Development of Scientific Studies and Exploration of Indian Cultural Heritage, KK Tripathy

Tags: National Mission, manuscripts, Asiatic Society, National Mission for Manuscripts, Dev, Sir William Jones, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt, illuminated manuscripts, Oriental Research Library, Srinagar, Oriental Research Library, the Goddess, Sanskrit literature, Delhi Pages, Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers, Sinhala script, Sinhala Br�m�era, Tripathi Publishers, New Delhi, Mrinmoy Chakraborty Publisher, New Delhi Pages, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Kashmiri literature, cultural heritage, Bsura Kath, unpublished manuscripts, Kashmiri language, India, Kashmiri Brahmins, intellectual tradition, South-East Asian, William Jones, Indian history, cooperation, international cooperation, Palm-leaf manuscripts, ancient literature
Content: "One of our major misfortunes is that we have lost so much of the world's ancient literature ­ in Greece, in India and elsewhere... Probably an organised search for old manuscripts in the libraries of religious institutions, monasteries and private persons would yield rich results. That, and the critical examination of these manuscripts and, where considered desirable, their publication and translation, are among the many things we have to do in India when we succeed in breaking through our shackles and can function for ourselves. Such a study is bound to throw light on many phases of Indian history and especially on the social background behind historic events and changing ideas ." Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India
Editor Mrinmoy Chakraborty
Publisher: Director, National Mission for Manuscripts 11 Mansingh Road New Delhi - 110001 Tel: +91 11 23383894 Fax: +91 11 23073340 Email: [email protected] Website: www.namami.org
Cover Image: Palm-leaf manuscripts at SARASWATI, Bhadrak (Odisha)
The views, opinions and suggestions expressed in the Kriti Rakshana are strictly those of the authors Designing and Printing: Current Advertising (P) Ltda. nd not necessarily those of the editor or the publisher.
Editorial When cooperation for sustainable development is the need of the hour, political boundaries are relegated to the secondary position. Obvious outcome of this realization is a spontaneous search for the basis of international cooperation. Conspicuously, if that root of cooperation is ingrained in the age old cultural tradition, initiatives in this regard is destined to bear mutually beneficial outcomes and open up innumerable vistas of cooperation with far reaching possibilities. It will not be an exaggeration to state that all throughout the history, South Asian and South-East Asian region acted as a single cultural identity. Despite outward diversity, there was a deep rooted underlying unity. This unity finds its glowing expression in the literary heritage of this region. Geographical contiguity of the countries of these regions nurtured religious and intellectual intercourse and gave rise to close proximity in literary dispositions. Proximity is prominent not only thematically, but material used for writing, style of presentation, alphabet and in innumerable other ways. Indian literary world was enlightened by the Theravadi Buddhist writings of Sri Lanka. Pali literature found its finest expression in Sri Lanka and Myanmar. Any research related to Bengali manuscripts can hardly give the expected result without consulting manuscripts available in Bangladesh. Literature on myths, Buddhist or Brahmanical literature found expression in manuscripts available in almost all the countries of the region. Despite all the striking similarities, no cognitive efforts have been made to formulate or implement any trans-national agenda in the field of manuscripts. Country to country bi-lateral cooperation is also almost non-existent. South Asian and South-east Asian countries should come closer to explore and assess the possibilities of cooperation in the field of manuscript conservation and formulate a policy framework to stimulate bi-lateral as well as multi-lateral cooperation in the field of manuscript studies. Trans-national training in manuscriptology and conservation and research related to manuscript studies, besides transfer of technology and expertise may be among the priorities. Formation of mechanism/organizational set up for formulation and implementation of result oriented projects should be there to build up healthy cooperation in the field of manuscript conservation. All these will be possible if people, especially the scholars in South and South-East Asian countries feel that As we inherit the same literary tradition, it is our combined effort only, which can save it and preserve it for generations to come. Editor
Contents
1. ^#fpo/kw&xy&jRuekyk* dk leh{kkRed lEiknu 03 vkpk;Z ckyd`".k
2. CitrakЛvya in manuscripts: the case of јnandavardhana's DevМЪataka 07 Mr. Alessandro Battistini
4. Asiatic Society and Manuscriptology:
Development of Scientific Studies and Exploration of Indian Cultural Heritage
12
Dr. Kishor Kumar Tripathy
5 Origin of Sinhalese Script
22
Dr. Anirban Dash
Others NMM: Summery of Events
ikd'kkу&fo"k;d izkphu laL--r jpuk% ^#fpo/kw&xy&jRuekyk* dk leh{kkRed lEiknu vkpk;Z cky--".k
izkphudky ls Hkkjr o"kZ esa ikd'kkуh; xzUFk&jpuk dh ijEijk jgh gSA bu xzUFkksa esa ikdfof/k ds lkFk HkksT; oLrqvksa ds xq.k&/keZ] izHkko o jksxfo'ks"k esa mudh mikns;rk dk o.kZu Hkh feyrk gSA bl izdkj ikd'kkуh; xzUFkksa esa vk;qosZnh; funsZ'k Hkh jgrs gSaA vr% izkphu ikd'kkуh; xzUFk vk;qosZn ls ?kfu"Br;k lEc) gSaA buesa tgkЎ mYkeksYke Lokfn"B O;OEtuksa ds cukus dh fof/k;kЎ izLrqr dh gSa] ogha LokLF; ds fy, mudh mi;ksfxrk dk Hkh o.kZu fd;k gSA jksxfo'ks"k ds fuokj.k ds fy, iF; :i esa fof'k"V izdkj ds --rkUUk јvksnu] lwi] 'kkd bR;kfn ids HkkstuЅ dk foospu Hkh bu xzUFkksa esa feyrk gSA ikd'kkу ds xzUFkksa esa jktk uy o ik.Mqiq= Hkhe }kjk jfpr ikd'kkу dk mYys[k izkphu lkfgR; esa vusd LFkyksa ij feyrk gSA vusd izkphu jpukdkjksa us xkSjher o uyer uked ikd'kkуh; xzUFkksa dk mYys[k Hkh fd;k gSA Hkkst&jfpr ikd'kkуh; xzUFk dh ppkZ Hkh vusd xzUFkksa esa feyrh gSA vth.kkZe`r&eOEtjh dh laL--r Vhdk esa Hkhe&Hkkstue~ uked ,d ikd'kkуh; xzUFk ds m)j.k feyrs gSaA Hkkjr ds dqN gLrys[kkxkjksa esa 1 Hkhelsu&fojfpr lwi'kkуe~ Hkh miyC/k gSA oYkZeku esa dqN ikd'kkуh; xzUFk izdkf'kr :i esa 2 Hkh lqyHk gSa] ;Fkk& ikdniZ.k ] tks jktk uy }kjk jfpr ekuk tkrk gSA 16oha 'krh bZ- esa 3 {kse'kekZ }kjk jfpr {ksedq rwgy uked xzUFk ,d
pЖpr ikd'kkуh; jpuk gSA 17oha 'krh bZ- esa dksad.k јegkjk"VЄЅ oklh if.Mr j?kqukFk lwfj }kjk fojfpr Hkkstu&dq rwgy uked xzUFk Hkh vk;qosZn o ikd'kkу dh feyh&tqyh jpuk gSA ikdfo|k ds bUgha xzUFkksa dh ijEijk esa #fpoиkw&xy&jRuekyk uked izLrqr jpuk vkrh gSA gLrfyf[kr izfrfyfi ds vUr esa jpuk&dky dk mYys[k ugha gSA vr% bldh tkudkjh ds fy, vU; izek.k tqVkus vko';d gSaA ^{ksedq rwgy* ds vkjEHk esa jpf;rk us ^xkSjher* o Hkhejfpr ikdxzUFk tSlh dqN jpukvksa dks mithO; crk;k gSA ,slk gh mYys[k izLrqr iqfLrdk ds vkjEHk esa Hkh feyrk gSA {ksedq rwgy esa vusd iwoZorhZ xzUFkksa ls lkezxh yh gSA blh izdkj iwoZorhZ xzUFkksa dk vkJ; ysus dh ckr izLrqr jpuk ds vkjEHk esa Hkh dgh xbZ gSA #fpoиkw&xy& jRuekyk ds 80 ls vf/kd 'yksd {ksedq rwgy esa Hkh miyC/k gSaA ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd ;s i| iqjkuh jpukvksa ls {ksedq rwgydkj us m)`r fd, Fks rFkk mUgha jpukvksa ls vFkok {ksedq rwgy ls bl iqfLrdk esa fy, gSaA blls izLrqr jpuk dk dky {ksedq rwgy ls ijorhZ izrhr gksrk gSA bl fo"k; esa vf/kd tkudkjh ds fy, xos"k.kk visf{kr gSA blds jfp;rk ijiz.ko uked ,d 'kSo јf'koHkDrЅ vkpk;Z Fks] bUgha dk nwljk uke ijks№dkj FkkA ;s 'kSo ijEijk esa izfl) ydq yh'k lEiznk; ds inklhu vkpk;Z ds vuqt јNksVs HkkbZЅ FksA ;g tkudkjh xzUFkdkj us Lo;a xzUFkkUr esa fuEu 'yksd }kjk izLrqr dh gS&
- izkP;fo|k la'kks/kuky;] eSlwj јdukZVdЅ esa gLrfyf[kr lwi'kkуe~ јHkhelsu&fojfprЅ miyC/k gSA ,,- ikdniZ.k јuy&fojfprЅ] pkS[kEck laL--r laLFkku] okjk.klh& 221001...- {ksedq rwgy& fu.kZ; lkxj eqж.kky;] eqEcbZ] 1920 bZ-
03
bfr ijydq yh'kkpk;Zo;kZuqtsu f}ifHknuqpjs.k Jhijks№dkjukEuk A O;jfp #fp&fpj.Vh&d.BjRukoyh;a Jo.kiBuek=knfІuka jkspdk; AA ј#fpo/kw&xy&jRuekyk& 136Ѕ blds vfrfjд buds dky o fuokl&LFkku vkfn ds fo"k; esa vf/kd tkudkjh miyC/k ugha gqbZ gSA bl fo"k; esa Hkh vuqlU/kku visf{kr gSA jpf;rk ds 'kSo gksus dk izHkko izLrqr jpuk esa in&in ij ifjyf{kr gksrk gSA i|ksa esa ckjEckj J)kiwoZd f'koHkfд dk iqV fn;k x;k gSA eaxykpj.k esa Hkh xzUFkdkj b"Vnsork ds :i esa Hkxorh ikoZrh dk Lej.k djrs gq, mUgsa gh ikdfo|k dh vf/k"Bk=h nsoh ds :i esa izLrqr djrs gSa& ;L;k% djkEcqto'kkne`rh HkofUr i.kZr`.kkU;fi dVk{kfujh{k.kkPp A fu%Lok vfi f=n'kiknirka yHkUrs lk ikoZrh t;fr ikdfoosdHkwfe%AA ј#fpo/kw&xy&jRuekyk& 1Ѕ vFkkZr~ ftlds djdeyksa ds Li'kZ ls i.kZ јiYksЅ o r`.k ј?kklЅ vkfn uhjl oLrq,a Hkh ve`r:i cu tkrh gSa rFkk ftlds dVk{k&fujh{k.k ј--ikiw.kZ n`f"VikrЅ ls fu/kZu tu Hkh dYio`{k :i cu tkrs gSa] og ikdfo|k&fu/kkuHkwrk Hkxorh vUUkiw.kkZ nsoh ikoZrh fot;h gks jgh gSa] vFkkZr~ lalkj esa loksZR--"Vr;k fojkteku gSaA bl izdkj xzUFkdkj mPpdksfV ds f'koHkд 'kSo vkpk;Z gSaA bUgksaus izLrqr xzUFk esa fujkfe"k ј'kkdkgkjhЅ O;OEtuksa dk gh o.kZu fd;k gSA fdlh O;OEtu esa iyk.Mq јI;ktЅ rFkk jlksu јyglquЅ dk iz;ksx Hkh fuЖn"V ugha gSA xzUFk dk izfrik| fo"k;& tSlk fd izLrqr jpuk ds uke& #fpoиkw&xy&jRuekyk ls lwfpr gksrk gS fd bl iqfLrdk esa jpf;rk us Hkkstu esa #fp tkx`r djus okys rFkk {kq/kk dks c<+kus okys ukukfo/k
