Diversity in families

Tags: Chapter, African American Families, human agency, Maxine Baca Zinn D. Stanley Eitzen Barbara Wells, Michelle Melendres, Mount St. Mary's College, Eastern Illinois University, Doug A. Timmer, customization, San Bernardino Valley College, Battered Women's Shelter Movement, Mott Community College, Margaret L. Andersen, Elizabeth Higginbotham, Brenda S. Zicha, Ali Kamali, Elder Abuse, Heterosexual Relationships, Families in Transition, Gay Families, Remarriage, Children and Divorce, Social Organization, Violence Against Women, Kathleen O'Rourke, Intimate Partner Violence, Consequences of Divorce, Domestic Violence, Divorce Rate, Missouri Western State University, Immigration Patterns, Structural Diversity, Racial Control, Work Arrangements, Elderly Immigrants, New Immigration, Immigrant Families, Industrial Society, Aging Society, Immigration, social structure, Family diversity, Maxine Baca Zinn, family worlds, Alan Zinn, Paula Miller, Michigan State University, structural forces, families in society, Family members, family arrangements, the nuclear family, Erica Hunter
Content: Diversity in Families T e n t h Ed i t i o n Maxine Baca Zinn Michigan State University D. Stanley Eitzen Colorado State University Barbara Wells Maryville College BostonColumbusIndianapolisNew YorkSan FranciscoUpper Saddle River AmsterdamCape TownDubaiLondonMadridMilanMunichParisMontrйalToronto DelhiMexico CitySгo PauloSydneyHong KongSeoulSingaporeTaipeiTokyo
Editor in Chief: Ashley Dodge Publisher: Nancy Roberts Editorial Assistant: Molly White Marketing Coordinator: Jessica Warren Managing Editor: Denise Forlow Program Manager: Mayda Bosco Senior Operations Supervisor: Mary Fischer Operations Specialist: Diane Peirano Art Director: Jayne Conte Cover Designer: Suzanne Behnke
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Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text (or on page 527). Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Zinn, Maxine Baca, Diversity in families / Maxine Baca Zinn, Michigan State University, D. Stanley Eitzen, Colorado State University, Barbara Wells Maryville College. -- Tenth edition. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-93648-9 (alk. paper) 1. Families--United States. 2. United States--Social conditions--1980- I. Eitzen,, D. Stanley. II. Wells, B arbara (Barbara A.) III. Title. HQ536.Z54 2014 306.850973--dc23 2014000158
ISBN 10: 0-205-93648-2 ISBN 13: 978-0-205-93648-9
We dedicate this book to the teachers, students, and scholars who are rethinking family life to meet the challenges of the diverse and changing social world.
brief contents 1 Images, Ideals, and Myths1 2 Preindustrial Families and the Emergence of a Modern Family Form27 3 The Historical Making of Family Diversity53 4 Families and the New Economic Realities83 5 Families and Demographic Trends: The New Immigration and the Aging of Society106 6 Class, Race, and Gender136 7 Meshing the Worlds of Work and Family180 8 The Social Construction of Intimacy216 9 Contemporary Marriage252 10 parents and children288 11 Violence in Families332 12 Divorce and Remarriage367 13 Emergent Families in the Global Era402 14 Family Policy for the Twenty-First Century435 v
contents Prefacexiii 1 Images, Ideals, and Myths1 Images and Ideals 4 Family as Haven 5 n Family as Fulfillment 5 n Family as Encumbrance 6 Images and Reality6 The Mythical U.S. Family8 The Myth of a Stable and Harmonious Family of the Past 8 nThe Myth of Separate Worlds 9 n The Myth of the Monolithic Family Form 11 n The Myth of a Unified Family Experience 13 n The Myth of Family Consensus 14 n The Myth of Family Decline as the Cause of social problems 16 A New Framework for Understanding Families19 The sociological perspective 19 n The Paradigm Shift in Family Studies 20 n The Structural Diversity Approach 21 Additional Features of This Book24 Chapter Review24 Key Terms25 Related Websites25 Media Resources26 2 Preindustrial Families and the Emergence of a Modern Family Form27 Family and the New Social History30 What Is "New" About Family History? 30 n Overview of Family History Themes 31 Family Life in Colonial America35 Agricultural Communities and Families 35 n Family Structure and Household Composition 37 n Wives and Husbands 40 nChildren42 The Emergence of Modern Family Life44 Industrialization and Families 45 n Agency, Adaptation, and Change 47 n Household Size and Composition 48 n Wives and Husbands 48 nChildren50 n Challenging a Uniform Definition of the Family 51 Chapter Review51 Key Terms52 Related Websites52 Media Resources52 vii
