239­240 plan for Western territory, 244­245, 244 (map) Proclamation Line and, 177 Stamp Act and, 180 and Tea Act, 191 and territorial expansion, 293 and two-party system, 265 on Washington's response to military dissidents, 238 Jefferson Airplane, 826 Jeffords, James M., 923 Jemison, Jane, 163 Jemison, Mary, 163, 281 Jemison, Thomas, 163 Jemmy (Stono Rebellion leader), 126 Jenney, William LeBaron, 505 Jeremiah, Thomas, 204, 208 Jerome, Chauncey, 315 Jesuits, 32, 33­34, 50, 81, 173 Jesus, hippies' association with, 828 Jeter, Mildred, 814 Jewish Americans, 563, 632, 759, 920 Jewish ghetto, in New Amsterdam, 52 Jewish immigration, 156, 503, 543 (map), 605­606, 714­715, 725­726 Jewish refugees, 715, 726­727 Jews. See also Anti-Semitism as conditional whites, 563 discrimination against, 772 forced from Spain, 18 Hitler's assault against, 716­717, 725­727, 740 and motion picture industry, 617 in New Amsterdam, 52 Russian, 501, 503, 733 Zionist movement, 623 Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek), 730, 761­762 Jim Crow system, 532­533, 787­788, 789. See also Segregation Jobbers, 350 32
Job Corps, 811 Jobs. See also Employment; Labor unions defense-related, 900 loss of high-paying, 880, 939 skin color and competition for, 364 WPA, discrimination in, 709 John Paul II, 858 Johnson, Andrew, 462 in 1864 election, 452 campaign against Fourteenth Amendment, 463 land distribution to former slaves halted by, 461 in postbellum South, 458 as president, 460­463 and purchase of Alaska, 481 showdown with Congress, 471 Johnson, Boson, 443, 454 Johnson, Earvin "Magic," 885 Johnson, Hiram W., 596 Johnson, Jack, 609 Johnson, Lady Bird, 809­810 Johnson, Lyndon B., 741 African American support of, 824 desegregation and, 752 elected president, 809­811 end of presidency of, 821 and Great Society, 811­813 as Kennedy's running mate, 802­803 Mississippi Freedom Democratic party and, 822 Supreme Court appointment of Thurgood Marshall, 814 Vietnam War, 814­815, 817­818, 818 Johnson, Nancy, 443, 454 Johnson, Sir William, 164 Johnson, Thomas, 165 Johnston, Eric, 732 Johnston, Joseph, 430 Jolliet, Louis, 74 Jolliet and Marquette explorations, 73 (map) Jolson, Al, 661 Jones, John Paul, 222­223 Jones, Paula, 913 Jordan, Barbara, 824 Jordan, Michael, 885 Jordan, Vernon, 913 Joseph James (ship), 203 Joutel, Henri, 75 Juarez, Benito, 442 Judaism, 858 Judge, Ona, 262, 324 Judge (cartoonist), 518 Judicial federalism, 340­342 Judiciary acts, 264, 292 Juke joints, 651
Jung, David, 624 Jungle, The (Sinclair), 590­591 Jupiter (locomotive), 473 Juvenile delinquency, 800 K Kaczynski, Theodore, 917 Kaiser, Henry, 724­725 Kamchatka peninsula, 171­172 Kamekeha, Lydia (Liluokalani), 578, 579, 586 Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854), 408, 412, 413 (map) Kansas Pacific Railroad, 478 Kansas Territory, 413 (map), 417 Karankawa Tribe, 278 Kaskaskia, Illinois, 77­78 Kaskaskia Indians, 345 Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii, 171 Kearney, Belle, 610 Kearney, Denis, 528­530 Kearny, Stephen Watts, 388 Keating, Charles, 880 Keefe, Tim, 512 Keller, Helen, 609 Kelley, Florence, 608 Kellogg, Frank, 659 Kellogg, Lucy, 313­314 Kellogg, Noah S., 494­495 Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928), 659 Kelly, Oliver H., 485 Kemmelmeyer, Frederick, 268 Kendrick, William, 249 Kennan, George, 756, 762 Kennedy, Jacqueline Bouvier, 810 Kennedy, John F. assassination of, 810 as Catholic presidential candidate, 660 as Clinton's inspiration, 910­911 era of, 802­803 image of, 592 immigrant family of, 363 policies of, 805­806 and Eleanor Roosevelt, 695 as war veteran, 741 Kennedy, Joseph, 802 Kennedy, Joseph P., Jr., 802 Kennedy, Robert, 806, 821 Kennedy, Robert F., 830, 834 Kennewick Man, 4 Kent State University, Ohio, 837 Kentucky, 274, 280, 943 Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, 271 Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs, 574 Kentucky Resolution (1799), 342 33
Kenya, terrorist attacks in, 917 Kerouac, Jack, 802 Kerry, John, 837, 934 Kesey, Ken, 851 Key, Elizabeth "Bess," 104­105 Key, Francis Scott, 307, 308 Key, Thomas, 104 "Key of Liberty, The" (Manning), 284­285 Khomeini, Ruhollah, 870­871 Khomeini (Ayatollah), 890 Kickapoo Indians, 276, 346, 352, 560 (map) Kickbacks, 510­511 Kicking Bear (Sioux), 475 Kidnapping, 108­109 Kieft, Willem, 52 Kieft's War, 52 Kilpatrick, Judson, 443 Kim Il Sung, 765­766 Kim Lai, 821 King, Billie Jean, 863 King, Charles Bird, 345, 388 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 792­793, 803, 805­806, 806, 824­825, 834, 852, 885 King, Rodney, 899, 905, 923 King, Rufus, 300, 310, 330 King George's War, 160 King Philip's War, 87 King William's War, 76, 93­95, 161 Kino, Eusebio, 80 (map), 81 Kinsey, Alfred, 769 Kiowa Indians, 373, 434, 474, 560 (map) Kissinger, Henry, 836, 840­843, 846, 848­849, 852, 856 Kitchen Debate, 776­777 Kivas, 12, 45 Knickerbocker Base Ball Club, 512 Knights of Labor, 485, 525­527, 528, 540, 542­547, 569 Know-Nothing party, 413­414 Knox, Henry, 205­206, 236­237, 238, 252 Knoxville, Tennessee, 239, 241 Knudson, Coya, 785 Kocherthal, Joshua von, 145 Kodiak Island, 172 Korean Air Lines, 889 Korean immigrants, 603 (map) Korean refugees, 766 Korean War, 448, 746, 762, 765 (map), 767, 777­ 778, 794 Korean women, as comfort women, 731 Koresh, David, 918 Kosciusko, Thaddeus, 220 Koshkonong, Wisconsin, 359
Kosovo, 916 (map), 917, 923 Kristallnacht (Night of the Broken Glass), 717 Krushchev, Nikita, 776­777, 795, 805 Ku Klux Klan Act, 471 Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 463, 471, 626, 648, 652, 656, 848 Kuramoto, Kazuko, 717­718 Kurds, 932 (map), 935 Kurihara, Joseph Y., 722­723 Kuwait, 893, 894, 896 L Labor, 321, 496, 575­576. See also Child labor Laborers black men as, 531 colonial, skin color and, 110 free blacks as, 445 in meat packing industry, 590­591 Mexicans as, 625 paid vs. bound, 271 women as, 734 during WWI, 639 Labor force multicultural nature of, 486 in postbellum South, 463­467, 502 postwar western, 476­478 transformations of, 316, 503 transient, 500 Labor legislation, 608. See also specific acts Labor movement, 540­547, 610­612, 707­709, 899 Labor organizations, 283 Labor party, in Great Britain, 748­749 Labor unions. See also specific union organizations Clayton Act and, 634 globalization and, 937­939 hostility toward, during WWI, 640 Mexican Americans and, 602, 709, 733 as model of community, 647 National Labor Relations Act and, 703 Reagan and, 880 service workers and, 902­904 Taft-Hartley Act and, 753 violence against members of, 541 War Labor Board and, 639 women and, 401 WWII and membership, 733, 752 Ladies Magazine, 329, 354­355 Lady Washington (ship), 249 Lafayette, Marquis de, 213, 215, 220, 229 LaFlesche, Joseph, 549 LaFlesche, Lucy, 550 LaFlesche, Marguerite, 550 LaFlesche, Susan, 550
34
LaFlesche, Susette "Bright Eyes," 549 La Follette, Phil, 702 La Follette, Robert "Bob," 596, 702 La Follette, Robert M., 659, 702 Lagos, slave trading depot at, 117 La Harpe, 73 (map) Laissez-faire concept, 517­518, 520­522 Lake Mead, 712 Lake Pontchartrain, 944 Lake Texcoco, 11 Lakota Sioux, 476 Lamb, Isaac W., 495 Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 155 Land Act (1820), 331­334 Land cessions by Native Americans to U.S. government, 312­313, 536 (map) Land claims, Native American resistance to, 242­243 Land-grant colleges, 437 Land grants to war veterans, 312, 345 Landon, Alfred M., 706 Land Ordinance (1785), 244­245, 261, 279 (map) Landowners, in postbellum South, 464 Land ownership, las Gorras Blancas and, 525 Landrum Guards, 435 Land seizures, 536 (map) Landsmark, Theodore, 848 Land speculation in the west, 278­280 Land transportation, and economic growth, 314 Land use acts, 479 Land use patterns, 280, 478­480 Lane, Ralph, 37 Lange, Dorothea, 688, 705 L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, 15 Lansing, John, 254, 645 Laos, 837 La Salle, Renй-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de, 73 (map), 74, 139 Las Casas, Bartholomй de, 24, 35 Lasky, Jesse, 617 Lassen Volcanic National Park, 634 Last of the Mohicans, The (Cooper), 163, 355 Lateen sails, 17, 18 Late Great Planet Earth, The (Lindsey), 883 Latimer, George, 364 Latin America, 624­626 Latino Americans, 709, 848, 899, 948, 951. See also Mexicans and Mexican Americans Latino immigrants, 909 Latitude, determination of, 153 Latvia, 892 Laud, William, 59 Lau Dai Moy, 603 Laughlin, Harry, 668
Laundry work, 349 Laurence (slave), 444 Laurens, Henry, 182, 201 Lawrence, Benjamin, 674 Lawrence, Kansas, 449 Lawrence, Myrtle Terry, 674 Lawrence v. Texas, 929 Lawson, John, 98 (map), 99 Lawsuit, by African American slave, 256 Lawsuits, by Chinese immigrants, 528­530 Lazarus, Emma, 501 League of Nations, 642, 645­646 League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), 752, 788 League of Women Voters, 653 Leave It to Beaver (TV show), 778 Leaves of Grass (Whitman), 405 Lebanon, 645, 645 (map), 873, 890 Lecompton Constitution, 417 Lecture associations, 382 Ledyard, John, 250 Lee, Charles, 220 Lee, Erika, 604 Lee, Richard Henry, 191, 258 Lee, Robert E., 399, 420, 427, 428­430, 447­448, 454­455 Lee Chi Yet, 603­604 "Legend of Sleepy Hollow, The" (Irving), 355 Legislative districts, reapportionment of, 814 Legislature, unicameral form, 86 Leiber, Jerry, 801 Leisler, Jacob, 92­93 Leisler's Rebellion, 93 LeMay, Curtis, 731, 767 Lemlich, Clara, 610­611 Lend-Lease program, 719, 747 Lenin, Vladimir, 642­643, 646 Lenni-Lenape (Delaware) Indians, 86 Lesbians, 618, 673. See also Homosexuals and homosexuality Le Sueur, Marguerite Messier, 70­71 Le Sueur, Pierre-Charles, 70­71 Letchworth, William, 163 Letters from an American Farmer (Crиvecoeur), 240 Let There Be Light (film), 733 Levees on Mississippi River, 665­667 Levine, William, 706 Levi-Strauss, 492 Levitt, Alfred, 768 Levitt, William, 768, 771 Levittown, 767­768 Lewinsky, Monica, 913, 923 Lewis, John L., 707­708, 792­793
35
Lewis, Meriwether, 298, 298­299 Lewis, Sinclair, 672 Lewis and Clark Expedition, 250, 298­299, 301 (map), 368, 497 Lexington, Kentucky, 241 Liberal Republican party, 486 Liberation, 204, 830­831 Liberator (newspaper), 376 Liberia, 347 Liberty, individual demands for, 184 Liberty party, 386 Liberty (sloop), 188­190 Liberty University, 882 Libya, 890 Lieberman, Joe, 920 Life expectancy, 949 Life (magazine), 700, 778, 795 Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous (TV show), 879 Likud party, 858 Liliuokalani (Queen of Hawaii), 578, 579, 586 Lincoln, Abraham, 419 assassination of, 455 elected president, 421, 452 Emancipation Proclamation, 441 Gettysburg Address, 449 inaugural address of, 427 and Andrew Johnson, 460­461 opposition to war against Mexico, 388 and pocket veto, 460 on popular sovereignty, 418 as Republican party leader, 414 and surrender by Confederacy, 455 suspension of habeas corpus, 436 threat of, to southern elites, 425­426 Lincoln-Douglas debates, 418, 421 Lindbergh, Charles, 651, 718 Lindsay, Hal, 883 Linganfield, Lorimer, 650 Linganfield, Marsha, 650­651 Literary endeavors and values, 234­235, 354­356, 404­405 Lithuania, 892 Little, Keith, 730 Little League, girls in, 862 Little Richard, 752, 801 Little Rock, Arkansas, 790­791 Little Rock Nine, 790­791 Little Turtle (Michikinikwa), 276­277 Livestock farming, 82, 149 Livingston, Robert, 85, 207, 292 Lloyd George, David, 643­644 Loans, and cycle of indebtedness, 485 Lobos, 271
Locke, John, 87, 207 Lockwood, Belva, 553 Lodge, Henry Cabot, 582, 802, 855 Lodge, Henry Cabot, Jr., 646 Logan, Greenbury, 385 Logging, 559, 594, 940 Lomax, Alan, 690 Lфme, Dupuy de, 580 London, Jack, 595 London fire, 84, 108 Lonely Crowd, The (Riesman), 801 Lone Star (film), 910 Lone Star Republic (Republic of Texas), 384­385 Long, Huey P., 701­702 Long, Jefferson, 470 Long Island, English settlement of, 53 Longitude, calculation of, 153 Longitude Act, 153 Longoria, Felix, 752 Longstreet, James, 447 Long Walk, 439 Looking Backward (Bellamy), 542, 554 Lord and Taylor, 514 Lorenzana, Apolonaria, 349 Lori (welfare recipient), 874­875 Los Alamos, New Mexico, 869 Los Angeles, California Mexican American neighborhood destroyed, 783 police beating of Rodney King, 923 South Central riots, 905, 923 Watts uprising, 662, 823 (map) zoot-suit riots, 737 Lost Colony of Roanoke, 37 Lost generation, the, 672­673 Louis, Joe, 710, 712 Louisburg, 161, 164 Louisiana. See also individual cities economy of, 319 France and, 292 French people in, 160 naming of, 74 reconstruction and, 469 (map) settlement in, 320, 606 (map) slave plots in, 125 Spain and, 241 Louisiana colony, 77­78, 103 Louisiana Democrats, 471­472 Louisiana Purchase, 293, 325, 397 (map) Louisiana Territory, 199, 298, 320 Louisville, Kentucky, 239, 241 Louis XIV (King of France) "Sun King," 72­74, 76­ 77, 91, 145 Louis XVI (King of France), 215, 293 36
Love Canal, New York, 850­851 L'Overture, Toussaint, 406 Loving, Richard, 814 Loving v. Virginia, 751, 814 Lowell model of production, 316 Lowell textile mills, 349 Low-income housing, 782 Loyalists, 167, 199 Loyal Nine, 180 Loyalty, 771­773 Loyola, Ignatius, 32 Lucero, Jose, 901 Ludendorff, Erich, 642 Ludlow massacre, 629, 630 Lugar, Richard, 935 Luks, George, 618, 619 Lumber, 67, 499 Lumber mills, 498 Lumpkin, Wilson, 342 Lumumba, Patrice, 798, 852 Luna, Grace, 625 Lusitania (ship), 637 Luther, Martin, 31 Lynchings of African Americans, 612­613, 626, 648, 686, 750 of Italian prisoners, 563 of Mormons, 368 in the New South, 532 WCTU and, 553­554 Lyon, Matthew, 270­271 M Mabila, 28­29 MacArthur, Douglas, 693, 729­730, 756­757, 766­ 767 Macbeth, black version of, 706 Macedonia, 916 (map) Machine breaking by farm hands, 538 Machines, urban political, 510­511 Machine tool inventions, 495 Mackenzie, Ethel, 628 Mackenzie v. Hare, 628­629 MacKinnon, Catherine, 886 Macon's Bill No. 2, 303 Madagascar, 116 MAD DADS (Men Against Destruction-Defending Against Drugs and Social Disorder), 907 Maddox (U.S. destroyer), 817 Madeira islands, 17, 18 Madison, Dolly, 311