lq#fpiw.kZ o Loknq O;OEtuksa dk o.kZu fd;k gSA mд ukedj.k blh Hkko dks Li"Vr;k ladsfrr djrk gSA iqLrd ds bl uke dk vFkZ bl izdkj gS& #fp :ih o/kw vFkkZr~ nqYgu ds xys dh jRuekykA ;gkЎ #fp ls rkRi;Z Hkkstu&#fp gSA dfo }kjk bl #fp dks gh o/kw ds :i esa fpf=r fd;k gS rFkk bls mYykflr djus ds fy, ;gkЎ O;OEtu&o.kuZ k :ih xyjRuekyk xfq EQr dh xbZ gAS bl izdkj izfrik| fo"k; ds vuq:i iqLrd dk uke loZFkk lVhd o jkspd :i esa j[kk gSA bl uke ls dkO;kRedrk Li"Vr;k Цkydrh gSA oLrqr% jpf;rk cgqr gh lвn; dfo gSaA iqLrdxr mYke i|jpuk ls muds dkO;jpuk&dkS'ky dk vkHkkl lgt gh gks tkrk gSA ;g nf{k.k Hkkjr dh jpuk gSA vr% O;OEtuksa esa nf{k.k&Hkkjrh; 'kSyh dk iqV fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA ;|fi blesa oЖ.kr vfиkdka'k O;OEtu lEiw.kZ Hkkjr esa izpfyr gSa( ijUrq dqN O;OEtu ,sls gSa] ftudk pyu eq[; :i ls nf{k.k&Hkkjr esa gh gSA NUnks;kstuk& izLrqr jpuk i|c) gS rFkk dkO;kRed lkSUn;Z ls leya--r gSA blesa vusd e/kqj xs; јxkus ;ksX;Ѕ NUnksa dk iz;ksx djrs gq, lqUnj lqyfyr dfork esa o.;Z fo"k; izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA iz;qDr NUnksa esa&vuq"Vqi~] vk;kZ] bUжotzk] misUжotzk] mitkfr] rksVd] iqf"irkxzk] eUnkШkUrk] ekfyuh] jFkks)rk] olUrfrydk] fo;ksfxuh] 'kknyZw foШhfMr] f'k[kfj.kh] lXz /kjk ,oa Lokxrk gAaS bl izdkj 136 'yksdksa okyh bl y?kq jpuk esa xzUFkdkj us ,sls fof'k"V O;OEtuksa dk o.kZu fd;k gS] tks v#fp dks nwj dj {kq/kk dks rhoz djrs gSa rFkk vkjksX; c<+krs gSaA iqfLrdk ds vUr esa xzUFkdkj us 137oka 'yksd i|la[;k o xzUFk&ifjek.k dh lwpuk gsrq cuk;k gSA izfrik| fo"k; dh mikns;rk& iqfLrdk&xr fo"k; ds o.kZu esa xzUFkdkj us ,d fof'k"V Шe j[kk gSA vkjEHk esa jktk dh ikd'kkyk
04
National Mission for Manuscripts
ds vf/kdkjh oS|] Hkkstux`g] Hkkstu&ik=ksa] ikpd јjlksb;kЅ] ifjosf"kdk јijkslus okyh lsfodkЅ vkfn dk o.kZu fd;k gSA rnuUrj fo"kfefJr vUUk dh igpku ds fy, Hkkstux`g ds fudV ,sls if{k;ksa o okuj vkfn vU; izkf.k;ksa dks j[kus dk funsZ'k fd;k gS] tks fo"kfefJr vUUk dks ns[krs gh fof'k"V izdkj dh ps"Vk,a djus yxrs gSaA bl izlі~x esa mudh oSlh ps"Vkvksa dk Hkh o.kZu fd;k gSA rRi'Pkkr~ vksnu] nky] ?kh o 'kkd vkfn eq[; HkksT; inkFkks± dk fu:i.k dj ukuk izdkj ds Lokfn"B 'kkd] voysg] pVuh] cM+s vkfn O;OEtuksa dk o.kZu fd;k gSA buesa Qy] ewy] iq"i o iYkksa vkfn ls cuk, tkus okys fofo/k O;OEtu lfEefyr gSaA vk;qosZn esa Hkkstu ds vUr esa fdlh is; жO; dks vuqiku ds :i esa ysus dk foиkku gSA bl rF; dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, xzUFk ds vfUre Hkkx esa ikpudkjh rШ ,oa vke dk iuk vkfn dqN fof'k"V is; O;OEtuksa dk o.kZu Hkh fd;k gSA ;gkЎ oЖ.kr O;OEtuksa dh dqy la[;k 113 gSA HkkstuksijkUr rkEcwy&lsou Hkh vk;qosZn&lEer gSA vr% izLrqr xzUFk esa O;OEtu&o.kZu ds vuUrj rkEcwy јikuЅ dk o.kZu Hkh fd;k gSA bl izdkj bl NksVh&lh iqfLrdk esa vk;qosZn o ikd'kkу ds fl)kUrksa ds vuqlkj LokLF;ksi;ksxh Lokfn"B HkksT; inkFkks± o O;OEtuksa dk cgqr lq#fpiw.kZ o.kZu gqvk gSA bu Loknq HkksT;ksa dks O;OEtu dgk tkrk gS] D;ksafd& O;T;Urs jlfo'ks"kk v=sfr O;OEtue~] buesa jlfo'ks"k vfHkO;fOEtr gksrs gSa] vuqHkwr gksrs gSaA LokLF; ds fy, budh tkudkjh vko';d gSA D;ksafd fof'k"V ikdfof/k ls rS;kj iF; vUUk gh vkS"k/k :i cudj lnk vkjksX; iznku djrk gSA egЖ"k d';i dgrs gSa& u pkgkjlea fdfOEpn~ HkS"kT;eqiyH;rsA 'kD;rs·I;UUkek=s.k uj% drq± fujke;%AA Hks"ktsuksiiйks·fi fujkgkjks u 'kD;rsA rLekn~ fHk"kfXHkjkgkjks egkHkS"kT;eqP;rsAA јdk';i&lafgrk] f[kyLFkku&4-5&6Ѕ vFkkZr~ vkgkj ds leku vU; dksbZ vkS"k/k ugha gSA
mfpr ,oa iF; vkgkj ls gh O;fд LoLFk fd;k tk ldrk gSA mlds jksxksa dks nwj fd;k tk ldrk gSA vkS"k/k&lsou djrs gq, Hkh O;fд vkgkj ds fcuk ugha jg ldrkA vr% fpfdRld tu vkgkj dks gh egkHkS"kT; dgrs gSaA vkgkj ls lEc) ;g fo"k; loZtuksi;ksxh gS rFkk ;gkЎ ljy o ljl :i esa izLrqr fd;k gSA vr% ;g iqfLrdk bl fo"k; dh tkudkjh ds fy, fo'ks"k :i ls mikns; gSA xzUFk dk vUos"k.k o 'kks/ku& vk;qosZn ds vizdkf'kr izkphu xzUFkksa ds vUos"k.k ds izlax esa Hkks-ts- v/;;u&la'kks/ku Hkou] vkJe ekxZ] vgenkckn јxqtjkrЅ ls loZizFke bl iqfLrdk dh ,d gLrfyf[kr izfr izkIr gqbZA ;g izfr Li"V o lqUnj v{kjksa esa fy[kh gqbZ gS rFkk ys[ku Hkh izk;% 'kq) gSA blds dqN gh LFky vLi"V o lUnsgxzLr FksA bls lEiknu esa Hkksladsr ls lwfpr fd;k gSA ikB&feyku ds fy, vU; gLrfyf[kr izfr;ksa dk vUos"k.k djus ij gesa izkP;fo|k&laLFkku] egkjktk l;kthjko xk;dokM+ fo'ofo|ky;] cM+kSnk јxqtjkrЅ ls bldh vU; nks izfrfyfi;kЎ izkIr gqbZA bUgsa lEiknu esa c-1 ,oa c-2 ladsrksa ls lwfpr fd;k gSA bu lcdk vo/kkuiwoZd okpu o ikBkykspu djrs gq, ikB'kks/ku fd;k x;kA blesa 'kq)re ikB dks ewyikB ds :i esa j[kk x;k gS rFkk izfrfyfi;ksa esa miyC/k ikBkUrjksa dks ladfyr dj ikn&fVIif.k;ksa esa n'kkZ;k x;k gSA ikB'kks/ku esa 16oha 'krh bZ- ds iwokZ)Z esa jfpr {ksedq rwgy uked ikd'kkуh; jpuk dk lg;ksx Hkh egYoiw.kZ jgk gSA D;ksafd {ksedq rwgy esa #fpoиkw&xy& jRuekyk ds cgqr ls i| miyC/k gSa] budh lwpuk Hkh ikn&fVIif.k;kas eas nh xbZ gAS bl idz kj iLz rrq iLq rd dk leh{kkRed lEiknu dk;Z lEiUUk gvq k gAS rnuUrj tulkekU; ds mi;ksx gsrq ljy fgUnh Hkk"kkuqokn fd;k x;k gSA dfBu o vifjfpr 'kCnksa ds vFkZ dks"Bd esa fn, x, gSaA tgkЎ dgha
National Mission for Manuscripts
05
gLrfyf[kr зfr HkksјHkks-ts- v/;;u&la'kks/ku Hkou] vgenkcknЅ dk зFke i`"B
gLrfyf[kr зfr HkksјHkks-ts- v/;;u&la'kks/ku Hkou] vgenkcknЅ dk vafre i`"B
gLrfyf[kr зfr c-1] зkP;fo|k&laLFkku] cM+kSnk јxqtjkrЅ dk зFke i`"B
gLrfyf[kr зfr c-1] зkP;fo|k&laLFkku] cM+kSnk јxqtjkrЅ dk vafre i`"B
fo'ks"k Li"Vhdj.k dh vko';drk gqbZ ogkЎ fVIif.k;kЎ Hkh nh gSaA bl izdkj ljy fgUnh Hkk"kkFkZ ds lkFk ;g iqfLrdk igyh ckj izdkf'kr gqbZ gSA vk'kk gS bldk ;g laLdj.k vk;qosZn o ikd'kkу fo"k;d vko';d tkudkjh gsrq ikBdksa ds fy, vo'; gh mi;ksxh fl) gksxkA izLrqr iqfLrdk ds ifjf'k"V Hkkx esa izFke ifjf'k"V ds vUrxZr gLrfyf[kr xzUFk dh izfrfyfi;ksa dk ifjp; fn;k x;k gSA blesa izfrfyfi;ksa ds dqN vkjfEHkd o vfUre i`"Bksa dh izfr--fr;kЎ Hkh izLrqr dh gSaA rnuUrj f}rh; ifjf'k"V esa xzUFk esa iz;qDr NUnksa dk fooj.k fn;k x;k gSA blesa NUnksa dk y{k.k o muds iz;ksxLFky dh i|la[;k fuЖn"V gSA r`rh; ifjf'k"V esa laL--r&fo}kuksa ds fy, иkkjkokfgd :i esa iBukFkZ ewyikB j[kk gSA prqFkZ ifjf'k"V esa i|ksa ds pj.kksa dh vdkjkfn Шe ls vuqШef.kdk nh xbZ gS] tks 'kks/kdk;Z dh n`f"V ls fo'ks"k :i ls mi;ksxh gSA iOEpe ifjf'k"V esa #fpo/kw&xy&jRuekyk ds ^{ksedq rwgy* esa miyC/k o vuqiyC/k i|ksa dk fooj.k fn;k gSA "k"B
ifjf'k"V esa mu lUnHkZ&xzUFkksa dk fooj.k fn;k x;k gS] ftuds m)j.k Hkwfedk ;k O;k[;k&Hkkx esa izLrqr fd, gSaA blh esa 'kCnla{ksi&lwph Hkh nh gSA bl izdkj izLrqr iqfLrdk dk ikB'kks/ku o lqO;ofLFkr lEiknu dk;Z lEiUUk gqvk gSA iqLrd ds laL--r&ewyikB ds 'kks/ku esa gekjs lg;ksxh izks- Mk- fot;iky 'kkуh ^izpsrk* dk Hkh fo'ks"k lgk; jgk gSA #fpoиkw&xy& jRuekyk dh igyh lqokP; gLrfyf[kr izfrfyfi izks- Mk- vkj- Vh- lkaofy;k јfuns'kd] Hkks-tsv/;;u&la'kksиku Hkou] vgenkcknЅ ls miyC/k gqbZA ikB'kks/ku gsrq vU; nks gLrfyf[kr izfr;kЎ izkP;fo|k&'kks/k laLFkku] cM+kSnk јxqtjkrЅ ls miyC/k gqbZaA buds fof'k"V lg;ksx ls ikB'kks/ku o mYke lEiknu gks ldk gSA vkpk;Z ckyd`".k irOEtfy ;ksxihB] gfj}kj&249402
06
National Mission for Manuscripts
CitrakЛvya in manuscripts: the case of јnandavardhana's DevМЪataka Mr. Alessandro Battistini
The place of citrakЛvya in Sanskrit literature: Among many genres of classical Sanskrit literature, citrakЛvya holds an ambiguous position. First of all, the term citrakЛvya is used both in connection with a whole array of different alaСkЛras (prahelikЛs, gНЧhas, yamakas...), and with the single compositions (muktakas, stotras, khaЩЧakЛvyas...) in which these alaСkЛras appear. Citra, which more literally means 'glitter', is also known as duЫkara (difficult) and krМЧa (play). Now the question arises: what does 'citra' mean for poetry 'glittering', 'difficult', or 'playful'? Writers on poetics have contradictory opinion so far as the naming and grouping of these figures and compositions are concerned, but one point stands still: citrakЛvya belongs to ЪabdЛlaСkЛra and has its basis in pure word play. These word plays range from puzzles to conundrums, from riddles to games, therefore a single definition covering them all is almost impossible. The most comprehensive and pointing lakЫaЩa is probably that by Bhoja: varЩasthЛnasvarЛkЛragatibandhЛn pratМha yaТ / niyamas tadbudhaiТ ЫoЧhЛ citramityabhidhМyate // (SarasvatМkaЩЦhЛbharaЩa, 2.109) (The six-fold limit which rules consonants, places of articulation, vowels, shapes, movements and delimitations is defined as citra by the specialists.) CitrakЛvya thus plays with words in six different ways, that is, subjecting the use of 1) consonants, 2) places of articulation and
