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NKORO, GLORY ADAKU PG/MA/14/76035 GRAMMATICAL ERROR ANALYSIS OF SELECTED NEWS SCRIPTS OF THE BROADCASTING CORPORATION OF DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH AND LITERARY STUDIES FACULTY OF ARTS
Digitally Signed by: Content manager's Name DN : CN = Webmaster's name O= University of Nigeria, Nsukka
OU = Innovation Centre
ii GRAMMATICAL ERROR ANALYSIS OF SELECTED NEWS SCRIPTS OF THE BROADCASTING CORPORATION OF ABIA STATE RADIO, UMUAHIA BY NKORO, GLORY ADAKU PG/MA/14/76035 A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH AND LITERARY STUDIES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF MASTER OF ARTS DEGREE (M.A.) IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE SUPERVISOR: DR. P.A. EZEMA FEBRUARY, 2016
iii APPROVAL PAGE I certify that this research project is the work of Nkoro, Glory Adaku, and that she carried out the research and the writing under my supervision. The work has been presented to the panel, department of English and Literary Studies and has been accepted by the School of Post-Graduate Studies in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in English.
................................ Project Supervisor
................................ Head of Department
................................ External Examiner
iv DEDICATION This work is dedicated to my parents, late Mr and Mrs Nwaru Nkoro.
v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Indeed, I really acknowledge the efforts of my amiable supervisor, Dr P.A. Ezema, for all the time, effort, and energy he spent reading through the pages of this research work and his useful corrections and directions which ultimately contributed to the success of this work. Also, I am obliged to Mr O. M. Menefa and Mr Okodo Onyedikachi for their immense contributions and guidance in this academic journey. My able Head of Department, Prof. D. U. Opata, my great lecturers, Prof. Emeka Otagburuagu, Prof. Sam Onuigbo, Prof. A. N. Akwanya, Dr Mrs Obiegwu, Sr Dr Eugenia Adaoma Igwedibia, Rev. Sr Mary J. N. Okolie, and many others for their wonderful supports. I want to declare my profound gratitude to my second parents Dr and Mrs C. M. Nkire who through their prayers, words of encouragements, pieces of advice and above all, great Financial support
assisted me all through my academic pursuit till this M.A. programme. My family members
, Mr Okechukwu, Mr and Mrs Odiwonma, late Mr Udochukwu, Mr and Mrs Adindu Nkoro, Mrs Amarachi Ezinne Uwakwe, and Mr and Mrs Chidi Onuoha are recognised. I am particularly indebted to my mentors, Dr Uzoma Nwachukwu, Miss Chidinma Onyeweaku, Mr Emenike Ehisianya, Mr Victor Onyegbula, Mr Basil Ovu and all the authors whose works were consulted during this research work. My colleagues and close friends like, Adaeze Nwankwo and many others are not left out. To God Almighty, whom by His infinite mercy had led me thus far in all areas of my dear life, particularly in my academic pursuit be all the glory, honour, adoration, majesty and praised now and forever.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ivTable of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study1
1.1.1. The Concept of News4
1.1.2. The Origin of the Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State (BCA) Radio, Umuahia 6
1.2. Statement of Problem7
1.3.Purpose of the Study
1. 4. Scope of the Study
1.5. Significance of the Study
1.6. Research Questions
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2. Review of Related Literature11
CHAPTER THREE: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH
3.1. Theoretical Framework 24
3.2. Research Methodology
3.2.1. Area of the Study27 3.2.2. Population of the Study27 3.2.3. Method of Data Collection 27 3.2.4. Method of Data Analysis28
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN THE
4.1. Preamble 29
4.2. Presentation of Findings29
4.3. Grammatical Errors in the Scripts Studied29
4.3.1. Punctuation Errors31
4.3.2.Concord Errors 34
4.3.3. Prepositional Errors 38
4.3.4. Omission Errors42
4.4. Summary of the Findings50
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR
5.1. Summary of the Study52
5.2. Conclusion 53
5.3. Suggestions for Further Studies
Works Cited 57
viii ABSTRACT This study was carried out in respect to the grammatical errors that currently exist in the Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State Radio, Umuahia. The sole aim of this study was to carefully investigate the above station's news scripts, examine their structure, and to find out the causes, types and patterns of grammatical errors which include punctuation, concord, omission, preposition and pluralisation errors in the selected news scripts of different years. The most selected news scripts used were world news, news in brief, news headlines, news package, news segment, and news digest. The data were collected from the news room of the BCA Radio, Umuahia, which represents other media houses all over the country. Each of the above news scripts was selected and surveyed on a daily basis for a period of three weeks and was finally used for the study. The data used were analysed using a simple percentage calculations, while a simple randomisation method was adopted in collecting the data. From the findings, it was believed that those grammatical errors were as a result of the low level of education of the media workers, especially the journalists and the incomplete mastery of the English language among the broadcasting corporation bodies like the news casters or reporters which has a negative impact on the listeners because listeners rely on word meanings of these news as absolutely correct. However, to remedy these ugly situations that have befallen the media houses here in Nigeria, the researcher recommended that broadcasting authorities should employ only well-qualified language experts that are highly proficient in the English language to serve as editors who will competently proofread the news lines before they are broadcast.
ix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study Today, a good number of people across the world listen to news. In the Nigerian society, a lot of people, most especially the elite, listen to news to get adequate updates concerning events and happenings in society. Consequently, this has led to the evolution of a plethora of more news media in the country over the years. Also, news items are often constructed in certain structures to specifically capture the highlights of ideas and stories in news scripts. Tiono (20) argues that in order to attract listeners' attention, journalists make the scripts sound so interesting that listeners become more curious to know the content of the whole story and thereby listen to news in detail. This entails that the professionalism of a journalist is measured by his ability to use the language appropriately and thereby he ought to be a standard bearer of English usage because he does more than writing. He edits write-ups from other people; he comments and criticizes them, and he puts the news lines together. Thus, as a result of the way language is used and the way certain linguistic structures are constructed in news scripts, news often has a great influence on the listeners, though it is a pity that many news scripts are replete with various types of errors which affect the effective use of the English language. The media workers are always in a hurry to publish their papers so as to meet the demands of readers, especially in the case of daily news scripts. In their attempt to meet a deadline, there is always this curiosity to rush their publications and in the process, it becomes difficult for proper cross-checking of scripts. This results in errors such as typographical errors, omission of articles, wrong use of prepositions, concord errors, disordering of words, and so on. "One of the reasons for bad grammar in news scripts includes the fact that many people have a hand in the production of news scripts; all of them are in a hurry to meet the deadline" (Brooks 109).
x Inevitable occurrences of errors in news scripts are equally as a result of the involvement of incompetent people without the proper skills and knowledge of journalism who are employed in the media houses or radio and television stations. For instance, when Julius Eto, a formal guardian newspaper editor, was interviewed concerning the qualification of a newspaper editor, he said "any graduate in any of the arts and social science related courses with at least a second class lower division, can be a proof reader." This, therefore, often leads to language errors in news scripts. Wrong expressions in news scripts have contributed to the deteriorating standard of the use of the English language in society. Meanwhile, the news scripts as instruments for mass communication should help foster the use of good English among Nigerians. Unfortunately, news scripts are perpetuators of bad English. Furthermore, some Nigerian news scripts have deviated so much from the rules governing the use of good and standard forms of the English language. As a result, a careful study of grammaticalerrors in the Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State news scripts is needed to examine their structure which will ultimately aid in the understanding of news items. That is why this work is borne out of a desire to study the patterns of grammatical errors in the selected news scripts from different years of the BCA Radio, Umuahia, so as to discover how utterances used in these news scripts reflect incompetence in the functioning of the radio corporation. News casting involves communication and communication involves language use. "When human beings
communicate with one another, they usually do that through speech or writing. Speech involves language sounds which are associated with meaning" Onuigbo (1). According to Ukachi, language is a uniquely human activity. Human beings are born with a language acquisition device (LAD), a faculty that allows a child to acquire the language or languages spoken around him. She further explains language as: "...a system of spoken or written words that humans learn in order to be able to communicate with one another..." (2).
xi TheEncyclopedia defines language as "the human capacity
for acquiring and using Complex Systems
of communications" (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). In fact, the word language has been originally derived from the Latin word `Lingua' which means `tongue.' When we use "language" in general, it refers to the cognitive faculty which enables us to learn and use systems of complex communication. Research finding has proved that there are many languages (nearly 3000-6000 languages) which are spoken all over the world. The world recognises that the language of the mass media is predominantly English. The implication of this is not to show that our indigenous languages are not used in delivering news. The English language is non-indigenous to Nigeria but it is the nation's official language and her lingua franca. Azubuike (8) refers to the English language as being AngloSaxon or old English Language of the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes who came from Northern Germany and displaced the Celts who were the original inhabitants of England. The establishment of Lagos as a British colony in 1862 officially marked the advent of the English language in Nigeria. With the arrival of the Europeans in Nigeria for political, economic or religious conquest, there arose a need for communication between the English and Nigerians from different ethnic group
s. The Europeans, according to Onunkwo (2010), quoted in UzoezieRapheal (163), had a very poor opinion of the vernacular whichthey considered neither very extensive nor of very high quality. So, these Europeans decided to use their own language in communication with Nigerians. According to Uzoezie (163), the British ousted the Portuguese and replaced the contact language with English as the language of diplomacy and trade. He further says that England also acquired the monopoly for slave trading along the West Coast of Africa by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 and the subsequent British success in the famous race to Nikki in 1884, and according to him, the ground was, thus, already prepared for the permeation of the English language along the coast and the hinterlands. Due to the contacts between the English
xii language, Portuguese, and some indigenous languages, a form of inter-language (pidgin) emerged (164). In 1862, the official annexation of Lagos as a British colony took place; thus, the British needed manpower badly for running its affairs of government in Nigeria, and having adopted English as the language it would utilize in government, they then had to teach the indigenes English in order to facilitate better. The missionaries who also came to Nigeria to spread the gospel had to use English. They emphasised the English language as it related to religion. They introduced reading, arithmetic and writing to Nigerians as part of the strategies of conversion. Thus, they enhanced the spread of the language. Therefore, the English language became the language of government, the mass media, education, politics and the lingua franca of Nigeria. However, the English language created problems for many Nigerians. These problems appeared in the forms of errors in language usage at all levels of linguistics phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, graphological, pragmatics and so on. These errors came as a result of language contacts between English and the different mother tongues, the so-called vernacular languages. These languages are totally unrelated to English; there are a lot of disparities, for instance, in the phonemic inventories, syllabic structures, spellings and syntax. In speaking the English language, Nigerians, most times, infuse aspects of their indigenous languages, which appear as an error. 1.1.1 The Concept of News According to the Free Dictionary by Farlex, news is a piece of information about recent events or happenings, especially as reported by means of newspapers, websites, radio, television, and other forms of media. Also, it can be seen as a representation of such information as in a newspaper or on a newscast. In a nutshell, newscast is a radio or television broadcast of news lines.