Madison, James, 311 Alien and Sedition Acts and, 271 and bill of rights, 260 on divisive effects of slavery, 256 elected president, 302 and Massachusetts constitution, 219 retreat from Washington, D.C., 307 and U.S. Constitution, 253, 257 and the Virginia Plan, 255 and War of 1812, 305 Madison Tips, 435 Madrigal v. Quilligan, 848 Mafia, 806 Magellan, Ferdinand, 20­21 (map), 25, 27 Magna Carta, 183 Mahan, Alfred Thayer, 577­578 Mail delivery, 283 Mail-order catalogues, 515 Maine, 92, 330, 331 Maine (ship), 579, 580, 586 Maize, cultivation of, 13­14 Maize agriculture, 8­9 Malacca, 47 Malcolm X, 806, 822 Malcontents, 133 Male privilege, in New England, 153 Mallet, Paul, 159 Mallet, Pierre, 159 Mall of America, Minnesota, 879 Mallon, Mary "Typhoid Mary," 614 Manchuria, 717 Mandan Indians, 298, 349, 356 Mandela, Nelson, 892 Mandingos, 109 Manhattan Island, purchase of, by Dutch, 51 Manhattan Project, 738­740 Manifest destiny, 384 Mankiller, Wilma, 312 Manly, Alex, 563 Mann, Horace, 380, 383 Mann Act, 609 Manning, C. William, 284­285 Man That Nobody Knows, The (Barton), 670 Manufacturing, 314, 572 (map) Manufacturing economy, 267 Manumissions, 127, 273­274, 346 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), 730, 761­762, 841­ 842 Maps, allegorical, 36 Maquiladoras, 847, 936, 938 Marblehead, Massachusetts, 152 Marbury v. Madison, 292 March on Washington, 805 37
Marcus, David, 759 Margate, David, 204 Marina, Doсa, 26 Marion, Francis, 226­227 Marital status of U.S. adults, 779 Marital unity principle, 628 Maritime law, 41 Maritime shipping, 72 Market economy, women and, 288­289 Market forces, 896 Market revolution, 317­318 Marquesas Islands, 169 Marquette, Jacques, 74 Marrant, John, 124 Marriage in 1950s and 1960s, 778 arranged, 605 Boston, 617­618 civil unions compared to, 906­907 complex, 382 Defense of Marriage Act, 907 forbidden by Shakers, 282 during Great Depression, 685 interracial, 272, 545, 782, 814 polygamy, 367, 382, 520 as social institution in transition, 929 women's employment and, 784 during WWII, 735 Married Women's Property Law (Mississippi), 384 Marshall, George C., 742, 756, 758 Marshall, John, 270, 292, 340 Marshall, Thurgood, 789, 814, 908 Marshall Field, 514 Marshall Plan, 754 (map), 756 Marti, Josй Julian, 579 Martin, Joseph Plumb, 236­237 Martin, Luther, 254, 258 Martinez, Maria, 618 Martinique, 164 Maryland boundary in 1632, 65 (map) charter of, 65­66 enslaved people in, 122 population of, in 1660s, 66 ratification of Constitution, 260 and rights of black men, 274 slave code of, 110 slaves in, 113 Mary of Orange, 91 Marysville, Montana, 541 Mashantucket Pequot Indians, 901 Maslov-Bering, Aleksandri, 172 Mason, Biddy, 395
Mason, George, 218, 256, 258 Mason, James, 442 Massachusett language, 63 Massachusetts and bill of rights, 260 direct tax on citizenry, 252 free blacks in, 272 Humane Society, 240 land claims of, 244, 279 (map) Provincial Congress at Concord, 193 ratification of proposed Constitution, 258, 260 rebellion, 248 settlers of, 63 and Stamp Act, 180 state constitution, 218­219 state navy, 222 Massachusetts Bay Colony, 58­59, 88, 89 (map), 107 Massachusetts Charter, 92, 193 Massachusetts Government Act, 193 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 496 Massachusetts Provincial Congress, 195 Massachusetts Regulation, 252 Massasoit (Wampanoag sachem), 39, 57, 88 Mass merchandising, 515 Mass migrations, 361­374 Mass production, 496, 616 Matagorda Bay, 74­75 Mather, Cotton, 88, 95, 128 Maumee River valley, Ohio, 276 Mayaguez (container ship), 846 Mayan Indians, 10­11, 10 (map) Mayflower Compact, 39­40, 57 Mayflower (ship), 39, 57 Mayhew, Jonathan, 156 Mayo Clinic, 919 McAdoo, William G., 659 McArthur, J. S., 495 McCain, John, 940 McCarran-Walter Act (1952), 773 McCarthy, Eugene, 821 McCarthy, Joseph, 746, 767, 771, 891 McCarthyism, 770­771 McCartney, Bill, 906 McClellan, George B., 439, 447, 452 McClure's (magazine), 608 McCord, James, 843 McCord, Louisa, 404, 415 McCormick Reaper strikers, 545 McDonald, Elizabeth, 145 McDonald's, 880, 946, 946 McDonough, Thomas, 307 McGee, Elizabeth, 918 McGillivray, Alexander, 231, 243 38
McGovern, George S., 842 McKinley, William, 570, 580, 585­586, 591, 592 McKinley Tariff (1890), 567, 578­579 McNamara, Robert, 817­818, 820 McParlan, James, 541 McVeigh, Timothy, 917­918 Meade, George G., 448, 455 "Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro, The" (Douglass), 407 Measles epidemic, 371 Meat Inspection Act (1906), 590­591 Meat packing industry, 590­591 Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 946 Mechanization of industries, 504, 572 Me Decade, 840 Media, 827, 872, 895, 922­923. See also individual media outlet names; specific media types Medicaid, 813, 863 Medical schools, 382 Medicare system, 813 Melville, Herman, 404 Memminger, Christopher, 462 Mendez, Rosie, 801 Mendez v. Westminster, 752 Menйndez de Avilйs, Pedro, 33­34 Menominee Indians, 276 Men's groups, 906­907 Mental illness, 383 Mercantilism, 72 Mercer, Erminia Pablita Ruiz, 686 Mercer, Hugh, 212 Mercer, Lucy, 694 Mercer, William, 212 Mercury pollution, 498 Meritocracies, 939 Meritor Savings Bank, 886 Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson, 886 Merrimack (ship), 442 Mesa Verde National Park, 12 Mescalero Apache Indians, 431, 439 Mesoamerica, 8­9, 10­11 Messier, Jean-Michel, 70 Messier, Marguerite, 70­71, 78 Mestizos, 20, 79, 271 Metacom's War (King Philip's War), 87­88, 89 (map), 93 Metallurgy, 495 Methodists, 281 Mйtis (mixed blood), 372 Metro Goldwyn Mayer, 617 Mexican-American War, 386­390, 387 (map), 448 Mexican Cession, 390, 395, 397 (map)
Mexicans and Mexican Americans as cowhands, 479 curriculum revision demands, 831 deportation of, 687, 709 destruction of neighborhoods, 783 discrimination against, 656, 752 Great Depression and, 686 Great Migration and, 635 hostility against, 612, 640, 737 immigration of, 502, 625­626, 655­656, 725, 886­887 Lyndon Johnson and, 810 Kennedy supporters, 803 as laborers, 477, 625 labor unions and, 602, 709, 733 land titles, loss of, 478 migrant workers, 706, 830­831 as miners, 602, 772 population growth, 886 print culture of, in the Southwest, 399 social bandits, 399 social status of, in 1850s, 403 in the Southwest, 601­602 women, and unwanted sterilizations, 848 Mexico, 624, 637­638, 725, 914 Mexico territory, 334­335, 336, 387 (map), 390 Miami Indians, 225, 276. See also Ohio Confederacy Micheaux, Oscar, 663 Michigan, 246, 275 (map) Michigan Carlson Works, 499 Micmac Indians, 28 Microsoft Corp., 633, 900­901 Middle class, 481­484, 492, 514, 768­769, 778, 879 Middle colonies, as economic region, 149 (map), 154 Middle East, 645 (map), 846, 870 (map), 890 Middle passage, 114, 117­120 Midvale Steel Works, 616 Midwest, 497 (map), 600 Migration, ancient ice-age, 7 Migrations, internal to California, 360, 396 forced, 320, 329, 361­362, 363­364, 366 Great, 369­371, 634­635 northern, 531, 533, 675 (map) postbellum, 473, 534 from rural areas to cities, 508 transportation and, 331 wartime, 724­725 western, 314, 329­340, 369 (map), 371­372, 675 (map) Migrations, international, 543 (map), 887 from England, 54, 56, 59­61 from Europe, 156 39
Militarism, 748 Military conscription, Civil War, 433, 437 Military dissidents, following Revolutionary War, 235­237 Military-industrial complex, 793 Military technology in Battle of Tippecanoe, 304 Military units. See United States (U.S.) military Military veterans. See Veterans Milliken v. Bradley, 838 Million Man March, 907 Mills, C. Wright, 801 Mills, energy sources for, 318 Milltown Dam, 942 Milosevic, Slobodan, 916 (map), 917 Mineral Act (1866), 479 Miners, militancy of, 541 Mingo Creek Society, 281 Minik (Greenland Eskimo), 577 Minimum wage, 880, 899 Mining, 479, 494­495, 541, 600 Mining Act (1872), 941 Ministers, shortage of, 158 Minkins, Shadrach, 415 Minnesota, 360 Minnesota Farmer-Labor party, 702 Minnesota Territory, 413 (map) Minuit, Peter, 51 Minutemen, 193, 195, 202 Miranda rights, 814 Miranda v. Arizona, 813­814 Miss America Pageant (1968), 829 Missionaries in China, 760 Congregationalist, 457 cultural influence of, 946 economic interests and, 557 to Hawaii, 578 in Mexico, 26­27 in New England, 63, 88 Oregon settlement by, 369 in Savannah, 457­458 Women's Foreign Missionary Society, Occidental Branch, 552 Mission homes, 574 Missions, 336, 341, 372. See also specific missions Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Carmel, California, 350 Mission San Francisco del Espada, San Antonio, 136 Mississippi, Black Code of, 462 Mississippian culture, 9, 13­14 Mississippian earthwork, 13 Mississippian Indians, 10 (map) Mississippi Delta, 334
Mississippi Freedom Democratic party (MFDP), 822 Mississippi River, 241, 665­667, 667 (map), 944 Mississippi River Commission, 666­667 Mississippi Territory, 280, 293 Mississippi Valley, 74, 78, 199, 240­241 Missouri, admitted to statehood, 331 Missouri Compromise, 329­331, 412, 413 (map) Missouri River, 299 Mitchell, George, 915 Mitchell, John (Attorney General), 843 Mitchell, John (UMW president), 592 Mittelberger, Gottlieb, 145 Moale, John, 151 Mobile, Alabama, 70, 78, 226, 400 Mobility, American experience and, 665 Mob violence, white, 634­635, 648 Moche Indians, 9, 10 (map) Moctezuma, 26 Model T automobile, 616 Modern art, 618­619 Modern Times (film), 707­708 Mogollon Indians, 10 (map), 12 Mohawk Indians, 88, 164, 225. See also Iroquois Confederacy; Ohio Confederacy Mohawk Valley, New York, 147 Mohegan Indians, 63 Molano, Elvira, 772 Molasses, 178 Molly Maguires, 541 Mondale, Walter, 876, 876 Monetary policies, 265 Money. See Currency Money Trust, 633 Mongolians, 600­601 Monkey trial, 668­670 Monopolies. See Trusts Monroe, James, 246, 253, 292, 310­311, 329, 337 Monroe, Marilyn, 733­734 Monroe Doctrine, 337­338, 593 Monster bank, 343­344 Montcalm, Marquis de, 163­164 Montenegro, 916 (map) Monterey, California, 173 Monterey Bay, 41 Monte Verde, Chile, 6 Montgomery, Alabama, 792 Montgomery, Richard, 204, 206 Montgomery Ward, 515 Montreal, 50, 164­165 Moody, Deborah, 62 Moore, James, 82­83 Moral Majority, 858, 882­883, 884 Moral reform movements, 551
40
Moravians, 150 Moreno, Luisa, 733, 773 Morgan, Daniel, 215, 227­228 Morgan, J. P., 492, 500, 519, 570, 633, 901 Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), 353­354, 367­368, 369 (map), 505, 946 Moroni (angel), 354 Morrill Act (1862), 437 Morris, Gouverneur, 257, 332 Morris, Robert, 236, 248­249, 254, 257 Morrow, E. Frederick, 790 Morse, Jedidiah, 239 Morse, Samuel F. B., 379 Mortgage loans, discrimination in, 782 Morton, Ferdinand "Jelly Roll," 619 Morton, Jackson, 424 Mosby, John Singleton, 449 Moscovy Company, 35 Moses, Robert Parris "Bob," 808, 825 Moses, Simon, 563 Mother's Day, 627 Mothers' Magazine, 371 Mothers of 19th century, idealized, 355 Motion picture industry. See also individual film titles African Americans and, 663 in American popular culture, 945 Jews and, 617 and new Americanism, 710 Luther Standing Bear and, 557 in WWII, 732 Motor voter act, 912 Mott, Lucretia, 383­384, 407 Mottrom, John, 104 Mound-building centers, Mississippian, 13­14 Moundville, Alabama, 14 Mount, Julia Luna, 686­687 Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts, 382 Mount Rainier National Park, 561 Mount Rushmore, 700 Mourning wars, 50 Movement, the, 821 Mozambique, 116, 116 (map) Mrs. McCormick's General Store (Browere), 381 Ms. (magazine), 859­860 Mt. McKinley, 622 Muckrackers, 607­608 Mugwumps, 521 Muir, John, 479­480, 560­561, 595 Mulattos, 79, 271 Muller v. Oregon, 608 Multiracial organizing, 709
Munich agreement, 717 Muquelmne Miwok, 345 Murphy, Frank, 708 Murphy Brown (TV program), 911 Murray, Ellen, 445 Murray, Judith Sargent, 286 Murrieta, Joaquin, 399 Muskets, 141 Muskie, Edmund, 843 Muslim ethnic Albanians, 917 Muslim fundamentalists, 947­948 Muslims, forced from Spain, 18 Mussadiq, Muhammad, 871 Mussolini, Benito, 716, 728 Mustang fighter group, 736 Myer, Dillon S., 772 Myers, Isaac, 485 My Lai massacre, 819 Myrdal, Gunnar, 735 N NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 613, 724, 750­751, 789 Nader, Ralph, 813, 921, 923, 934 NAFTA. See North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Nagasaki, bombing of, 679, 742, 743 Nagy, Imre, 796 Nairobi, terrorist attacks in, 917 Namibia, 857 (map) Nanticoke Indians, 562 Nantucket whaling industry, 152, 248 Napoleon, 292­293, 300, 303, 306 Narragansett Indians, 62­63, 88, 98 Narrative of the Life of Mary Jemison, A (Seaver), 163 Narvбez, Pбnfilo de, 28, 33 (map) Nash, Francis, 239 Nashville, Tennessee, 239, 241 Nasser, Gamal Abdul, 798 Nast, Thomas, 470, 486 Natchez, Louisiana, 320 Natchez Indians, 125 Natchez Trace, 242 (map) Natchitoches, Louisiana, 78, 137 Nation, Carrie, 653 Nation, The (journal), 551, 566, 688 National Academy of Sciences, 943 National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, 823 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 777, 794
41
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), 554, 573, 586, 627 National anthem, 308 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 613, 724, 750­ 751, 772, 789 National Association of Colored Women (NACW), 573 National Association of Window Trimmers, 515­516 National Baseball League, 512 National Basketball Association (NBA), 945 National Broadcasting Company (NBC), 664 National Child Labor Committee, 608 National Congress of Mothers, 574 National Consumers' League (NCL), 608 National debt, 265, 876 National Defense Education Act (NDEA), 794 National Equal Rights Party, 553 National Era (magazine), 415 National Farmers' alliances, 539­540, 554 National Grange, 485, 521 National Guard, 837 National highway, 479 National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), 697, 701 Nationalist movements, 252, 542, 623, 749, 803, 889 National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act, 703, 712 National Labor Union (NLU), 459, 485 National Liberation Front (NLF), 804, 816­820, 845 National markets, 500 National Organization for Women (NOW), 828­829 National Park Service, 480, 633 (map), 634, 942 National Recovery Administration (NRA), 697 National Republicans, 338 National Rifle Association, 919 National Road (Cumberland Road), 314, 332 National security, redefinition of, 753­755 National Security Act, 764 National Security Council (NSC), 762­764, 890­891 National Security League, 640 National Socialist (Nazi) party, 716 National strike, 517 National Trades Union, 360, 375 National Union for Social Justice, 701­702 National Wildlife Federation, 849 National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), 482, 573 National Women's Party (NWP), 610, 627, 652 Nation of Islam, 822 Nation-state, emergence of modern, 31 Native Americans 18th-century towns and trails of, 245 (map) acculturation of, 277­278, 344 in Age of the Common Man, 344­346