3) vowels to certain criteria: there are Ъlokas composed employing only one vyaХjana, or employing all svaras in particular orders, and so on. Consider the tour de force quoted by Bhoja again: kaТ khagaughЛФacicchaujЛ jhЛХjХo 'ЦauЦhМЧaЧaЩЧhaЩaТ / tathodadhМnpapharbЛbhМrmayo 'rilvЛЪiЫЛС sahaТ // (SarasvatМkaЩЦhЛbharaЩa, 2.109, ex. no. 263) In the DaЪakumЛracarita, DaЩЧin narrates the whole tale of Mantragupta without using labial sounds (niroЫЦhya). The limit ruling 4) movements refers to the direction of reading, as in the case of anulomaviloma (palindrome). Here, the syllables of the Ъloka are 'repeated' if we read the pЛdas backwards, from right to left, or even crookedly, as in gomНtrikЛ (zigzag) and sarvatobhadra (chess board). As for 5) shapes and 6) delimitations, the two words are almost synonymous, meaning single verses, or bulk of verses, in which syllables can be arranged in imitation of natural and artificial objects such as flowers, wheels, tools and weapons. These last two varieties allow us to understand citra as picture, and citrakЛvya as carmina figurata, as Rudrata clearly points out: bhaФgyantarakОtatatkramavarЩa nimittЛni vasturНpЛЩi / sЛФkЛni vicitrЛЩi ca racyante yatra taccitram // (KЛvyЛlaСkЛra, 5.1) (This is citra: where variegated shapes of objects are composed disposing letters in
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different patterns, according to their model.) Citra has been used as a stylistic device all over Sanskrit literature, from the most ancient times up to modern days, when several citrabandhas have been composed and lavishly illustrated in manuscripts and print. In the Vedic period difficult wordplays were used with a religious undertone, according to the belief that "the gods are fond of secrecy" (cf. the statement of Aitareya UpaniЫad, 1.3.14: parokЫapriyЛ iva hi devЛТ). In the Classical period citrakЛvya has become a more secular means of entertainment, enjoyed in kЛvyagoЫЦhМs and learned circles. Tantra certainly had an impact on the development of the phenomenon, with its attention to magical diagrams and its symbolic use of syllables. Besides single verses and shorter compositions, most mahЛkЛvyas have sargas entirely devoted to the display of citra: BhЛravi's KirЛtЛrjunМya (15th sarga), and MЛgha's ЙiЪupЛlavadha (19th sarga) are the first and foremost examples. Starting at least with BhЛravi, the arrangement of an entire canto stuffed with citra figures has been a sort of testing ground for the authors of mahЛkЛvyas, requested to prove their ability sticking to the strict rules of 'glitter' poetry. The DevМЪataka and its commentators: One of the most distinguished examples of citrakЛvya is the DevМЪataka of јnandavardhana. This 'hundred verses for the goddess' was composed in the second half of the 9th century AD by јnandavardhana, the Kashmiri author whose popularity rests on the DhvanyЛloka. Kashmir seems to have been the place of choice for the practice and enjoyment of citrakЛvya. Indeed, according to KalhaЩa (RЛjataraФginМ, 5.34), at the court of the liberal king Avantivarman (ca. AD 853-885)
four poets have flourished, and at least three of them were well versed in the art of carmina figurata: јnandavardhana himself, RatnЛkara (author of the mahЛkЛvya Haravijaya and of the short poem VakroktipaХcЛЪikЛ); ЙivasvЛmin (author of the mahЛkЛvya KapphiЩЛbhyudaya) and MuktЛkaЩa, whose works are now lost, but whom we know as the elder brother of RЛmakaЩtha, disciple of the Ъaiva thinker Utpaladeva and author of the Sarvatobhadra, a commentary on the BhagavadgМtЛ. The DevМЪataka is a stotra (104 verses in total) in praise of the Goddess, eulogized with the names of GaurМ, PЛrvatМ, BhadrakЛlМ, SarasvatМ, CaЩЧМ, DurgЛ, BhЛratМ, TЛrЛ... In the last verse of the Йataka, јnandavardhana states that the Goddess herself summoned him in a dream to compose the hymn. Her qualities and virtues are sung in a difficult yet charming language, and each stanza displays one or more alaСkЛras, both artha and Ъabda. All the six above mentioned subdivisions of citra are well represented. To mention only a few, in the DevМЪataka we have ekЛkЫaras, ardhabhramakas, arthatrayavЛcМs, yamakas, and bhЛЫЛЪleЫas, that is Ъlokas that can be read both in Sanskrit, Maharashtri, Shuraseni or Apabhramsha! The number of different vОttas used amounts to 12, showing the author's metrical easiness. јnandavardhana proves a real virtuoso, and his career as a poet has been as brilliant as that of a theorist. Two more poems by him, the Arjunacarita and the ViЫamabЛЩalМlЛ (in Prakrit), are now lost and survive only in quotations. Though in the DhvanyЛloka citrakЛvya is confined to a marginal position because of its inability to convey dhvani or rasa, јnandavardhana indulged in it with excellent results. According to its difficult and abstruse
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character, citrakЛvya is recommended by јnandavardhana for the training of young poets (DhvanyЛloka, 3.40-41). The DevМЪataka has enjoyed a constant success during the susequent centuries and has aroused the curiosity of readers and critics. Indeed, many of its verses have been used as examples and explained in works pertaining to alaСkЛraЪЛstra, namely Bhoja's SarasvatМkaЩЦhЛbharaЩa, MammaЦa's KЛvyaprakЛЪa, Hemacandra's KЛvyЛnuЪЛsana, VatsalЛХchana BhaЦЦЛcЛrya's KЛvyaparМkЫЛ, Govinda Жhakkura's KЛvyapradМpa and VaidyanЛtha Tatsat's UdЛharaЩacandrikЛ. Apart from these works, we possess a single complete commentary to the DevМЪataka, written by the Kashmirian KayyaЦa. He was a KЛyastha, son of CandrЛditya and disciple of the EkЛyanЛcЛrya NЛrЛyaЩagarbha. It is important to point out that this KayyaЦa has nothing to do with the homonymous grammarian author of the MahЛbhЛЫyapradМpa (11th cent.). In the final praЪasti of the ЦМkЛ the date of composition is given as year 4078 of the Kali Yuga, or 4052 of the Loka Yuga, which means ca. AD 978, under king BhМmagupta of Kashmir, the last representative of the Utpala dynasty. In his commentary, KayyaЦa shows a thorough knowledge of all branches of literature, quoting from the Vedas (the sibylline Asya VЛmМya SНkta), the UpaniЫads, the BhagavadgМtЛ, PЛЩini, the VЛkyapЛdМya and the VijХЛna Bhairava. In the mangalЛcaraЩa he admits having resorted to another commentary previously composed by his grandfather Vallabhadeva, and having checked variant readings with a somehow philological approach. As for the learned Vallabhadeva, he commented upon the VakroktipaХcЛЪikЛ and the ЙiЪupЛlavadha as well, thus revealing a family predilection for
hyper-artificial poetry. Manuscripts of the DevМЪataka, a few examples: About ten paper manuscripts of the DevМЪataka are scattered over Indian and European universities, oriental institutes and temple libraries. None of them bears date nor can certainly be assigned to anything earlier than the 16th century. A manuscript from Shrinagar is bound in leather, a clear Islamic influence. The scripts used are ЙЛradЛ and DevanЛgarМ, and according to the organization of the pages the manuscripts are both tripЛЦa (the Ъlokas and the ЦМkЛ are written in three different lines) and ЪНЧa (they are written without solution of continuity). Many of them show interesting depictions of the ЛkЛras and bandha figures, deserving the name of citrapustakas (illuminated manuscripts). These diagrams are both in the body of the page and in the margins, and accompanied in some cases by captions. A few pages present blank spaces left by the scribe to be filled later with miniatures. Somewhere else, wrong illustrations have been deleted with yellow orpiment (haratЛla). The names of the pictorial alaСkЛras are inspired from the natural world, warfare, and every day-life imagination, ranging from tНЩa (quiver) to samudgaka (round box or jewel case). The games are witty and puzzling, and some of them are so difficult, we couldn't catch a single word without the aid of the commentator. The scribes were fully aware of the peculiar character of the DevМЪataka: in Shrinagar Manuscript no. 1653.2 the copyist added just before the first verse an anonymous saСskОtakaЪmМrabhЛЫayoТ ЪleЫa (a Ъloka which bears meaning both in Sanskrit and Kashmiri). Let's take a few samples to display јnandavardhana's ability. The first is a padma, that is a stanza whose
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A Padma (eight-petaled lotus). Oriental Research Library, Srinagar, (acc. no. 1653.2).