xiii News Scripts Today'snews script has its base from 17th century Europe. One page of newsscript gives a specific event which was printed in English in Holland in 1620 and imported to England by the British booksellers who were eager to satisfy public demand for information about continental happenings that eventually led to what we call the thirty-year war. People like Nathaniel Butter, Thomas Archer and Nicholas Bourne eventually began printing their own occasional news sheets. They stopped printing in 1961, the same year that regular, daily account of local news started appearing in other news sheets. News casting News casting is another word for broadcast journalism, and the presentation of news on television and radio. News casting has been a popular form of journalism since the early 20th century and has outpaced newspapers and other forms of print media as the most common way people get news. News casting basically means a system of broadcasting or a radio or television broadcast of the news commentary about events on sports, politics, education, entertainment, and announcements that is transmitted and read by radio or television to a target audience by specified sponsors, through multi-faceted means. Radio news is a radio broadcast or commentary of news. Newscasts are most commonly seen in the typical anchor-driven fast-pace format seen on local and national news shows. Newscasts also can be more specific, focusing on one topic, such as sports. They also can be in the form of news magazines, longer programs reporting a few stories more in-depth rather than a quick overview. The birth of Central Network News (CNN) in 1980 created a 24 hour news cycle, which allowed people to access the news whenever they wanted. Radio newscasts can vary widely from short "rip and read" bits where a broadcaster reports the headlines to more in-depth programming on networks such as National Public Radio. While anchors and reporters are the public faces of a
xiv newscast, there are many others that work hard to put together the programme. The news director organizes news stories, the sales manager generates the programme's income by selling advertising time and promoting the camera crew and thereby making sure the broadcast runs smoothly. As with other forms of journalism, newscasts face an uncertain future. With more people getting their news from the internet, newscasters are constantly looking for new ways to innovate and maintain their viewers and listeners. 1.1.2 The Origin of the Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State (BCA) Radio, Umuahia The Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State (BCA) Radio, with the slogan "the station born to lead" is a branch of news casting and media station in Umuahia, Abia State of Nigeria that dwells on politics, education, sports, local and national news, and so on. It is that station which portrays socio-political events in the country. In pursuance of its cardinal objectives of informing, educating and entertaining, the BCA acquired a piece of land along the Government Station Layout and this site today has been developed and is presently housing the corporate headquarters of the station. The BCA uses two channels of communication, which are the radio and television channels. The BCA Radio which is on 88.1FM came on air on the 16th of November, 1992, while the Television station which is on channel 47 UHF band went on air on the 14th of August, 1994. The station has continued to live up to its bidding and is blessed with men and women
who have continually exhibited commitment and diligence in the discharge of their responsibilities. In order to streamline its activities to ensure smooth operations, the corporation is made up of the following departments: the director-general's office which has the corporate affairs, the internal and transport units which cover administration, radio service, television service, and Commercial Service
. The Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State is located at Government Station Layout, Umuahia, Abia State, with the Private Mail Bag (PMB) 7276.
xv Umuahia is the capital of Abia State in south-eastern Nigeria. It is located along the rail road that lies between Port Harcourt
andUmuahia south and Enugu city to its north. It has a population of 359,230 according to the 2006 Nigerian census with Igbo as the indigenous ethnic group and is well known as an agricultural market centre since 1916. It is also a railway collecting point for crops such as yams, cassava, corn (maize), citrus fruits, palm oil and kernels. It comprises two local government areas: Umuahia North and Umuahia South which are made up of clans such as the Umuokpara, Ibeku, Olokoro, Ubakala and Ohuhu communities. Umuahia town is traditionally owned by the Ibekus after early British administrators lived in their lands. Umuahia was established by the British colonial administration of Nigeria in the early 20th century and was declared the second capital of the short-lived Republic of Biafra on 28th September 1967, after the first capital, Enugu, was captured by the Nigerian troops on June 28th, 1968. On April 22nd, 1969, Umuahia was occupied and nearly taken by the Nigerian troops but they were forced to retreat due to a stiff offensive by Biafran Major E.A. Eutuk. After Umuahia's capture on 24th December 1969, the last Biafran capital before its dissolution became Owerri. The old Umuahia Local Government was split by the Abacha-led government into the existing three local government areas of Ikwuano, Umuahia North and Umuahia South. Government College Umuahia and University of Agriculture, Umudike now fall into the domain of the Ikwuano people. 1.2 Statement of Problem Reports about language errors in news scripts by some scholars like Ifecheobi (2011), states that "there is a great disparity between the accepted forms of the English language and what one finds in the news scripts; Nigerian news scripts now seem to have ungrammatical forms and ill-formed constructions in their use of language." News is a continuous source of information and education for those who listen to it, and so, its sentence structure
has to be as lucid as possible. Unfortunately, this is not the case in most Nigerian broadcasting
xvi corporations. The pages of many news scripts are replete with various types of errors, prominent among which are the grammatical errors in the sentence structures. News producers in Nigeria use the English language in ways that suit them, not minding whether their language use contains structures that contravene grammaticality. If words are wrongly used, the connection between the noun and the verb which defines the meaning of the noun is lost. Generally, these deviations (omissions, prepositional errors, concord, punctuation errors, and so on) affect comprehension of the whole news. This causes a considerable degree of confusion for listeners. Obviously, there have been some studies, such as the one by CosmasNjoku(2014) onThe Misuse of the English Articles in Selected Nigerian Newspapersand some others which dwelt on the error analysis to depict the errors and poor standard of English in Nigerian news scripts. However, to the best knowledge of the researcher, none has fully focused on the grammatical errors of the English in the BCA radio news scripts. This lacuna in knowledge inspired the researcher to carry out this study in order to supplement the knowledge currently available in this field. Finally, events of the past news scripts have shown that manyscripts are grammatically incorrect and it is for this reason that this research is being carried out to address such issues as: Are there grammatical errors in the news scripts? Are these grammatical errors recognised by most people? Do these errors serve any specific purpose?Are these errors gradually becoming the standard forms of English usage for most Nigerians? 1.3Purpose of the Study To meet the purpose of the study, this work will focus on the ability to identify the differentgrammatical errors inthe selected news scripts of the Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State Radio, Umuahia. Specifically, the study will explore the following objectives:
xvii i) Identification of the kinds of errors committed by journalists who wrote the news scripts studied. ii) The occurrence of grammatical errors and the level of education of the newscasters and reporters. iii) Identification of how listeners accept word meanings of these news lines as absolutely correct. 1.4 Scope of the Study The study will focus on the scripts of BCA Radio, Umuahia because the time available for the study and logistics will not permit the researcher to use scripts from all the radio stations in Nigeria. Again, this study will be restricted to grammatical error analysis, using some selected news scripts from the same station which is geographically located at Ogurube Layout, Ibeku, Umuahia North, Abia State of Nigeria. These errors are also applicable to most other television and radio stations in Nigeria but a good number of scripts from 2013 till 2015 will be selected from this particular station as the data. 1.5 Significance of the Study This study will be of great benefit to the Broadcasting Authorities to decide on which level of education news presenters or journalists must attain before they could be employed in a broadcasting company since these errors are also caused by the low level of their formal education. Also, it will benefit the general public in the sense that it will expose the grammatical errors in the language of news broadcast, because many people are not aware of the existence of these errors and as such accept those erroneous forms as "standard forms of English." Most importantly, it would serve as a reference point to the journalists who engage in the writing of news lines to carefully edit their work and put more effort in their use of grammatical structures. News listeners will as well benefit from this study in such a way that
xviii they would be aware that BCA radio news scripts as they are today are not a standard bearer of the English language as it ought to be and so should be conscious of the errors whenever they occur. More so, the study will give impetus to the news casters or news presenters to always proofread their material before reading them out to the listeners. Finally, it is believed that this work will be beneficial to the entire students of English and literary studies, researchers and linguists who are interested in grammar. 1.6 Research Questions The following research questions are put in place to guide the study: i) To what extent do the kinds of errors committed by journalists who write the news scripts reflet the mastery of the English language? ii) In which ways does the level of education of the newscasters or reporters contribute to the occurrence of errors in the news scripts? iii) To what extent do listeners rely on word meanings of news as absolutely correct?
