Heat Wave, expressions, onestopenglish, practice section, role play, heat situation, role plays, L2 classroom, teacher, language classroom, language awareness, language teaching, Matthew Barbee University of Hawaii, Communicative Language Teaching
Drama in the Second Language Classroom !
Matthew Barbee University of Hawaii March 19, 2013!
Objectives: · To present strategies for incorporating drama into the L2 classroom. · To distinguish between Drama and Theatre (process vs. product). · To explore the benefits of drama in the classroom. · To workshop ways to teach a second language through drama. · To empower teachers to defend the incorporation of drama into their curriculum.
TRENDS IN CONTEMPORY PEDAGOGICAL THEORY
10 Macrostrategies for Teachers [Kumaravadivelu 1994]
1) Maximize learning opportunities 2) Facilitate negotiated interaction 3) Minimize perceptual mismatches 4) Activate intuitive heuristics
5) Foster language awareness 6) Contextualize linguistic input 7) Integrate language skills
8) Promote learner autonomy 9) Raise cultural consciousness 10) Ensure social relevance
Communicative LANGUAGE TEACHING communicative language teaching
is "a meaning-based, learner-centered approach to L2 teaching where fluency is given priority over accuracy and the emphasis is on the comprehension and production of messages, not the teaching or correction of language form." [Spada 2007]
What is communication? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is DRAMA?
What is THEATRE?
As early as the 1960's in England, drama has been present in the
language classroom as a function of Democracy, that is, it served
to give every student a voice.
Dramatic Activities Simulation Role-playing Hot-seating Teacher-in-role Improvisation Role-reversal Thought-tracking
Description · Dramatic, communicative activities
that ask students to solve a problem as themselves. (Livingstone 1983, Via 1987) · Synonymous with task-based language teaching · An extension of simulation where students are asked to take on different personas other than themselves with motivations and attitudes matching those new personas. (Livingstone 1983) · Interviewing a character or role-player who remains 'in role.' Group and teacher can ask questions. This may be done by freezing the improvised action and removing the characters, or by sitting them formally on the 'hot-seat' to face questioners. · Encourages insights into character and roles, highlighting motivations and personality, and reflective awareness or human behavior. · The teacher stimulates and directs the drama from within by adopting a suitable role. This can excite interest, control the action, incite involvement, provoke tension, challenge superficial thinking, create choices and ambiguity, develop the narrative and create possibilities for the group to interact in role. · Removes some degree of power and status from the teacher but replaces it with negotiated role relationships. · Children work in small groups to plan, prepare and present improvisations as a means of expressing understanding of a situation, idea or experience. · Requires excellent negotiating skills on the part of the participants. · Good for sequencing ideas, selecting content, exploring characterization, devising dialogue and events, gaining performance skills and developing confidence in expressive performance. · At a key moment in the drama, selected by the teacher, children take on roles representing a different status, viewpoint or occupation. · This is an effective convention for examining social interaction
, opposing viewpoints, relationships and motives. · Individual students, in role, speak their inner thoughts. The teacher freezes the drama and taps a chosen character on the shoulder to indicate that they should speak their thoughts or feelings within the drama. · Thought-tracking slows the action down by allowing it to pause, enables the children to reflect on events and establishes what the characters are thinking or feeling at a specific moment in the drama - which may or may not reflect what they have been saying out loud.
