Rumex patientia, Palestine, Mediterranean countries, Medicinal plants, Salvia judaica, Portulaca oleracea, USARJ Publishing, College of Arts and Sciences and Education, USARJ, National University, Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Rumex acetosa, central position, traditional folk, plant leaves, perennial herb, Mona Ahmad, Teucrium polium, United States of America, traditional medical systems, Chang Jong, Johns T. Phytochemicals, Platelet Adhesion, Bando Noriko, quercetin, Chan Hun Jung, antioxidant properties, Metodiewa Diana, Muraki Naomi, Arab American University, Arachidonic Acid Pathway, traditional medicine, herbal medicines, J. Pharmacog, Thrombus Formation
United States of America Research Journal (USARJ) Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014, ISSN 2332-2160 Copyright © USARJ Publishing, Kansas, USA www.usarj.org
Determination of Rutin in Selected Palestinian medicinal plants
1*Mona A. Ahmad, 2Iqab Ghaleb Naji, 3Nidal Jaradat, 2Orwa Jaber *1Gilr's College of Arts and Sciences and Education, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt 2 Department of Chemistry
, Arab American University
, P.O.Box, 240, Jenin, Palestine 3Al-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine *Email: [email protected]
Abstract Selected plants used in traditional medicine in Palestine were tested for their rutin contents. They were collected from Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarm, and Tubas regions. The spectrophotometric method based on the use of known standards of rutin with a calibration curve to determine the total rutin content. The wavelength of maximum absorption (max) selected for quantification of rutin was 356-420 nm. In the U.V.-Vis studies, the regression data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship
with r = 0.9991 for rutin. The concentration of the rutin in the edible plants was found to be 16.12, 13.45, 10.79, 4.12, 14.12 ppm in Teucrium polium, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Portulaca oleracea, and Salvia judaica respectively. Keywords Rutin; Extraction; Spectroscopy; Medicinal; Palestinian
1. Introduction The Medicinal plants have been used as good resources for treatment of diseases for many of people all over the world. The healing properties of herbal medicine
s have been recognized in many ancient cultures. The traditional medical systems are being used in many parts of the world such as, China, Japan, Middle East , India and many more. Pharmaceutical importance of plants has led to the discovery and adoption of plant extract
s which were commonly used in traditional medicine, as alternative source of remedy. A vast diversity of herbal ingredients, major proportion of which is derived from wild, provide the resource base to the herbal industry. Global demand for herbal medicines has been rising, Therefore, a focus on some important plants found within the Palestinian area will be addressed in this study. Many cultures of the past - Egyptian, Babylonian, Palestinian, Chinese, Indus-valley etc. had their own useful systems of medicine and health care
. Herbal medicines also called botanical medicines, refer to the use of any plant seed, berries, roots, leaves, bark or flower for medicinal purpose that are useful for the treatment of ailments. The economic significance of medicinal plants stems from the fact that the number of patients suffering from chronic ailments is on the rise and drugs from medicinal plants are proving to be more effective in treating such disorders. These plants are utilized for their therapeutic value
for a long time . The
widespread use of herbal remedies and healthcare preparations are obtained from commonly used traditional herbs and medicinal plants. Medicinal and aromatic plants are produced and offered in a wide variety of products, from crude materials to processed and packaged products like pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, teas, spirits, cosmetics, sweets, dietary supplements, varnishes and insecticides[4,5,6] Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 7580% of the world's population, mainly in developing countries
, for primary health care because of better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects
. It is estimated that approximately one quarter of prescribed drugs contain plant extracts
or active ingredients
obtained from or modeled on plant substances. Aspirin, atropine, artimesinin, colchicine, digoxin, ephedrine, morphine, physostigmine, pilocarpine, quinine, quinidine, reserpine, taxol, tubocurarine, vincristine and vinblastine are afew important examples of what medicinal plants have given us in the past. Most of these plant derived drugs were originally discovered through the study of traditional cures and folk knowledge of indigenous people and some of these could not be substituted despite the enormous advancement in synthetic chemistry.7 Nature has produced wonderfully complex molecules that no synthetic chemist could ever dream up We should not underestimate the traditional values of these natural products
. It is interesting to study the biological effects of traditional medicinal plants or isolating their active components for treatment of illness has been increasing
Mona Ahmad, et al., USARJ, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 6-10, 2014
all over the world and comprehensive screening program
s have been established. Among one of the most important chemicals in these plants is Rutin.. The structure of Rutin is shown in Figure 1.