3 The Historical Making of Family Diversity53 Industrialization and Family Life55 New Work Arrangements 56 n Work and Family in Industrial Society 56 n Accordion Households 62 Immigration and Family Life63 The Social Breakdown Perspective 64 n Industrial Work and Immigrant Families 65 Racial Control and Family Life67 New Thinking About Minority Families 67 n Race, Labor, and Family Life 69 n African American Families in Slavery and Freedom 71 n Chicano Families in the Southwest 76 The GREAT DEPRESSION and Family Change78 Chapter Review80 Key Terms81 Related Websites81 Media Resources82 4 Families and the New Economic Realities83 The Structural Transformation of the Economy84 Globalization 85 n From Manufacturing to Services 86 nThe Changing Nature of Jobs and Compensation 88 The Great Recession and Its Aftermath90 Prelude to the Economic Crisis 90 n The Economic Crisis 91 n Downward Social Mobility 94 Consequences of the Great Recession for Families97 Marriage 97 nFertility97 n Children at Risk 98 nDivorce98 n Shifting Family Forms 99 nUnderground Economy 100 n Shrinking Consumption 101 Chapter Review103 Key Terms104 Related Websites104 Media Resources105 5 Families and Demographic Trends: The New Immigration and the Aging of Society106 The New Immigration and the Changing Racial-Ethnic Landscape107 Immigration Patterns 108 n Structural Diversity of Immigrant Families 112 n The Effects of Immigration on Immigrant Families 116 n Immigration and Agency 118 n The Effects of Immigration on Family Dynamics 118 n The New Second Generation 122 n Elderly Immigrants 122 The Aging of Society123 The Demographics of an Aging Society 123 n The Consequences of an Aging Society on Families and the Elderly 125 nRole Transitions 129 n Responses by the Elderly: Human Agency 131 n The Two Demographic Transformations of Society 132 Chapter Review133 Key Terms134 Related Websites134 Media Resources135
6 Class, Race, and Gender136 Class, Race, and Gender as Structural Inequalities137 Class140 The Cultural Approach 141 n The Structural Approach 144 Race153 Racial-Ethnic Families 156 n Structural Inequalities and RacialEthnic Families 157 n African American Families in the Twenty-First Century 162 n Latino Families in the Twenty-First Century 168 n More Racial-Ethnic Diversity in Families: Asians, Native Americans, and Middle Easterners 170 n Human Agency and Family Formation 171 Gender172 The Traditional Gender Roles Approach 173 n Shortcomings of the Gender Roles Approach 173 n The Family as a Gendered Institution 174 Chapter Review176 Key Terms177 Related Websites177 Media Resources179 7 Meshing the Worlds of Work and Family180 The Changing Work Patterns of Women, Men, and Teens182 Women's Employment 183 n Men's Employment 187 nTeens' Employment 188 Integrating Work and Family190 Diverse Work­Family Contexts 191 n Gender Inequality 191 nWork Characteristics 193 n Family Characteristics 200 Invisible and Unpaid Family Work203 Gendered Labor in the Household 203 n Other Forms of Family Work 206 Coping with Work and Family207 Family Coping Strategies 207 n Family-Supportive Government and Employer Responses 209 Chapter Review214 Key Terms214 Related Websites215 Media Resources215 8 The Social Construction of Intimacy216 Intimacy in Social Context218 Heterosexual Mate Selection and Intimate Partnering219 Variations in "Dating" Practices 223 n Factors in Mate Selection 226 n Structural Influences on Mate Selection 227 Changing Sexual Behavior228 Society and Sexuality 228 n Enlarging the Sexuality Frame 229 n The Sexual Revolution 230 n scientific research on Sexuality 231 nAIDS233 n Teen Sexuality 234 nTeenage Childbearing 236 Differentiated Forms of Intimacy239 Gendered Love and Sex 240 n Same-Sex Orientation and Intimacy 243 n Social Class and Intimacy 245 n Race and Intimacy 246 n Claiming Control of Intimacy 248 Chapter Review249 Key Terms250 Related Websites250 Media Resources251
9 Contemporary Marriage252 Marriage: private and public Spheres254 The Private Nature of Marriage 254 n Macro Influences on Marriage 255 Recent Trends259 Unmarried Adults 259 n Age at First Marriage 261 nFamily Size 262 n Interracial or Interethnic Marriages 262 n Life Span and Marriage 264 Are There Benefits to Marriage?265 The Benefits of Marriage 266 n The Benefits of Marriage Reconsidered 267 Micro Aspects of Marriage270 Marital Success 271 n Communication in Marriage 275 nThe Sexual Relationship in Marriage 277 n Power and Decision-Making in Marriage 279 Reconstructing Gender Roles: Building an Egalitarian Marriage283 The Future of Marriage: Changing or Dying?284 Chapter Review285 Key Terms286 Related Websites286 Media Resources287 10 Parents and Children288 The Social Construction of Parenting290 The Social Construction of Childhood293 Demographic Patterns297 Fertility 297 n Voluntary Childlessness 301 