xix CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Preamble This chapter reviews the opinions of experts on error analysis. However, researchers in Nigeria and beyond are worried about the English language problems among media practitioners and this has been the focus of scholarly research as they try to unravel the factors that could be responsible for these problems. This chapter, therefore, is one of such efforts aimed at helping news script producers to overcome these problems. Moreover, it is worthy to note that a good number of works have been done on error analysis both by Nigerian linguists and non-Nigerian linguists as regards the second language learners. The differences among the views of these experts are recognised and considered to be so important in such a way that it will propel the researcher into another dimension of thorough research work since most of the materials to be reviewed have some important relevant aspects. By this fact, the views presented here show a selection of contributions by leading scholars in the area of error analysis and grammar. The total review of these studies arrived at discovering the lacuna in knowledge of errors which has inspired the researcher to carry out this research in order to supplement the knowledge currently available in this field. 2.2 Review of Related Literature Uzochukwu Lucy carried out a research on "An Error Analysis of The first year students from five selected departments of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka". The aim of the study is to get a feedback that will be of immense value for better performances of the students' written English. Thus, the students supplied the data for this study through written essays. The errors identified after marking the essays were classified into error types and were systematically analyzed. The analysis includes the explanation of different types of errors made by the students as they relate to different sources. The population sample is the first-year students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The sample for the study is drawn from
xx the students of five (5) selected departments of the school. In other words, a total of one hundred and fifty (150) students' scripts were randomly selected and used for the data. Considering the method of data collection, the students supplied the data for this study through their written works. The topic is "My First Week in the University." After which, the essays were collected, marked and the errors found were analyzed (VI). The researcher finds out that inter-lingual as well as intra-lingual factors are responsible for errors in the second language learning
, the researcher therefore, made some recommendations which if effected, will go a long way to remedy the problems of poor expressions in English. The above study only focused on the writings of year one students of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) but does not cover the writings of the news scripts. Again, its aim was to get a feedback that will be of immense value for better performances of the students, thereby creating a gap for the current study to specificallylook into the grammatical aspect of the writings of the radio news scripts which will be of immense value for the script writers and presenters like journalists and reporters. In this regard, the current study will cover errors that exist in the news scripts such as concord errors, punctuation errors, prepositional errors, omission errors, tense errors, spelling errors and so on, using BCA radio, Umuahia as a case study. In the same vein, Ifeyinwa in her study entitled "An Analysis of Morpho-Syntactic Errors in selected Nigerian Newspapers" based her research on the theoretical framework of Selinker's Inter-language and Corder's Error Analysis. She investigated the degree of morpho-syntactic errors in selected Nigerian newspapers using a total of six editions from two different newspapers. These are: Vanguard, March 15th and 16th 2014, Punch, July 30th, 2013, Punch, March 9th, 2014 and May 15th, 2014. Her aim is to expose morpho-syntactic errors in newspapers so that the second language learner does not see the newspaper as a standard model for learning the English language. The research showcases the magnitude of
xxi the errors, the typology of errors and their number of occurrences in selected Nigerian newspapers. Also, the research examines the concepts of morphology, syntax, morphosyntax, and error analysis. Based on the data analyzed, a total number of forty-five (45) errors were identified, explained and corrected. Also the study finds out that error is more in the area of punctuation. The research was conducted in Awka, Anambra State. In conclusion, the study suggests that those who work in the media houses should be more diligent in their jobs in other that they do not make a mess of their profession (ix). This work centered on the morpho-syntactic errors in selected Nigerian newspapers, but does not focus or cover the other aspects of grammaticality in English. Also, she equally focused on `Nigerian newspapers'. This foregrounds the need to examine the effect of grammatical error analysis that exists in BCA radio news scripts. Therefore, the current study will specifically look into the radio news scripts of a particular station in the country rather than Nigeria at large. Though, the former study has tried in its capacity, having carried out such a wonderful research but there is still a vacuum to fill which is to critically investigate the causes of these grammatical errors in news scripts reportage, particularly in BCA radio, Umuahia, and to find out the remedies to this ugly situation which has been exposed to the media houses in order to reduce the incidence of such errors to the barest minimum. To achieve this, the station should reinvigorate the editorial department to make sure they are more responsive to the 21th century challenges of competence and diligence. Ifeyinwa's research work which is based on "An Error Analysis of the English Concord of Students in Onitsha Urban" investigates the degree of competence on concord in English attained by the senior secondary class three students in Onitsha North Local Government Area of Anambra State. The need for the work was underscored by the crucial role played by the English Language in Nigeria education. A simple survey research design
was adopted for the study and the subject of the study comprised five hundred (500) students
xxii from five different secondary schools
in Onitsha North Local Government Area of the state. One hundred (100) objective questions set on different types of concord were used as a test instrument. The subjects' errors were classified and analyzed using a simple percentage calculation and arithmetic mean. The findings of the research revealed that the subjects have not mastered the rules guiding different types of concord. They were unable to dictate concord errors caused by shift in the construction of elements of sentences. The implications of the finding in the teaching and learning
of English were discussed and suggestions for improvement made. Though, the study is indeed a good one, having carried out a research to investigate the degree of competence of concord in English which is attained by the senior secondary class three students in Onitsha North Local Government Area of Anambra State, yet there is still need to redirect the study towards practitioners already in the field rather than students and more research into the factors that can help to reduce the occurrence of errors in the news scripts reportage.Also, inasmuch as the study focuses on the concord of English and concord falls under the category of grammar, yet the study does not consider the fact that, such an error could as well occur in other professional bodies like the media press. Therefore, there is a proof that a vacuum has been left and there is every tendency for the new study to concentrate on the writings of the mass media instead of students, to find out the proper causes of these problems, the remedies to this ugly situation which has been exposed to the media houses and possibly suggestions canbe carried out to handle this situation. In a similar study, Cosmas carried out a research on "The Misuse of the English Articles in Three Nigerian Newspapers" inNnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka. As regards the methodology, the study uses such factors as: research design, area of study, population, sample, data collection and method of data analysis. The researcher carried out an in-depth and integration of library research which is not based on experimental design in its analysis
xxiii of selected newspapers. The area of the study involved all the Nigerian newspapers and out of this, the researcher selected a total of six different editions from three national newspapers as the sample: these include: The daily Vanguard of 21 February 2001, the Sunday Vanguard of 22 May 2011, the Daily Independent of 28 November 2011, the Daily Independent of 29 November 2011, the Daily Sun of 2 March 2011 and the Saturday Sun of 3 December 2011. The aim of the research was to identify the misuse of the English articles by Nigerian newspapers. The data analysis showed that these errors in the misuse of the English articles are prevalent in the Nigerian newspapers. Using the random sampling technique, a total number of sixty-two expressions having article errors were identified. The study reveals that there are lots of errors in the use of the English article by Nigeria newspapers and that these errors hamper effective communication
. These findings suggest the necessity of employing better writers and editors on the part of the newspaper houses. The study concludes with suggestions that newspapers should not exploit journalese at the expense of good grammatical constructions because this affects the intended meaning. Also, news items should be properly edited before publication as this will go a long way in helping the reading public to become acquitted with the correct and acceptable forms of English. This work is based on the misuse of the English articles in three Nigerian newspapers but does not concentrate on the grammatical errors in the radio news scripts. The study critically looked into all that concerns the English articles such as: definite article, indefinite article, zero article, stylistic functions of the English articles, and the role of semantic features in the acquisition of the English articles and so on but does not put into consideration the grammatical aspects of the news scripts in Nigeria. This creates a big gap in error analysis as a field of study and thereby foregrounds the need to examine the effects of grammatical errors that have been found in the radio news scripts of the Nigeria mass media. The lacuna here propels the current research
er to carry out a research that will study not just an aspect of
xxiv grammar (article) in the English language, but a study that will cover almost, if not all aspects of grammatical errors and to show how these errors emanated from the news scripts, to dictate if it is caused by either the journalists who write the scripts or perhaps the news anchors who read out the news lines to the entire public. Whence, the former researcher's work deals on newspapers which is on visual, but the present will deal on news script which comprises both visual and audio-visual. In relation to these, Teun A. Van Dijk carried out a study on the News Analysis: Case Study of International and National News in The Press. The research took place at the University of Amsterdam Hillsdale, New Jersey Hove, London. In his study, he presents a series of case studies
that illustrate the structures of national and international news in the press. He first summarized the discourse analytical theory of the processes and structures of news reports as they have been developed in the last five years. In this study, the result of a longer report written for United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), hundreds (100) of news reports that appeared in more than two hundred and sixty (260) newspapers from hundred countries were analyzed and compared. This study is embedded in a more general analysis of possible differences in international news coverage among fifteen (15) First World and fifteen (15) Third World newspapers during three days in September 1982. The data from these studies are based on an analysis of the Dutch press, but the results and the discussion suggest that they provide a more general picture of the coverage of non-dominant groups in western societies. In this regard, journalists are considered part of a dominant, cultural elite who often contribute unwittingly to the expression and legitimation of the national and international power structures. He tried to show how the press, through subtle discursive means reproduces this power. One of the methodological aims of this work was to stimulate a new, more explicit and systematic approach to the study of mass media discourse in general and to news
xxv reporting in particular. It allows inquiries into abstract formal structures of news reports as well as into their subtle underlying meanings, in a way usually ignored in Content Analysis
. Yet, as long as computer programs cannot take over such precise microanalyses, this method is still limited to small amounts of data. Nevertheless, he hopes that theoretically, more adequate discourse analysis
of news will stimulate a new more qualitative orientation in the study of mass communication. The lacuna the former study creates indicates that since one of the methodological aims of the work is to stimulate a new, more explicit and systematic approach to the study of mass media discourse in general and to news reporting in particular, the current work will divert the study to fill the gap of stimulating a new, more explicit and grammatical approach to the study of media house in one of the stations within Nigeria. Again, most press studies in English deal with other areas of the errors in the media press. Even this one that deals with the international and national news, the analysis of the current study will focus on the local station in Nigeria and also intends to complement this earlier research with insights into the press of another erroneous forms but specifically on the aspect of grammar. Similarly, Ifecheobi in a study entitled Language Use and the Nigeria Mass Media: A Focus on Selected Nigerian Newspapers, highlights some deviant constructions in some selected Nigerian newspapers so that the second language learners should be cautious of and not be misled by them. Using Textual Analysis
method of research, Ifecheobi examines a total number of fifteen (15) errors in selected Nigerian newspapers. The errors range from spelling error, tense error, and error of incomplete utterances, to wrong use of words. The newspapers used for the study were The Nation, Daily Sun, Daily Independence, The Guardian, and Champion. The study observed that Nigerian newspapers deviate so much from the accepted language form, which is Standard English
and this does not help the second language learner to acquire good English for effective communication" (55).Ifecheobi further stressed that:
xxvi It is of utmost importance that the print media as influential users of language should have a good command of the English language. The reality that mass media disseminated information is directed at a widely dispersed audience who interpret the message to derive meaningful information should spur them into simplicity and succinctness of language... Nigerian newspaper should try as much as possible to adhere strictly to the rules of Standard English usage and good grammar. Close attention should be given to correct choice of words