A gomtrik (cow's urine") and a jla (net). Oriental Research Library, Srinagar (acc. no. 1213.1).
An ardhagomtrik drawn in shape of a ta (quiver). The diagram on the right illustrates a yamaka. Oriental Research Library, Srinagar (acc. no. 1653.2).
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syllables can be arranged in the shape of an eight-petaled lotus: yЛЪritЛ pЛvanatayЛ yЛtanЛcchidanМcayЛ / yЛcanМyЛ dhiyЛ mЛyЛyЛmЛyЛsaС stutЛЪriyЛ // 4 // (Endowed with purity, she destroys the bad deeds heaped from previous lives. She must be prayed with an enlightened mind for the attack against the expansion of mЛyЛ. She is sung by ЙrМ herself.) And here is an ekЛkЫara, a Ъloka relying on a single consonant, namely ya: yayЛyЛyЛyyayЛ yыyaС yo yo 'yaС yeyayaiya yЛm / yayuyЛyiyayeyЛya yaye 'yЛyЛya yЛyayuk // 22 // (O world, you appear because of her, and take refuge in ViЫЩu. This world, after reaching her, goes toward liberation through the sun-disc-breaking path. The Goddess has devoted herself to the attainment of knowledge. For this reason she bestows consciousness or wealth.) The syllables of this stanza resemble the laces of a 'drum' (muraja): yЛ damЛnavamЛnandapadamЛnanamЛnadЛ / dЛnamЛnakЫamЛnityadhanamЛnavamЛnitЛ // 15 // (Through the restraint of the senses she is the abode of bliss. She accords a noble shape to the mouth. She is praised by those whose eternal wealth are gifts, knowledge and forgiveness.)
Next comes a gomНtrikЛ (zigzag, literally 'cow's urine'). The syllables of this Ъloka can be read both in the regular way and zigzag way, from one line to the other: this alternate movement resembles a twisting stream of pee. In addition to this, the stanza can be intertwined with stanza no. 80 to form a jЛla or net-like figure. sadЛvyЛjavaЪidhyЛtЛТ sadЛttajapaЪikЫitЛТ / dadЛsyajasraС ЪivatЛТ sНdЛttЛjadiЪi sthitЛТ // 81 // (You incessantly give benefits: they are meditated upon by honest sages, well learned by those who have received mantras, and reside in ViЫЩu's supreme paradise.) The poem culminates with the most impressive display of mastery: verses 80101, apart from their own individual tricks, all work together on drawing a huge cakrabandha (wheel-like design). Verses 8095, each repeated twice, are the 32 spokes (ara); 96-97 and 99-100 form the rim (nemi) and 101 is hidden in a second inner rim (aФka). KayyaЦa is very detailed in explaining how to draw this precise architecture, but unfortunately no manuscript contains the diagram of the wheel, because of the small size of the pustakas. To end with a joke, many ancient critics reduced the importance of citrakЛvya and confined it to the realm of adhamakЛvya (vilest poetry). In spite of this, we ought to look upon this genre with an unbiased mind. The reason is simple: as the commentator NamisЛdhu puts it, citrakЛvya is nothing but pictures (citrasЛdОЪya), or better, nothing but marvel (ЛЪcarya).
A muraja (drum) and a samudgaka (round box or jewel case). Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune.
Alessandro Battistini is Ph.D. candidate, University of Rome,
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Asiatic Society and Manuscriptology: Development of Scientific Studies and Exploration of Indian Cultural Heritage Dr. Kishor Kumar Tripathy
Sir William Jones in his discourse (delivered at the opening of the Asiatic Society, February 24, 1784) proclaimed, When I saw at sea last August, on my voyage to this country, which I had long and ardently desired to visit, I found one evening, on inspecting the observations of the day, that India lay before us, and Persia on our left, whilst a breeze from Arabia blew nearly on our stern. A situation so pleasing in itself, and to me so new, could not fail to awaken a train of reflection in a mind which had early been accustomed to contemplate with delight the eventful histories and agreeable fictions of this eastern world. It gave me inexpressible pleasure to find myself in the midst of so noble an amphitheatre, almost encircled by the vast regions of Asia, which has ever been esteemed the nurse of sciences, the inventers of delightful and useful arts, the sense of glorious actions, fertile in the productions of human genius, abounding the natural wonders, and in the forms of religion and government, in the laws, manners, customs, and languages, as well as in the feature and complexions of men. I could not help remarking how important and extensive a field was yet unexplored, and how many solid advantages unimproved: and when I considered, with pain, that, in this fluctuating, imperfect, and limited condition of life, such inquiries and
improvements could only be made by the united efforts of many xxxxx."1 Sir William Jones in his discourse rightly mentioned how important and extensive a field was yet unexplored. This great vision of Jones was the source to create the world renowned institution, The Asiatic Society. Sir William Jones was a visionary and a scholar having interdisciplinary approach in his mind and his objective was to study the art, culture and heritage of the Indic people including language, literature and of course, science and technology. The very concept influenced Jones and the Asiatic Society was established under his dynamic vision , which went through a number of changes like Asiatic Society (1784-1825), The Asiatic Society (1825-1832), The Asiatic Society of Bengal (1832-1935), The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal (1936-1951) and again, The Asiatic Society since July 1951.2 The Asiatic Society was established on 15 January 1784 by Sir William Jones (17461794) who came to India as a judge of the Bengal Supreme Court at Fort William. Sir William Jones' dream, Asiatic Society was established as a centre for Asian Studies including almost everything concerning man and nature, as the memorandum depicts the laws of the Hindus and Mahomedans; the history of the ancient world; proofs and
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illustrations of scripture; traditions concerning the deluge; modern politics and geography of Hindusthan; Arithmatic and Geometry and mixed sciences of Asiaticks; Medicine, Chemistry, Surgery and Anatomy of the Indians; natural products of India; poetry, rhetoric and morality of Asia; music of the Eastern nations; the best accounts of Tibet and Kashmir; trade, manufactures, agriculture and commerce of India: Mughal constitution, Marhatta constitution etc."3 Asiatic Society, as a centre for study the various aspects of the Asiatic wisdom and science, of course, was the pioneer and first in the field to investigate the origin and evolution of the Asiatic intellectual resources. Asia in Jones' vision was the "inventers of delightful and useful arts, which revolutionized the future of Oriental studies and comparative philology. The founders of this prestigious institution established this institution with a hope to rediscover the intellectual tradition of India which further gave the society a rare reputation among scholars all over the world. The interdisciplinary approach further created the scope for study, research and dissemination in various fields of knowledge including art, science, humanities, etc. In this connection, the role of Asiatic Society in the field of manuscriptology can be discussed. The paper will examine the importance of the collection, besides cataloguing and publication activities of Asiatic Society. Asiatic Society in relation to manuscriptology: Asiatic Society has contributed a lot for the study of manuscriptology. The collection of
Asiatic Society is considered as one of the important storehouses of information on socio-cultural and intellectual history of Indian tradition. There are rich collections of engravings, manuscripts, historical documents, stones and copper plate inscriptions, archival materials, printed books, and periodicals. It proves the grand contribution of Asiatic Society for THE EXPLORATION and preservation of Indian scientific and cultural heritage. William Jones' objective was to preserve the intellectual heritage hidden in the manuscripts. The manuscript tradition of India and rest of the Asian continent recognized as the source of integral knowledge, science, wisdom, tradition and culture of a remarkable civilisation.4 The integral knowledge of the manuscript is considered as the source of origin and development of human religion; infinite storehouse of legendary wisdom and science. The founders of this great intellectual tradition, i.e. the seers, discovered this eternal wisdom and passed over to the later generations for the progress and survival of humanity. William Jones' basic objective was to preserve the grand cultural heritage, as he writes, you will investigate whatever is rare in the stupendous fabric of nature; will correct the geography of Asia by new observations and discoveries; will trace the annals, and even traditions, of those nations, who, from time to time have peopled or desolated it; and will bring to light their various forms of government, with their institutions civil and religious. You will examine their improvement and methods in arithmetic and
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geometry, in trigonometry, mensuration, mechanics, optics, astronomy, and general physics; their systems of morality, grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic; their skill in surgery and medicine; and their advancement, whatever it may be, in anatomy and chemistry. To this you will add researches into their agriculture, manufactures, trade; and, whilst you inquire with pleasure into their music, architecture, painting, and poetry, will not neglect those inferior arts by which the comforts, and even elegancies of social life are supplied or improved. You may observe that I have omitted their languages, the diversity and difficulty of which are a sad obstacle to the progress of useful knowledge; but I have ever considered languages as the mere instruments of real learning, and think them improperly confounded with learning itself: the attainment of them is, however, interdisciplinary necessary.5 With this vision of Sir William Jones, Asiatic Society started working in the field of manuscript collection, preservation, cataloguing and publication. Development of scientific studies: collection: The collection of Asiatic Society is considered as one of the important storehouses of information regarding sociocultural and intellectual history of Indian tradition. From the eighteenth centuries to the present day, Asiatic Society houses the richest and most significant collections of manuscripts. The manuscript collection of Asiatic society is varied and rich, and covers most of the Indian languages and scripts and even several Asian ones, e.g., Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Gurumukhi, Kannad,