n Infertility and new technologies 302 n Delayed Childbearing 304 nFamily Composition 304 The Impact of Children on Marriage311 The Transition to Parenthood 311 n The Benefits of Parenthood 312 n The Costs of Parenthood 313 nGendered Parenting 314 The Impact of Parents on Children and of Children on Parents316 The Structure of the Family Embedded in a Larger Network of Influences317 Familiy Structure 317 n The Economy 320 n Social Class and Life Chances 321 n Extrafamilial Factors 323 Parental Time with Children323 Parents and Children in Dual-Earner Families324 Maternal Employment and Time with Children 325 n social supports for Working Parents 325 Single Parents and Their Children326 REPRISE: The Duality of Parenting328 Chapter Review328 Key Terms329 Related Websites329 Media Resources331
11 Violence in Families332 Families in a Violent Society335 U.S. Violence Rates in Comparative Perspective 335 nInstitutionally Sanctioned Violence 335 n Violence in the Media 336 n Customs and Beliefs 338 n Violence and the Social Organization of the Family 339 Intimate Partner Violence339 Violence Against Women in Heterosexual Relationships 341 nContexts for Intimate Partner Violence 341 n Types of Partner Violence 344 n Does She Leave or Stay? 347 n Domestic Violence in Same-Sex Relationships 349 Child Abuse and Neglect350 What Is Child Abuse? 351 n Incidence of Child Abuse 351 nContexts for Child Abuse 353 n Consequences of Child Abuse 355 Incest356 Incidence of Incest 357 n Explanations for Incest 357 nConsequences of Incest 358 Sibling Abuse359 Elder Abuse359 What Is Elder Abuse? 359 n Incidence of Elder Abuse 360 nContexts for Elder Abuse 361 Macro and Micro Linkages362 Agency362 The Women's Movement 363 n The Battered Women's Shelter Movement 363 n Assessing Progress 363 Chapter Review364 Key Terms365 Related Websites365 Media Resources366 12 Divorce and Remarriage367 Divorce Rates369 Trends in Divorce 369 Factors Correlated with Divorce 369 Predicting the Future Divorce Rate: Up or Down?377 The Consequences of Divorce for Spouses and Children379 "His" Divorce 380 n "Her" Divorce 380 n Adjustment After Divorce for Ex-Spouses 383 n Children and Divorce 384 Remarriage After Divorce389 Statistical Facts About Remarriage 390 n The Uniqueness of Remarriage 392 n The Outcomes for Stepchildren 396 n The Special Case of Remarriage Among the Elderly 397 The Politics of Divorce398 Is Marriage a Failed Institution?399 Chapter Review400 Key Terms400 Related Websites401 Media Resources401
13 Emergent Families in the Global Era402 The Rise in New Family Arrangements404 Families in Transition 404 n The Global Revolution in Family Life 406 n How to Think About Family Diversification 407 Single Life409 The Singles Population 410 n Gender, Race, and Class 411 n Experiencing Single Life 412 Heterosexual Cohabitation413 The Rise of Cohabitation 414 n Who Are Cohabitors? 415 nGender, Class, and Race 416 n Cohabitation: Prelude to Marriage, Substitute for Marriage, and Still Evolving 417 Same-Sex Partners and Families419 Who Is Gay and What Are Gay Families? 420 n Gay Couples and Families 421 A Shifting Social Context for Same-Sex Partners 425 Families Separated by Time and Space426 Transnational Families 426 n Commuter Marriages and Other Long-Distance Relationships 429 Chapter Review432 Key Terms433 Related Websites433 Media Resources434 14 Family Policy for the Twenty-First Century435 The Ideological Fault Lines438 The Social Conservatives 438 n The Progressives 440 The Government's Limits on the Definition of Marriage442 The Government and Reproductive Rights443 Contraceptives 443 nAbortion445 Welfare448 The Shrinking welfare state 449 n The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) of 1996 449 nThe Conservative Solution: Marriage 453 n The Progressive Solution: A Stronger Safety Net 455 Working Parents457 Parental Leave 457 n Child Care 458 n Work-Related Policies and Gender Inequality 460 Meeting the Needs of Disadvantaged Children460 Poor Children at Risk 461 n The Societal Response to Disadvantaged Children 462 n Funding Programs to Help Disadvantaged Children 467 Principles to Guide Family Policy: An Immodest Proposal467 Chapter Review470 Key Term471 Related Websites471 Media Resources472 Glossary473 Bibliography481 Credits527 Name Index 000 Subject Index 000