Other Dramatic Activities: Mime Living Pictures Reader's theatre Physicalizing Pronunciation Alternative Ending
Other Product-centered Dramatic Activities: Scriptwriting Making a movie puppet show
Speeches/Monologues/Oral Interpretation Skits/Full Production (all in L2 or multilingual)
Benefits of Drama in the L2 Classroom [Haley & Duff 1978, 2011] 1. Integrates language skills in a natural way: Careful listening is key and spontaneous verbal expression is integral. Reading and writing
can also be involved as a part of the input and output
. 2. Integrates verbal and non-verbal aspects of communication. [physical and intellectual] 3. Integrates cognitive and affective domains. [feeling and thinking] 4. Contextualizes language through a focus on meaning. 5. Holistic, presents opportunities for catering to learner differences
. 6. Fosters self-awareness (and awareness of others), self-esteem and confidence. 7. Motivation is fostered and sustained through variety and drama's unpredictable nature. 8. Transfer of responsibility for learning from teacher to learners. 9. Encourages an open and exploratory environment where creativity and imagination can develop. 10. positive effect
on classroom dynamics and atmosphere. 11. Low resource. For the most part, all you need is a `roomful of human beings
In Conclusion . . . 1. Drama gives students a virtual experience in functioning in extended, realistic discourse in the target language
where learners are able to learn not only appropriate language use, but real communicative processes as well. 2. Drama provides learners with more opportunities to interact directly with the target language and to acquire it by using it rather than being taught. "Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn." ! ! ! Everyone Loves a Good Metaphor Language teachers sometimes behave like the owners of large estates, putting up high walls round their territory and signs saying `No Trespassing.' Drama is like the naughty child who climbs the high walls and ignores the `No Trespassing' sign. It does not allow us to define our territory so exclusively--it forces us to take as our starting point life not language. [It] may involve music, history, paining, mathematics, skiing, photography, cooking--anything. It does not respect subject barriers. The language teacher will be wise to take advantage of this to enliven his work. Once his students have discovered that there is another world, much closer and more real that that of the [the textbook], the problem of `how to keep their interest' will gradually disappear. And, strangest of all, this other world does not need to be conjured up with expensive equipment--all that is needed is a roomful of human beings. [Maley & Duff 1980] Matthew'Barbee,'2013'
References: · Barnes, D. (1968). Drama in the English classroom. Champaign, IL
: National Council
of Teachers of English. · Kumaravadivelu, B. (1994). The postmethod condition: (E)merging strategies for second/foreign language
teaching. TESOL Quarterly
, 28(1), 27-48. · Livingstone, C. (1983). Role-play in Language Learning
: Longman handbooks for language teachers. Singapore: The Print House Ltd. · Maley, A., & Duff, A. (1978, 2011). Drama techniques: A resource book
of communication activities for language teachers (3rd Edition
). In P. Ur (Series Ed.), Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers, Cambridge: CUP. · Spada, N. (2007). Communicative language teaching: Current status and future prospects. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), International handbook of English language
teaching (pp. 271-288). New York: Springer. · Via, R. A. (1976). English in three acts. HongKong: The University Press of Hawaii. · Via, R. A. (1987). "The magic if" of theater: Enhancing language learning through drama. In W. M. Rivers (Ed.), Interactive Language Teaching (pp. 110-123). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. · Zafeiriadou, N. (2009). Drama in language teaching: A challenge for creative development
. Issues, 23, 4-9. Other Resources: · Bolton, G. (1992). New perspectives on classroom drama. Great Britain: Simon & Schuster
. · Boal, A. (1993). Theatre of the oppressed, New York: Theatre Communications Group. · Burke, A. & O'Sullivan, J. C. (2002). Stage by stage: A handbook for using drama in the second language classroom, New York: Heinemann Drama. · Jones, K. (1982). Simulations in language teaching, Cambridge: CUP. · Kaplan, S. (Ed.). (2011). Teaching drama in the classroom, Boston: Sense. · Malkoc, A. M. (1993). Easy plays in English, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
: Prentice Hall
. · Rathburn, A. K. (2000). Taking center stage: Drama in America. In S. M. Gass & A. L. Tickle (Series Eds.), The Michigan State University
textbook series of theme-based content instruction for ESL/EFL, Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P. · Watcyn-Jones, P. (1988). Act English, New York: Penguin Books. · Whiteson, V. (1996). New ways of using drama and literature in language teaching. In J. C. Richards (Series Ed.), New ways in TESOL series II: Innovative classroom techniques, Bloomington, IL: TESOL, Inc. · Whiteson, V., & Horovitz, N. (2002). The play's the thing: A whole language
approach to learning English. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. · Winston, J. (Ed.). (2012). Second language learning through drama: Practical techniques and applications, London: Routledge. Online Resources: · http://iteslj.org/links/TESL/Lessons/Role_Plays/ · http://www.eslflow.com/roleplaysdramatheatregames.html · http://www.tes.co.uk/drama-secondary-teaching-resources/ · http://busyteacher.org/classroom_activities-speaking/roleplays/ ! Notes or Comments: ! ! ! ! ! ! !
This presentation and handout can be found online at http://www.matthewbarbee.com/english-through-drama.html
It's a Heat Wave Eight Short Argument Role-plays
Level: pre-intermediate - intermediate
Aim: a speaking activity with emphasis on oral fluency; students role play a series of
arguments that all take place on a hot summer's day.
Language point: expressions to use for getting angry.
Note: Try using these role plays on a really hot day. It will allow your students to
unwind and let off steam! Tell the teacher next door before you do this activity!
