Criminal justice

Tags: Pearson Education, Inc., Pearson Education, PRENTICE HALL, Frank Schmalleger, CRIMINAL JUSTICE, law enforcement officer, Preliminary Hearing, territorial jurisdiction, Individual Rights, proactive law enforcement, Social Justice, government agencies, law enforcement
Content: CHAPTER
1
What is Criminal Justice?
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
Prentice Hall
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
1
What is the definition of crime? ... conduct that violates criminal law for which there is no legally accepted justification or excuse.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
2
A Brief History of Crime in America: 1850­Present 1850­1880: Crime epidemic and social upheaval caused by immigration Prohibition years: Widespread organized crime 1960s­1970s: War protests Civil Rights Era increased concern for rights of women and ethnic and racial minorities Court decisions and new legislation expanded rights and affected all areas of life
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
3
1970s­1980s: FBI data indicate a considerable increase in murders, rapes, and assaults 1980s: Dramatic increase in sale and use of illicit drugs, drug smuggling, and gangs Americans demanded "Law and order" "War on Drugs" declared
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
4
1990s: Violent encounters among citizens and law enforcement agents leads public to focus on police brutality and effective police management Americans believe crime is out of control 2000­Present: Emphasis on individual accountability, responsibility, and punishment of offenders Terrorism on American soil is of central concern USA PATRIOT ACT important tool in fight against terrorism Corporate and white collar crime gain attention
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
5
The Nature of Crime ...is always evolving. Historical developments shape our legal system and our understanding of crime and justice.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
6
1
individual rights and Public Order Advocates
Individual Rights Advocates ...seek to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice.
Public Order Advocates ...suggest that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
7
The Theme of this Book: The Struggle for Balance Individual Rights vs. Public Order
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
8
What is Justice? ... a powerful, yet elusive phrase ... principle of fairness, the ideal of moral equity...
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
9
social justice ...embraces all aspects of civilized life and is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and cultural beliefs of right and wrong.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
10
Components of Social Justice Within social justice are: Civil Justice deals with fairness in relationships between citizens, government agencies, and business in private matters. Criminal Justice concern for violations of the criminal law.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
11
Justice Ideal ...is the ultimate goal of criminal justice and of the daily practices and challenges that characterize the criminal justice system.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
12
2
Criminal Justice · The aspects of social justice that concern violations of the criminal law · Includes the: Criminal (penal) law Law of criminal procedure Procedures and activities dealing with criminal law enforcement
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
13
Studying Criminal Justice ... also includes the following viewpoints: Individual rights Public order
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
14
American Criminal Justice: The System Core components: 1. Law Enforcement 2. Courts 3. Corrections
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
15
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
16
How well do the components of the justice system interact?
Consensus Model · Assumes cooperation among all components of the system toward a common goal · The "systems" model CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
Conflict Model · Assumes all components are selfserving and compete for limited resources · The "non-system" model
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
17
Police: Investigation and Arrest Police become aware of a violation of law through either: proactive law enforcement or reactive law enforcement
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
18
3
Types of Police Responses
Reactive* The police respond to a request for assistance either as a result of a phone call from a citizen, or are flagged down while on patrol. * Accounts for most
Proactive The police, usually during routine patrol, observe a suspicious situation or a crime in progress.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
19
What level of proof is needed for an arrest?
Arrests are based on probable cause.
Probable cause forms the basis for warrants.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
20
What is Probable Cause?
...a set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
21
What is a warrant? ...a writ issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affording him/her protection from damage if he/she performs it.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
22
What is an arrest?
...the taking of a person into physical custody by authority of law, for the purpose of charging the person with a criminal offense... or ...a delinquent act or status offense terminating with the recording of a specific offense.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
23
Miranda v. Arizona (1966) ...held that police must notify suspects of their rights prior to custodial interrogation.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
24
4
Miranda Warnings
You have the right to remain silent. Anything you say can and will be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to talk to an attorney and have him/her present while you are being questioned. If you cannot afford a lawyer, one will be appointed for you before questioning. If you decide to answer questions now, you may stop at any time.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
25
Understanding Miranda
After the warnings have been given, the following questions should be asked. Do you understand each of these rights I have explained to you? Having these rights in mind, do you wish to talk to us now?