Native Americans (continued) in armed services, 737 assimilation of, 549­550 casinos on private land, 901 celebration of kinship by, 406 Christian, 88 citizenship rights demanded by, 396, 549 of coastal Carolina, 98 of coastal North Carolina, 37 colonialism and, 3, 53 (map), 64, 145, 241 conflict with non Indians, 907 Creek orator, 243 cultural traditions of, 476, 521, 908 discrimination against, 752 economies of, 396­398 enslavement of, 90, 99, 108, 122 epidemics and, 46, 177, 233­234 exploitation and relocation of, 311, 458 federal military campaigns against, 458, 473, 474­476 fight for independence from European encroachment, 168 fish-ins, 831 forced migrations of, 329, 361­362, 366 fur trade and, 49 gambling facilities of, 900 Grave and Burial Protection Act, 577 in Great Lakes region, 299­300 hippies' identification with, 826 horses and, 103, 138­139, 373­374 hunting grounds of, 277 and Indian Claims Commission, 772 laissez-faire principles applied to, 521 lands lost by, 536 (map) Lewis and Clark Expedition and, 299 in Louisiana, 78 mainstreaming efforts toward, 772 massacre of, 28­29, 88, 537, 554, 557, 586 of New England, 63, 88 New Light ministers and, 159 nuclear sites and, 869 Ohio and, 245 (map) in the Old Northwest, 243­245 in the Old Southwest, 242­243 Pacific tribes, and candlefish, 299 peace delegations to Washington, 475 Proclamation Line and, 240­241 Republican vision of prosperity and, 481 reserved to, under British rule, 181 (map) resistance movement, 303 retaliation against Jeffery Amherst, 176 revolts by, 47, 345 Revolutionary War and, 199, 223, 231
42
Native Americans (continued) Russian trappers and, 172 as Satan's helpers, 95 social status of, in 1850s, 403 southeastern groups, 242 (map), 309 Spanish missions and, 350­351 special status of Indian tribes terminated, 772 spiritual component in resistance to whites, 352 spiritual regeneration, 527 status of, 952 in Texas and Florida, 82 threat of, at Catholic missions, 349 traditional roles, weakening of, 287­289 and Treaty of Paris, 165 tribal creation stories, 5 value of community over individual, 356 value of treaty promises made by U.S., 367 war industry jobs, 738 women, roles of, 312, 349 Nativists, 378­380, 388 NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Naturalization laws, 271, 600 Naturalized citizens, 724 Natural resources, 479, 835, 850, 928, 940 Nauvoo Legion, 367­368 Navajo Indians James Carlton and, 439 code talkers, 730, 731 and horses, 81 and Pueblo Revolt, 79 and radiation exposure, 760 rejection of Indian Reorganization act, 698­699 settlements of, 80 (map) Spanish and, 81­82 Naval stores, 150 Navarro, Josй Antonio, 385, 398 Navigation acts (England), 83­84, 92, 178 Navratilova, Martina, 886 Nazis, 668, 713­714, 717, 726­727, 726 (map), 741 Nebraska farm family, 539 Nebraska Territory, 413 (map) Needleworkers, 349, 350 Negro Act (South Carolina), 123 Negro Act (Virginia), 134 Negro Election Day, 273 Negro Law (South Carolina), 126 Neighborhood Union, Atlanta, 574 Nelson, Lord, 300 Neolin (Delaware Indian prophet), 177 Nestlй, 900 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 915 Netherlands, 118­119 (map), 319
Neutral countries, Cold War, 796­797 (map) Neutral countries, World War II, 727 (map) Neutral countries, WWI, 641 (map) Neutrality acts, 718 Nevada Test Site, 869, 943 New Albion (California), 35 New Amsterdam, 51, 52­53, 84­85, 156, 501 Newark, New Jersey, 823 New Bedford, Massachusetts, 248 New Bern, North Carolina, 99, 147, 186 Newburgh, establishment of, 146 Newburgh Conspiracy, 235­237, 261 "New Colossus, The," 501 New Deal Carter and, 854 coalition of, 709­710 construction projects of, 699­700 critics of, 709 effects of, 679­682 the first hundred days, 696­699 gender bias in programs of, 705 legislation, 712 Eleanor Roosevelt and, 694­695 New Democracy, 338 New Ebenezer, Georgia, 147 New England colonies of, 145 Dominion of, 92 economic disadvantages of, 152 as economic region, 149 (map) gap between rich and poor, 96 houses of, 66 merchants of, 265, 317 mill owners of, 316 peace in frontier villages, 98 population of, in 1660s, 66 religious status in, 107 shipbuilding in, 152 War of 1812 and, 310 white men eligible to vote in 1792, 281 women of, 349 New England Emigrant Aid Company, 417 New France (Canada), 48­49, 50, 73, 162 (map) New Hampshire, 86, 252, 258, 260 New Harmony order, 382 New Jersey College of (Princeton University), 158, 523 Constitution ratified in, 257 as a royal colony, 86 slaves emancipated in, 401 treatment of free blacks, 272 voting rights for free blacks revoked, 346 voting rights for women, 199, 263 43
New Jersey (continued) Washington's visit to, 266 women and girls of Trenton, 266 New Jersey Plan, 255 New Lands Act (1902), 625 New Light preachers, 158­159 New Look, The, 794 New Mexico Confederate retreat from, 431 purchase attempted by U.S., 387­388 racial and ethnic diversity of, 44 and slavery, 395, 410 Spanish census of, 271 as Spanish colony, 78­79 survival of, 44­45 Union troops defeated in, 430­431 New Mexico Territory, 43, 413 (map) New Netherland, 50­51, 84­85, 107 New Northwest (journal), 553 New Orleans, Louisiana in 1700s, 160 class divisions in, 467 establishment of, 137 Hurricane Katrina, 944 jazz, 619 Spanish control of, 292 Union capture of, 438 waterfront scene, 531 New Orleans's Pelican Company F, 439 New Orleans Times-Picayune (newspaper), 550 New Paltz, 53 Newport, Rhode Island, 156 New Republic (journal), 551 New South, 530­532 New Spain, colonial pattern in, 44 Newspaper reporters, and corruption, 486 Newspapers, and American literary tradition, 355 New Sweden, 52, 65 (map) Newsweek (magazine), 786 News wives, 90 New Voyage Round the World, A (Dampier), 97 New Voyage to Carolina, A (Lawson), 99 New York and bill of rights, 260 and Declaration of Independence, 208 deepwater port at, 148 Dutch in, 263 enslaved people in, 121­122 Erie Canal investment, 333 growth in mid-18th century, 154 land claims of, 244, 279 (map) naming of, 85 ouster of Dominion officials, 92­93
New York (continued) as royal province, 92 voting rights for free blacks revoked, 346 New York Charity Organization Society, 614 New York City British attempt to capture, 209­211 draft riots, 449 Erie Canal and, 333 fire in, 126 foreign-born population of, 362, 507, 953 Grand Federal Procession in, 259 licensing fees of, 316 Marathon, 851 non-English newcomers in, 145 slave revolt, 134 New Yorkers, French, 145 New York harbor, 50 New York Nine (baseball team), 512 New York Slave Plot, 126 New York Sun (newspaper), 487 New York Times (newspaper), 486, 843 Nez Perce Indians, 138, 476 Ngo Dingh Diem, 799, 804, 816­817 Niagara Movement, 613 Nicaragua, 624 Nichols, Jesse C., 670­671 Nichols, Terry, 917 Nightline (TV news program), 871 Nike, 851 Nimitz, Chester, 729­730 Nineteenth Amendment, 609­610, 627 Nisei, 722, 741 Nixon, E. D., 792 Nixon, Richard M., 741, 776, 844 and 1972 election, 843 and Cold War, 840­841 and conservative backlash, 809, 832 as Eisenhower's running mate, 793 enemies list of, 843 Ford's pardon of, 845 Kennedy's defeat of, 803 Kitchen Debate, 776­777 Mao Zedong and, 842 Moscow trip, 841 presidency of, 835­836 resignation of, 844 South American goodwill tour, 798 triangular diplomacy, 841­842 use of federal government for harassment, 836 and Vietnam War, 840 Nixon Doctrine, 836 Nobel, Alfred, 495 No-fault divorce laws, 862 44
No man's land, in trench warfare, 637 Nonaligned countries, 754 (map) Nonimportation movement, 189 Non-Intercourse Act, 302 Nootka Indians, 249 Norfolk, port of, 148 Noriega, Manuel, 892 Normandy invasion, 793 Norris, Clarence, 686 North, Baron Frederick, 189 North, enslaved people in, 121­122 North, Lord, 190­191, 193, 212, 229 North, Oliver, 890­891 North America colonies by nationality, 48 exploration of, 33 (map) imperial map of, redrawn, 165 rivalry to establish control of continent, 169 slavery in, 134 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 914, 923, 937 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 679, 746, 754 (map), 756­757, 772, 794­795, 796­797 (map) North Briton (periodical), 178 North Carolina, 149 (map), 150, 185­186, 260, 279 (map), 563, 792 North Carolina Agricultural and Mechanical College, 565 Northeast agricultural regions, 497 (map) Northern Alliance. See National Farmers' alliances Northerners, 414, 463 Northern Ireland, 915 Northern Iroquoian Indians, 10 (map) Northern Pacific Railroad, 494, 561 Northern Securities Co., 592­593 North Korea, 765, 765 (map), 821 Northrop, J. H., 495 Northup, Solomon, 376 North Vietnam, 816, 816 (map), 819­820, 837. See also Vietnam War Northwest Coast Indians, 173 Northwestern University, 553 Northwest Ordinance (1787), 245­247, 256, 261, 275 (map), 276 Northwest Territory, 241, 274, 275 (map), 276, 279 (map) Norton, Gale, 943 Norway Grove, Wisconsin, 484 Norwegian immigrants, 359, 360, 484 Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 240 Nova Scotia, 203 Noyes, John Humphrey, 382
NSC-68 (National Security Council document 68), 762­763, 764 Nuclear arms race, 778, 869, 900 Nuclear family ideal, 777, 779, 783 Nuclear freeze movement, 885 Nuclear power, 850, 857­858, 859 (map) Nuclear test ban treaty (1963), 805 Nuclear Test sites, Nevada, 943 Nuclear weapons devastation caused by, 742 development of, 738­740 impact of, 759­760 movement to end testing, 786 testing, 759, 795 Nuclear winter, 885 Nuevomexicanos, 288 Nugent, Polly, 288­289 Nullification Proclamation, 342­343, 343 O Oakley, Annie, 513 Oberlin College, Ohio, 382, 472 Obesity, 919 Obscenity, standards for definition of, 814 Occaneechi Indians, 90 Occupational hazards, 540 Oceana (Harrington), 86­87 Ocean travel, 551 Ochelaga, 30 O'Connor, Sandra Day, 864, 884 Ocracoke Island, 96 O'Donnell, Edward, 540 Of Payne's Landing, 365 Ogallala Aquifer, 941 Oglala reservation, 831 Oglala Sioux, 476 Oglethorpe, James, 130­133, 132­133, 134 Ohio, 231, 246, 275 (map), 277, 280 Ohio Company, 247, 278­279 Ohio Company of Virginia, 161 Ohio Confederacy, 263, 267, 275­276 Ohio River, 240­241 Ohio Valley Indians, 243 Oil companies, 794 Oil Producing and Exporting Companies (OPEC) oil embargo, 846, 848­849, 849, 857 Oil production and consumption, 624, 849, 893­894, 896, 943 Oil reserves, 929 Oil-rich offshore lands, 794 Oil spills, 835 Ojibway Indians, 276 Okies, 688
45
Oklahoma, 560 (map), 688 Oklahoma City Federal Building bombing, 917­918, 923 Oklahoma Territory, 560 (map) Old Faithful, 480 Old Lights, 158­159 Old Northwest, 241, 243­245, 246­247 Old Southwest, 241, 241­243 Old Spanish Trail, 369 (map) Old Town-New Town plan, 509 Oliver, Andrew, 180 Olmec Indians, 9 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 400 Olson, Floyd, 702 Olympics, 1980 boycott of, 871 Omaha Indians, 141 Oсate, Juan de, 42 (map) Oсate, Juan de, 43­44 One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest (film), 851 Oneida Indians, 225, 382, 901. See also Iroquois Confederacy O'Neill, Thomas "Tip," 855 Onondaga Indians, 225. See also Iroquois Confederacy "On the Equality of the Sexes" (Murray), 286 On the Road (Kerouac), 802 Opechancanough (Pamunkey tribe), 64, 64­65, 68 OPEC (Oil Producing and Exporting Companies) oil embargo, 846, 848­849, 849, 857 Open Door policy, 583 Operation Desert Shield, 893 Operation Desert Storm, 894 Operation Dixie (CIO), 753 Oral contraceptive pills, 801, 827 Order of the Star-spangled Banner (Know-Nothing party), 379 Orders in Council (Great Britain), 300­301 Oregon, 500, 607 Oregon Territory (Country), 311, 360, 386, 397 (map), 413 (map) Oregon Trail, 369­371, 369 (map), 437 Organization Man, The (Whyte), 801 Organization of American States (OAS), 804 Organized crime, Prohibition and, 654 Orinoco River, 20 Orinoco tobacco, 56 Osage Indians, 141 Osborn, Sarah, 229 Osceola, and guerrilla war, 365 Osmanlis, 601 Ostend Manifesto, 412 Oswald, Lee Harvey, 806 Other America, The (Harrington), 783, 811
Ottawa Indians, 225, 276 Otto, N. A., 495 Ottoman Empire, 631, 645, 645 (map) Our Nig, or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black (Wilson), 407 Outdoor recreation, popularity of, 851 Outer Banks, 37, 150 Outsourcing, 899 Overland Trail, 370 Owen, Robert, 382 Oyster harvesters, 498 Ozone layer, 850, 942 P Paca, William, 258 Pachucos, 737 Pacific exploration, 169­171 Pacific Islanders, 909 Pacific Lumber Company, 904 Pacific Ocean, 25 Pacific Railroad Act (1862), 437 Pacific Rim countries, 888 Paducah, Kentucky, 943 Page Act (1870), 477 Pago Pago, Samoa, 578 Pahlavi, Reza (Shah of Iran), 798, 842, 870­871 Paine, Thomas, 207, 213, 219 Palaces of consumption, 514­517 Paleo-Indian period, 6­7 Palestine, 645, 645 (map), 759, 915 Palmer, A. Mitchell, 647­648 Palmer, Benjamin F., 310 Palmer raids, 648 Pamlico Sound, 27, 99 Pamunkey Indians, 64­65 Panama, U.S. invasion of, 892 Panama Canal, 593, 622, 624, 856 Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF), 892 Pan-American Conference (1890), 578 Pan Am Flight 109, bombing of, 890 Panic of 1819, 335­337 Panic of 1837, 370, 375 Pan-Indian movement, 830­831, 864 Pantoja, Antonia, 831 Paoli, Pasquale, 185 Paper, Eric, 577 Paper mill, 318 Paramount studio, 617 Pardo, Juan, 33, 33 (map) Pareja, Francisco de, 45 Parenthood, during war years, 735 Parker, Alton B., 593, 593 Parker, William, 415
46
Parks, Rosa, 791 Parsons, Albert, 545, 546­547 Parsons, Lucia Gonzбlez "Lucy," 545­546 Partisan politics, 360­361 Parton, Sarah Willis (Fanny Fern), 407 Passing of the Great Race, The (Grant), 626 Paterson, William, 255 Patriotism, 300, 564 Patriots' Day, 103, 195 Patronage system, 184 Paul, Alice, 610, 627 Pawnee Indians, 141, 413 Pay inequities, in 1970s, 861 Payne-Aldrich Tariff (1909), 596 Peace, mobilization for, 786­787 Peace Corps, 799, 804 Peace movements, 718, 885 Peace of Westminster (1674), 84 Peacetime alliances, 622­623 Peale, Charles Willson, 205, 239, 368 Peale, James, 286 Peale, Titian Ramsey, 368 Pearl Harbor, Japanese attack on, 578, 679, 715­716, 719­720, 720 Peary, Robert E., 576­577 Pelican (ship), 70­71 Pendleton Act (1883), 520, 523 Penn, Thomas, 154 Penn, William, 86­87, 154 Pennsylvania coal miners' strike, 592 German-born people in, 263 German immigrants in, 86­87 German-speaking immigrants in, 147 government of, under colonial rule, 86 print culture of Philadelphia, 355 ratification of Constitution, 257 religious toleration in, 156 state constitution of, 219 voting rights for free blacks revoked, 346 Pennsylvania Dutch, 148 Pennsylvania Main Line Canal, 332 Pennsylvania Railroad, 492, 518 Pensacola, Florida, 226, 423­424 Pension Act (1890), 567­570 Pentagon, terrorist attack on, 925 Pentagon Papers, 836, 843 Pentecostalists in Latin America, 946 People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) protest, 908 People of color, 271­274, 280, 832­833. See also specific ethnicities People's Cooperative Grocery Store, 563