and expressions to achieve international intelligibility (61-62). Based on this study, the insight is on the Language use in the Nigeria mass media; focusing on the selected Nigerian newspaper. The lacuna which the previous study left for the current study is the ability to identify the language that is used in the Nigeria mass media which is the English language and to check the errors found in this language among the news scripts producers, precisely BCA radio, in Umuahia. The researcher believes that to work on the errors that exist in the news scripts of the above radio station will be an ideal. Omojuwa examined errors in a corpus of seventy-two (72) essays written by seventytwo (72) participants. The participants comprise four Malay students who were studying in a secondary school at Malaysia; thirty-seven (37) males and thirty-five (35) females. They had experienced approximately the same number of years of education through primary and secondary education
in Malaysia. All of the participants come from non-English speaking background and hardly communicate in English outside the school. The instruments used for this study was participants' written essay and Marking software. All of the errors in the essay were identified and classified into various categorization. The results of the study showed that six most common errors committed by the participants were singular/plural form, verb tense, word choice, preposition, subject-verb agreement and word order. These aspects of writing in
xxvii English pose the most difficult problems to participants. This study has shared light on the manner in which students internalize the rules of the target language, which is English. The focus is on the academic students but the current work deems it fit to consider professionals in the field of media particularly those in the business of producing radio and television news scripts. Also, Uyo in an article entitled, "Analysis of Writing Error in Nigerian Mass"observed that "majority of the writers in the Nigerian media have a shaky grasp of the English language and conventional way of writing it". The purpose of the article is to draw the attention of professional media writers to writing errors so that they can take note of them, and strive to avoid them. Uyo documents and dissects sixteen (16) common errors from the word level to sentence level, and punctuation marks in various Nigerian newspapers. The typology of error he detects includes subject-verb disagreement, dangling modifiers, sentence fragment tautology, faulty case of pronouns, faulty diction, and incomplete apposition. In his findings, he states that "journalists should put proper words in proper places: have or find the right words to express what they want to say, and then arrange the right words properly to form a right sentence." Any sentence that falls short of or either of these demands imperils writing and distracts from good writing" (16). A news script must be written in a lucid and communicative language. The language in use must conform to the rules that govern it. The rules must be adhered to in order to avoid language errors and falsification of the message being conveyed but unfortunately errors litter the pages of most Nigerian news scripts, thereby making news scripts perpetuators of errors and of bad English in society. In this study, a lot has been said concerning `error'. Well, a few of these errors have been mentioned earlier but those are not all that should be treated. So, the current study will still identify other errors other than those mentioned above, their causes and suggests
xxviii solutions that, if applied, will be made to prevent further errors and make the language of news scripts an avenue for correct English. Lawal (36) quoted in Ifeyinwa conducted a study on thecomparative syntactic patterns employed by newspapers in Nigeria. His aim is to determine whether newspaper language is the grammatical model for the English language in Nigeria or not. The result of the findings shows that news script language influences general language use. The differences in styles employed by each newspaper studied was too significant but each under the language of news script uses language incorrectly and does not take into cognisance what is not grammatically acceptable. Ikegwu, in his article on "The Use of Nigerian Languages in The Mass Media" identified language as a major problem to effective communication in the media. He asserted that the English language dominates every other language in Nigeria media houses. Since language is the barrier and since English is the major language, the implication then is that incompetence in the knowledge and use of the language is the greatest cause of barrier in communication in the media. Pandey, an Indian student in Nigeria, conducted a research on The Lexico-Semantic and Syntactic Analysis of Errors in Selected Nigerian Newspapers. This study covered a period of twelve months. She used questionnaires and interview methods. The linguistic factors she identified were interference, over-generalization and learner's inter-language. These factors led to the errors made by editors. The current finding is based on the fact that a second language learner can as a result of mother-tongue interference transfer aspects of his first language into the target language. This process causes a big misuse of the target language. The researcher's opinion here is that, the second language learner should learn the proper use of the target language.
xxix Emmanuel Taiwo in his article, classifies newspapers in Nigeria into two broad groups based on frequency of publication. According to him, the first group consists of daily newspapers such as The Guardian, The Punch, The Nigerian Tribune, and so on. Within this first group there are some titles that aredevoted to weekends, evenings or early mornings. Such titles include;The Sunday Punch, The Sunday Guardian, AM and PM News. The second broad group comprises magazines, which are published weekly, bi-weekly or monthly (Babalola 406). He goes on to further divide this second group into two: thus, those that are devoted to serious or investigative journalism
like Tell, TheNews, Newswatch, and those that are called soft-sell magazines, which are essentially devoted to entertainment, celebrities, gossips and the like. Notable among these are Ovation, National Encomiums, Hints, Hearts, and so on. In his words, "the main difference between these two broad groups is that while daily newspapers report news on a daily or day-to-day basis, the weekly or monthly magazines report news on weekly or monthly basis, base on which is applicable" (406). The first group claims that they tell the news as it breaks, while the second group claims that they put flesh and meat through their in-depth analysis and investigative activities. In conclusion, news scripts are generally recognized as instruments for improving and encouraging mass literacy. As a matter of fact, some experts have argued in favour of supporting the idea of "using news scripts to teach reading and writing
in formal situations". According to Njoku (34) quoted in Babalola (408), news scripts can be, and actually are, useful learning tools. Unfortunately, Nigerian news scripts have the tendency to misuse the English language, and this poses problems to those who may look up to the news script for linguistic enhancement. As writing is considered the zenith of language skills, and the yardstick of linguistic excellence, so also news scripts are considered to be the beacon of formal writing. News script language influences general language use. This is why the researcher has chosen news
xxx scripts in BCA radio as the population of this study. Therefore, in reviewing all these relevant views of scholars related to this work, it has been firmly established that the news scripts need to be properly used for the intended message(s) to be clearly conveyed and understood. 2.3Summary These studies presented here show a selection of contributions by leading scholars in the areas of English Grammar
and errors. However, these findings suggest the necessity of employing better writers and editorson the part of media houses.While as, the present study will concentrate on the grammatical errors in the selected news scripts of BCA Radio also, suggests that the education levels of these persons mentioned above should increase.Nevertheless, a good scrutiny of the above studies and many others not recorded here reveals that some research have been carried out in the aspect of error analysis on newspapers but none has attempted categorizing these errors so much as this present study intends to do. Hence, the present study is to further enrich the body of discourse available in the explanation of errors in selected Nigerian news scripts particularly grammatical errors in the radio news scripts while updating the previous study. However, by way of summary, BCA radio news scripts deviate so much from correctness as regards to the English language use. These deviations which are termed `errors' have a negative impact on the news listeners. That is why the current researcher wants to focus on the grammatical types of those errors, their causes and effects on the language user in particular and the country in general. Furthermore, this Literature Review
shows the opinions of different linguists on error analysis andgrammar. Also,it gives views on news scripts which equally engenders the occurrence of grammatical errors by BCA radio news producers. The authors reviewed were emphatic that errors do not appeal to them as well. However, they have averred that some of the errors are made intentionally in order to capture public attention.
xxxi Finally, the present study will concentrate on the grammatical errors of selected news scripts of BCA radio, Umuahia. Although, the present review did not exhaust all theresearch done in related field as the result of logistic constraints which include time, availability of materials, and finances, the researcher hopes that the little work done so far is sufficient to give the readers as well as further researchers an insight into the area which is still flawed.
xxxii CHAPTER THREE: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Theoretical Framework This chapter is sub-divided into two broad headings; the first one is the theoretical framework which bears the theory of this study. Then, the second part is the research methodology. Under research methodology, we have area and population of the study, method of data collection, method of data analysis, and method of data presentation. The theoretical framework on which this research is based is S. Pit Corder'sError Analysis. According to Corder: Error analysis is the study of deviations from second language norms in the course of second language learning especially in terms of learner's developing inter-language (167). It studies the types and causes of language errors. A key finding of error analysis has been that many learner errors are produced by learners making faulty inferences about the rules of the new language, relying heavily upon the rules in their native languages. As Corder puts it: "A learner's error is significant in that they provide to the researcher evidence of how language is learned and acquired, what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in the discovering of the language (167)." However, error analysis is a type of linguistic analysis that focuses on the errors learners make. According to Richards and Sampson, "at the level of pragmatic classroom experience, error analysis will continue to provide one means by which the teacher assesses learning and teaching and determines priorities for future effort" (quoted in Richards, 15). Error analysis is quite useful in the process of language learning. AsCorder reiterates that:
xxxiii The study of error is part of the investigation of the process of language learning. In this respect it resembles methodologically the study of the acquisition of the mother tongue. It provides us with a picture of the linguistic development of a learner and may give us indications as to the learning process
(125). Corder further states that: Error analysis has two functions. The first is theoretical and the second a practical one. The theoretical aspect of error analysis is part of the methodology of investigating the language learning process. In order to find out the nature of these psychological processes, we have to have a means of describing the learner's knowledge of the target language at any particular moment in his learning career in order to relate this knowledge to the teaching he has been receiving. According to UzomaNwachukwu(147-171), researchers and teachers have come more to understand that second language learning is a creative process of constructing a system in which the learner is consciously or unconsciously testing hypothesis about the target language from a number of possible sources or knowledge: limited knowledge of the target language itself, knowledge about the native language, knowledge about language in general, and knowledge about life, human beings, and the universe. Through the study of learner's errors, researchers and teachers of second language have to realise that a thorough analysis of the errors may lead to the understanding of the process of second language acquisition. It is usually difficult to analyse the linguistic system of both first and second language learners because such system cannot be directly observed, and are in a constant state of flux as new information flows in and causes existing structures to be revised. Error analysis is a performance analysis, which is inferred by means of analysing production and comprehension data. Three major steps are taken in the process of error analysis. These are:
xxxiv 1. Identifying or recognizing the errors 2. Describing the errors 3. Explaining the sources of the errors. Identifying or Recognizing the Errors The process of error analysis starts with identifying the errors or idiosyncratic utterances in a second language. Corder (71) makes a distinction between overt and covert errors. Utterances that are overtly erroneous are those that are clearly ungrammatical while covertly erroneous utterances are grammatically correct but not interpretable within the normal contexts of communication. In both cases a possible interpretation can be made of the utterances followed by a reconstruction of the utterances in the target language. Then the reconstruction and the original erroneous utterance should be compared after which the differences can now be described. If the mother-tongue of the learner is known, a translation from it could be used in order to find out if mother-tongue interference is the source of error. Sources of Error The final stage in the analysis of errors is that of determining the source of the errors. It is necessary to find out why certain errors are made, and what cognitive strategies and styles or even personality variables underlie certain errors. By trying to identify sources, according to Brown (1980) as quoted in Uzoma (140), we can begin to arrive at an understanding of how the learner's cognitive and affective self relates to the linguistic system, and to formulate an integrated understanding of the process of second- language acquisition. Some of the major causes of errors and strategies of learning include: Interlingual transfer, Context of learning, Communication strategies, Avoidance, Prefabricated patterns, Language switch and so on.