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
26
Booking
An administrative process officially recording an entry into detention after arrest. The accused's personal information, details of arrest, and name of arresting authority are entered into the police log. Fingerprints and photos are taken. Suspect informed of rights.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
27
First Appearance
Within hours of the arrest. Suspect informed of charges and advised of his/her rights. An attorney is appointed if the accused is indigent. An opportunity for bail may be provided.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
28
Pre-trial Release
Pre-trial release is afforded to most defendants through: Release on recognizance Bail bond Those not released will await case disposition in jail.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
29
Preliminary Hearing: Grand Jury
The primary purpose: to establish whether sufficient evidence exists against a person to continue with the justice process.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
30
5
Preliminary Hearing
A proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided:
1. Whether a crime was committed. 2. Whether the crime occurred within the territorial jurisdiction of the court. 3. Whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
31
Preliminary Hearing/Grand Jury may result in...
Information Based on outcome of preliminary hearing Formal written accusation filed by prosecutor and outlining the charges against the accused
Indictment Required in some states Issued by grand jury
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
32
Arraignment Before a court having jurisdiction in a criminal case The defendant is informed of the charge(s) and of his/her rights The defendant is required to enter a plea
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
33
Types of Pleas
1. Guilty 2. Not guilty 3. No contest (nolo contendere) If the plea is "not guilty," then a trial date is set. If the defendant "stands mute," then "not guilty" is entered. If the plea is guilty or no contest and if the judge accepts the plea, then it moves to sentencing phase.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
34
Adjudication: Jury Trial The 6th Amendment guarantees criminal defendants the right to a trial by jury. Doesn't include those charged with petty offenses. Some states allow defendants to waive jury trial and opt for a bench trial.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
35
Trial An examination of the issues of fact and law in a case, for the purpose of reaching a judgment of conviction or acquittal of the defendant(s). Trials are governed by procedural law and precedent. The state must prove "beyond a reasonable doubt" that the defendant committed the crime.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
36
6
Plea-Bargaining Most cases will not result in a trial. Instead, they will be handled through plea-bargaining.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
37
Sentencing Judges traditionally have considerable discretion. Sentencing decisions influenced by: Sentencing hearing Victim impact statement PSI report
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
38
Sentencing Sentences on multiple charges can be served: consecutively­one after another concurrently­served at the same time
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
39
Corrections Once sentenced, the "corrections" phase begins.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
40
due process and Individual Rights The entire justice process must be conducted fairly and with equity and according to due process standards.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
41
Due Process
...procedural fairness
...asserts that fundamental principles of justice must be guaranteed in any criminal proceeding, and that the administration of the law in a criminal case must not violate individual rights.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
42
7
Due process underlies the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, collectively known as the Bill of Rights. CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
43
Interpreting the Constitution: The Role of the Courts
The U.S. Supreme Court Interprets the Constitution as it applies to the cases before them
Precedent setting decisions become "the law of the land" CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
44
Administering Justice
Due Process Model Obstacle course justice Focus on individual rights
Crime Control Model Assembly line justice Focus on system efficiency
The Ultimate Goal of the American Criminal Justice System Crime control through due process.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
45
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
46
The Role of Criminal Justice Research ...increasing professionalism of criminal justice.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
47
Multiculturalism and Diversity in Criminal Justice
...American society is multicultural. ...Diverse values, perspectives, and behaviors influence the justice system.
CRIMINAL JUSTICE TODAY, 9E by Frank Schmalleger
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
48
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File: criminal-justice.pdf
Published: Wed Nov 15 14:31:42 2006
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