People's party, 537 People's Republic of China (PRC), 762 People with disabilities, 733­734 Peoria Indians, 78, 345 Pequot War, 63 Perestroika, 889 Pйrez, Eulalia, 349 Pйrez, Eulalia, 350­351 Perkins, Carter, 395 Perkins, Frances, 696 Perkins, Robert, 395 Perkins, Sandy, 395 Perot, H. Ross, 911­912, 913 Perry, Matthew C., 386, 412 Perry, Oliver H., 306 Perry Hall Slave Quarters with Field Hands at Work (Guy), 321 Pershing, John J., 626 Persian Gulf War, 448, 893­895, 895 (map), 896, 926 Personal computers, 936 Pest house, 122 Pesticides, 850 Peterborough, New Hampshire, 200­201 Peter (runaway slave), 424­425 Peters, Clairy, 203 Peters, John, 203 Peters, Sally, 203 Peters, Thomas, 202, 203 Petersburg, siege of, 450 Peterson, Kathleen, 906 Petroleum. See Oil entries Phagan, Mary, 612 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 86­87, 148, 154­155, 182, 314, 355 Philip II (King of Spain), 32, 35, 40 Philip of Anjou, 76 Philippe, Michel, 77 Philippines British conquest of, 164 Congressional Committee on, 582­583 independence granted to, 757 revolt against U.S. occupying forces, 586 Spanish expeditions to, 27 U.S. promise of independence, 623 U.S. war against nationalists of, 594 Philip V (King of Spain), 78 Phillips County massacre, Arkansas, 648 Phonographs, 496, 523 Photography, 429, 548, 582, 618 Phyllis Wheatley Settlement, 574 Physical fitness, national craze for, 802 Piccard, Jeannette, 861
47
Pickens, Andrew, 226 Pickett, George, 448 Pickett, John T., 442 Pictographs, 371 Picture brides, 605 Piedmont farm families, 185 Pierce, Franklin, 411, 412 Pietism, 156­157 Pike, Albert, 434 Pike, Otis, 852 Pillsbury Flour, 492 Pima Indians, 81 Pinchot, Gifford, 560 Pinckney, Charles C., 270, 289, 300 Pinckney, William, 330 Pine forests, 150 Pine Ridge Reservation, 535 Pink collar employment sector, 784 Pink-collar jobs, 784 Pinkerton, Allan, 541 Pinkerton National Detective Agency, 492, 541, 648 Pinochet, Augusto, 842 Pinups, 732 Pirates, 95, 97, 270 Pitt, William, 164­165, 176, 179, 182 Pizarro, Francisco, 27 Place names, following end of Revolutionary War, 238­239 Plains farmers, 538 Plains Indians, 371, 402­403, 412­413, 535 Plains Indian Wars, 474 (map) Plains of Abraham, 164­165 Planned obsolescence, 665 Plantation Burial (Antrobus), 323 Plantation Duty Act (1673), 84 Plantation economy, 199, 267, 280, 317, 318­325 Plantation system of agriculture, 150, 151­152, 502 Planters, southern, 113, 124­125, 127­128 Plants, domestication of, 8 Plastic, 942 Platt Amendment, 582 Plausible denial, doctrine of, 855 Playboy ethic, 801­802 Playboy (magazine), 802, 829 Pledge of Allegiance, 564, 771­772 Plessy, Homer, 562 Plessy v. Ferguson, 562, 586, 789 Plumer, William, 289 Plymouth Colony, 39­40, 56­57, 88, 89 (map), 92 Pocahontas, 64 Pocket veto, 460 Pogroms, 606
Poignaud and Plant boardinghouse, Lancaster, 349­ 350 Pointe-au-Fer, 275 (map) Poland, 717, 748 (map), 755, 796, 892 Police action in Korea, 766 Police brutality against racial minorities, 812, 905, 923 Police riot, 834 Police strike in Boston, 647 Polio, 693 Polish immigrants, 501, 503 Political activists, 355, 571­572 Politics, 328­329, 407­414, 471, 939 Polk, James K., 385­386, 387­388, 412 Polling places, overcrowded, 922 Pollock, Jackson, 800, 800 Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, 570 Pollution automobiles and, 770, 942­943 industrial, 498, 928, 942 in U.S., 850 of water, 835 Polly (sharecropper), 467 Polo, Marco, 15, 20­21 (map) Polowsky, Joseph, 745 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 850 Polygamy, 367, 382, 520 Polynesians, 14, 169 Ponca Indians, 413 Ponce de Leуn, Juan, 25, 33 (map) Pontchartrain, Comte de, 77 Pontiac Indians, 168 Pontiac's Rebellion, 176­177, 181 (map) Pontoon bridges, 453­454 Poor, as Devil's people, 96 Pop Art, 827 Pope, John, 439 Popй, and Pueblo Revolt, 79­80 Popham, George, 54­55 Popular culture global expansion of, 944­946 global spread of American, 885 music in, 617, 619 racial barriers erroded in, 751­752 resistance to, 947­948 sexuality in, 928 spread of, 926 Popular Front, 700­701 Popular sovereignty, 410, 417­418 Population Bomb, The (Ehrlich), 835 Population center, 330 Population density in 1890, 559 (map) Population growth, 143, 297, 352, 408, 494, 665, 940
48
Population structure by gender and age, 144 Populist party (People's party), 486, 537­538, 540, 546, 558, 567, 568­569, 570­571 Pornography, 483 Portage railroad, 332 Port Huron Statement, 824 Portolб, Gaspar de, 173, 174 (map) Portrait of a Lady (James), 551 Portrait of My Sister Ettie (Stettheimer), 650 Port Royal Sound, 33, 34 Portugal, 319, 857 (map) Brazil under control of, 106 consolidation of, with Spain, 40 enslavement of African infidels, 106 maritime exploration of, 16 slave trade, 47, 117, 118­119 (map) Treaty of Tordesillas, 20 Postbellum era economic changes in, 484 Andrew Johnson and, 458 labor force in the South, 463­467, 502 land use patterns in, 478­480 migration in, 473, 534 women's suffrage movement in, 481­484 Post-traumatic stress disorder, 120, 733 Potawatomi Indians, 276, 346, 352, 560 (map) Potomac Company, 283­284 Potsdam Conference (1945), 741 Pottawatomie Creek massacre, 417 Pottery, 618 Poverty, 674­675 in California, 703 children and, 880 following Vietnam War, 847 growth of, in 2000s, 928 in rural America, 783 sharecroppers and, 674 by state, 812 (map) in U.S., 777, 779 war on, 811­813 Poverty Point culture, 9 Powderly, Terence V., 542, 542­544 Powell, Adam Clayton, 797 Powell, Colin, 895, 930­931, 951 Power, abuse of, 183 Powers, Gary, 795 Power vacuums, 747, 753, 760 Powhatan Confederacy, 64­65, 65 (map) Powhatan Indians, 54, 64, 562 "Prairies, The" (Bryant), 355 Prayer in schools, 814, 884 Praying towns, 88 Pregnancy, martial status and, 769
Prejudices. See also Discrimination against African Americans, 274, 399, 530­532 and black power movement, 821 against Catholics, 363, 379, 772 against Chinese Americans, 528­530 of Dr. Seuss, 721 of Protestants, 379­380 skin color and, 600­601 Presbyterian College of the Southwest, 564 Presbyterian denomination, 883 Presbyterian ministers, 158 Presbyterian missionaries, 457­458 Presbyterians, 31 Preservation policies, Theodore Roosevelt and, 594­ 595 Presidential election of 2000, 923 Presidential pardons, 461­462, 845 Presidential power, 340, 344, 845 Presidential selection method, 255 Presidents, as slaveholders, 408 Presidents, as war veterans, 741 President's Commission on the Status of Women, 695, 805 President's Committee on Civil Rights, 770 Presidios, 173, 336 Presley, Elvis, 752, 801 Presley, George, Sr., 467 Press-gangs, 267, 301, 432 Prester John, 16, 18 Priber, Christian, 129­130, 138 Prime meridian, 153 Prince (pop star), 910 Princeton University (College of New Jersey), 158, 523 Principles of Psychology (James), 566 Principles of Scientific Management (Taylor), 616 Printing presses, 31, 155 Private enterprise, 877. See also Capitalism Privateers, 95, 223, 441­442 Private-public partnerships, 458­459, 481 Proclamation Line, 177, 240­241 Proclamation of Neutrality, 267 Proclamations by colonial grand juries, 210­211 Procter and Gamble, 908 Proctor, Henry, 306 Production, 315­317, 496, 616, 684, 707 Productivity, 466, 847, 936 Professional sports, 651 Progressive movement, 591­593, 608­609, 626 Progressive party, 597, 659, 770 Prohibition, 131, 653­654, 660, 696 Prohibition party, 522, 568 Promise Keepers, 906 49
Pro-Nazi rally, New York City, 726 Property ownership, 219, 246, 254 property rights, civil rights vs., 782 Prophet, the (Tenskwatawa), 303, 307 Prophet's Town, 303 Proportional representation, 255 Proposition 13 (California), 875 Proposition 187 (California), 909 Proslavery lobby, 133 Protect the Emperor Society, 602 Protestant denominations, 156 Protestantism, 282, 379­380, 550, 858, 915, 946 Protestant missionaries, 369, 457­458, 578 Protestant Reformation, 31­37, 54, 58, 106 Protestants English, 57, 76­77 German-speaking, 156­157 as immigrants, 147 march on St. Mary's City, 93 origins of name, 31 Protest movements, 800­802, 821, 823 (map), 829 Providence, Rhode Island, 62, 152, 347 Public Broadcasting System (PBS), 813 Public domain, 304 (map) Public education, 380­381­380­382, 564­565 Public health, 614, 653, 850 Public land, 877 (map), 943 Public sanitation, 614 Public works programs, 691­692 Publius (Hamilton and Madison), 257 Pueblo Bonito, 12 Pueblo Indians, 30, 43, 44­45, 79­81, 869 Pueblo Revolt, 45, 80 (map) Pueblo (U.S. intelligence ship), 821 Puerto Rico, 586, 623, 831 Puget, Peter, 234 Pujo, Arsene, 633 Pulaski, Casimir, 220 Pulitzer, Joseph, 579 Pullman, George M., 507 Pullman Palace Car Co., 480, 569 Punch, John, 107 Punch-card ballots, 922 Pure Food and Drug Act (1906), 590­591 Puritan experiment, 57­63 Puritan Revolution in England, 83 Puritans, 31, 58­61, 63, 66 Purvis, Robert, 378 Putnam, George, 780 Puttingout system, 317 Pyke (Captain), 109 Pyle, Ernie, 731
Q Qing dynasty, overthrow of, 623 Qisuk (Greenland Eskimo), 577 Quakers, 86, 130 Quality of life, Great Society programs and, 813 Qualye, Dan, 911 Quantrill, William Clarke, 449 Quaqua, 290 Quartering Act, 178, 188, 192­193 Quasi War, 270 Quebec, 49, 164­165, 166, 194 (map) Quebec, the Capital of New France (Johnson), 165 Quebec Act (1774), 193 Queen Anne's War, 93, 95, 98 Queer stockades, 735 Quetzalcoatl, 11 Quivira, 30 R Rabin, Yitzak, 915 Race, notions of, 105 Race-based slavery, 103, 105­108, 109­110, 130, 144 Race riots antiblack, 376 in Atlanta, 612 in Detroit, 736, 823 (map) following WWI, 648 in Newark, 823 (map) in Providence, Rhode Island, 347 in Springfield, Illinois, 612­613 Watts, 823 Races of Mankind, The (Benedict), 735 Race suicide, 615 Racial categorization, 271, 562­563, 600, 950 Racial difference theories, 403­404, 527, 562 Racial discrimination Americans of color and, 885 anticommunism and, 772 Atlantic Charter's condemnation of, 719 Carter's commitment to ending, 856 as glaring contradiction in free world, 770 Great Depression and, 686 Johnson's fight against, 811 League of Nations and, 645 profiling, 952 resistance to, 612­613 Racial quotas, 864 Racial tolerance, limits of, 721 Racism, 626, 674, 730­731, 735­736, 821, 822­824, 826, 899 Radio, 664­665, 695, 710, 731, 732, 794 Radioactive fallout, 742, 760, 787 50
Radioactive waste, 760, 942­943 Radio Priest, 701­702 Railroad cars, 496 Railroad industry, 492 Railroad lines, 474 (map) Railroads buffalo and, 499 cattle-ranching and, 479 Civil War destruction of, 453 and environmental transformations, 499 mergers, 499­500 and tourism, 561 U.S. networks compared to other countries, 374 as vehicles of national integration, 473 workers strike, 517 Rainbow Coalition, 885 Rainey, Joseph H., 470 Rain-in-the-Face, 475 Raisin in the Sun, A (Hansberry), 782 Raker Act (1913), 595 Raleigh, Walter, 37 Ralston-Purina, 900 Ranchйria, 350 Ranchers, and nuclear weapons tests, 760 Randolph, A. Philip, 636, 736 Randolph, Edmund, 256 Randolph, John, 337 Rankin, Jeannette, 627, 720 Ranney, William, 200, 236 Ratification progress, in newspapers, 258 Rationing, in WWII, 731 Ray, Dorothy, 709 Ray, James Earl, 834 Reagan, Nancy, 879, 891 Reagan, Ronald W., 868 in 1984 election, 876 assassination attempt, 919 boycott of table grapes and, 831 and the Cold War, 873­874, 888 expansion of nuclear arsenal, 869 Iran-Contra scandal, 891 message to Americans, 858 Nicaraguan Contras and, 874 nuclear weapons and, 885 Panama Canal treaty and, 856 presidency of, 872 presidential campaign, 853 religious conservative movement and, 814 in war propaganda, 732 as war veteran, 741 Reaganomics, 875­876 Real income, share of growth in 1980s, 881 Realism movement, 618
Real Whigs, 183­184, 186­187, 189­190 Reapportionment of legislative districts, 814 Reason, Charlie, 442 Rebel Without a Cause (film), 800 Recall process, 607 Recession of 1980s, 879­880 Reconstruction emerging black leadership during, 472 end of, 523 failed promises of, and migration, 534 government corruption, charges of, 471 of the South, 458­459, 469 (map) Reconstruction Act (1867), 469 Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 692 Recycling, 851 Red Army, 646, 748, 755 Red Badge of Courage (Crane), 566 Redbaiting, 771 Red Cloud (Sioux), 475­476 Red Cross, 666 Redemption system, for indentured servants, 144­ 145 Red lining by FHA and lending banks, 781­782 Red scare, 647­648, 654, 746, 753, 767, 771 Red Sticks, 307­308, 312 Referendum process, 607 Reform movements, 380­384, 591, 607 Reform networks, 551 Reform organizations, 280­281 Refrigerated cars, 492 Refugees, political vs. economic, 874 Regional divisions in U.S., 305 regional economies, 103, 148, 319­320, 399­401 Regional vice-admiralty courts, 178, 188, 194 (map) Regulator Movement, 185, 186­187 Rehnacimiento, El (newspaper), 596 Reign of Terror, 266­267 Religion and politics, 814, 882­885 Religious affiliation, 353, 779, 950 Religious beliefs and traditions, 323, 352, 476, 826, 908 Religious conflict, 31 Religious denominations, 282. See also specific denominations Religious evangelism on college campuses, 883 Religious fundamentalism, 669, 858, 880, 883­885 Religious liberty, 282 Religious persecution, 367­368 Religious revivals, 353 Religious right, 814, 883­885 Religious toleration, 155­156 Relocations, 724. See also Migrations, forced Remond, Charles Lenox, 376 51