Urdu, Marathi, NЛgarМ, Newari, OdiyЛ, Rajasthani, ЙЛradЛ, Armenian, Sinhalese, Arabic, Persian, Pushto, Javanese, Turki, Burmese, Chinese, Siamese, Tibetan, etc. The materials used for the manuscripts are also varied: palm and palmyra leaves, barks of different trees and papers of various grades. Manuscripts in Sanskrit and Modern Indian Languages, from the 7th Century A.D.), Islamic Section (manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Pushto, Urdu, etc, ranging in date from the first quarter of the 12th Century A.D.) and Sino-Tibetan and South-East Asian Section (manuscripts and Xylographs in Burmese, Chinese, Tibetan, Siamese etc.); English Section (manuscripts from Nathaniel Halhed, James Prinsep, Buchanan Hamilton, Alexander Csoma de koros and others).6 The Sanskrit manuscript collection comprises manuscripts in Sanskrit and Modern Indian Languages, which range in date from the 7th Century A.D. and number about thirty thousand. Rich and varied intellectual contents, the collection is an epitome of India's achievements in diverse spheres of life and learning. The Sanskrit manuscript collection comprises, SaСhitЛpЛtha and PadapЛtha, commentaries on the four Vedas and the associated literatures like BrЛhmaЩas, AraЩyakas, UpaniЫads and the VedЛФgas, i.e. їgvedasaСhitЛ (Mss. No. 120, period fifteenth century); Yajuh-SaСhitЛ-BhЛsya (Mss. No. 432, period SaСvat 1855); SЛmaveda-SaСhitЛ (Mss. No. 1235, date Samvat 1856); AtharvaЩa-SaСhitЛ (Mss. No. 1383, period aka 1741); There are also manuscripts on SНtras, Prayogas and Paddhatis of the Vedic priest manuals, like-
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Hautrakalpadruma (Mss. No. 1425); HautrЛloka (Mss. No.1426); HautrakЛrika from Prayogaratnam (Mss. No.1428); DarЪapaurЩamЛsa Hautraprayoga (Mss. No.1430) etc. The manuscript of їgveda PadapЛtha, copied in 1362 A.D., is perhaps "the oldest manuscript of the Rigveda."7 Some of the rare Sanskrit manuscripts may be mentioned here. BОhatМ (from Kavindracharya's collection), AmОta Vindu (11th c.), KiraЩЛvalМ, CharucharyЛ, Nartaka NirЩaya,ParaЪikЛ-prakЛЪa, SanskritaratnЛkara, LalitavistЛra, RЛmЛyana (Bengali) of RЛmЛnanda, VajrayЛna text (11th c.), Laghu-KЛlachakra-ЦikЛ, KЛlachakravetara, KuЦЦanimatam, VajravalinЛma mannadalopayika,Ramacharita of SandhyЛkar Nandi, BhattikЛvyatikЛ of SrinivЛsa, and Paragali Mhbhrata. The manuscript of Kubjikamatam is of the 7th Century A.D. There are large numbers of illuminated and illustrated manuscripts of different schools, AstasЛhasrikЛ PrajХЛpЛramitЛ, Aparimitayurnama MahЛyЛna sutra, PaХcarakЫЛ, ParamЛrthanama SaФgati, DevimЛhЛtmya, Viveka PaХchЛmОta, BhagavadgitЛ. Other than Sanskrit, a few Bengali manuscripts have been found written by Bengali Brahmins residing in Varanasi. The Society possesses very rare, valuable and important Rajasthani Manuscripts. The Islamic Section comprises of manuscripts in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Pushto, Urdu, etc. numbering more than seven thousand, and period of these manuscripts are identified as from the first quarter of the 12th Century A.D. The Islamic manuscript collection is very rare and presents varied textual contents and illustrated with miniature paintings. Some of
the examples, like, Tahdhib Sharh As-Sab' at Mullaqat (early 12th c. Arabic), Tuhfat alЛhbar fi usul at Hadith wa'l Akhbar (15th c.), Shahnm, Kullayat-i-Saadi, Ain-i-јkbari, Diwan-i-Makhfi, Bihar-i-Danesh, TarjumЛ MahЛbhЛrata, etc. The Society has a fine collection of about 234 Urdu manuscripts. Some of the Persian collections, like Aina-ibakht (comp. ca. 1069/1659); Hismat-iKashmir (comp. 1245/1830); Gulsan-ibalЛghat (beg XI/XVIIc.); Munshaat-isaЛdat (comp. 1131/1719); KЛrnЛma (end. XII/XVIIIc.); FatehnЛmЛ (1199/1758); MirЛjul-khiyЛl (ca. 1257/1841); Ganj-iFayyЛdi (ca. 1147/1735); Shajaratui-ЛmЛni (comp. 1206/1792); RisЛla dar qЛfiya (comp. XIII/XIXc.); Sikandar-nЛmЛ-i-jabalМ (comp. 1141/1729); DastНr-i-himmat (comp. 1096/1658); MughnМ-nЛmЛ (comp. 932/1526); ManbahЛt fiilmil-amwЛt (comp. 1292/1875); MawЛЦin (comp. 856/1452) etc.8 The manuscripts are on various subjects like- history, poetry, epic, theology, Sufism, and works related to science and arts. Sino-Tibetan and South-East Asian Section comprises manuscripts and Xylographs in Burmese, Chinese, Tibetan, Siamese, etc. These manuscripts are especially relevant for the study of Chinese translations of the Indian Buddhist texts including a set of the Kangyur and the Bastangyur. The Burmese, Siamese, Javanese, etc. are meant for the study of history and culture of the specific countries including Buddhism. Kanjur and Tanjur Texts of Buddhist scriptures and some extracanonical works are also available with the society. The society also houses English manuscripts including old correspondences
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related to the society. These letters are chiefly meant for the study of the history of the society as well as the role of scientific and humanistic organizations established either in the 19th or in the 20th century. There are century old engravings, manuscripts, historical documents, stones and copper plate inscriptions, archival materials, printed books, and periodicals which proves the grand contribution of Asiatic Society for the exploration and preservation of Indian scientific and cultural heritage. Catalogues of manuscripts published by the Asiatic Society: To facilitate study and research, Asiatic Society has published catalogue of manuscripts based on the collection. Catalogues related to Sanskrit manuscript collection are A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts, Vol. XV, Ayurvedic Manuscripts, Part I/II compiled by Dalia Bandury and ed. by Brahmananda Gupta; A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the collection of the Asiatic Society (The Indian Museum Collection), Vol. 1 DharmaЪЛstra or SmОti, compiled by N.C. Vedantatirtha; A Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the collection of the Asiatic Society (Jain Mss.) Vol. XIII, Catalogue of the Sanskrit Manuscripts (Vedic) by late Pandit N.C. Vedantatirtha and P.B. Chakravarti, 1971 Vol. IPart II, 1973 Vol. I Part III ; Descriptive Catalogue of the Sanskrit Mss. in the Government Collection under the care of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Prepared by Mm. Haraprasad Sastri. (Reprint); Vol. I- Buddhist
Manuscripts Vol. VII KЛvya; Vol. II Veda Vol. VIII Tantra Part I; Vol. III Smti Vol. VIII Tantra Part II (Set); Vol. IV History and Geography Vol. IX Vernacular; Vol. V PurЛЩa Vol. X JyotiЫa, Part I & II; Vol. VI VyЛkaraЩa; VOL. XI, Philosophy, by H.P. Shastri; Vol. XIV(KЛma ЙЛstra, VЛstu ЙЛstra, Sangita ЙЛstra, Sainika ЙЛstra, ChaturaФga ЙЛstra, Tantra ЙЛstra and Chaurya ЙЛstra) Societys publication on the Persian Collection includes: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the Third Collection of the Asiatic Society, comp. by Mohammed Abdullah, ed. by M. Firoze; Catalogue of Arabic Manuscripts in Tabular form in the Collection of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1980 Vol. I, prepared by K.M. Maitra and thoroughly revised and edited by M.S. Khan; Concise Descriptive Catalogue of the Persian Mss. in the Collection of The Asiatic Society of Bengal by W. Ivanow, 1924, (Reprint); first supplement to concise Descriptive Catalogue of the Persian Mss. in the collection of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by W. Ivanow; Second supplement to concise Descriptive Catalogue of Persian Mss. by W. Ivanow; Concise Descriptive Catalogue of the Persian Mss. in the Collection of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by W. Ivanow, 1924, (Reprint). There are also catalogues related to Bengali and Rajasthani Manuscripts, i.e. Descriptive Catalogue of Rajasthani Mss.Vol. I compiled by V.B. Trivedi, revised & ed. by Sukumar Sen; Descriptive Catalogue of Rajasthani Manuscripts, Vol. II, ed. by A.C. Mhamia.9 These catalogues comprises
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National Mission for Manuscripts
NMM: Summery of Events (1st April - 31st May, 2014)
The experiences and knowledge from our past are recorded in manuscripts which have been handed down to us over several centuries. The Government of India through the Department of Culture, took note of the importance of vast tangible heritage of India and established the
National Mission for manuscripts (NMM) in the year 2002 with the purpose of locating, documenting, preserving and disseminating the knowledge content of manuscripts. The achievements of the NMM during the first two months of the FY 2014­2015 are summarized below:
DOCUMENTATION Data collected from different MRCs , from 1st April to 31st May, 2014
Sl. No. Name of the MRC
No. of collected data
1.
Nava Nalanda Mahavihara, Nalanda (Bihar)
0,157
2.
ORI and ML, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram
0,493
3.
Himachal Academy, Shimla
3,177
4.
Akhil Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow
1,495
5.
Mazahar Memorial, Ghazipur (UP)
1,000
6.
Tripura University (Tripura)
0,941
7.
Sukritindra Oriental Research Institute, Kochi
0,300
8.
Manipur State Archives, Imphal (Manipur)
0,731
9.
Vindravan Research Institute (UP)
5,747
10. Shri Satshrut Prabhavana Trust, Jaipur
1,499
11. Bhandarkar Oriental Reseach Institute, Pune
0,463
Total
l16,001
CONSERVATION Workshop on Preventive Conservation of Manuscripts held at Tripura University: National Mission for Manuscripts organized a 5-day workshop on preventive conservation of manuscripts in collaboration with Manuscript Resource Centre (MRC) and Manuscript Conservation Centre (MCC), Tripura University from 21st to 25th May, 2014. Around forty participants from different parts of Tripura participated in the workshop.
Librarians from different libraries of Tripura; curators and technical staff from Tripura; State Museum, Tribal Research Institute, private museums and major repositories of Tripura, owners of private collections; scholars from fine arts department and research scholars from depts. of History, Sanskrit and Bengali were trained. These persons actively attended the technical sessions and discussions as well. The major highlight of the workshop was the participation of the different tribal
National Mission for Manuscripts
communities of Tripura, specially the Mog handling and storage of these manuscripts.
community.Alarge number of manuscripts are The workshop also aimed at discussing the
lying under the custody of the Mog people of methodology adopted for conservation of
Tripura. The Mog people from remote villages manuscripts with respect to storage, disaster
of Manu Bankul, Satchand, Shilachari, management, reorganization and emergency
Karbook and Kalsi of South Tripura District treatment through the use of various chemical
were present under the banner and cooperation reagents and techniques.
of Mog Socio-Cultural Organisation, Sabroom. Mog participants brought manuscripts and a small exhibition of Mog manuscripts was organized during the inaugural day.