Themes of the Book The tenth edition of Diversity in Families reflects the critical tradition of family sociologists, economists, and historians whose scholarship is structuralist, feminist, and humanist. Several assumptions guide our inquiry. To begin, the understanding of families requires that we demythologize the family, the most myth-laden of all our social institutions. We must separate, for example, the reality of how families are structured from the ideal images of "the family" that are commonly portrayed. The demythologizing of the family also requires that we examine the diversity of contemporary families. An important aspect of our focus is the critical examination of society. We ask questions such as "How do families really work?" and "Who benefits under the existing arrangements and who does not?" This critical stance is based on the assumption that the social world is humanly made and therefore not sacred. Thus a keen sociological analysis demystifies social life by ferreting out existing myths, stereotypes, and dogmas. This means, for example, that families must be examined not only from middle-class, White, male viewpoints, which dominated the scholarly study of the family in the past. Several bodies of new scholarship are considered throughout this book to show how family organization and experience vary by social class, gender, race, and sexuality. Conventional research and public policy have long treated families as closed units that can be understood in isolation from outside influences. In sharp contrast, this book assumes that families are not the "building blocks of society" but are, rather, the products of social forces within society. The material conditions of people's lives, for example, shape attitudes, behaviors, and family patterns. The structure of a society's economy affects which family members work outside the home, the lifestyles of family members, how material needs are met, the opportunities for children, and even how the labor and decision-making will be divided. Clearly, too, the economic rewards of occupations are key determinants in family diversity. Contemporary patterns of social inequality influence family formation and family relations. Wealth, race, gender, and sexuality produce diverse family forms and household arrangements. economic conditions and social inequities in the United States make family life difficult. This
does not mean that families cannot be warm and loving places but rather that structural conditions sometimes preclude this ideal. In short, these structural arrangements produce a range of family configurations. Important in our view is that differences are the consequence of structured social inequality rather than the result of family values. This structural perspective does not mean, however, that we ascribe to a rigid structural determinism. There is a dialectic between social structure and human response. Family members do not simply respond to their changing situations. To the contrary, people are agents and actors, coping with, adapting to, and changing social structures to meet their needs. Women, men, and children actively produce their family worlds. This process is called human agency. We stress both social structure and human agency in this book. This examination of families also assumes that they must be understood in historical context. What happens to families today is a continuation of what has been happening to them over time. The Framework Several organizing principles guide the analysis of families in this new edition. We call this framework "structural diversity." It differs from functionalism, the dominant paradigm of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Functionalism posited a monolithic model of the family, in which the nuclear family was viewed as the basis of societal organization and cohesion. The nuclear family was considered essential for the proper socialization of children and for the division of labor that enabled women and men to perform their social roles in an orderly manner. Families that deviated from the standard arrangement were thought to be deficient. The structural-diversity approach challenges the old paradigm on every dimension. Our framework views all families in society as shaped through their interaction with social structures. We explore the close connections between the inner dynamics of family life and the structural forces that shape all families, albeit in different ways. As an example, this edition includes a new chapter on how families are affected by changing economic forces in the United States and the world. Our coverage of the nation's various family arrangements is not simply for cultural appreciation. We want to understand why families are diverse. xiii