spectrometer(Perkin Elmer-Lambda EZ 201) Quartz cells
were used and HPLC grade distilled water
for dilution of
Figure 1: Rutin structure Rutin is one of the bioactive flavonoid compounds which are present in substantial amount in plants. Some related investigations showed that rutin has a broad range of physiological activities . Rutin is also an antioxidant and may help prevent the oxidation of vitamin C and have some positive lipid effects. Rutin shows anti-inflammatory activity
in some animal and in vitro models[13, 14]. Rutin has a veterinary use in the management of chylothorax in dogs and cats
. Rutin inhibits platelet aggregation . Rutin is found in many plants, especially in 1-Teucrium polium , 2-Rumex acetosa, 3-Rumex patientia, 4-Portulaca oleracea, 5Salvia judaica as shown in Photos below.
5 2. Methodology 2.1 Instrumentation
2.2 Materials: Standard rutin was purchased as rutin trihydrate (molar mass=664.6 g/mole) from MP Biomedicals, LLCFrance. The standard of rutin was prepared by dissolving 0.100 g rutin trihydrate in 10 ml methanol. The solutions of both the samples and standards were treated similarly. The samples were collected first as green plants, dried in the shadow and the suitable mass was taken: 1.00 g dried plant was shaken in 10 ml methanol. The green plants were collected from different areas of Palestine(Tubas, Nablus, Jenin) and let to dry in the shadow after being washed with distilled water. After being shaken for 5 minutes at 65oC in a water bath, the sample was cooled and then filtered, using a normal filter paper(under gravity). The absorbance of standard and samples was measured with a diode array detector, in the range 200800 nm. The peak of rutin was observed at 356-420 nm. 3. Results and Discussion Rutin is one of the bioactive flavonoid compounds which are present in substantial amount in plants. As well known, the flavonoids supplements are considered one of the most preventive nutritional strategies. Because of their anti-oxidant properties, polyphenolic compounds can prevent and decrease various types of cancer.Rutin is a flavonoid glycosides, that has been called Rutoside, Phytomelin, Sophorin, Birutan, Eldrin, Birutan Forte, Rutin trihydrate, Globularicitrin, Violaquercitrin, vitamin P and venoruton. Its IUPAC name is: 2-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-[-L rhamnopyranosyl-(16)--D-glucopyranosyloxy]- 4H-chromen-4-one, with general chemical formulaC27H30O16. Rutin is one of the famous and widely distributed flavonoids in the nature and it is founded in all parts of plants. It consists of 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxy flavone linked together with 2 molecules of monosaccharide units beta-D- Glucose and beta-D- rhamnose through o-glycosidic bond. It is a one of the major flavonoids components in citrus fruits peels also found in many plants including buckwheat(Tartary buckwheat contain rutin about 0.8-1.7% dry weigh more than common buckwheat seeds (0.01% dry weight) [17, 18] This natural compound has ability to inhibit platelet aggregation, as well as decreases capillary permeability, making the blood thinner and improving circulation2 and has anti-inflammatory activity in some animal and in vitro models [19, 20] Rutin as antioxidant compound compared to quercetin, acacetin, morin, hispidulin, hesperidin, and naringin, it was found to be the strongest. However, in other trials, the effects of rutin were lower or negligible compared to those of quercetin [21-23] Little is known about the practice of food medicine, despite the role of medicinal cuisines and
Mona Ahmad, et al., USARJ, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 6-10, 2014
consumption of health edibles having held a central
position in traditional folk medical systems [24-26].
The area which has been the subject of our
investigation is situated in the north regions of the
West Bank- Palestine especially from Jenin,Tobas,
Nablus and Tulkarem areas.