Remond, Sarah Parker, 376 Renaming the landscape, 238­239 Rensselaer, Kiliaen van, 51­52 Report of Exploring Expeditions to the Rocky Mountains (Frйmont), 369 Representation, proportional, 255 Representative legislature, in Jamestown, 56 Repression of dissent during WWI, 639 Republican Mothers, 284­287 Republican party black men in, 470 corruption and loss of power, 845 creation of, 413­414 natural resources exploitation and, 943 opposition to League of Nations charter, 646 opposition to slavery, 409, 414 platform of (1992), 911 Reagan years, 872­873 religious right and, 883­885 and tariffs, 517 threat of, to southern elites, 425­426 vision of prosperity, following Civil War, 481­ 488 votes in 2000 election, 921 Republic of Congo, 798 Republic of Ireland, 647, 915 Residential segregation, 777 Residential suburbs, 510, 781 Resolution (ship), 170 Restitution, to Japanese American internees, 724 Restoration Era, 83 Resumption Act (1875), 485 Return from a Boarding School (engraving), 287 Return migration, 598 Revels, Hiram, 470 Revenue acts, 178, 186­188, 632, 659 Revere, Paul, 189­190, 194­195 Revivals, 157 Revolutionary ideals, 262­264 Revolutionary upheaval, in early 20th century, 647 Revolutionary War. See also Revolutionary War battles overview of, 199­201, 209 (map) African Americans and, 204­205, 222 American casualties in, 448 beginnings of, 167 demobilization process, 236­237 final phase of, 229­231 in global context, 202 (map), 217 in the North, 216 (map) opening volley of, 195 at sea, 222­223 smallpox epidemic and, 233­234
Revolutionary War (continued) in the South, 226­227, 227 (map) Spain and, 215 in the West, 224 (map) women in, 221 Revolutionary War battles Bunker Hill, 201, 205­206 Camden, 226 Concord Bridge, 103 Cowpens, 228 Fallen Timbers, 275 (map), 276 Fishing Creek, 226 Guilford Courthouse, 228 King's Mountain, 226 Long Island, 211 Monmouth, 220 Princeton, 212 Thames, 275 (map) Tippecanoe, 275 (map) Revolution in the workplace, 537­547 Reykjavik summit (1986), 889 Reynolds, E. B., 535 Reynolds. v. Sims, 814 Rhett, Robert Barnwell, Jr., 425 Rhode Island following Revolutionary War, 251 laws limiting involuntary service, 107 ratification of proposed Constitution, 260 Revolutionary War and, 222 separation of church and state, 156 slaves in, 127 Rhode Island colony, 88, 89 (map) Rhodesia, 857 (map) Rhody (slave), 444 Rice, Condolezza, 951, 952 Rice economy, 319 Rice farming, 122, 150, 321, 466­467 Rice zone in West Africa, 116 (map) Rich and Brothers Dry Goods, Atlanta, 563 Richelieu, Cardinal, 49­50 Richmond, California, 724­725 Richmond, Virginia, 148, 544 Rickey, Branch, 752 Ridge, John, 366 Ridge, Major (the Ridge), 312­313, 366 Riegner, Gerhard, 726 Riesman, David, 801 Riggs, Bobby, 863 Riis, Jacob, 547­548 Riley, Charles S., 583 Rio Grande River, 941 Rio Grande valley, 43, 138 "Rip Van Winkle" (Irving), 355 52
Rise and Fall of Man, The (political cartoon), 669 Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy, The (Stoddard), 667 River-mining operation, Chinese, 528 Riverside trading centers, 148 Road building, following War of 1812, 314 Roaring twenties, 651 Robert (runaway slave), 424­425 Roberts, John, 934 Robertson, Pat, 881­882, 884 Roberval, 28 Robeson, Paul, 772 Robinson, Gene, 929 Robinson, Jackie, 752, 752 Robinson, Jo Ann, 792 Rock, Chris, 952 Rockefeller, John D., 436­437, 500­501, 565, 607­ 608 Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 629­630 Rockefeller Center, 700 Rock Hill, South Carolina, 792 Rockingham, Lord, 182 Rock 'n' roll, 751­752, 800­801, 892 Rock Springs massacre, 528 Rockwell, Norman, 718 Rocky Mountain fur trade, 372 Rocky Mountain National Park, 634 Rodham, Hillary, 832, 910­912, 923 Rodriguez, Louis, 900 Roe v. Wade, 828, 862­863, 918 Rogers, Ginger, 732 Rogers, Will, 665, 680, 680­681, 695, 702 Rolfe, John, 56, 64 "Roll On Columbia," 699 Roman Catholics. See Catholics Roosevelt, Eleanor, 693, 694­695, 700, 711, 746, 805 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 693 court-packing plan, 712 death of, 746 Democratic coalition and, 681­682 Fair Employment Practices Commission and, 736 "Going Home," 747 Great Depression and, 679, 693­694 immigration restrictions, 725 inaugural address, 695 internment of Japanese Americans, 723 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 719­720 Manhattan Project authorized by, 739 New Deal coalition, 709­710 reelection of, 728 Will Rogers and, 681 second term of, 706­707
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (continued) support of Axis powers, 718 and WWII, 715, 719, 732­733 Roosevelt, Theodore, 576, 580­581, 584­586, 591­ 593, 595­597, 605, 614­618, 636, 648 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 593 Root, Elihu, 636 Roots (Haley), 863, 864 Rose and the Originals, 801 Rosebud Indian Reservation, 557 Rosenberg, Ethel, 771 Rosenberg, Julius, 771 Rosenthal, Joe, 730 Rosenwald, Julius, 564­565 Rosewood, Florida, burning of, 648 Rosie the Riveter, 733­734 Ross, John, 366, 434 Rouensa (Illinois Chief), 76 Rough Riders, 581 Royal Adventurers into Africa, 84 Royal African Company (RAC), 84, 109, 114, 117, 132, 134 Royal charters, 85 RU-486, 919 Rubber industry sit-down strike, 707 Rubin, Jerry, 879 Ruby, Jack, 806 Ruiz, Francisco, 385 Ruiz de Burton, Maria Ampara, 478 Rum, 152 Rumsfeld, Donald, 930­931, 933, 935 Runaway slaves advertisement for, 365 in Boston, 364 during Civil War, 423­424, 438­439, 444 Georgia and, 324 in Northwest Ordinance of 1787, 247 Treaty of Payne's Landing and, 365 Rupert (Prince), 114 Rural Americans, following WWII, 783 Rush, Benjamin, 259 Russell, Osborne, 368 Russell, Rosalind, 710 Russia. See also Soviet Union areas lost in WWI, 644 (map) British War against American colonies and, 210 civil war in, 646 colonial expansion by, 622 defeat by Japan, 624 and Entente, 622 fur traders from, 199 immigrants from, 606 (map) territory north of 51st parallel and, 337
53
Russian Alaska, 169, 171­172, 173 (map), 234 Russian-American Company, 172 Russian fur traders, 103 Russian fur trappers, 172 Russian Jews, 501, 503, 543 (map), 733 Russian Revolution, 638, 641, 642­643 Russo-American Treaty (1824), 338 Rustbelt, 769, 847 Rusticating, 561 Ruth, Babe, 651 Rwanda, genocide in, 916 S Sacajawea, 299 Sacco, Nicola, 654, 655 Sadat, Anwar, 856, 890 Saehle, Jannicke, 359­360 Sagadahoc River, 54 Sagebrush Rebellion, 876 Sagres, Portugal, 16­17 Sahagъn, Bernardino de, 26­27 Said, Edward, 759 Sailing, deep-sea, 15 Sailors, 273, 301, 310, 732 Saint-Mйmin, C. B. J. Fйvret de, 298 Saipan, U.S. invasion of, 730 Salem, Massachusetts, 94­95 Salinger, J. D., 800 Salk, Jonas, 779 Salt Lake City, Utah, 368, 505, 506­507 Salt of the Earth (film), 772, 773 Saltwater slaves, 109, 120 Salvadoran refugees, 874 Sampson, Deborah (Robert Shurtleff), 221 Samuelson, Paul, 809 San Antonio, Texas, 136­137 San Antonio de Valero, 82 San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez, 838 Sanchez, Josй Maria, 372 Sanctuary movement, 873­874 Sand Creek massacre, 451, 629 San Diego mission, 349 Sandinistas, 873 San Francisco, California, 507 San Francisco Bay, 173 San Francisco Chinese Mission Home, 529, 574 San Francisco earthquake, 595 San Francisco Workingmen's Party, 523, 554 San Gabriel Mission, 173­174, 233, 349, 350­351 Sanger, Margaret, 628 San Jose, 173 San Juan River basin, 12
San Marcos, St. Augustine, 82 San Patricio Soldiers, 390 San Saba Mission, 140 San Salvadore, 18 Santa Ana, Father, 136­138 Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez de, 385 Santa Fe, New Mexico, 44, 140 Santa Fe Ring, 478­479 Santa Fe Trail, 369 (map) Santee Sioux Indians, 424­425, 439, 440 San Xavier del Bac mission, 81 Sгo Tomй island, 106 Saratoga, British surrender at, 215 Sargent, John Singer, 577 Sassamon, John, 88 Satellites. See Sputnik Saturday Evening Post (magazine), 718, 737 Saturday Night Massacre, 844 Saudi Arabia, 848­849, 871, 890, 947 Saukamappee (Cree Indian), 141 Sauk Indians, 225, 276, 352, 360, 366 (map), 560 (map) Savage, Edward, 168 Savannah, Georgia, 131, 453, 454, 457­458 Savannah Cotton Exchange, 502 Savannah Education Association (SEA), 457­458 Savings, 685, 939 Savings and loan industry collapse, 880 Sayles, John, 910 Sayre, Zelda, 673 Scalawags, 463 Scales, Jessie Sleet, 614 Scandinavian immigrants, 360, 501 Scanlon, Emily, 511 Scarification, 104 Schenck v. United States, 639 Schenectady, founding of, 53 Schlafly, Phyllis, 863­864 Schmeling, Max, 710, 712 School busing, 836, 848 School districts, autonomy of, 838 Schools. See also Education; specific school names for African Americans, 457­458, 468, 472 compulsory attendance laws, by state, 564 (map) integrated kindergarten class, 790 integration of, 752, 790­791 for Native Americans, 550­551, 556­557, 831 new roles for 19th-century, 563­566 prayer in, 814, 884 secondary, 565, 919 segregation in, 752, 789, 805 shootings in, 919 vocational instruction in, 564 54
Schroeder, Pat, 891 Schuyler, Philip, 203­204, 243 Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 607 Schwerner, Michael, 822 Science, 614­616, 665­666, 777 Scientific management, and mass production, 616 Scioto Company, 247 Scopes, John Thomas, 668­669 Scopes trial, 666, 668­669 Scotland, immigrants from, 146 Scots-Irish immigrants, 146­147 Scott, Dred, 417­418 Scott, Garrett, 571 Scott, J. W., 495 Scott, Thomas A., 492, 518­519 Scott, William "Long Bill," 200­201 Scott, Winfield, 306, 366, 387, 388­389, 411, 412, 436 Scottish Highlanders, 133 Scottish Presbyterians, 147 Scottsboro Boys, 686, 687, 712 Scurvy, 28, 170 SDS (Students for a Democratic Society), 823 (map), 824­826 Sea Around Us, The (Carson), 786 Seabiscuit, 711 Seafaring, 301 Sea Islands, 460, 464­465 Sears, Richard, 515 Sears, Roebuck Catalogue, 515 Seasoning, of saltwater slaves, 120 Sea transportation, 551 Seattle General Strike Committee, 647 Seaver, James, 163 Secession of southern states, 425­428, 426 (map) Second Amendment, 919 Secondary boycotts, prohibition of, 753 Second Bank of the United States, 335, 343 Second Confiscation Act (1862), 444 Second Continental Congress, 202­204, 207 Second Great Awakening, 353 Second New Deal, 696, 703­706 Second Party system, 374 Second Seminole War, 365 Secret ballot, 409 Sectionalism, slavery and, 311 Securities, 250, 251­252 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 712 Security Act (Charleston), 126 Security state, creation of, 764 Sedition Act, 639 Seekaboo, 303
Segregation in armed services, 737 de facto, 788 defense of, by Johnson and Democratic party, 822 in flood relief camps, 666­667 following WWII, 750 of public accommodatons, 562 residential, 777 in schools, 752, 789, 805 in suburbs, 768 in unions, 571 upheld by Supreme Court, 586 in U.S., 757 Seguin, Juan, 385 Seidman, William, 880 Selective Service Act (1915), 639 Self-determination, 645 Selma, Alabama, 812 Seminole Indians, 277, 308­309, 365, 366 (map). See also Five Civilized Tribes Senate, U.S., first black member of, 470 Senate Watergate committee, 843 Seneca Indians, 163, 177, 225. See also Iroquois Confederacy Senegambia, 116 (map), 117 Separate but equal doctrine, 789 Separation of blacks and whites, 113 Separation of church and state, 62, 156 Separation of powers, 219, 254, 470 Separatists, 57­58 Sephardic Jews, 52, 156 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 925, 926­927 Sequoyah, 345 Serapis (frigate), 223 Serbia, 916 (map), 923 Serpent Mound site, Ohio, 13 Serpollet, Leon, 495 Serra, Junнpero, 173 Servants, skin color and terms of service, 107 Service Employees International Union, 902­904 Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill), 749, 751, 777 Service workers, 902­904 Settlement houses, 551, 574 Seuss, Dr., 721 Seventeenth Amendment, 632 Seventh U.S. Cavalry, 474, 537 Seven Years' War (French and Indian War), 103, 160, 167, 175, 177 Sewall, Arthur, 570 Seward, William H., 442, 480­481 Sewell, Samuel, 128 Sex discrimination, 705, 828­829
55
Sex education, 802 Sexual abuse, 322, 928­929 Sexual behavior, 282, 382, 617, 665, 769, 899, 913 Sexual harassment, 886, 908­909, 913 Sexuality, 670, 735, 769, 801, 884, 928 Sexual mores, 617­618, 735, 800­801 Sexual revolution, 800­801, 827­828, 884 Seymour, Horatio, 471 Shabonee, 304 Shaker Heights, Ohio, 782 Shakers, 281­282 Shakopee Indians, 901 Shanghai, China, 727 Sharecroppers, 532 (map) and Agricultural Adjustment Act, 696 black, union of, 648 class divisions and, 467 New Deal and, 706 percentage of farms operated by, 539 and poverty, 674 Share-Our-Wealth Plan, 702 Shaw, Benjamin, 495 Shawnee Indians, 224, 276, 304, 560 (map). See also Ohio Confederacy Shays, Daniel, 252 Shays Rebellion, 251­252, 261 Sheep, 45, 81 Shelburne, Earl of, 230 Shelikov, Grigorii, 172 Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, 147 Sheppard-Towner Act (1921), 627, 653 Sheridan, Philip H., 452, 458 Sherman, Roger, 207 Sherman, William T., 452­454, 458, 464­465 Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890), 522, 570, 592­593, 633­634 Sherman's hairpins, 454 Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890), 567 Shi'a Muslims, in Iran, 870, 932 (map), 935 Shima, George (Kinji Ushijima), 504 Shinn, Everett, 618 Shipbuilding, 152 Shipping, 331 Shipyards, 724­725 Shoe factory workers, 486 Shopping centers, 780 Short, Mercy, 95 Shoshone Indians, 138, 476, 480, 869 Show Window, The (magazine), 515­516 Siberia to Alaska land bridge, 3 Sieh King King, 602­603 Siemens, William, 495 Sierra Club, 560­561, 595, 849, 878
Sierra Leone, 203 Silent majority, 836 Silent Spring (Carson), 786­787 Simpson, O. J., 899, 909, 923 Sinclair, Harry F., 659 Sinclair, Upton, 590­591, 703 Sioux Indians communal way of life, 356 expansion of, 141­142 and Iroquois Confederacy, 225 at Little Big Horn, 476 Plains Indian Wars and, 475 response to Sand Creek massacre, 452 role of women, 349 uprising of, 360 Sirhan Sirhan, 834 Sirica, John, 843 Siskiyou, California, 528 Sister Carrie (Dreiser), 618­619 Sisters of Mercy, 362 Sit-down strikes, 707­708 Sit-ins, 791­793 Sitka, Alaska, 172 Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotake), 475, 476, 513, 513, 535, 536­537 Six Nations, 276. See also Ohio Confederacy Sixteenth Amendment, 632 Skin color and competition for jobs, 364 as distinguishing marker, 107­108, 113 and identity, 371­372 and prejudices, 600­601 and privilege, 401 slavery and, 105 and social status, 403 Skyscrapers, 505 Slater, Samuel, 267 Slave-based societies, 103 Slave Coast (Bight of Benin), 116 (map), 117 Slave coffles, 334 Slave drum, 124 Slave families, 320­321, 363 Slave funerals, 323 Slaveholders, 204, 290, 324, 356, 408 Slave labor camps, 110­111 Slave labor system, 127, 130 Slave markets, 363 Slave revolts, 125­126, 134, 324, 347 Slavery in 1860s U.S., 428 (map) John Quincy Adams on, 330­331 conflict over, 329, 331, 415
56