xxxv However, this theory of error analysis by Pit Corderwill be quite adequate for this study because it will help the researcher to understand the fact that, this work is mostly concerned with errors that impair communication significantly. This means that, for adequate analysis to be carried out and to achieve a desired result, the researcher will use Uzoma's theory which is narrowed down to Pit Corder's error analysis theory to carefully identify the errors, classified them according to their frequency occurrences and highlight the importance of grammar in the development of communicative competence, particularly grammatically competence. 3.2 Research Methodology Preferably,the research will be basically qualitative. This is because it will involve the researcher going through the pages of BCA radio news scripts, to identify, analyze instances of grammatical errors and critically read the news scripts which will be utilized as data for the study. It will be based on non-experimental research that will be designed based on the linguistic method in its analysis of selected news scripts. The aim of the researcher will be to identify and collect factual errors from these scripts and give answers to the research questions. 3.2.1 Area of the Study The study will focus on BCA radio news scripts as the research data. This study will concentrate on the incidence ofgrammatical errors evident in the scripts from the same station. 3.2.2 Population of the Study The population will comprise the presenters who read the news out to the entire public. The researcher will, therefore, interview them with a view to finding out why these errors occur in their productions. 3.2.3 Method of Data Collection
xxxvi Here, the researcher will explore a simple randomization method in collecting the data. This is because she will have to select from a whole population that is available. World News, News at FM, News in Brief, News Headlines, News Package, News Segment, and News Digest and so on, will be selected from the news room in the station. Thus, three hundred (300) news scripts dated from January 2013 to October, 2015 will be selected from a list of all the scripts in BCA Radio, Umuahia, to identify the errors therein and, thereafter, provide a unique and broad data. These scripts will be selected because of the importance of their repeated occurrence and easy accessibility. The table below shows the order in which the news scripts will be selected according to days. A table that contains the scripts that will be used as data. Day of the Week News scripts
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
World News News at FM News in Brief News Headlines World News Package News Segment News Digest
The table above shows the news scripts that areused for the study. As the table above specifies, each script is surveyed on the particular day mentioned for a period of three weeks. The researcher believes that the analysis of an error that will be made within the period mentioned above will be sufficient for the study. 3.2.4 Method of Data Analysis
xxxvii The data that will be collected for this study is analysed using the simple percentage calculations. The simple percentages will be used todetermine the frequency of these errors. Thereafter, the errors analysed areclassified under the following headings accordingto their frequencies wrong pluralization, poor grammatical constructions, omissions, wrong punctuation, wrongtense, concord errors, and the use of wrong prepositions. CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF GRAMMATICAL ERRORS IN THE NEWS SCRIPTS 4. 1. Preamble This chapter is aimed at presenting the analysis of the data collectedfrom news scripts by the researcher. The data were primarily written errors of wrong pluralizationand grammar in the news scripts dated from the years 2013 to October, 2015 as a reflection of similar errors in similar items in other parts of the country. The language in which the investigation was based is the English language. The errors identified were grouped into five categories, thus:punctuation, concord, omission, pluralization,andthe wrong use of prepositions. On the whole, two hundred and sixty (260) errors were identified and written out with their total numbers (frequency) and percentages. Thereafter, the analysis was carried out. 4.2. Presentation of Findings The data collected from the news scripts by the researcher are presented in a tabular format. The table contains a list of errors in the available news scripts along with the page numbersand dates in which the given expressions are culled from. 4.3.Grammatical Errors in the Scripts Studied
xxxviii The major concern of this study is the identification and analysis of grammatical errors that were found in the BCA Radio news scripts. The data dealt with the actual errors, that is, errors as collected by the researcher from the news scripts. In this section, the observed errors were divided into categories and the categories were discussed.A total of three hundred (300) copies ofnews scripts were collected from the BCA Radio news room.From the three hundred copies, two hundred and sixty (260) errors were identified. These errors were grouped here into the following five categories for easy analysis as:
The errors are written down below according to their frequencies. Apart from being
written outbelow with theirfrequencies, their percentageswere worked out. The percentages
were obtained through the Number of Error Types. For example, (N) Over Total Number of
errors and (T)multiplied by 100 over 1, that is,
N100 X T1
Percentage 44.61% 15% 9.61% 21.53%
Thetable abovedisplays the frequency occurrence of the errors in different categories. Also, it is pertinent to note that the texts analysed in this work are contained from pages sixty-one to ninety-one (61-91) of the appendix.
4.3.1. Punctuation Errors Some instances of punctuation errors observed include the following as shown in the table below: Table 1: Punctuation Errors from World News - News Digest in the years 2013 -2015.
1 21/2/13 According to report() Christians make.... = According to 12lines
report, Christians make...
2 24/10/13 The Governor() Chief T.A. Orji... =The Governor,Chief T.A. 11
3 21/10/13 ... with BCA reporter()ChukwuemekaEmele... = ...with BCA 10
The president of the association()Mazi Sam who made...= The
president of the association,Mazi Sam who made...
In June() General Amos asked... = In June, General Amos
6 11/9/13 A release says 11:30a.m to 12:30pm, from 2:30pm to 4pm... 5lines = A release says 11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. from 2:30 p.m. to bull: 4:00 p.m. ... 7 21/10/13 Meanwhile() the Governor... = ... Meanwhile, the Governor... 14
...travelling bag containing() electrical parts() eye glasses()
8 14/09/15 UBTC Bank cheque, etc.= ... travelling bag containing the
following: electrical parts, eye glasses, UBTC Bank cheque,etc.
Aba summit with the theme "Abia development(:) = Aba
9 2/11/15 summit with the theme "Abia development"
The youngdoctor office...= The young doctor's office...
... please take note, its urgent. ... =... please take note, it's
... a greater result in(;) providing security in... = ... a greater
result in providing security in... (intrusive punctuation error
of a semi-colon)
According to the release() the intending... = According to the
release, the intending...
13 11/9/ 13
A release by the Acting(.) State Secretary... = ...A release by
the Acting State Secretary... (intrusive punctuation error of
a full stop)
...2013 mothers day celebration of... = ...2013 mothers' day
Interpretation of the Errors in Table 1 From the above table, the researcher observed that in the first expression, there should be a comma immediately after `report.' Therefore, the correct version should be; (According to report, Christians make...). Also, in the second expression, there should equally be a comma immediately after `the Governor' example, (The Governor, Chief T.A. Orji...). The same is applicable in the third number, there should be a comma after `BCA reporters.' For
xlii example, (...with BCA reporters,ChukwuemekaEmele...). Also, there should be a comma in the fourth expression after `association,' like, (The president of the association,Mazi Sam who made...). Again, there should be a comma in the fifth expression immediately after `June,' like, (In June, General Amos asked...). In the sixth expression, there should be a dot in-between the `pm.' For instance, (1:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. from 2:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.). The seventh expression shows grammatical and punctuation errors; the correct version should be (The State Secretary, John Kerry has said...). In the next expression, there should be a comma after `meanwhile,' for example, (Meanwhile, the Governor...). In the next number, there should be an indication of comma after each listed item, such as, (... travelling bag containing the following: electrical parts, eye glasses, UBTC Bank cheque, etc.). The number ten expression shows a very wrong punctuation usage. Instead of `Aba summit with the theme "Abia development:' the correct punctuation should be ("Abia development"). In the next expression, apostrophe s should be attached to the `doctor' before `office.' Example, (The youngdoctor's office...). Number twelve bears an intrusive punctuation error of a semi-colon. The presence of that semi-colon in-between `in and providing' is not grammatically accepted and thereby, needs to be removed. The same is applicable in number fourteen, where an intrusive punctuation error of a full stop occurred in-between `Acting' and `State'. The correct version of those sentences should be; (... a greater result in providing security in...) and (...A release by the Acting State Secretary...), respectively. Finally, in the last expression, the word `mother' should bear an apostrophe's. For instance, (...2013 mothers' day celebration of...). Analysis of Table 1 Some of the errorsobserved by the researcher defied the rules governingthe correctuse of grammar. Following the above table, it is obvious that punctuation errors were more frequent than other errors in the BCA Radio news scripts. However, punctuation errors are
also the proof of the incomplete mastery of the English language rules, even though some of these punctuation errors occurred out of carelessness on the part of the printers or publishers and perhaps the editors who may have had an oversight of them.
However, from the illustrations observed in several news scripts from different dates
and pages, one hundred and sixteen(116) frequency expressions of punctuation
errors,representing (44.61%) of punctuations found in these particular editions ofWorldNews
News Digest, have been identified by the researcher. Meanwhile, this category of error is
committed in the scripts attached.