In the valedictory programme, poster presentations were made by the participants. Mr. Jitendra Choudhury, elected MP from East Tripura constituency requested the Mog people to come forward to save the age-old
R e n o w n e d e x p e r t s o f m a n u s c r i p t manuscripts. Among others, Prof. Prafulla
conservation, such as Mr. P. Perumal from Kumar Mishra , Director , National Mission
Saraswati Mahal Library, Thanjavore, for Manuscripts, Prof. Satyadeo Poddar,
Tamilnadu, Dr. K.K. Gupta, Consultant, Coordinator, MRC & MCC, TU, Dr. Sitanath
INTACH New Delhi, Dr Mamta Mishra, Dey were also present.
Director, INTACH Lucknow, Mrs Malobika Ghosh from National Library, Kolkata, Dr. Subba Raidu, Principal, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan, Eklavya Campus, Tripura, Prof Sitanath Dey, former Professor of Sanskrit, Tripura University and Prof. Prafulla Kumar Mishra, Director, NMM, New Delhi imparted lessons to the participants on conservation of manuscripts. During the workshop, participants were taught the process of protecting manuscripts from heat, humidity, fungus, temperature and biological agents, which contribute to the deterioration. Apart from that, participants were also taught the proper methods of
The workshop was designed to train the library staff, technical persons, researchers, manuscript repositories and scholars of the region so that their services can be taken for preservation and conservation of manuscripts available in Tripura. Workshop on Preventive Conservation of Manuscripts at Rampur Raza Library National Mission for Manuscripts organized a five-day workshop on "care and conservation of manuscripts" in collaboration with Rampur Raza Library (UP). The workshop was held at Rampur Raza Library (UP) from 24th to 28th May, 2014. The principal focus of
the workshop was to
impart training on the
stages and factors of
deteriorations of
manuscripts so that
participants could
identify and make a
strategy apt to meet
the challenges faced
by them at the time of
conservation work.
Prof. P.K. Mishra, Director, NMM addressing the valedictory function of
The workshop
the preventive conservation workshop, held at Tripura University
National Mission for Manuscripts
programme also included presentation of conservation tools and techniques by the resource persons who were experts in the field of conservation. The 52 participants in the workshop were from different renowned institutions of India, like National Museum, New Delhi, National Archives of India, Salarjung Museum, Hyderabad (A.P.), Munshi Prem Chand Archives, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, Darul Uloom, Deoband, Distt Saharanpur (UP), Jamiatul Muntazar, Naugawan Sadat, Amroha (U.P.), Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti Urdu, Arabic and Farsi University, Lucknow (U.P.), Madrasa Jamiatul Uloom Furqunia, Rampur (U.P.), Jamia-ul-Falah, Azamgarh (U.P.), Ibn-i-Sina Academy, Tijara House, Aligarh (U.P.) , Mufti Ilahi Bakhsh Academy, Kandhla, Shamli (U.P.) ,Vrindavan Research Institute, Vrindavan (U.P.) and many other institutions and madrasas of Rampur and its nearby areas. This workshop engaged the participants in considering what methodologies would be successful in doing the preventive conservation work and in discourse on the experience of the participants and condition of their collection together with practical exploration besides the key stages in carrying preventive conservation. Faculty from different well known institutions in the form of informal presentation discussed and executed practical work with manuscript collectors and presented guidelines and rules for executing preventive conservation. The lectures were supported by Power point presentations to achieve result oriented interest and interactive discussions. DIGITIZATION Fourth Phase of Digitization has been started and the scanning work is going on in the following institutes: 1. Bhandarker Oriental Research Institute, Pune 2. Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur
3.Allahabad Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi (UP) In the first two months (April and May) of the FY 2014 ­ 2015, nearly 18 lakh pages of manuscripts from above-mentioned institutes have been scanned and DVD-writing of the images is in process. PUBLICATION In order to disseminate the knowledge content of manuscripts, the NMM has taken up several programmes such as lectures, seminars, publication of unpublished manuscripts, manuscriptology and paleography workshops, etc. Under the publication programme, the Mission has published so far the procedings of the above-said programmes under the following series: Samrakshika (research papers on conservation), Kritibodha (texts transcribed and edited in the manuscriptology workshop), Tattvabodha (papers of Tattvabodha lecture) and Samikshika (research oriented papers as presented in the seminars). Recently the NMM has taken up a project for
National Mission for Manuscripts
Kashmiri texts'. The lecture session was chaired by Mrs. Dipali Khanna, Member Secretary, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi. An exhibition of Kashmiri Manuscripts was also organized to create the right ambience.
Dr. S. S. Toshkhani is a well-
known Kashmiri scholar,
writer, literary critic,
translator and poet. He writes Mrs. Dipali Khanna, M.S., IGNCA examining a manuscript at the Exhibition of in Hindi as well as English Kashmiri Manuscripts held during Tattvabodha Lecture on 29th April, 2014 and has published about a
publishing rare and unpublished manuscripts in three formats ­ (a) Fascimile (b) Critical edition (Illustrated and single copy manuscript) (c) Critical edition with annotation and translation. The series has been named as 'Prakashika'. In the volume (Prakashika 18), published during April ­ May, 2014, eminent scholars Dr. C.M. Neelakandhan and Dr. K.M. Seeja have transcribed and critically edited the Sanskrit Kathakali Works of Virakeralavarma Sitasvayamvaram and Nalacaritam (First Day). OUTREACH Public lecture under Tattvabodha Series National Mission for Manuscripts began the Tattvabodha Lecture series in 2005 to bring the finest scholars to the platform where they could present their ideas and interact with scholars, researchers, students and interested members of the public. 131 lectures have been delivered so far in Delhi and other centres around the country and four volumes could be brought out compiling the papers presented during the lectures. The 131st lecture session was held in Delhi on 29th April, 2014. Dr. Shashi Shekhar
dozen books in both the languages including the widely acclaimed and HRD Ministry award-winning `Kashmiri Sahitya ka Itihas' (history of Kashmiri literature in Hindi), `Lal Ded : The Great Saint Poetess of Kashmir' (ed.), `The Cultural Heritage of Kashmiri Pandits' and `Rites and Rituals of Kashmiri Brahmins'. In his lecture, Dr. Toshkhani discussed in detail the origin of Kashmiri language and highlighted a few unpublished manuscripts which bear the key to comprehend the history of the development of Kashmiri language. In his discussion, he illustrated his points with example of four manuscripts - Bsura Kath, Sukha-dukha Carit, Mahnaya Praka and Chumm Sampradya. He observed, "Linguistically, Sukha-dukha Carit is an important work as together with Bsura Kath, Mahnaya Praka and Chumm Sampradya, it throws valuable light on the medieval development of the Kashmiri language. All the four works amply demonstrate how Kashmiri achieved the status of a Modern Indic language after passing through the intermediate stage of Prakrit and Apabharmasha".
Toshkhani delivered a lecture on `Formation of the Kashmiri language and some early

National Mission for Manuscripts
various aspects of the manuscripts, likename, number, subject, collection number, title, name of the author, category, script, language, length, folios, lines, nos. of letters, condition, status and period etc. These descriptive catalogues are sources of information about the collection and comprises basic information related to the manuscripts. The catalogues provide a detailed information of the manuscripts written in most of the major languages and scripts, represented by fragments as well as complete codices, and ranging in date. Some of the manuscripts are well-known in the scholarly world and extensively published, whilst others have never been mentioned in print. Almost all the illustrated manuscripts were described, albeit very briefly; whilst many others have been described in greater or lesser detail elsewhere. The aim was to find an acceptable compromise by providing information at different levels of detail. These catalogues, at the most fundamental level, may be little more than an inventory, simply informing potentially interested readers of the manuscript collection. This will definitely act as a finding aid to give readers a general idea of what material might be of use to their studies, and will be a starting-point from which to pursue their enquiries. The descriptions were prepared by the academicians and professional staff, and contain a wealth of unpublished information. Publications of Important Manuscripts and their Importance: Asiatic Society through its study and
research activities has published several
fundamental works related to Indian
wisdom and also the intellectual heritage of
the Asian continent. These include social,
cultural, economic, political, historical,
religious and socio-cultural dimensions
which provide access to a wide range of
research information on Asian knowledge
system. Some of the examples may be
discussed in this context. The Asiatic
Society has published a few fundamental
texts, i.e. A Critical Study Edition of Sri
KЛlacakratantrarЛja (1993), edited by
Biswanath Banerjee; јpastamba SЛmЛnya-
SНtra or YajnaparibhЛsa SНtra (2006) edited
with translation and exposition by Samiran
Chandra Chakrabarti; AЫЦasЛhasrikЛ PrajХЛ
PЛramitЛ (1970); tr. into English by Dr.