To summarize, the structural-diversity framework incorporates the following themes (these are elaborated more fully in Chapter 1): 1. Families are socially constructed and historically changing. 2. Family diversity is produced by the same structures that organize society as a whole. 3. Families are embedded in and shaped by interconnected systems of race, class, and gender. 4. Family diversity is constructed through social structure as well as the actions of family members. 5. Understanding families means challenging monolithic ideas that conceive of the family in idealistic ways. Other Features of the Text The demythologizing of families is a central theme. To draw students into each topic, chapters begin with common myths about families, many of which students may believe, and contrast these myths with reality. The chapters themselves are clearly organized and written, with many examples of contemporary interest to bolster the analysis. Boxed features focus students' attention on key concepts and trends: 1. Inside the Worlds of Diverse Families looks inside microstructural worlds to put a human face on some of the rhythms, textures, and conflicts of everyday family life. 2. Researching Families presents the main approaches and methods sociologists use in their studies. 3. Families in Global Perspective offers an international view of families, with selected illustrations that have both global and domestic implications. 4. Technology and the Family explores the effects of new technologies on different features of family experience. 5. Emergent Family Trends provides a look at new family patterns and the meaning they have for future families. 6. Think About This encourages students to think critically about family issues especially pertinent to them. Chapter reviews summarize the main points to help students assimilate the material. And finally,
photographs, drawings, and cartoons illustrate many of the ideas and concepts in the text. Relevant websites have been added at the conclusion of each chapter. New to This Edition Just as families are socially constructed, so, too, is the scholarship on families. As society experiences major "earthquakes," social science thinking about families is undergoing "seismic shifts" as well. These new intellectual developments have required major revisions of the previous edition. Most significantly, we have sharpened the focus on the macro and micro and emphasized human agency in the analysis. We have added a new chapter on how families are affected by the structural transformation of the economy, globalization, and the Great Recession (Chapter 4). Each chapter has been reorganized to make the themes of the book more explicit. Each chapter includes material on demythologizing, macro (societal forces) impinging on the micro (families), diversity in families, and human agency. Supplements INSTRUCTOR'S RESOURCE MANUAL AND TEST BANK (ISBN 0205936490) For each chapter in the text, this valuable resource provides LEARNING OBJECTIVES; chapter outline and overview; classroom activities and projects; and video and film suggestions. The Test Bank consists of true/false, multiple choice, and essay/Discussion questions. The Instructor's Resource Manual and Test Bank is available to adopters at www .pearsonhighered.com. MYTEST (ISBN 0205936520) This computerized software allows instructors to create their own personalized exams, to edit any or all of the existing test questions, and to add new questions. Other special features of this program include random generation of test questions, creation of alternate versions of the same test, scrambling question sequence, and test preview before printing. The MyTest is available to adopters at www.pearsonhighered.com. POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONS (ISBN 0205936571) The PowerPoint slides provide dozens of ready-touse lecture outlines and include the line art from the text. They are available to adopters at www .pearsonhighered.com.
This text is available in a variety of formats-- digital and print. To learn more about our programs, pricing, options, and customization, visit www .pearsonhighered.com. Acknowledgments We thank Alan Zinn, the picture editor, whose skills and creativity bring life and diversity to our approach. Maxine Baca Zinn thanks Paula Miller of Michigan State University for research assistance. We also thank the following reviewers whose contributions to the preparation of this edition were extremely helpful: Ali Kamali, Missouri Western
State University; Michelle Melendres, Mount St. Mary's College, Los Angeles; Brenda S. Zicha, Mott Community College, Flint, MI; Erica Hunter, University of Albany; Romana Pires, San Bernardino Valley College; and Kathleen O'Rourke, Eastern Illinois University. Finally, we wish to thank our special colleagues and friends who have influenced our thinking-- Margaret L. Andersen, Elizabeth Higginbotham, Kathryn D. Talley, and Doug A. Timmer. Maxine Baca Zinn D. Stanley Eitzen Barbara Wells

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