4.3.2. Concord Errors
Some instances of concord errors observed include the following as shown in the table below:
Table 2: Concord Errors from World News - News Digest in the years 2013 -2015.
S/N DATE FREQUENCY EXPRESSION
1 26/06/13 The wife of the Governor, Lady Mercy Odochi Orji have urged 12lines
Abians... = ... The wife of the Governor, Lady Mercy Odochi bull:
Orji has urged Abians...
2 14/09/15 ... only men who put God first and carry out their assignments 7COV
in line with biblical dictates receives their deserved blessings.
=... in line with biblical dictates receive their deserved
A 3 DaysConference at Okpara's Square... = ... A 3
dayConference at Okpara Square.... (this is an error of wrong
4 25/06/13 usage)
They wasvery neat... = ...They werevery neat...
They createsfrom the source...= ...They createfrom the
Abia students and pupils has called on government at all
levels... = ... Abia students and pupils havecalled on
7 15/09/13 government at all levels ...
One of the Abia state student went for... = One of the Abia
State students went for ...
Chief Nwagbosoexplain that out of this... = Chief
Nwagbosoexplainsthat out of this ...
Aba noted (t)hat the role of mothers are... = Aba noted that the
10 01/10/15 role of mothers is...
As the nation marks her 55th year anniversary today, across section of Abia students and pupils... = As the nation marks her 55th year anniversary today, across section of Abia students and pupils...
Interpretation of the Errors in Table 2 In number one of the above table, the researcher discovered a disagreement between the subject (the wife of the Governor) and the verb that precedes it (have). In this case, a singular subject was used with a plural verb which is absolutely wrong. The correct verb should be
xlv (has). Therefore, the correct version of that sentence should be (... The wife of the Governor, Lady Mercy Odochi Orji has urged Abians...). The second expression shows a confirmed concord error in the sense that, the subject of the sentence is in the plural form and the rule says it should take a singular verb. Therefore, the correct version of that sentence should read; (...only men who put God first and carry out their assignments in line with biblical dictates receive their deserved blessings). The next one is error of wrong usage of grammar that occurred in the BCA Radio news script. That is, the article (a) does not agree with the morpheme`s' in the word `Day'. It is supposed to be written as; (A 3day conference at Okpara Square...). In respect to the fourth expression, the `Crystal Palace' did not agree with the verb `come.' Therefore, the correct version should be (...as Crystal Palace comes up against Man City). In the next expression, the verb `was' did not agree with the subject `they' in that statement. It should be; (they were very neat). Also, the statement `They creates from the source...' is not grammatically correct because of the subject- verb disagreement. The correct version should be; (They create from the source...). The sentence in number seven which stated, `Sir Offor maintained that no traders in the...' is wrong, the correct sentence should be;(Sir Offor maintained that no trader in the...). In number eight, the pluralization of `students' and `pupils' and the conjunction (and) showed that the subject of that sentence is in plural form. Therefore, it should take a plural verb. For instance, it is correct to write it as; (Abia state students and pupilshave called on government at all levels...). The word `judiciously' in the context of number nine is an adverb that modifies the verb `utilise.' Again, the verb `are' is wrongly used there. Therefore, it is supposed to be in past tense form like; (Governor Ikpeazu ensures that the bailout fund is judiciously utilised). Again, number ten gives another incorrect use of concord in that sentence which state; `A fashion that is uniquely you....' It is better said, (A fashion that is uniquely yours...). In the eleventh number, the word `not' is not grammatically accepted
xlvi in that context, rather, it should be;(...Igbo language fluently and has no tribal marks...). Number twelve reminds us of the consciousness of adding`s' whenever one thing is taking out of many. So, the correct version of that sentence should be;(One of the Abia state students went for...). Next is Chief Nwagboso's `explanation' which should correctly be in present continuous tense as for third- person singular of the word `explain' but was written in third- person plural `explain'. On this note, it is supposed to be;(Chief Nwagboso explains that out of this...). In number fourteen, there is a wrong intrusive of `its' in that sentence. Number sixteen exposes the journalist's inexperience of correct use of concord. For example, the word `team' stands as one body (that is a singular subject) and should take a singular verb (is). Again, the correct word to be used in number seventeen should be (is), not `are' because, the word `role' should determine the verb it agrees with and not `mothers.' The correct version should be; (Aba noted that the role of mothers is...). Finally, in number eighteen, there is a wrong expression of the word `across' it is supposed to be in separate form. That is to say that, `a' should be separated from `cross' in order to have a meaningful sentence. It should be written in this form; (As the nation marks her 55th year anniversary today, a cross section of Abia students and pupils...) Analysis of Table 2 Sometimes, agreement is determined by the notion the speaker or writer has about the noun or nouns governing the verb of the sentence. A singular subject may be used with a plural verb while a compound subject may be used with a singular verb. Instances of the violation of the rules of concord errors were identified from the scripts where a plural subject was used with a singular verb. Even non-count nouns
were made plurals, which is absolutely ungrammatical. In the illustrationsobserved above, thirty nine (39) frequency expressionsof concorderrors,representing (15%)found in this particular editions of World News News
Digest, have been identified as concord errors by the researcher. Meanwhile, this category of
error is committed in the scripts attached.
4.3.3 Prepositional Errors
The table below shows some instances of the prepositional errors observed by the researcher.
Table 3: Prepositional Errors from World News - News Digest in the years 2013 -2015.
S/N DATE FREQUENCY EXPRESSION
1 14/09/15 ...mandate entrepreneur contribute positively on the economy 2 skills
... = ... mandate entrepreneur contribute positivelyto the
2 01/10/13 ...to destroy a country's chemical arms during a year. ... = ... 8
to destroy a country's chemical arms within a year.
3 Kennedy ... sentenced to 20 years to life in prison ... = ... sentenced to BBC
20 years life imprisonment
4 2/07/13 ...puts the venue at the inspection of at the premises of... =... 7 puts the venue at the inspection of the premises of... 5 02/07/13 ... illegal migrants lost at sea (prepositional and word 3Digest omission errors occurred here)... = ... illegal migrants lost inthe sea 6 17/10/13 ...work has resumed throughout thecountry today for a two 8 day holiday... = ... after a two day holiday...
7 21/10/13 ...a brown wallet containing and ID card bearing... = ... a 14 brown wallet containing an ID card bearing...
8 01/10/15 ...so as to be to self-reliant. ... = ... so as to be self-reliant.
9 01/10/13 ... that will better thelost of children and youths ... = ... better 15 lots of children and youths.
10 21/10/13 ... Abians to ensure that they troop to Enyimba... = ...Abians 14 to ensure they troop to Enyimba...
...it is expelling three US Diplomats, whom is accuses of
plotting to... = ... it is expelling three US Diplomats, whom it
accuses of plotting to ...
...hundred amputees were taken off ofin the first phase... 12 17/10/13 =...hundred amputees were taken off from the first phase...
13 7/10//13 Theresa May told the reporters that it would focused on organised ... = Theresa told reporters that...
14 21/10/13 He also vowed that it would not succeed in sowing ... = He
also vowed that the attack would not =
... to come out enmasse and avail themselves... = ... to come
out in mass and avail themselves...
16 01/10/13 ... will do everything necessary to enzyme that people live in the country without fear. = ... will do everything necessary to
ensure that people live in the country without fear
... theAbia State Government in check making the activities of
expatriates as well as... = ... the Abia State Government in
check mating the activities of expatriates as well as...
Correspondent IfeanyiOgbonna who captured the ever in some
of the churches ... = Correspondent IfeanyiOgbonna who
captured the event in some of the churches ... 18 14/9/15
Interpretation of the Errors in Table 3 From the above table, the researcher observed the following prepositional errors as we can see from number one expression, where the journalist's inability to use the English preposition properly was evidently noticed. Thus, `on' is a wrong choice of preposition to that sentence, therefore, the correct preposition should be `to'. To buttress my point, the correct version should be; (...mandate entrepreneur contribute to the economy...). Number two expression states `...to destroy a country's chemical arms during a year...' Thisstatement is wrong, it is better said;(...to destroy a country's chemical arms within a year...). In number three, the preposition `to' do not match in terms of `life in prison' the correct sentence should be;(...sentenced to 20 years life imprisonment). Number four shows an intrusive prepositional error of `at', it is correct to say (... puts the venue at the inspection of the premises of...). In number five, prepositional and word omission errors have been identified. The correct version should be (...illegal migrants lost in the sea).More so, the correct preposition in the next expression should be;(after)instead of `for.' Example, (work has resumed throughout the country today after a two day holiday...). Come next is a sentence like; `...a brown wallet containing `and' ID card bearing...' is not
l grammatically correct, it should be;(...a brown wallet containing an ID card bearing...).In the next number,`...so as to be to self-reliant...' is another wrong use of prepositionbecause of the presence of `to' it is better said; (... so as to be self-reliant.). The correct version of this sentence `...that will better the lost of children and youths' should be (...that will better lots of children and youths). In number ten `that' should be removed from the sentence, it is better written (...Abians to ensure they troop to Enyimba...). In number eleven, (it) is best used instead of `is'. The existence of these prepositions `of' and `in' in number twelve makes the sentence grammatically incorrect. The correct version should be (...hundred amputees were taken off from the first phase...). Number thirteen should be better said; (Theresa told reporters that...) instead of `Theresa May told the reporters that.' In number fourteen, (He also vowed that the attack would not succeed in sowing...) would have been better used than, `He also vowed that it would not succeed in sowing...' Also, `...to come out en masse and avail themselves...' is a wrong preposition to be used in that context but, (...to come out in mass and avail themselves...) should be better used.Talking about the next number, `enzyme' as it appears there, I believe is not an English word. I think what the journalist meant there is `ensure.' The appropriate sentence should be; (... will do everything necessary to ensure that people live in the country without fear). This sentence; (... the Abia State Government in check mating the activities of expatriates as well as...) supposed to be the correct version of number seventeen. Finally, number eighteen shows another prepositional error by bearing the word `ever' instead of, event. However, it is correct to write it as; (Correspondent IfeanyiOgbonna who captured the event in some of the churches ...). Analysis of Table 3 According to UzomaNwachukwu, "prepositions pose a lot of problems, not only for second language learners of English but also native speakers as well as the language
teachers" (166). One of the most difficult aspects of the English language to master is the
idiomatic use of prepositions. Native speakers are not always sure of it, and it is even more
troublesome to the foreign students.