Slavery (continued) Congress's refusal to exclude from new states, 245 cotton plantation economy and, 199, 267, 280, 318­325 expansion into western territories, 421 expansion of, 274­280, 334­335 extent of, in 1819, 329 in Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, 87 Industrial Revolution and stigma of, 316 and insecurity of English colonies, 132­133 legalization of, in Georgia, 134 in Lincoln-Douglas debates, 421 Mexican-American War and, 390 Missouri Compromise, 331 in the North, 401­402 and Northwest Ordinance (1787), 256 in Ohio, 280 popular sovereignty and, 410 preserved by Constitutional Convention, 256 prohibition north of Ohio River, 246 religious institutions and, 353 resistance to, 322­325 in Texas, 385­386 truce on, 408­409 Turner revolt and end of debate, 348 violence over issue of, 415­417 white women and, 404 Slavery, abolition of, 271­272, 376, 416, 469 (map) Slaves in Age of the Common Man, 346­348 arson by, 123 barred from citizenship, 328 births of, 320 brutality against, 324 as contraband of war, 437 cultivating tobacco, 321 economic diversity among, 400 and election of 1800, 289 and Emancipation Proclamation, 441 exploitation of, in gold mines, 363 forced migrations of, 114, 361­362 funerals of, 323 hauling cotton, 334 hired out to work, 365 in horticultural society, 8 impressment of, by Confederate Army, 432 labor of, 321­322 legal killing of, 113 Native Americans as, 83 in North America, 121 (map) owned by Native Americans, 312 percentage of 1860 population, 428 (map)
Slaves (continued) population of, by region, 408 populations of, in the North, 127 as prisoners, 115 in proportional representation, 255­256 punishment of, 322 religious beliefs of, 323 resistance of, in Bacon's Rebellion, 134 resistance patterns, 123 runaway, 364 supply of, to Spanish colonies, 134 as surgeons' servant, 434 theft by, 324 unloading ships, 433 white servants vs., in Virginia, 113 Slave trade on the African coast, 115­117 from Africa to Caribbean, 25 Atlantic, during 18th century, 118­119 (map) British Caribbean and, 319 England and, 84 expansion of, 113 and forced migrations, 114 by nationality of carrier, 319 Portugal and, 17, 117 Stuyvesant and, 52 transatlantic, 35, 100, 108, 118­119 (map) Slave-trading voyage, 106 Slave unrest, 125 Slidell, John, 387­388, 442 Sloan, Alfred P., Jr., 665 Sloan, John, 618 Slovenia, 916, 916 (map) Smallpox epidemics, 26, 50, 177, 206­207, 214, 233­234, 235 (map) Smith, Alfred E., 659­660 Smith, Anna Deveare, 909 Smith, Howard K., 839 Smith, Hyrum, 368 Smith, John, 54, 58, 64 Smith, Joseph, 367­368 Smith, Joseph, Jr., 353­354 Smith, Mary Rozet, 618 Smith, R. B., 495 Smith Act (1940), 724 Smith-Connally Act (1943), 733 Smithsonian Institution, 368 Smog, 768, 942 Snuff, 151 Social conservatives, 881 Social covenant, 96 Social Darwinism, 522­523, 667­668 Social engineering, 520 57
Social Gospel, 551 Social hierarchies, 8, 280, 403­405 Social identities, cultural blending and, 372 Socialism, 542, 610­612, 682, 684 Socialist party, 590­591, 610, 612, 629, 748 Social justice, the Bible and, 883 Social programs, Reagan and, 875 Social reform, 547­549, 746 Social Security, 704­705, 811 Social Security Act, 701, 704­705, 712 Societies with slaves vs. slave societies, 151 Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 128 Society for the Promotion of the Manumission of Slaves, 240 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), 128 Society for the Relief of Poor Widows and Small Children, 281 Society of Friends, 52, 86 Society of the Cincinnati, 238, 253, 261 Soil depletion, tobacco and, 68, 280 Solomon, Job Ben (Simon), 109 Solon, 254 "So Long, It's Been Good to Know Yuh" (Guthrie), 690­691 Somalia, 916, 923 Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negros (Woolman), 130 Somoza, Antonio, 873 "Song of Myself" (Whitman), 405 Songs of the Great Depression, 690­691 Sons of Liberty, 180­182, 185, 190­192, 283 South enslaved people in, 121 (map) growth of the, 769­770 lower, enslaved people in, 122 New, 530­532 political power of, 407­414 wealth per person in 1770s, 152 white men eligible to vote in 1792, 281 South Africa, 842, 857 (map), 892 South Carolina absence of civil government, 185 abundance of, 146­147 Africans, importation of, 148 economy of, 319­320 enslaved people in, 122 growing season in, 148­149 Gullah language in, 323 hereditary race slavery system, 110 import duty on African arrivals, 127 labor camps in, 122 land claims of, 279 (map)
South Carolina (continued) nonsupport of curtailment of slavery, 256 and nullification, 342­343 ratification of proposed Constitution, 260 rice growers in, 122­123 runaway slaves, 324 secedes from Union, 425 and slavery during Revolutionary War, 222 Stamp Act resistance in, 182 and Stono Rebellion, 126 South Carolina and Georgia as economic region, 149 (map) Southern Alliance. See National Farmers' alliances Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 792 Southern Homestead Act (1866), 479 Southern land debates, 242­243, 242 (map) Southern Manifesto, 790 Southern Overland Trail, 369 (map) Southern states, disproportionate representation of, in 1800s, 290 Southern Tenant Farmers Union (STFU), 674, 709 South Korea, 765, 765 (map), 886. See also Korean War South Seas Exploring Expedition (Wilkes Expedition), 368 South Vietnam, 804, 815­816, 816 (map), 820, 836, 846. See also Vietnam War Southwest Territory, 278­279 (map), 398­399, 600­ 602. See also Old Southwest Soviet Communist party, 889 Soviet Union, 646, 914 allies in Cold War, 796­797 (map) on American race relations, 787 attacked by Hitler, 719 casualties in WWII, 740 and Cuban missile crisis, 804­805 detonation of first nuclear device, 764 dissolution of, 889, 892, 893 economic depression in, 755 economy of, 889 economy of, during Great Depression, 684 German attack on, 728 Kennedy and, 803­804 land annexed by, 748 (map) Nixon and, 840 North Korea occupation by, 765 and NSC-68, 762­763 occupation by, in Europe, 754 (map) political influence of, 755 Reagan and, 873­874 satellite Sputnik II launched, 794 satellite Sputnik launched, 778, 794 58
Soviet Union (continued) and Spain, 716 spies of, 771 as threat to security, 754­755 ties with Egypt, 798 in triangular diplomacy of Nixon and Kissinger, 841­842 U.S. conflict with, 755 and the Warsaw Pact, 795 in World War II, 727 (map) Space race, 777­778, 794, 836 Spain African men and explorations of, 106­107 British colonies acquired from, 181 (map) in California, 169 census of New Mexico, 271 cessions to U.S. by, 582, 586 civil war in, 716­717 colonies of, 78­82 colonies of, northern limit, 132 (map) conquistadors and introduction of horses, 373 control of western lands by, 234 Cuban revolt against colonialists, 579 domination of, west of Mississippi, 169 enslavement of African infidels, 106 exploration and settlement of the Americas, 23­ 30 influence in lower Mississippi area, 320 land claims, 242 (map) and Lewis and Clark Expedition, 301 (map) Louisiana Territory acquired by, 199 missions of, 73 (map) Native American allies of, 241 New World empire of, 40­47 North American colonies of, 48 presence on southern and western U.S. borders, 334, 337 and Revolutionary War, 201, 215, 222, 231 settlements of, 73 (map) slave traffic from Loango and Cabinda, 117 St. Augustine established by, 38 territory ceded to U.S., 580­581 (maps) transatlantic African slave trade, 319 Treaty of Tordesillas, 20 U.S. destruction fleet at Santiago Bay, 581­582 U.S. war against, 580, 586 war with Britain, 126 Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War, 580­581 (maps), 580 (map), 586 Spanish-American War, 448 Spanish Armada, 32 Spanish Civil War, 717 Spanish colonization, 80 (map), 106, 278 (map)
Spanish explorations, 42 (map), 174 (map) Spanish Florida, 45­47, 46, 122 Spanish influenza epidemic, 647 Spanish introductions to New Mexico, 45 Spanish land titles lost to squatters, 478­479 Spanish-language materials, 355 Spanish Louisiana, 181 (map), 194 (map) Spanish missions, 79, 82, 277, 345, 350­351 Spanish slave traders, 377­378 Spanish-speaking settlers, 348­349, 356 Spanish territory (1610), 42 (map) Speakeasies, 653­654 Spear, Chloe, 288 Special Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, 723 Spectral evidence, 94 Speculators in paper holdings, 249, 251­252 Speed limit, national, 851 Speert, Edith, 734 Speert, Victor, 734 Sperm whale industry, 273 Spice trade, 15, 18 Spiece, John B., 432 Spirituality, 826 Spiro, Oklahoma, 14 Spock, Benjamin, 769 Spoils system, 340 Sports, as entertainment, 512­513 Spotted Tail, 476 Sprague, Julian, 510 Sprague Electric Railway and Motor Co., 510 Springfield, Connecticut, 60 Sputnik, 778, 794 Sputnikburger, 794 Sputnik II, 794 Spy, The (Cooper), 355 Squanto, 39­40, 57 Squatters' claims, 478 St. Augustine, Florida, 33, 38, 45, 107, 125 St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, 324 St. Clair, Arthur, 275 (map), 276 St. Denis, 73 (map) St. Domingue (Haiti), 624 St. John de Crиvecoeur, Hector, 240 St. John the Baptist parish, Louisiana, 324 St. Lawrence River, 74 St. Lawrence Valley, 78 St. Marie, 50 St. Mary's City, Maryland, 66 St. Paul, Minnesota, 783 St. Thomas Protestant Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, 273 Stackpole, Ralph, 703 59
Stadacona, 28 Stagflation, 847 Stagnation, 847 Staines, John, 263 Stalin, Josef, 717, 728, 740­741, 747, 761, 795 Stamp Act, 179­180, 181 (map) Standard of living, decline in, 846 Standard Oil Trust, 501, 523 Standing armies, 189­190 Standing Bear (Ponca chief), 549, 556­557 Standing Bear v. Crook, 549 Standing Rock Reservation, 521 Stands-in-Timber, John, 139, 537 Stanford, Leland, 565 Stanford University, 565 Stanton, Edwin M., 455, 470­471 Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 351, 383, 407, 482, 573 Stanton, Henry B., 351 Staples, Yatta, 903 Starks, Margaret, 724 Starr, Ellen Gates, 551 Starr, Kenneth, 913 "Star Spangled Banner, The" (Key), 307, 308 State constitutions, 218­219, 219 State governors, 219 Statehood, Northwest Ordinance and, 246­247 State legislatures, 219, 254, 470­471 State militias, 220, 269, 648 State of the Union address, 912 State population growth, 1990s, 949 (map) State-Rights Democratic party (Dixiecrats), 770 States' power, 340 States' rights, 218, 265, 271, 328, 456, 875 State Street, Boston, 506 Statue of Liberty, 501, 505, 912 Steam Cotton Manufacturing Company, 267 Steamships, 314, 359 Steel industry, 496, 803 Steelworkers strike, 568 Steffens, Lincoln, 608 Steichen, Edward, 618 Stein, Gertrude, 673, 674 Steinbeck, John, 688 Steinem, Gloria, 859­860 Steiner, Franz "Frank," 713­714 Steiner, Hans, 714 Stephen (runaway slave), 424­425 Stephens, Alexander H., 425, 462 Stephens, Uriah, 485 Stereographs, 480 Sterilization, compulsory, 616, 668­669 Stettheimer, Florine, 650 Stevens, Thaddeus, 469
Stevenson, Adlai E., 767, 771, 793, 793 Stewart, Maria, 347, 406 Stieglitz, Alfred, 618 Stock market, 675­676, 876, 938 Stoddard, Lothrop, 667 Stokes, Carl, 824 Stoller, Mike, 801 Stone, Lucy, 482 Stonewall Brigade, 455 Stonewall gay rights uprising, 823 (map) Stono Rebellion, 125, 126, 134 Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 415­416 Strait of Gibralter, 18 Strait of Magellan, 25 Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT I), 841 Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty (SALT II), 871 Strategic Defense Initiative, 889 Straumfjord (L'Anse aux Meadows), Newfoundland, 15 Streetcars, electric, 509­510 Streeter, Anson J., 522 Strikebreakers, 486 Strikes eight-hour-workday movement and, 545 by Pennsylvania coal miners, 592 by Pullman employees, 569 sitdown, 712 in U.S., 647 by women textile workers, in Elizabethton, 675 Striking workers and families, violence against, 629 Strong, Josiah, 508­509, 523 Stuart, Gilbert, 276, 311 Stuart, James, 54 Stuart dynasty, 83, 87 Stuck, Hudson, 622­623 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 791 (map), 792­793, 808, 822 Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), 823 (map), 824­826 Stuyvesant, Judith Bayard, 52 Stuyvesant, Peter, 52, 85 Submarine warfare in WWI, 636­638 Submerged Land Act, 794 Suburban developments, 510, 768, 781, 781 Suburban life, 768­769, 778­781 Suburban population, 779 Suburban shopping malls, 879 Suburban sprawl, 780 Subversive organizations, 771 Sudetenland, 717 Suez Canal, 798, 821 Suffolk Resolves, 195 60
Suffrage, 254­255, 344. See also Voting rights; Women's suffrage Sugar Act (1764), 178 Sugar production, 106, 115, 320 Sugar revolution, 106 Suicide, by enslaved people, 125 Sukarno, 797 Sullivan, Anne, 609 Sullivan, Ed, 801 Sullivan, John L., 225, 252, 513 Sullivan's Island, 122, 208­209 Summary View of the Rights of British America A (Jefferson), 193 Summer of Love, 823 (map), 827 Summitt, Pat, 862 Sumner, Charles, 383, 417, 469, 481 Sumner, William Graham, 522­523, 584 Sumter, Thomas, 226­227 Sunbelt, growth in, 769 Sunni Muslims in Iran, 932 (map), 935 Sunshine law, 86 Sun Yat-sen, 623 Superpower summit meetings, 795 Supply-side economics, 876 Supreme Court and 2000 election, 899 Supreme Court, U.S., 921 John Adams's appointments to, 292 Alien and Sedition Acts, 270­271 Louis Brandeis and, 626 Dred Scott decision, 417­418 Earl Warren as chief justice, 813­814 first female justice, 864 and internment, 723 justices as slaveholders, 408 Franklin D. Roosevelt and, 706 and states' power, 340 support for Cherokee Nation, 342 Surfboarders, 171 Surgeon general, 813 Susan (Kentucky slave), 324 Susquehannock Indians, 89­90 Sutter, John, 394 Sutter's mill, gold discovery at, 394 Svan, John, 600­601 Sweatshops, 904 Sweden, colonies of, 48 Swedish immigrants, 360, 502 Swift, Elizabeth, 869­870 Swiss Reformation, 31 Sylvis, William, 485 Syngman Rhee, 765­766 Syria, 645, 645 (map), 848
T Taft, William Howard, 583, 594, 595­596, 596­597 Taft-Hartley Act (1947), 753 Tahlequah, 397 Taino Indians, 24­25 Taiwan, 890 Take Back the Night march, 860 Taliban regime, 917, 926­927, 930, 935, 947 Talleyrand, Charles, 270 Tallmadge, James, 329 Tallmadge Amendment, 329 Tamale and ice cream wagon, 671 Tamiami Trail, 672 Tammany Hall, 486, 510 Taney, Roger B., 417­418 Taos Trail, 369 (map) Tape, Joseph, 530 Tape, Mamie, 530 Tape, Mary, 530 Tappan, Arthur, 377 Tappan, Lewis, 377 Tarbell, Ida, 607­608 Tariffs of abominations, 342­343 foreign, and stock market crash, 676 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 914 on imported goods, 265 McKinley (1890), 567 national, 937 Payne-Aldrich (1909), 596 political parties and, 517 Underwood-Simmons (1913), 632 Tarleton, Banastre, 226, 228 Taxation George W. Bush and, 923 Civil War and, 441, 446 Bill Clinton and, 912 federal, 268, 632, 691, 781, 938, 939 following Revolutionary War, 265 by Massachusetts, 252 Ronald Reagan and, 875­876 regressive, 95, 185 Taylor, Frederick W., 495, 504­505, 616 Taylor, Susie King, 445 Taylor, Zachary, 388, 410 Tea Act (1773), 191­192 Teach, Edward "Blackbeard," 95 Teamsters' strike against United Parcel Service, 903 Teapot Dome scandal, 658 Tea tax, 191­192 Technology sector, expansion of, 900 Tecumseh, 303, 305­307 61