Write the words Heat Wave on the board. What
After all the role plays are finished, do a quick
do people understand by Heat Wave? A heat
review of the new language that came out. You
wave is a continuous period of hot weather. Are
might want to pick up on interesting use of
heat waves common where the students come
language you heard, or students' errors. Do any
from? At what temperature would students
of the situations seem familiar to the students?
consider they are in a heat wave? (note: there
Has anything like this happened to them before?
may be some variation in the answers here; a
heat wave for an English person may be
For more or less advanced learners, vary the
radically different than for a Mexican, Spanish
preparation time and presentation time. For
or Turkish person!) What usually happens
lower students give them more language to get
during a heat wave. Elicit examples of things
them started, for example the first two lines of
that happen. Doctors say that during heat waves
dialogue (this requires a little more preparation
people become more irritable and likely to get
on your part). Very Creative Class
es could make
up their own situations for role play.
If you have an odd number of students
, make a
group of three with the family role play
Set up the situation. It is the middle of a heat
wave in a big city. Each pair of students will be
Taboo variation: Of course, in a native speaker
given a role card with a situation and some
argument, the expressions might be made a little
language on it. They have five minutes to
more "colourful" with intensifiers (see below).
prepare their role play. The role play must last
To make the activity more realistic you might
at least one minute and they must incorporate
suggest some of these. If you do teach your
the expressions on their role cards (for this part
students "bad" words, discuss the issue first!
they have to decide who says the expression!).
They should know when these are acceptable
They mustn't tell anyone else what their
and when not. Some teachers (and students)
expressions are. Circulate and help students
might feel that swearing is never acceptable and
with the meanings of their expressions. There
certainly not in class, while others not. Only use
are eight different role play cards. If you have
these if you as a teacher are comfortable doing
less than sixteen students, choose the ones you
this and that there is no objection in your school
think will be best in the situations. If you have
or by your students!
more than sixteen students, repeat some of the situations.
Expressions for getting angry (stronger variations)
Stage Two Pairs perform their mini role play in front of the class. So that the class pays attention, give them the following task: they must try to "spot" the expressions that were on the card and record
You've got a damn nerve! It's not my fault goddammit! Your attitude really pisses me off! I don't believe this! It's bloody ridiculous! I'm tired of getting all the shit jobs!
them in their notebooks. After each role play,
I'M NOT BLOODY SHOUTING!
see if the class can find the expression!
© onestopenglish 2002 Downloaded from the speaking practice section in www.onestopenglish.com
This page may be hotocopied for use in class 1
It's a Heat Wave It's A Heat wave! A: You are waiting in line to buy an ice cream. You turn around to talk to someone and when you turn back, B has stepped in front of you. B: A friend was holding your place for you before A arrived. Expression: "You've got a nerve!" It's A Heat wave! A: You are an English teacher on a summer course. B is always late for class and never listens to you. B: Your parents are making you take a stupid English course
this summer. It is boring. You want to be with your friends. Expression: "This is the last time. I'm warning you!"
Role Cards It's A Heat wave! A & B: You are a couple driving to see some friends outside of town. When the car breaks down. You are alone on a deserted road. A was supposed to take the car to a garage for servicing last week but forgot. Expression: "It's not my fault!" It's A Heat wave! A: You are taking your child to a big theme park, but it is time to go. You don't want to spend another 30 minutes waiting to go on a ride. B: You really want to go on the giant roller-coaster. It's the best ride in the park and your parents want to leave. Expression: "That's it! I've had enough!"
It's A Heat wave! A: You bought a train ticket two minutes ago, but you realise now that you gave the wrong date. You want to change your ticket. B: A bought a non-refundable train ticket. They cannot make changes or get their money back. Expression: "I don't believe it. This is ridiculous!"
It's A Heat wave! A: You are going out for an evening walk with your girlfriend. When she arrives, you think she is wearing inappropriate clothes. B: Your boyfriend is very jealous. He doesn't like it when other boys look at you. He is also paranoid. Expression: "Your attitude really bugs me!"
It's A Heat wave!
It's A Heat wave!
A & B: You both work in a nice cool shop, but one of you has to go outside and clean the front windows (a 30 minute job!) You can't agree who has to go outside. Expression: "I'm tired of getting all the bad jobs!"
A: You came to the clinic because you have a stomach-ache. A nurse told you that someone would see you in 10 minutes. You have been waiting for 45 minutes. B: You are the nurse. Expression: "I'M NOT SHOUTING!"
© onestopenglish 2002 Downloaded from the speaking practice section in www.onestopenglish.com
This page may be hotocopied for use in class 2