However, the table above displays some common errors of preposition found in the
BCA Radio news scripts and the possible correct version of them are also given. From the
above findings, twenty five (25) frequency expressions of prepositional errors,representing
(9.61%)found in these particular editions of WordNews News Digest, have been identified
as wrong use of prepositions by the researcher. Meanwhile, this category of error is
committed in the scripts attached.
4.3.4. Omission Errors
Some instances of omission errors observed include the following as shown in the table
below: Table 4: Omission Errors from World News - News Digest in the years 2013 -2015.
S/N DATE FREQUENCY EXPRESSION
1 11/09/13 ... power bestowed upon ( ) over issues of life. ...= ... ... power 15
bestowed upon (him) over issues of life ...
2 02/07/13 Aba noted ()hat the role of mothers are... = Aba noted (t)hat Digest
3 15/09/15 () wife of () President makes case for... = ... (The) wife ICA of(the)President makes case for ...
4 01/10/15 The Abia House of Assembly yesterday passed a resolution () 7 calling on the ... = ...passed a resolution (of) calling on the ...
5 11/09/13 ...completed the centres, () will train... = ... completed the 22
lii centres, (he) will train...
The Republican Led House () called for... = ... The
6 01/10/13 Republican Led House (has) called for...
Meanwhile, the hanging of doors () plastering of shops...=
7 25/06/13 (and)
8 01/10/13 ... administration is focused () refurbishing the...=... 20 administration is focused (on) refurbishing the ...
9 01/11/13 Over three hundred Youths in IsialaNgwa North and South () 11 trained in =...IsialaNgwa North and South(were) trained in
10 01/10/15 He reiterated ()is desire to... =... He reiterated (his) desire... to 18 ... 11 01/10/15 Governor Ikpeazu described one hundred () twenty days he 8 has... =hundred and twenty
12 01/10/15 Abia children ( ) urged to emulate... =... (were) urged to... 9CPN
...mandateentrepreneurs () contribute positively to... =
...mandate entrepreneurs (to) contribute positively to...
... appreciated the State Government for () initiative. = ...
appreciated the State Government for (the) initiative
15 02/07/13 ...pray for illegal migrants lost at () Sea... = pray for illegal
migrants lost in (the) sea
Sir EmenikeOnuoha said the council assured () that ... =
(him)... ensure all outstanding salaries and pension payment () before 30th... = and pension payment (are made)before 30th ..
17 Royal ...survived by her husband Mr Friday Iroh, five children
other()() brothers, sisters and host of other relations. =...
18 01/10/15 ...Umudike,Amawom, Umugbalu, Okwe, Isiala()Oboro... = 11lines ... Okwe,Isiala, (and)Oboro
19 28/9/13 ...the duty of Corps Officers to keep watch around the 8lines
pipelines ( ) promised ( ) work... = ...the duty of Corps
Officers to keep watch around the pipelines (and) promised
...when completed the centres()( )will train many Abia Youths
in various skills and make them youths self reliant and
productive. =...when completed the centres(,)(he)will train
many Abia Youths in various skills and make them self-reliant
21 11/09/13 and productive.
High level of unemployment in ()state attributed to... =High
liv level of unemployment in (the)state attributed to ...
lv Interpretation of the Errors in Table 4 From the table above, the researcher observed the first incidence of omission thereas the omission of (him) which will have made the sentence more meaningful if written as;(...power bestowed upon him over issues of life...). Considering the second number, there is an omission of letter `t' to form the word `that' which will have given the sentence a meaningful structure. Therefore, the correct version should be; (Aba noted that the role of mothers is...). In number three, the researcher discovered the omission of (the) between `wife of' and `president.' To insert the omitted words will give us a correct sentence like; (The wife of the president makes case for...). In the next number, the researcher also discovered that, `of' is omitted in the sentence, but to correct it, we will have; (The Abia House of Assembly yesterday passed a resolution of calling on the...). In number five, there is an omission of `he' in that sentence, to correct it, we will have (...completed the centres, he will train...). There is an omission of `has' in number six, it should be; (The Republican Led House has called for...). Again,`and' is omitted in the next number. Therefore, `and' should be added to have a correct and meaningful sentence there. (...administration is focused refurbishing of shops...) the insertion of `on' should give the correct version of the sentence in number eight. In number nine, (were) should be inserted inbetween `South' and `trained' to give us a correct sentence like; (Over three hundred Youths in IsialaNgwa North and South were trained in...). In number ten, letter `h' is omitted, but if added, we will have the word (his) to give us a correct sentence like; (He reiterated his desire to...). Number eleven has an outstanding omission of the word `and' in the sentence. It is supposed to be written as; (Governor Ikpeazu described one hundred and twenty days he has...). (Abia children were urged to emulate...) should be the correct sentence of number twelve but the word `were' was omitted. Number thirteen should be (...mandate entrepreneurs to contribute positively to...) but `to' was omitted. There is
lvi an omission of the word `the' in number fourteen. But to add it, we will have;(...pray for illegal migrants lost at the sea). `The Medical Director ( ) Abia Diagnostic...' in this sentence, something is missing in-between `Director' and `Abia'and that is the word `of.' Therefore, when that is added, it will give us such correct sentence as;(The Medical Director of Abia Diagnostic...). The expression in number sixteen should be written as; (Sir EmenikeOnuoha said the council assured him that...). In the next expression, `are made' should be inserted in-between `payment' and `before' to give a complete and meaningful sentence like; (...ensure all outstanding salaries and pension payment are made before 30th...). The letter `s' and the word `include' are missing from the sentence in the next number but if added, we will have; (...survived by her husband, Mr Friday Iroh, five children, others include: brothers, sisters and host of other relations...). In the next number, the researcher observed the omission of a comma in-between `Isiala' and `Oboro.' The next line shows the omission of two different words, which are: `and' and `to.' The correct version should be; (...the duty of Corps Officers to keep watch around the pipelines and promised to work...). In the next number, the researcher discovered omission of `a comma,' in-between centres and `will' also, `he' before `will.' Again, the sentence is still incorrect because of the presence of `youth' in-between `them' and `self-reliant.' Therefore, to get it corrected, we ought to have a sentence like; (...when completed the centres, he will train many Abia Youths in various skills and make them self-reliant and productive). Finally, the sentence in number twenty-two would have been more correct if the omitted word `the' was added. Such like, (High level of unemployment in the state attributed to...).
lvii Analysis of Table 4 The next error under study is the omission errors which refers to the absence of some words, letters or punctuation marks in a given sentence or sentences. Most of the omitted words or letters discovered from these scripts are mainly verbs, prepositions, definite articles, punctuation marksand few cases,conjunctions. Thus, from this particular finding, fifty six (56)frequency expressionsof omitted words, letters or punctuation marks,representing (21.53%) found in these particular editions of WorldNews News Digest,have been identified as omission errors by the researcher. Meanwhile, this category of error is committed in the scripts attached. 4.3.5. Pluralization Errors Some instances of pluralization errors observed by the researcher include the following as shown in the table below:
Table 5:Pluralization Errors from News at FM News in Brief in the years 2013 -2015.
1 21/10/13 ... disclosed that the new workers secretariatwith an elevator is 10
first of its kinds in the whole... = ...disclosed that the new
workers secretariatwith an elevator is first of its kindin the
2 11/09/13 ... the secretary of the legionaries... = ... the secretary of the 20
3 16/10/15 ...the medical team are poised to... = ... the medical team COV
ispoised to ...
4 9/19/13 Some traders have gotten shops in the... = Some traders have 7 got shops in the...(British English
Speaking at the Stakeholders' meeting with industries and... =
... Speaking at the Stakeholders' meeting withindustrialists
Mr Friday Iroh, five children, other include:... = Mr Friday
Iroh, five children, others include:...