Edward Conze, (Reprint); AЪvaghoЫa (2011)
by B.C. Law (Reprint); јЪvalЛyana Йrauta
SНtra (2002) ed. by Amar Chattopadhyay (in
Bengali); KiraЩЛvali of UdayanЛchЛryya,
(2002) Fasc. IV edited by Narendra Chandra
Vedantatirtha, (Reprint); KirЛta Jana Kriti
(2011) by Suniti Kumar Chatterji (Reprint);
KОЫi-ParЛsara (2001) ed. & tr. by Girija
Prasanna Mozumdar and Sures Chandra
Banerji, (Reprint); Kvtya-tattvЛrЩava (1975)
by Srinatha Acarya Cudamani (Part-I)
edited by Rajendra Chandra Hazra;
LalitavistЛra (2001) English translation, by
Bijoya
Goswami;
ChandasНtrabhЛЫyamyadavaprakaЪakОtam
(1977), collated and edited from four extant
Mss. by Haridas Sinha Ray;
CharakasaСhitЛr dЛrЪanik Bhavana-SamiksЛ
(2006) by Dalia Bandury; and Dattaka-
Tilakah (2004) by Jaydeb Ganguly Shastri,
etc.10 When we study the contents of these
National Mission for Manuscripts
17
publications, we find significant data which reveals the study of Indian history and culture from the genius minds of the western and eastern Indologists. These publications can be considered as the source of integral knowledge, science, tradition and culture of the Asian civilization, which has produced the highest level of intellectual wisdom in the world. The publications reveal the wisdom, which is considered as the source of origin and development of human religion and the infinite storehouse of legendary wisdom and progress of human civilization. Asiatic Society, Indologists and the manuscript heritage: It was the British, the colonial rulers, who formally created the subject Indology at the end of the 18th Century, when the English thinker William Jones (1746-1794) founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Kolkata in 1784. Modern Indology may be said to have begun with Sir William Jones. A linguist with scholarly inclinations, his job was to interpret Indian law and customs to his employer. He devoted best of his time for the study, research and dissemination of Indian wisdom. Under his dynamic leadership, most of the research work in the field of Indology was completed and it attracted both the Indian and western scholars to interpret intellectual traditions of India. As for example - S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar (became member of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1908, 1871 1946); A History of India; Harinath De (1877-1911) Translation of a part of Rig Veda with original Mantras; Rajendralal Mitra (Librarian of the Asiatic Society, 1823/24-1891); The
Antiquities of Orissa, Illustrated work on Bodh Gaya (1878); The hermitage of ЙЛkya Muni; K. A. Nilakanta Sastri(1892 1975) History of South India; A comprehensive history of India; Krishna Kanta Handique (1898 1982) NaiЫadhacarita of ЙrМharЫa, 1934; Yasastilika and Indian Culture 1949; Pandurang Vaman Kane (188019 72) History of DharmaЪЛstra; Prabodh Chandra Bagchi (1898 1956) Sanskrit Buddhist literature with Sylvain Lйvi and Rahul Sankrityayan (1893 -1963); Translation of Majjhima Nikaya from Prakrit into Hindi; Volga Se GaФgЛ (A journey from the Volga to the Ganges); etc. The principal contribution of the west has been in bringing out editions of ancient works of Indian scriptures, like English translation of the BhagavadgМtЛ into English by Sir Charles Wilkins (1750-1833), translation of Kalidasa's AbhijХЛna books (1789) by Sir William Jones, publication of an edition of Kalhana's RЛjataraФgiЩi (1825) by Wilson. Asiatic Society and exploration of Indian cultural heritage: Ancient India was a land of sages, saints and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists presenting the holistic, integral and divine wisdom, which is interrelated to the Vedic tradition. The ancient Indian heritage has a rich artistic tradition in knowledge, science and technology right from the Vedic period and contributed a lot for the advancement of knowledge system of the Asia. This approach has been the foundation to all branches of Indian systems of knowledge including spirituality, philosophy, psychology, mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical
18
National Mission for Manuscripts
science, art and architecture etc. The scientific and integral knowledge system preserved in the manuscripts are the treasure of Indian wisdom, by which the intellectual tradition of India can be experimented, experienced and developed.11 The textual contents of the manuscript collection reveal the highest and subtlest experiences and symbolically present the aspirations, inspirations, revelations, intuitions and integral knowledge system of Ancient Indian Wisdom. Manuscripts can be considered as fundamental texts to the Indian scientific developments and artistic traditions as also primary texts relating to the Indian Arts. Sir William Jones in his discourses delivered before The Asiatic Society and Mislleaneous Papers, Discourse-II "No contributions, except those of the literary kind, will be requisite for the support of the society; but if each of us were occasionally to contribute a lucid description of such manuscripts as we had perused or inspected, with their dates, and the name of their owners, and to propose a solution such questions as had occurred to him concerning Asiatic Art, Science and History, natural or civil, we should possess without labour, and almost by imperceptible degrees, a fuller catalogue of Oriental books than has hitherto been exhibited; and our correspondences should be apprised of those points to which we chiefly direct our investigations. Much may, I am confident, be expected from the communications of learned natives, whether lawyers, physicians, or private scholars, who would eagerly, on the first invitation, send us their Mekamat and Risalahs on a variety of
subjects; some of us the sake of advancing general knowledge; but most of them from a desire, neither uncommon nor unreasonable, of attracting notice, and recommending themselves to favour. With a view to avail ourselves of this disposition, and to bring their latent science under our inspection, it might be advisable to print and circulate a short memorial, in Persian and Hindi, setting forth, in a style accommodated to their own habits and prejudices, the design of our institution."12 The Asiatic society through its study, research and academic activities has made outstanding contributions for the collection, cataloguing and publication of manuscripts. The grand collection of manuscripts of the Asiatic Society has contributed a lot for the exploration and dissemination of cognitive knowledge system as well as the development of ancient Indian science and technology.13 The objective of the Asiatic Society is to preserve the grand cultural heritage of India through preserving the manuscript tradition and the associated scholars tried their best to flourish the intellect of the ancient people. The scientific temper of Asiatic Society and its remarkable continuity down the ages till the present day is worth appreciating.14 Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee writes- Sir William Jones was not only an incarnation of the intellectual curiosity of the highly cultivated and humanistic eighteenth century Europe-he was something more: his work has been meant more for us Indians than what he himself or any compatriot of his was conscious of. Like all leaders of men in the domain of thought, his was in the first
National Mission for Manuscripts
19
instance the soul of a poet.15 The Society with its activities has influenced the study of manuscripts and there are also reflections of scientific thoughts and artistic expressions. The basis of Asiatic Society for preserving the intellectual tradition as well as the scientific heritage of India is the comparative value system of instincts gleaned, largely from its connection with religion, science and philosophy and more specifically the intellectual tradition reveals the artistic expressions, which are sill alive. References- 1. James Elmes (1824) Discourses delivered before The Asiatic Society and Miscellaneous Papers on The Religion, Poetry, Literature etc. of the Nations of India by Sir William Jones (ed.), London: Charles S. Arnold, pp.1-2 2. www. asiaticsocietycal.com 3. Dr. Chandra Roy Choudhury, Bicentenary Souvenir, The Asiatic Society (1784-1984), Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, p.1 4. "When the Asiatic Society was founded on 15 January 1784, just 200 years away from now, its begetter Sir William Jones (1746-1794) began his work with nothing but a dream, a dream as baffling and bizarre as the continent of Asia itself. He dreamt of a centre for Asian studies including almost everything concerning man and nature within the geographical limits of the continent." Dr. Chandra Roy Choudhury, Bicentenary Souvenir, The Asiatic Society (1784-1984), Calcutta, p.1. 5. James Elmes (1824) Discourses
delivered before The Asiatic Society and Miscellaneous Papers on The Religion, Poetry, Literature etc. of the Nations of India by Sir William Jones, (ed.), London: Charles S. Arnold, p. 6. www. asiaticsocietycal.com 7. Mahamahopadhyays Haraprasada Shastri (2005) A Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Government Collection under the care of The Asiatic Society, Vol-II Vedic Manuscripts, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society 8. W. Ivanow (1932) Concise Descriptive Catalogue of the Persian, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society of Bengal. 9. Catalogue of Publications, Kolkata: The Asiatic Society, 2011 10. Catalogue of Publications, Kolkata: The Asiatic Society, 2011 11. The ancient manuscripts have a link between the past and the present. R.S. Shivaganesa Murthy (1996), Introduction to Manuscriptology, Delhi: Sarada Publishing House, p. xi 12. James Elmes (1824) Discourses delivered before The Asiatic Society and Miscellaneous Papers on The Religion, Poetry, Literature etc. of the Nations of India by Sir William Jones (ed.), London: Charles S. Arnold, p. Dicourse-II,p.18 13. O.P. Kejariwal (1988) The Asiatic Society of Bengal and the Discovery of Indias Past 1784-1838, Bombay: Oxford University Press. Foreword by A.L. Basham- The Society took an
20
National Mission for Manuscripts
interest not only in languages, literature and culture, but also in the natural sciences as they were related to India. P. ix 14. The Asiatic Society may be said to have initiated scientific researches in India on western lines. Every branch of scientific activity in India owed its genesis to the Asiatic Society which had made important and valuable contributions in every field. Sisir Kumar Mitra(1974) The Asiatic Society, Calcutta: The Asiatic Society. P. 8 15. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee (1948) Sir William Jones (1746-1794), published in Sir William Jones: Bicentenary of his
birth Commemoration Volume 17461946, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, p. 85 Dr. Kishor Kumar Tripathy is Senior Research Fellow, Kalakosa Division Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi
National Mission for Manuscripts
21
Origin of Sinhalese Script Dr. Anirban Dash
Sri Lanka has one of the oldest writing systems in South-East Asia. According to the epics of India and Sri Lanka, the island was inhabited by two tribes known as the NЛgas and Yakas prior to the period of King Vijaya. As we know, there are 64 scripts enumerated in the LalitavistЛra beginning with BrЛhmМ script. Very interestingly, both NЛga and YakЫa are also listed as scripts in this list available in the LalitavistЛra. Here, it may be assumed that these two scripts were used during that period in which the Lalitavistra was written. Still it is open subject among the scholars to discuss. Traditionally it is believed that, the earliest Aryan colonizers of Sri Lanka brought some kind of writings with them. Due to lack of solid evidence, it is difficult to know the exact form of writing systems they brought to Sri Lanka. Apart from that, there are many significant textual references about writing systems found in MahЛvasa. King Vijaya (5th century B.C.) sent a letter to his brother, Sumitta, to come over to Sri Lanka to be his successor. Another King Abhaya (3rd century B.C) also wrote a letter to Prince PaukЛbhaya. The art of writing began to spread in Sri Lanka after the advent of King Mahendra in 3rd century B.C. Prince Tissa of KalyЛМ Kingdom sent a man in disguise of a bhikkhu, with a secret letter to the queen. King VaagЛminМ Abhaya used Ketaka leaf to write. Third century B.C. is considered as the golden period in the history of writing in
Sri Lanka because the PЛli canons and AhakathЛs were written in that period. According to MahЛvasa, "The text of the three Pitakas and the Atthakathas thereon did the most wise bhikkhus hand down in former times orally, but since they saw that the people were falling away (religion) the bhikkhus came together, and in order that the true doctrine might endure, they wrote them down in books". TЛla leaf was used for writing material during the period of the evolution of the commentary to Pali texts. Even though above mentioned textual references may not be completely historical but contains sufficient information to show that the writing system was known in Ceylon from 5th century B.C. Development of Sinhalese script Southern division of BrЛhmМ was not only spread in India, but also in Sri Lanka, Maldives, Myanmar, Cambodia, Malaysia and Indonesia. Pallavas were chief users of southern BrЛhmМ and solely responsible for its origin and development. The Southern group includes ancient scripts such as Grantha, Kadamba, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Telugu, and Sinhala, etc. Sri Lanka possesses the earliest contemporary Brahmi script of both the types, the Mauryan of the Northern variety and the Southern Brahmi letters. Up to third century B.C., the scripts of Ceylon and India are very close to each other. Both have a vertical stroke with two
22
National Mission for Manuscripts
arms drawn from the center, either straight or curved to the top and bottom. From 3rd century B.C. to the 14th century A.D. the BrЛhmМ script in Ceylon underwent three stages of development. Stage- I The MauryЛn BrЛhmМ in its pure form together with a few South Indian BrЛhmМ, the Tamil cave and the Bhaiprolu scripts exhibit the first stage which extended in most cases from the 3rd century B.C. to the 1st century A.D. The scripts during this BrЛhmМ era are closely connected with the KaliФga, Sunga and SaravЛhana characters of the 2nd century B.C. Stage - II A large number of scripts entered into the second stage of their development covering generally from 1st century B.C. to the 5th 6th centuries only some letters continue to the 7th - 8th centuries. They are still traceable to their earliest prototypes and are at the same
time in the line with Mathura Jain letters of 1st century B.C. and those of the 1st century, the SЛtavЛhana, the KuЛa letters of the 2nd century; the Pallva scripts of the 3rd - 4th centuries; the northern and central Gupta of 4th century ; the Kadamba of the 4th -5th centuries. The Sinhalese scripts in this Sinhala BrЛhmМ era acquired the adaptability and the potential freedom to develop into multi-shape, in contrast with the Indian varieties. Stage - III The germination of the modern Sinhalese script took place in the third stage from the 8th to the 9th 10th -11th , 13th and 14th centuries down to the present day. The great urge for independent manifestation is the characteristic script of this age which reflected in the emergence of a large number of the indigenous letters. The Tripiakas which had been handed down orally were committed to write for the first time about
Development chart of the letter from BrЛhmМ to Sinhala 3rd B.C. to 1st A.D. (Brhm)
1st A.D. to 4th A.D (Brhm)
4th A.D. to 7th A.D Beginning of Sinhala Script 7th to 10th A.D Under Development
10th to 12th A.D. Final shape of Sinhala script
National Mission for Manuscripts
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the end of the 1st century B.C... This was facilitated by the BrЛhmМ scripts. Sinhala Alphabet The Sinhala alphabet is also one of the largest, containing 58 letters. The letters of the Sinhala alphabet fall into two classes: vowel-letters and consonant-letters. The Sinhala character set consists of 16 vowels, 2 semi-consonants, 40 consonants and 13 consonant modifiers also known as strokes of character modifiers. These graphical signs arealways used in conjunction with consonants. Unlike English, consonant modifiers could be positioned at different location around the character. Although the basic shape of the characters is symmetrical and curved-shaped, some parts such as the Sinhalese Characters
upper or lower parts may not be in the same level. Sinhala is often considered to have two alphabets due to the presence of two different sets of letters. The core set, known as the uddha sihala Sinhala is more prominent in the Southern and Western regions, while the Tamil language and alphabet are used more often in the north of the island. Special features of Sinhalese script a. Syllabic alphabet. b. Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines. c. Conjunct symbols are used only when writing Sanskrit of Pali with the Sinhala alphabet.