Tejanos, 334, 372, 384­385, 398, 435 Tejas Indians, 82 Telegraph, 379 Telephone, 496, 523, 805 Television, 778­779, 821, 945 Teller Amendment (1898), 580 Temperance movement, 240, 378, 383, 552, 553, 653 Tenant farmers, 185, 400, 532 (map), 539 Tenement House Commission, 547 Tennent, Gilbert, 158 Tennent, William, 158 Tennessee, 274, 327, 469 (map) Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railway Company, 530 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 697, 698 (map) Tenochtitlбn, Mexico, 11, 25 (map), 26­27 Ten Percent Plan, 460­461, 469 (map) Tenskwatawa (the Prophet), 303, 307 Tenure of Office Act (1867), 470­471 Teotihuacan, Mexico, 11 Terrell, Mary Church, 573­574 Territorial expansion condemnation of, in Atlantic Charter, 719 effects of, 297 following Revolutionary War, 234, 240­241 Thomas Jefferson as advocate of, 293 in mid-1840s, 384­386 into Mississippi Territory, 280 nineteenth-century, 397 (map) Republican support for, following Civil War, 480­481 southern planters' push for, 412­413 western, from southern states, 242­243 Territorial governments, 246, 388, 553 Territory ceded by Mexico, 387 (map) Terror and terrorism, 899 Hitler's campaign of, 716 international, 917­919 against Navajo, 439 Nazi reign of, 717 reign of, 266­267 by U.S. soldiers, 388­389, 583 Terrorist attacks, 925­926, 931­932 Terrorists Al Qaeda, 917, 926­927, 930 Islamist, 926, 928 Ku Klux Klan, 463 suspected, FBI and, 918 Tet Offensive, 820, 821, 834 Teton Sioux Indians, 141 Texas annexation area, 397 (map) annexation controversy, 385­386 borderland conflict in, 82­83
Texas (continued) independence of, from Mexico, 384­385, 398 lumber mills in, 498 name, origin of, 82 slavery in, 364 southern boundary of, prior to 1836, 336 Spanish claims to, 82 statehood of, 387 white migrants to, 398 Texas Rangers, 384, 399, 542 Texians, 334, 384 Textile industry, 311, 315, 349, 401, 495, 505 Thanksgiving, 57 Thatcher, Margaret, 872­873 Them! (film), 760 Third-party candidates, 923 Third Reich, 717. See also Germany; World War II Third World countries, 795, 796­797, 798­799, 803 Thirteenth Amendment, 462­463 This is the Army (film), 732 Thomas, Clarence, 892, 908­909 Thomas, Gertrude, 447 Thomas, Norman, 660, 694, 694 Thomas Road Baptist Church, 882 Thoreau, Henry David, 388, 404­405, 943 Thornton, Willie Mae, 801 Thorpe, Jim, 626 Thoughts on Government (Adams), 219 Three Days of the Condor (film), 851 Three-fifths clause, 255­256, 289­290, 408 Three Mile Island nuclear accident, 858, 860, 885 Thrift, as un-American, 767 Throckmorton (colonel), 739 Thurmond, Strom, 770 Ticonderoga, capture of, 164 Tilden, Samuel J., 487 (map), 488 Till, Emmett, murder of, 790 Timber Culture Act (1873), 479 Time (magazine), 753 Times, The (Hogarth), 176 Time-Warner, 900 Timucua, 82 Timucuan language, 45 "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too," 377 Tirsch, Ignacio, 175 Tishcohan, 154 Title IX, Educational Amendments (1972), 862 Tito, Josip Broz, 841, 916 Tituba, 94 Tlingit Indians, 172, 481, 575 Tobacco companies, civil suits against, 901 Tobacco economy, 56, 67­68, 89, 109­111, 319 Tobacco production, 151
62
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 344 Tojo, Hidek, 719 Toklas, Alice B., 673, 674 Tokugawa dynasty, 40, 42 Tokyo, U.S. firebombing of, 731 Tolsey, Alexander, 109 Toltec Indians, 10 (map), 11 Tories, 167 Torjersen family, 359­360 Total war, 450, 725 "To the Young" (radio program), 732 Toulumne River, damming of, 595 Tourism, 478, 480, 664, 936­937 Touro Synagogue, Newport, Rhode Island, 156 Towne, Laura, 445 Townsend, Francis, 701 Townsend Plan, 701 Townshend, Charles, 187­188 Townshend Revenue Act, 187­188 Townships, 244 Toxic waste dumps, 942 Toynbee Hall, 551 Trade, 13­14, 115, 636­637, 841, 937. See also specific types of trade Tragedy of the commons, 940 Trail of Tears, 365­367, 367 Tran Duc Luong, 915 Trans-Alaska Pipeline system, 857 Trans-Appalachian West, 274­275, 276, 328 Transcendentalism, 384, 388 Transcontinental airmail service, 622 Transcontinental railroad, 458­459, 473, 665 Transcontinental Treaty, 337 Transjordan, after WWI, 645, 645 (map) Transportation. See also Automobiles in cities of 1880s, 509 inventions of late 19th century, 495 and market revolution, 317 and migration, 331 Travel abroad, 953 Travis, Joseph, 348 Treaties antiballistic missile (ABM), 841 Brest-Litovsk, 642 with Britain, 269, 311 Bryan-Chamorro, 624 Burlingame, 477 Five-Power Naval, 657 of Fort Atkinson, 397 of Fort Laramie, 397, 422, 476 of Ghent, 309­310 of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 387, 390, 395­396, 398 of Horseshoe Bend, 308
Treaties (continued) INF, 889 with Japan, 412 Kansas-Nebraska Act and violations of, 412 and land cessions, 536 (map) of Medicine Lodge Creek, 474 with Native Americans, 243, 367, 397, 459, 907 nuclear test ban, 805 Panama Canal, 856 of Paris, 160, 165, 243, 261 Russo-American, 338 SALT I and II, 841, 871 of San Lorenzo, 269 Tecumseh on, 303­304 of Tordesillas, 20 Transcontinental, 337 U.S. changed policy, 474 at Utrecht, 98 of Versailles, 622, 643­646, 716 Tree sitting, 904, 904 Trenchard, John, 183­184 Trench warfare in WWI, 632, 637 Trenton, New Jersey, 266 Trent (ship), 442 Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire, 611 Triangular diplomacy, 841­842 Trickle-down economics, 659, 881 Tripoli, war against, 292 Tripp, Linda, 913 Trolleys. See Streetcars, electric Troy Female Seminary, 351 Truman, Harry S., 757 and atomic bomb, 741 and creation of national security state, 764 and Japanese American soldiers, 723 and limits of liberal reform, 770 and Douglas MacArthur, 766­767 and McCarthyism, 771 and reconstruction agenda, 756 rejection of, 753 Roosevelt's death and presidency of, 679, 746 as Roosevelt's running mate, 728 and Soviet Union, 747 as veteran, 642 Truman Doctrine, 756, 762, 814, 836 Trumbull, John, 208, 243 Trump, Donald, 880 Trump, Ivana, 880 Trusts, 500, 522 Truth, Sojourner (Isabella Baumfree), 406, 407, 482 Tryon, William, 185 Tryon's Palace, 186 Tsimshian people, 481 63
Tuberculosis, 920 Tubman, Harriet, 419­420 Tudor dynasty, 32 Tulsa, Oklahoma, 648 Tumulty, Joseph, 648 Tunica Indians, 141 Turkey, after WWI, 645 (map) Turner, Benjamin S., 470 Turner, Frederick Jackson, 558­559 Turner, Nat, 347 Turner, Ted, 936 Turning Stone casino, 901 Turquoise, 11 Tuscarora Indians, 99, 225. See also Iroquois Confederacy Tuskegee Airmen, 736 Tuskegee Institute, 565 Tutu, Desmond, 885 Tuxpan, Mexico, 386 Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens), 519, 584 Tweed, William M. "Boss," 486, 486, 510 Twentieth-century liberalism, 632 Twenty-first Amendment, 696, 712 Twenty-Negro Law, 424 Twenty-seventh Amendment, 899 Twilight, Los Angeles (Smith), 909 Two-party system, 263, 360­361, 380, 410 Tyler, John, 377, 386 Typewriters, 496 Typhoid fever, 614 Typhoid Mary, 614 Typhus epidemic, 306 Typographers, 486 U U-boats, German, 636­637 Ugly American, The (Lederer & Burdick), 799 Unabomber, 917 Uncle Tom's Cabin (Stowe), 415­416 Underground Railroad, 410, 411 (map), 415, 419­ 420 Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913), 632 Unemployment, 497, 675, 683, 684, 847 Unicameral legislature, 86 Union, readmission of Confederate states to the, 471 Unionization, 544, 629, 647­648 Union Labor party, 522 "Union Maid" (Guthrie), 690­691 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). See Soviet Union Union Pacific Railroad, 458­459, 473, 473, 486 Union party, 706 Unions. See Labor unions
United Airlines Flight 93, 925, 926 United Auto Workers (UAW), 708 United Farm Workers (UFW), 823 (map), 830, 831 United Mine Workers (UMW), 546, 571, 592, 647, 733 United Nations of Indians, 434 United Nations (UN), 695, 749, 893, 929 United Nations (UN) Human Rights Charter, 749 United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearance (Shakers), 282 United Society of Chimney Sweeps, 316 United States, statistical center of, 330 United States-Canadian border, 311 United States (U.S.) allies in Cold War, 796­797 (map) boundaries negotiated with Great Britain, 231 Capitol in 1814, 307 embassy in Tehran, Iran, 869­870, 871 emergence as global power, 623 legislature, 254­255 neutrality, 631­632, 635­636, 716 population structure by gender and age, 144 southern boundary granted by Britain, 241 transatlantic slave trade, 118­119 (map), 319 United States (U.S.) government agencies. See also Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Bureau of Indian Affairs, 772 Bureau of Land Management (BLM), 633 (map), 876­877, 940­941 Bureau of Reclamation, 941 Department of Agriculture (USDA), 497, 560 Department of Defense, 764 Department of Energy (DOE), 857 Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 928 Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 803 Department of Justice, 822, 928 Department of Labor, 630 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 835, 850­851, 857, 877 Forest Service, 560, 633 (map), 876­877 Freedmen's Bureau, 350, 457­458, 463­464, 465­466, 466 Geological Survey (USGS), 497 Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 887 Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 843 National Park Service, 633 (map), 634 National Weather Service, 864, 934 National Youth Administration, 705, 732 Office of Strategic Services (OSS), 815 Office of the Independent Counsel, 913 Office of War Information (OWI), 732
64
United States (U.S.) government agencies (continued) Prohibition Bureau, 653­654 Railroad Administration, 639 Sanitary Commission, 437 territory, 387 (map) Topographical Corps of Engineers expedition, 368­369 Women's Bureau, 734 United States (U.S.)-Mexico border, 936 United States (U.S.) military. See also Continental Army 7th Fleet, 766 29th Regiment, U.S. Colored Troops, 444 33rd U.S. Colored Cavalry (First South Carolina Volunteers), 445 54th Massachusetts Infantry, 442 369th Infantry Regiment, 643 382nd Platoon, U.S. Marine Corps (all-Navajo), 730 442nd Regiment (Japanese American), 723 Abu Ghraib, abuse of Iraqi detainees at, 933 Air Force, 720 Army, creation of, 202­203 Army training bases, 769­770 in battle against union organizers, 648 Charlie Company, 819 in clashes with Native Americans, 360, 458 Corps of Engineers, 941 cultural influence of, 946 desegregation of, 770 Eisenhower's New Look for, 793­795 expenditures of, 764, 766, 769, 815, 873, 875, 900 Ghost Dances, response to, 535 Marine Corps, birth of, 270 Navy, birth of, 222­223, 270 occupations by, 764, 764­765 in Persian Gulf War, 895 (map) segregation, racial, 532­533 soldier, in the Philippines, 582 surveillance plane collision, 948 troops withdrawn from South, 488 on Tuxpan River, 386 WAAC (Women's Army Auxiliary Corps), 734, 738 in War in Iraq, 935 in War of 1812, 305 warplanes shot down by Libya, 890 women, opportunities for, 734 in WWI, 642 in WWII, 715, 720 United States (U.S.) Patriot Act, 926­927, 928
United States v. E. C. Knight, 570 Universal Manufacturing Co., 935­936 Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), 657, 657 University of Alabama, 805 University of Chicago, 565 University of Nevada Oral History Program, 738 Uprising of the 20,000, 610­611 Uranium mines, 869 Urban growth, 506­508 Urban managerial class, 484 Urban renewal, effects of, 782­783 Urrutia, Turibio de, 136­137 Ursuline convent, Charlestown, 362 U.S. Steel, 633, 708 USS Cole, bombing of, 917 USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). See Soviet Union Utah, 395, 410, 413 (map) Ute Indians, 81, 138 Utopian experiments, 155, 382 V Valdez, Maria Rita, 395 Valens, Ritchie, 801 Valentino, Rudolph, 661 Valera, Eamon de, 647 Vallandigham, Clement, 449 Valley Forge mural, 221 Values, 800, 881, 906­908, 934 Van Angola, Anna, 107 Van Blarenberghe, Louis Nicolas, 229 Van Buren, Martin, 375­376, 385, 410 Vance, Cyrus, 871 Vance, Zebulon, 433 Vancouver, George, 233­234 Van Lew, Elizabeth, 435 Van Rensselaer, Alida Schuyler, 85 Vanzetti, Bartolomeo, 654, 655 Vaqueros, outfits of, 351 Vargas, Diego de, 80 Veblen, Thorstein, 567 Velбsquez, Loreta Janeta, 435, 436 Ventura, Jesse, 923 Vera Cruz, 26 Vergennes, Comte de, 215, 230­231 Vermont Civil Union Law, 906­907 Vermont statehood, 247 Verrazano, Giovanni da, 27, 29, 33 (map), 54 Versailles, France, 231 Versailles Conference (1919), 644 (map) Vertical integration, 500 Vesey, Denmark, 346 65
Vesey plot, 346 Vespucci, Amerigo, 20 Veterans of 1812 War, 311­313 African American, 750 discrimination against, 752 land warrants granted to, 304 (map) of Persian Gulf War, 917 of Revolutionary War, 236­237 of Vietnam War, 837, 845­846 of War in Iraq, 935 of WWI, violence against, 693 of WWII, 741, 751 Veterans Administration, 768 Viagra, 920 Vice-admiralty courts, 178, 188, 194 (map) Vice crusaders, 609 Vick Plantation, 334 Victorianism, 356, 481­482, 523 Victorian parlor, 575 Victoria (ship), 25­26 Victory gardens, 733­734 Victory girls, 733­734 "Victory or Death" code phrase, 213 Viet Cong (VC), 804, 816­820, 845 Vietnam, 816 (map) Clinton's visit to, 915 creation of independent, 749 Geneva Accords and, 815 U.S. economic development aid offered, 817 U.S. military in, 818­819, 820 U.S. withdrawal from, 845­846 Vietnamese nationalists (Vietminh), 815 Vietnamese people, American perception of, 818 Vietnamese refugees, 848 Vietnamese revolution, 815­816, 818 Vietnam veterans, 845­846 Vietnam Veterans Against the War, 837 Vietnam War, 809, 816 (map) American casualties in, 448 battle of Dien Bien Phu, 815 body counts, as measurement of progress, 818­ 819 Cold War and, 746 free fire zones in, 817­818 Martin Luther King, Jr. and, 824­825 and stagflation, 847 turning point of, 820­821 U.S. soldiers in, 818­819 U.S. troop levels and casualties, 820 Vigilantes, white, 463, 469 Vikings, 3, 15 Villa, Francisco "Pancho," 626