Interpretation of the Errors in Table 5 The various examples displayed above have shown a good indication of the instances of pluralization errors found in the BCA Radio news scripts by the researcher. For instance,
lix the first expression has a wrong pluralization, in the sense that, the appearance of the morpheme`s' to the root word `kind' makes the sentence incorrect. Therefore, it is supposed to be; (...disclosed that the new workers secretariat with an elevator is first of its kind in the...).The word `legionaries' is wrongly used in the context of the next sentence. The idea was meant to be a particular legion which should be written as; (...the secretary of the legion...). Again, the plural form of verb `are' used in number three of the above table do not correspond with the context of the sentence because, `the medical team is seen as one body which needs to take a singular verb `is.' However, the correct version of that sentence should be;(...the medical team is poised to...). Considering the number four expression of the table above, it is believed that, the modern British English is most preferred to the American English for a correct use of standard grammar. Therefore, `got' is preferably used instead of `gotten.' So, that sentence should be;(Some traders have got shops in the...). `Speaking at the Stakeholders' meeting with industries and...' is a wrong sentence, the correct version should be;(Speaking at the Stakeholders' meeting with industrialists and...).Finally, number six has a pluralization error of the morpheme (s). `s' should be added to `other' in order to have a correct sentence. Example, (Mr Friday Iroh, five children, others include:...). Analysis of Table 5 Some pluralization errors were discovered in the course of analysing the data. Pluralization errors on the other hand, focus on the mistakes that are often made when using the wrong terms in English. As is often the case, some language users in some cases use unnecessary pluralization of a noun as an adjective, meaning that, `s' or `es' is unnecessarily added to the end of a noun. Thus, it is worthy to note that, from the table above, twenty four (24)frequency expressions,representing (9.23%)found in these editions of News at FM
lx News in Brief,have been identified as pluralisation errors by the researcher. Meanwhile, this category of error is committed in the scripts attached. 4.4. Summary of Findings Above are the findings that emerged from the research. It was discovered from the analysis that the utterances used in news scripts are mainly assertive and quite discouraging. Altogether, the researcher discovered a total number of two hundred and sixty errors from BCA Radio news scripts and this proved that most of these errors that occurred were written by the journalists and anchored by the news casters. Illiteracy and ignorance of Nigerian journalists are seen in their malapropism of words. For instance, the wrong use of the preposition ``during" shows the journalist's inability to identify prepositions that are used for specific time distinction. The incessant occurrence of these errors in different news scripts and almost on every page showed the poor level of the journalists' academic standard and the system that produced them. The non-agreement of noun and verb in the sentence, `The wife of the Governor, Lady Mercy Odochi Orji have urged Abians'makes one wonder if our journalists were ever taught anything on concord while in school. A sentence must have a subject and a predicate, whose vital element is the verb. The corresponding rule is that there must be an agreement between the subject and the verb. Specifically, the verb in a sentence must agree with the subject in number. That is to say, if the subject is singular, the verb must be plural form and if the subject is plural,the verb must be singular form. Also, past form must agree with past form and present form must agree with present form. The poor academic standard of journalists and news anchors and the poor academic standard of the system that produced them are displayed in the journalists' inability to adhere to this simple grammatical rules of concord.Furthermore, the media houses have not provided adequate training for journalists. It is incompetence to find the word `titled' appearing five times on the same page in the same news scripts considering the British tradition which we use in Nigeria. `Entitled' is the appropriate word but the writer as well as the editor is not adequately educated to know
lxi this. All these show the poor academic standard of the journalists who ignore the facts that error in news scripts is detrimental to journalism. As a result, there is need for more attention during edition and it is recommendable also to properly edit works that the public can easily gain access to and avoid such errors. The errors in each of the expression presented in the above tables are analysed bellow in each of the table, and the correct version of each expression is given. The analysis is done table-bytable, and in each case, the correct expression is boldly written in a bracket while a short note is given in respect to the wrong expression. Finally, the summary of these findings shows among other things, that punctuation errors covering about 44.61% of the total number of errors are the most frequent types of errors which occur in the BCA Radio news scripts editions of World News News Digest, dated from 2013-2015. More so, the researcher equally discovered that most of these errors are as a result of incompetence in the mastery of the English language. This is because, in terms of qualification, the journalists and news casters interviewed were quite educated but due to the fact that they are second language users of the English language and are not the original language speakers, they are bound to commit some grammatical errors. The researcher again, discovered that most of these errors are caused by the level of education of the newscasters or reporters. This is true because, referring to Mr Eto's comment, a first degree holder with at least second class lower who has not yet gone higher in education can become a newscaster. Furthermore, some members of the BCA Radio staff interviewed, supported the view that some of these errors were also used to capture the listeners' interests. This is to say that, indeed listeners do not rely wholly on word meanings of these news as absolutely correct. In as much as some of these erroneous forms are intentionally used to capture the interest of listeners, yet there are some linguistically substandard or semantically ill-formed expressions knowing fully well that all claims by these staff may not be accepted as reality.
lxii CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 5.1 Summary of the Major Findings The importance of the English grammar cannot be over emphasised. The grammar plays a very vital role in writing. Unfortunately, it has been discovered that there are a lot of errors in the use of the English grammar in Nigerian news scripts. This errors come about for different reasons but they all result in hampering effective communication. The English grammar is constantly misused in Nigerian news scripts. This means that, the misuse of grammar could mislead or falsely inform a user of English. The grammatical error in news scripts creates confusion and hampers effective communication. According to Hoffman, "what is worse is that the writer can never know if the listener is confused or has misunderstood something so cannot add more in case of a confused listener, nor can the listener ask a question" (253). A news caster must maintain clarity so that hearers can discover what the broadcaster thinks or wants them to know. The effectiveness of communication is measured by the clarity of a message hence; dissemination of a lucid idea is believed to be the ultimate goal of communication. In a global language such as English, intelligibility and comprehensibility are worth any price. The correct use of language is of utmost importance to both the broadcaster and the audience because that is only when effective communication takes place and the listener effortlessly decodes the intended meaning of the news lines. It is also important to note that the print media, as influential users of the language, are (or should be) beacons of linguistic excellence. The fact that their products are widely spread should make them adopt a better principle of communication because communication becomes successful only when the audience or listeners correctly decode what the journalist intends. The news script is generally known to be a medium of communication to the
lxiii listening public which comprises both the elite and the layman. Since many consider news scripts to be infallible in the area of English grammar and usage, many fail to recognise deviant structures in news as the errors which they are, and assume all what they hear to be of the desired standard. The linguistic position of news script writers is so sensitive that they ought to keep abreast of the correct and current use of the language with which they communicate information to the public. The world is now a global village, the internet and social networks
give news scripts wider coverage. Suffice it to say that this all-important language should be carefully written and should not involve anything less than the standard use of the target language. The English grammaris very useful in writing, individualising and giving definiteness or indefiniteness to nouns they precede. Any inappropriate use of grammar automatically disrupts meaning and makes effective communication fail. This is the reason the knowledge of the grammar of every written language is a prerequisite to writers of such a language.Poor knowledge of grammar of the English language among writers is the reason for a massive misuse of the English grammars in many of the Nigerian media houses. 5.2. Conclusion Having carried out this study, the researcher concludes by stating a result which proved that grammatical errors in news scripts have negative effects on the mass communication such that it occurs in all the parts of the country and so could be considered as a national problem which also sends wrong signals, creating a bad and poor image for the country and making the development Nigeria envisages from education illusive since news scripts ought to be a medium of enforcing literacy, education and enlightenment.Meanwhile, it is quite understandable that these errors are fast becoming imperceptible in the English language in the whole country.The importance of the English grammar cannot be over emphasised. The English grammar plays a very important role in writing and reading of news
lxiv lines. Unfortunately, it has been found that there are a lot of errors in the use of the English grammar in BCA Radio news scripts which ought to be corrected. 5.3. Suggestions for Further Studies Consequent upon the research findings is that, the researcher is of the view that those who work in the media houses should be more committed to their jobs and carefullydischarge their duties. One person should not be left to do the jobs of three persons. The media houses should become more sensitive to the public opinion about their use of the English language and improve their standard. Secondly, during employment, preference should be given to those who have knowledge of journalism and are competent in their use of English. In turn, such workers should develop the attitude of taking their work seriously so as to curb the errors which occur from impatience, carelessness and lack of supervision. Furthermore, seminars, refresher courses and workshops, particularly on language use and errors have to be arranged regularly for journalists and news casters by their employers. Also, monitoring bodies like the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) should be more proactive and functional to ensure that journalists are abreast of the rules and new development in their field. Again, it is expedient that Nigerian academic system be improved and persons going into the field of journalism should be exposed to material written in Standard English for the proper mastery of the language. Questions about the level or standard of our educational system, especially, when they occur in news scripts which circulate beyond the boundaries of Nigeria should stipulate the correct and acceptable use of the grammar. Nevertheless, it is believed that no study is perfect and at the same time conclusive on its own; improvements on this study are still possible in any of the following approaches:
lxv 1. The current study focused on the grammatical error analysis of selected news scripts of the broadcasting corporation of Abia state, (BCA) Radio, Umuahia. Repeating the study with another level of linguistics or aspect of the English language will be quite helpful. 2. Repeating the study using any other television or radio station within the country as a case study should also be carried out. 3. A comparative study of the similar topic with thesame methodology but with a different sample size could be analysed using Nigeria news scripts and British news scripts. However, based on the findings and implications of this study, the researcher is of the view that the following recommendations could be implemented. - The Nigerian government should ensure a prompt improvement of language learning facilities in schools in order to improve the mastery and effectiveness of the English language of her citizens. - Listeners should be enlightened to the grammatical shortcomings of the news lines which they hear. Many listeners take all they hear in news as absolutely correct, and do not believe that errors can be tracedfrom the news items they listen to on daily bases. - News scripts should not exploit journalese inadequacy at the expense of good grammatical constructions because this affects the meaning of what is meant to be conveyed. Therefore, news items should be properly edited before being published or read out to the entire public; because this will go a long way in helping the general public to become acquainted with the correct and acceptable forms of the English language. - There should be a stipulated level of education to be attained by all intended broadcasting workers before going into "the business" proper. A minimum of first degree or at least, O' level of education in the appropriate discipline is strongly recommended. - Language teachers on their own part should work harder and be more creative in teaching the English grammar in the early formal education. They should encourage the use of the
lxvi dictionary early enough in school life. They should use whatever method that has been found by experts to be most appropriate to teach English grammar. Since the research has shown sample evidence of the negative effects on concord and grammar, there is need for all teachers of English at all levels to be familiar with error and contrastive analysis and the application of their findings in the classroom so as to reduce the incidence of grammatical errors by the products of our educational system. - To round it off, broadcasting authorities should adhere to employing only well-qualified language experts that are highly proficient in the English language to serve as editors that will competently proofread grammatical aspects of the news lines before they are broadcast. If these recommendations are carried out by the media houses, they will become pacesetters in the effective use of the English language which they ought to be. News scripts, through this, will enhance maximum comprehensibility of conveyed messages and at the same time promote the standard use of the English language.
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lxx APPENDIX The appendix in this work shows the evidence of grammatical errors found in the selected news scripts of the Broadcasting Corporation of Abia State Radio, Umuahia. Thus, this appendix is located from pages sixty-two to ninety-two (62-92) of this study. Among other news scripts, include the following: 1. News at FM (TO END THE NEWS, THE MAIN POINTS). June 26, 2013, 2. News Headlines (TV NEWS). September 15, 2015, 3. World News (ITALIAN ISLAND). July 02, 2013, 4. News Digest (MOTHERS). July 02, 2013, 5. News in Brief (SKILLS). September 14, 2015, 6. News Package (BUDGET DEFENCE). September 11, 2013, 7. News Segment (ANNIVERSARY). October 01, 2015.
SOF TH, GA NKORO