Teucrium polium (Jordanian Ja'adeh) is a
perennial dwarf shrub plant which grows wild in
Mediterranean countries. The genus Teucrium
(Germander) belongs to the family Lamiaceae ,
the shrub stems , leaves and flowersis eaten by
Palestinians villagers Jordanians and other countries
from Mediterranean countries from the old times for
the treatment of several diseases and used as cooking
The major constituents of Teucriumplant were -
pinene (18.0%), -caryophyllene (17.8%), -pinene
(12.0%), caryophyllene oxide (10.0%), myrcene
(6.8%) and germacrene-D (5.3%) and other kinds ofVolatile oil
s (essential oil
s) but not reported that it
contains rutin anywhere.
Rumexacetosa L. Sorrel plant also known as
Spinach Dock or Narrow-leaved Dock, is a perennial
herb that is grow wildly in the nature of Palestine or
cultivated as a garden herb or leafy vegetable (Pot
herb). Common sorrel is a vegetable crop consumed
for its characteristic pleasant acidic taste originating
from free oxalic acidic and its soluble potassium and
sodium salts. Its wild form differs exceptionally little
from its cultivated form and is as willingly used in
Rumex patientia. (English common names
patience dock, garden patience, herb patience, or
monk's rhubarb)is perennial herbaceous plant with
glabrous leaves growing to 1.5 m (5ft) by 0.5 m (1ft
8in). It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds
ripen in August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have
both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Wind. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The plant
leaves are produced very early in the year and
collected in spring and it is consumed as a leaf
vegetable in Palestine and other Mediterranean
Leaves - raw or cooked eaten like spinach or made
into a puree, they are often mixed with a quarter part
of sorrel in order to add flavor to them. Twelve
compounds were identified in the plant as:
glucopyranoside, physcion , emodin, emodin-8-O-
beta-D-glucopyranoside, maackiain, maackiain-3-O-
glucopyranoside. Rumex patientia.
PortulacaoleraceaL. is listed in the World Health
Organization as one of the most used medicinal
plants and it has been given the term (Global
Panacea). Purslaneis a nutritious vegetable used forhuman consumption
, and it was mentioned in
Egyptian texts from the time of the Pharaohs.
P. oleracea(Purslane) is a summer annual which is
grown as a vegetable in many parts of the world. This
half-hardy low growing plant has slightly succulent
leaves and stems. The purslane's leaves and stems are
eaten raw as a salad and also are eaten cooked as a
sauce in soups or as greens. It provides a rich plant
source of nutritional benefits.
Salvia judaicaL. Judean sage is a one of the
famous culinary recipes in Palestine and Jordan
consist of sesquiterpenes -cubebene and ledol.
The concentration of the rutin in the edible plants
shown in the table (Table 1) above was calculated
using a calibration curve of standard rutin solution.
The determination of rutin concentrations in ppm was
performed using the equation from the calibration
curve shown in Figure 2.
Table 1: concentration of rutin in selected plants
Latin Name peak height ppm
Teucriumpolium 2.9 16.12
Portulacaoleracea 1.1 4.12
Figure 2: calibration curve of rutin standard Figure 3 through 7 are U.V.-Vis scans of Teucrium polium, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Portulaca oleracea, Salvia judaicaL respectively. The absorbance of rutin from the plants was measured at 356-420 nm. Figure 3: U.V. scan of the Rutin in Teucrium polium
Mona Ahmad, et al., USARJ, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 6-10, 2014
Teucrium polium, Rumex acetosa, Rumex patientia, Portulaca oleracea, and Salvia judaica respectively. The study showed considerable concentration of rutin in these plants, which is good from either or both commercial and health point of view. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Dr. Ali Zidan, Dr. Raqi Shubaitah and the AAUJ for their support.
Figure 4: U.V. scan of the Rutin in Rumex acetosa
Figure 5: U.V. scan of the Rutin in Rumex patientia Figure 6: U.V. scan of the Rutin in Portulaca oleracea Figure 7: U.V. scan of the Rutin in Salvia judaica 8. Conclusions A simple, spectrophotometric method has been used for measuring the rutin in methanolic extract of
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