Vindication of the Rights of Woman, A (Wollstonecraft), 284 Vinland colony, Newfoundland, 15 Vinson, Mechelle, 886 Virginia, 98 (map) antislavery proposal defeated, 348 Bacon's Rebellion, 89­91 bill of rights in, 260 England's claim to, 54 and first republican state constitution, 218 free people of color, restrictions on, 127 House of Burgesses, 191 land claims of, 243­244, 279 (map) manumission ban lifted, 273­274 Negro Act of 1705, 113 population of, in 1660s, 66 ratification of proposed Constitution, 258 and reconstruction, 469 (map) as a royal colony, 64 skin color and laws of, 107, 113 slavery in, 110, 122, 222 tobacco exports, 67 Virginia Company, 54­55, 56­57, 64­65 Virginia Declaration of Rights, 218, 256 Virginia militia, free blacks in, 124 Virginia Plan, 255 Virginia Resolution, 342 Virginia Resolves, 180 Virginia (ship), 54 Vizcaнno, Sebastiбn, 41­43 Vizcaнno, Sebastiбn, 42 (map) V-J Day (Victory in Japan Day), 742 Vladivostock summit, 846 Vocational training in schools, 564­565 Volstead Act (1919), 653 Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), 811 Von Kocherthal, Joshua, 146­147 Von Steuben, Friedrich, 220­222 Voter lists in 2000 election, Florida, 921­922 Voter participation, 939 Voting, 912 Voting machines, 921­922 Voting rights. See also Women's suffrage in California, 396 Constitutional Convention and, 254­255 for free blacks, 346 limitations on, 219, 246, 573 march for, in Selma, 823 (map) revoked by Berkeley, 89 white men and, 281 white supremacy and, 562 Voting Rights Act, 812, 824, 922 66
W WAAC (Women's Army Auxiliary Corps), 734, 738 Wachovia, North Carolina, 150 Waco, Texas, 923 WAC (Women's Army Corps), 734 Wade-Davis Bill (1864), 460 Wage earning, 317, 401 Wage slavery, 402 Wagner-Rogers bill, 726 Walden (Thoreau), 405 Walker, David, 346 Walker, William, 412 Walker's Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World (Walker), 346 Walking Purchase, 154 Wallace, Bess, 642 Wallace, George, 686, 805, 834­835 Wallace, Henry A., 696, 728, 770 Walls, Josiah T., 470 Wall Street, New York, 51, 506 Wall Street Journal, 847 Wal-Mart, 929, 939 Walsh, Frank, 630 Walter Reed Hospital, 935 Walton, Sam, 939 Wampanoag Indians, 87, 98 Wamsutta, 88 Wanamaker department stores, 514 Wang Laboratories, 833 War Crimes Tribunal (The Hague), 917 Ward, Nancy, 312­313 War hawks, and War of 1812, 303, 304­305 Warhol, Andy, 827 War Industries Board, 639 War in Iraq, 929­933, 935 War Labor Board, 639 Warner, Charles Dudley, 519 Warner, Emily Howell, 839­840 War of 1812, 300, 304­310, 306 (map), 325, 448 War of 1812 battles Baltimore, 307 Bladensburg, 307 Chippewa, 306 Detroit, 305 Horseshoe Bend, 307, 310 New Orleans, 308 Thames, 306 Tippecanoe, 304 War of 1898, 579­583 War of American Independence. See Revolutionary War War of Spanish Succession, 76, 78, 93, 98 War of the League of Augsburg, 93
War on drugs, 902 War on Poverty, 811­813 War on terror, 926­927, 928, 930­931 War on waste, 857 War Powers Act, 851 War profiteers, in Civil War, 437 Warren, Adelina Otero, 610, 653 Warren, Earl, 722, 789, 806, 813­814 Warren Commission, 806 Warren Court, 813 Wars, American casualties in, 448 Warsaw Pact, 754 (map), 795, 796­797 (map) War veterans. See Veterans Washington, Augustus, 420 Washington, Booker T., 565, 593 Washington, D. C., 410 Washington, George, 205, 311 attack on French soldiers at Fort Duquesne, 161 as commander of Continental Army, 204, 213­ 214 Constitutional Convention and, 253 defeat at Fort Necessity, 162 elected president, 261, 264 farewell address, 269 Fugitive Slave Act and, 263 Ona Judge and, 262­263 manumission by, 273­274 and military dissidents at Newburgh, 237 Northwest Ordinance and, 276­277 Proclamation Line and, 177 Proclamation of Neutrality, 267 retreat toward Philadelphia, 212 Society of the Cincinnati and, 238 struggle to control Boston, 205­206 in Trenton, New Jersey, 266 two-party system and, 264­265 use of name for streets and towns, 239 Whiskey Rebellion and, 268­269 Washington, Martha Custis, 262 Washington Post, 843, 935 Washington Society, 380 Washington Territory, 413 (map) Water consumption, 943­944 Water cure, 583 Watergate scandal, 841­843 Water pollution, 835 Waters, Ethel, 663 Water supply in 19th-century cities, 510 Watie, Stand, 434, 435 Watson, Thomas E., 570 Watt, James, 877­878 Watts uprising, Los Angeles, 662, 823, 823 (map) 67
WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service), 734 Wayne, Anthony "Mad Anthony," 276­277 Wayne, John, 856 Wealth concentration of, in 1920s, 676, 685 distribution of, in U.S. and Europe (1798), 291 following WWII, 780, 809 gap between rich and poor, 685, 878 gospel of, 518­519 industrial capitalism and, 628­629 inherited, 939 percent of, owned by adult males, 291 per person in 1770s, 152 presidential pardons for Confederates and, 461­ 462 share of growth in 1980s, 881 Share-Our-Wealth Plan, 702 sources of, following Revolutionary War, 248­ 249 "Wealth" (Carnegie), 518 Weapon assembly plants, 760 Weather Underground, 826 Weaver, James B., 520, 568 Weaver, Randall, 918 Webber, John, 171 Webster, Daniel, 375 Webster, Noah, 239­240 Weimar Republic, 649 Welch, Jack, 898, 898 Welfare, 683, 705, 811, 912 Welfare Reform Act, 912, 923 Welfare states, 683, 712, 749, 875 Wells, Ida B., 553, 563, 610, 613 Wesley, John, 157 West, May, 710 West, the, 951 West Africa, 84, 107, 116 (map), 290 West Berlin, 756 West Central Africa (Congo-Angola), 116 (map), 117 West Coast military bases, 769­770 Western European immigrants, 502, 948 Western Federation of Miners;, 568 Western frontier, closing of, 558­559 Western Herald (newspaper), 365 Western land claims, 279 (map) Western life, multicultural mix of, 368 Western migration, 314, 329­340, 360, 369 (map) Western plains, 138 "Western Planting" (Hakluyt), 37 Western settlers, 328 Western territories, Northwest Ordinance and, 246­ 247
Western trails, 369 (map) West Florida, British-ruled providence of, 194 (map) West Germany, 847 West Indies abolition of slavery in, 376 British, restrictions on trade with, 248­249 English migration to, 59 middle passage and, 114 slavery-based colonial societies in, 112 slavery in, 134 Spanish arrival in, 24­25 Westinghouse Electric Co. workers, 638 West Jersey, 86 Westmoreland, William W., 818, 820­821 Whaling industry, 152, 248, 273 Wheat, 151, 497 (map), 500 Wheatley, Phyllis, 406 Wheeler, Harry, 640 Wheeler, Joseph, 452 Wherry, Kenneth, 761 "Which Side Are You On?" (Reece), 690­691 Whig party. See also Real Whigs composition of, 463 presidential candidates of, 376­377, 385, 410­ 411 in presidential elections, 412, 414 in Second Party system, 360­361, 374 support for, 375 Whipple, Josiah, 263 Whiskey Rebellion, 268­269, 293 White, Hugh, 375 White, I. C., 495 White, John, 35, 37, 37 White Antelope (Indian chief), 451 White Caps, 526 White Cloud (Winnebego prophet), 352 White Collar (Mills), 801 White Eyes, 224 Whitefield, George, 155, 156­157, 157­158 White House scandals, Nixon and, 840 White House tapes, 843­844 White Indians, 372 White Man's Union (WMU), 571 Whiteness, defining, 600­601 White Sticks, 307 White supremacist terrorist organizations, 463 White supremacy doctrine, 274­280, 532, 562, 667, 760 Whitewater scandal, 913 Whitman, Marcus and Narcissa, 369, 371 Whitman, Walt, 404­405, 406, 473 Whitney, Eli, 267 "Whole World as a Clover Leaf, The," 36
68
Whydah, trading depot at, 117 Whyte, William, 767, 801 Wichita Indians, 141, 560 (map) Wickett, Susanna, 312 Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968), 813 Wildcat banks, 335 Wilderness Act (1964), 813 Wilderness system, 813 Wild One, The (film), 800, 801 Wilkes, Charles, 368 Wilkes, John, 178, 185 Wilkes Expedition, 368 Wilkie, Wendell L., 719 Willard, Emma, 351 Willard, Frances, 552, 553­554 William III (King of England) (William of Orange), 87, 91, 92 William (King of England), 75­76, 93 Williams, John D., 464 Williams, Roger, 61­63, 62 Williams, William S. "Old Bill," 372 William (slave), 424­425, 444 Willoughby, Charles, 723 Wills, Helen, 651, 710 Will to Believe, The (James), 566 Wilmington, North Carolina, 563 Wilmot, David, 388 Wilmot Proviso, 388, 408, 410 Wilson, Charles, 794 Wilson, Edith, 648 Wilson, Harriett, 407 Wilson, James, 220, 236, 254 Wilson, T. Hunter, 906 Wilson, William B., 457, 630 Wilson, Woodrow in 1916 election, 636 collective bargaining and, 629­630 Fourteen Points speech to Congress, 642 hopes for stable social order, 623 Latin America and, 624 Mexico and, 626 as presidential candidate, 596­597 Treaty of Versailles and, 643­644 WWI and, 631, 636­638 Windmills, 539 Windward Coast, Africa, 116 (map), 117 Winnebego Indians, 276, 345­346, 352 Winner take all principle, in U.S. politics, 572 Winning of the West, The (Roosevelt), 576 Winslow, Anna, 189 Winslow, Rose, 627 Winthrop, John, 59­61, 62 Wisconsin, 246, 275 (map), 360, 399
Wise, Stephen S., 726 Witchcraft trials, in Salem Village, 94­95 Wizard of Oz, The (Baum), 516 Wobblies. See Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) Wolfe, James, 164­165 Wolfe, Tom, 840 Wollstonecraft, Mary, 284­285 Woman Order, 438 Women. See also African American women after WWII, 784­785 antislavery work of, 445 and the automobile, 665 barriers to careers for, 769 in Civil War, 435, 439 clerical work and, 496 collective identity embraced by, 406­407 college-educated, employment of, 784­785 comfort, 731 communist vs. capitalist attitude toward, 777 Confederate, 446­447 discrimination against, 626­628 earnings of, 952 economic subordination of, 348 educational opportunities for, 285­287, 351, 382, 565, 860­861 enfranchised in Wyoming, 554 as factory workers during WWI, 638 Flint strike and, 708 food carts and, 784 Great Depression and, 685 as home front workers, 733­734 improving status of, 952 in Jamestown, 56 as laborers in WWII, 734 labor strikes and, 540 labor unions and, 401, 733 lack of benefits for, under Constitution, 199 middle-class, 514, 769 as migrants, 371 in the military, 894, 895 as minority group in Civil Rights Act, 812 in New England economy, 152­153 nonelite, 287­289 in postwar America, 749, 783­786 as reformers, 552­554 in the Revolutionary War, 221 roles of, in regional economies, 395 second-class citizenship, 328 social roles of, 627­628 status of, in Age of the Common Man, 348­351 subordination of, 404­405 as teachers, 380­381 69
Women (continued) in textile industry, 315 unwanted sterilizations, 848 as wage earners, 350, 503, 685 in the workplace, 861 WWI and, 641, 733­734 Women in the nineteenth century (Fuller), 384 Women's Bureau, 734 Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), 552, 553, 653 Women's Emergency Brigade, 708 Women's Foreign Missionary Society, 552 Women's liberation, 828­830, 839, 859­860 Women's National Indian Association, 550 Women's Political Council, 792 Women's rights, 383­384, 551, 608, 823 (map), 947 Women's Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, New York, 384, 407, 483 Women's rights movement, 286, 652, 830, 839 Women's suffrage, 481­484, 482­483, 552­553, 609­610, 627 Women's Trade Union League (WTUL), 610 Women Strike for Peace, 785, 786 Wong Lan Fong, 604 Woo, Michael, 905 Wooden Leg (Cheyenne), 535 Woodhenge, 14 Woodhull, Victoria, 482­483 Woods, Tiger, 910 Woodstock Music Festival, 823 (map), 827 Woodward, Bob, 843 Woolman, John, 129­130 Wool production in England, 35 Woolworth sit-in, 792 Work, delineation between men's and women's, 350­ 351 Worker earnings, during WWII, 733 Workers, owners vs., 628­630 Workers' Council of Colored People, 706 Workers' organizations, 484­488 Work hours and crop production, 569 Working-class alienation, 834 Workingmen's parties, 528, 554 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 705­706, 731­732 World Anti-Slavery Convention (1840), 383 World diagram, 36 World order, backlash against domination by white nations, 623 World Trade Center, attacks on, 917, 925 World Trade Organization (WTO), 914, 938
World War I, 644­645 (map) Allied powers in, 635­636 American casualties in, 448 casualties of, 631, 643 W. E. B. Du Bois on, 621 in Europe, 641 (map), 642 factory workers during, 634­635 France and, 622 Germany and, 631 home front mobilization for, 638­639 ignition of, 624 Japan and, 623 loans to allies during, 631 and unity at home, 639­640 U.S. entry into, 636, 641­642 U.S. neutrality in, 632 veterans of, and Bonus March, 692­693 violence in U.S. during, 640 women and, 628 World War II Allied powers, 727­729, 727 (map), 730 American casualties in, 448 battles of, 727, 728­730 casualties of, 740 concentration camps, 366, 713­714, 741, 742 in Europe, 716­717 and global destruction, 746­747 and the Holocaust, 714, 716­717, 725­727, 740, 742 on the home front, 731 mobilizations for, 716 morale of fighting men, 732­733 in the Pacific, 729­731, 729 (map), 741­742 submarine warfare in, 636­638 transformations of, 714­715 U.S. entry into, 720 U.S. intervention discussions, 718­719 U.S. strategies to end, 738 veterans of, 741 as war for racial equality, 735 Wounded Knee, 537, 554, 557, 586, 831, 864 Wovoka, 534­535 WPA. See Works Progress Administration (WPA) Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, 857 Wright, Orville, 495 Wright, Wilbur, 495 Writ of habeas corpus, suspension of, 436 WWI. See World War I WWII. See World War II Wyandot Indians, 276 Wyck, Jan, 91 Wyoming, 554
70
X XYZ affair, 270 Y Yakima Indians, 869 Yakutsk, 250 Yale University (College), 158, 523 Yalta Conference (1945), 740 Yamasee Indians, 99 Yamasee War, 99­100 Yancey, William Lowndes, 425 Yanktonai Sioux Indians, 141 Yates, Robert, 254 Yazoo Act (1795), 279 Yazoo claim, of Georgia, 242 Yellow fever epidemic, 71 Yellow Hand, 513 Yellow journalism, 579­580 Yellowstone National Park, 480 Yeltsin, Boris, 892 Yeomen farmers, 400, 467­468 York, burning of, 94­95 York (Lewis's slave), 299 Yorktown, siege of, 229
Yosemite National Park, 560, 595, 942 Yosemite valley, 480 Young, Andrew, 824, 856 Young, Arthur, 615 Young, Brigham, 368 Young, Owen, 936 Young Americans for Freedom, 810­811 Young Lords, 831 Yucca Flat, 759 Yugoslavia, 645, 916 (map) Yuma Indians, 174­175 Yuppies (young urban professionals), 879 Z Zaharias, Mildred Didrikson "Babe," 710 Zavala, Lorenzo de, 385 Zeien, Alfred M., 948 Zheng He, 15, 20­21 (map) Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), 856, 857 (map) Zionist movement, 623, 626 Zoffary, Johann, 112 Zoot-suit violence, 737 Zuni pueblos, 30 Zwingli, Ulrich, 31
71

J Jones, PH Wood, T Borstelmann, ET May, V Ruíz

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