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d. Most of the Sinhala letters are curlicues; straight lines are almost completely absent from the alphabet. This is because Sinhala used to be written on dried palm leaves, which would split along the veins on writing straight lines. This was undesirable, and therefore, the round shapes were preferred. Conclusion Sinhalese forms are complex in nature and exhibits more than one course of development, following more than one trend of style. The potentiality of the Sinhalese letters to emerge independently is
unmistakable. Out of 58 letters, twenty-nine are indigenous. Eleven Sinhalese letters are adopted in the Grantha scripts. BrЛhmМ was the only parents of the Sinhala script. Sinhala is a most closely related to the Grantha script, but also takes some elements from the Kadamba script as well. Dr. Anirban Dash is Assistant Professor, Dept. of Pali and Buddhist Studies, University of Pune.
(i) athЛmaccehi mantetvЛ lekhaС tattha visajjayi / lekhaС datvЛna vijayo na cireЩadivyaС gato // MahСvaСsa VIII.3 (ii) gantvЛpatissagЛС te taС atthaС rЛjino brabuС / raja lekhaС kumЛrassa sarahassaС pЛhiЩi // bhuХjassu pЛragaС tvaС mЛ gЛ oraС tato"ti / taС sutvЛ tassa kujjhiСsu bhЛtaro nava rЛjino // MahЛvaСsa VIII.48-49 (iii) datvЛ rahassalekhaС so bhikkhuvesadharaС naraС /pЛhesi deviyЛ grantvЛ rЛjadvЛ Цhito tuso // MahЛvaСsa XXII.15 (iv) atha ketakapattamhi likhitvЛ haЦЦamЛnase /saСghabhogaС tassa pЛdЛ mahioato // MahЛvaСsa XXXIII.50 (v) piЦakattayapЛliС ca tassa aЦЦhakathaС pica /mukhapЛЦhena ЛnesuС pubbe bhikkhu mahЛmati //
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Publications of the NMM TATTVABODHA Compilation of the proceedings of public lectures delivered under Tattvabodha Series
TATTVABODHA VOLUME­I Editor: Sudha Gopalakrishnan Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi Pages: 164 Price: ` 325/-
TATTVABODHA VOL­III Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dev Books, New Delhi Pages: 240 Price: ` 350/-
TATTVABODHA VOLUME­II Editor: Kalyan Kumar Chakravar ty Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi Pages: 194 Price: ` 350/-
TATTVABODHA VOLUME­IV Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and D. K. Printworld (P.) Ltd. Pages: 251 Price: ` 400/-
SAMRAKSHIKA Compilation of the proceedings of the seminars on conservation of manuscripts
SAMRAKSHIKA VOLUME­I Indigenous Methods of Manuscript Preservation Editor: Sudha Gopalakrishnan Volume Editor: Anupam Sah Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd., New Delhi Pages: 253 Price: ` 350/-
SAMRAKSHIKA VOLUME­II Rare Support Materials for Manuscripts and their Conservation Editor: Shri K. K. Gupta Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dev Books, New Delhi Pages: 102 Price: ` 200/-
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SAMIKSHIKA Compilation of the proceedings of the seminars organised on different topics
SAMIKSHIKA VOLUME­I Buddhist Literary Heritage in India Editor: Prof. Ratna Basu Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi Pages: 158 Price: ` 325/-
SAMIKSHIKA VOLUME-V Saving India's Medical Manuscripts Edited by: G.G. Gangadharan General Editor: Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dev Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi Pages: 260 Price: ` 350/-
SAMIKSHIKA VOLUME-II Text and Variantions of the Mahbhrata Editor: Kalyan Kumar Chakravarty Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Munsiram Manoharlal Publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi Pages: 335 Price: ` 500/-
SAMIKSHIKA VOLUME-III Natyashastra and the Indian Dramatic Tradition Edited by: Radhavallabh Tripathi General Editor: Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dev Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi Pages: 344 Price: ` 450/-
SAMIKSHIKA VOLUME-IV Indian Textual Heritage (Persian, Arabic and Urdu) Editor: Prof. Chander Shekhar Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dilli Kitab Ghar, Delhi Pages: 400 Price: ` 350/-
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KRITIBODHA Critical editions of manuscripts
KRITIBODHA VOLUME-I Vdhla Ghygamavttirahasyam of Nryaa Mira Critically edited by: Braj Bihari Chaubey General editor: Sudha Gopalakrishnan Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd., New Delhi Pages: 472 Price: ` 550/-
KRITIBODHA VOLUME-V Dravyaguaatalok of Trimallabhaa Editor: Dr. C.M. Neelakandhan & Dr. S. A. S. Sarma General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: NMM & Nag Publishers, Delhi Pages: 136 Price: ` 250-
KRITIBODHA VOLUME-II rauta Prayogakpti of crya ivaroa Editor: Prof. Braj Bihari Chaubey Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd., New Delhi Pages: 200 Price: ` 250/-
KRITIBODHA VOLUME-III Tattvnusandhanam (A Compendium of Advaita Philosophy) by Sri MahadevanandaSarasvati Consultant Editor: T. V. Sathyanarayana General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and New Bharatiya Book Corporation, Delhi Pages: 90 Price: ` 150/- 28
KRITIBODHA, VOLUME ­ IV rjonarjkta Kirtrjunyak Editor: Dr. Dharmendra Kumar Bhatt Consultant Editor: Prof. Vasant Kumar M. Bhatt General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi & Nag Publishers, New Delhi Pages: 338 Price: ` 250/- National Mission for Manuscripts
PRAKASHIKA Printed editions of rare and unpublished manuscripts
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME-I Diwanzadah Edited by: Prof. Abdul Haq General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Delhi Kitab Ghar, Delhi Pages: 454 Price: ` 250/-
PRAKASHIKA, VOLUME VI (Part I & II) Tazkira-e-Ilahi of Mir Imaduddin Ilahi Hamdani (Facsimile Edition) Editor: Prof. Abdul Haq General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi & Dev Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi Pages: 436 + 347 = 783 Price: ` 2,000/- (for two parts)
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME-II Chahar Gulshan (An eighteenh century gazetteer of Mughal India) Edited and Annotated by: Chander Shekhar General Editor: Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dilli Kitab Ghar, Delhi Pages: 473 Price: ` 250/-
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME ­ III khytavda and Naсvda along with ippan Critically Edited by Sanjit Kumar Sadhukhan General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dev Publishers & Distributers, New Delhi Pages: 127 Price: ` 250/- National Mission for Manuscripts
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME-IV Paktcintmai and Smnyanirukti of Gagea with Kadaippani (Text and English Translation) Critically Edited by Subuddhi Charan Goswami General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dev Publishers & Distributors Pages: 113 Price: ` 225/- 29
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME-VII Rgravam (with Rgacandrik Vykhy) Edited and commented by: Bhagavatsharan Shukla General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and D. K. Printworld (P.) Ltd. Pages: 251 Price: ` 300/-
PRAKASHIKA, VOLUME X Abhijсnaakuntalam with Sandharbhadpika of Chandrasekhar Chakravarty Editor: Prof. Vasantkumar M. Bhatt General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi & New Bhartiya Book Corporation, New Delhi Pages: 262 Price: ` 300/-
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME-VIII Kaliklasarvajсa crya hemcandra's Laghvarhannti (Text with commentary, variant readings, Hindi translation and appendices) Editor: Ashok Kumar Singh General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and New Bharatiya Book Corporation, New Delhi Pages: 314 Price: ` 350/-
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME­IX (1st Part) Mir'at-ulIstelah of Anand Ram Mukhlis Edited by: Chander Shekhar, Hamidreza Ghelichkani & Houman Yousefdahi General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and DilliKitabGhar, Delhi Pages: 566 Price: ` 400/-
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME-V Vdhulaghyasutam with Vtti Critically Edited by: Braj Bihari Chaubey General Editor: Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and New Bharatiya Book Corporation, New Delhi Pages: 262 Price: ` 350/-
PRAKASHIKA VOLUME­IX (2nd Part) Mir'at-ulIstelah of Anand Ram Mukhlis Edited by: Chander Shekhar, Hamidreza Ghelichkani & Houman Yousefdahi General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Dilli Kitab Ghar, Delhi Pages: 403 Price: ` 400/-
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PRAKASHIKA, Volume XI (Part 1 & 2) Jaiminiyasamavedasamhita Text of Kerala Tradition (Arcika, Sama and Candrasama Portions) Editor: Dr. K. A. Rabindran General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi & Nag Publishers, Delhi Pages: 206 + 413 = 619 Price: ` 600/- (for two parts)
PRAKASHIKA, VOLUME XIV crya ryadsaprant Kalpgamasamgrhakhy Vdhlarautasutastravykhy Editor: Prof. Braj Bihari Chaubey General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi & Dev Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi Pages: 300 + 429 = 729 Price: ` 650/- (for two parts)
PRAKASHIKA, VOLUME XII Sanskrit Manuscripts of Kuamatt Family of Kasargod Editors: Dr. K. N. Kurup& Dr. P. Manoharan General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi & New Bhartiya Book Corporation, New Delhi Pages: 279 Price: ` 300/-
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CATALOGUES
THE WORD IS SACRED SACRED IS THE WORD The Indian Manuscript Tradition by B. N. Goswamy Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and Niyogi Offset Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi Pages: 248 Price: `1850/-
SHABAD GURU Illustrated Catalogue of Rare Guru Granth Sahib Manuscripts Editor: Dr. Mohinder Singh Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi and National Institute of Punjab Studies, New Delhi Pages: 193 SANSKRIT KATHAKALI WORKS OF VIRAKERALAVARMA, SITAHARANAM AND NALACHARITAM (FIRST DAY'S STORY) Editor: Dr. C. M. Nilakandhan & Dr. K. M. Seeja General Editor: Prof. P. K. Mishra Publishers: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi & Nag Publishers, Delhi Pages: 300 Price: ` 350/-
VIJСNANIDHI: MANUSCRIPT TREASURES OF INDIA Published by: National Mission for Manuscripts, New Delhi Pages: 144
A DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATIONS OF INDIAN WORKS Editor: Prof. Sherif Husain Qasemi General Editor: Prof. Dipti S. Tripathi Publishers: NMM & Asila Offset Printers, New Delhi Pages: 310 Price: ` 500/-
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KK Tripathy

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