Ecosystem of dendrological park Askania-Nova as part of an object of the nature protected fund of Ukraine, NA HAVRYLENKO

Tags: rare species, Red List, Dendrological Park, European Red List, List of Bern Convention, botanical park, climatic conditions, flora, woody vegetation, National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, meteorological factors, artificial ecosystem, Biosphere reserve, Ukraine, endangered species, wood species, Askania Nova
Content: UDK 580.006(477.72):502.72©
N. . Havrylenko
ECOSYSTEM OF DENDROLOGICAL PARK «ASKANIA NOVA» AS A PART OF AN OBJECT OF THE NATURE PROTECTED FUND OF UKRAINE
F. E. Falz-Fein Biosphere reserve «Askania Nova», National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine The ecosystem of oasis type including the biocoenosis artificial created and formed spontaneously is described. A stranger element of the dendropark forced by zonal biodiversity considerably increases the sozological status of the dendropark as a structural compotent of the Biosphere reserve «Askania Nova». Key words: irrigated park, cultivated flora, spontaneous flora, fauna, rare species. . . «-» . . - «-» - , , , . , , «-». : , , , , . . . «-» .. - «-» ' - , , , . , , «-». : , , , , .
Dendrological Park "Askania Nova" is unique Woodland Park of oasis type which exists over 125 years at the region with difficult climatic conditions, great changeability of the meteorological factors and intensive hot dry winds. It is largest irrigated park at the south of Ukraine with rich collection of wood plantings, which are growing in azonal conditions. Such view in estimate of this formation out of the ordinary predominated from the time of formation of its plantings and landscapes till present days. However other components and characteristics of artificial ecosystem that were formed without direct anthropogenic influence were ignored. The researches of total biodiversity have a fragmentary character and they are determined mainly by professional interests of executors. OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCHES The aim of this paper is to summarize the data presented the dendropark's biodiversity. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The growth of woody vegetation under conditions of Askania Nova became possible due to water from artesian pumps. The Dendrological Park consists of three different age
© Havrylenko N. ., 2011
ISSN 1726-1112. . 2011. . 22, 1­2
113
massifs: the old botanical park (founded during period 1887-1893), the forest-steppe light forest with oak-wood (laid in 1907-1962 and it was included into composition of a new part of park after its creation) and the new park (created in 1968-1972). They are differed by specific composition and phytocoenotic structure of woody planting stands, diversity of landscapes, a method of glades' formation, ratio of the open and close spaces. A soil for planting of TREES AND SHRUBS at the old park has been prepared according to system of bare fallow. The soil has been dug from 50 cm till 100 cm in deep except the plots for glades on which the soil and vegetable cover was not broken (, 1962). When the new park has been laid out, deep ploughing till 70 cm was done at all area intended for it. Later the regime of bare fallow was kept before the growing of young plants. The glades of grass mix were formed at the same time. The grass mix consisted of Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub, Festuca pratensis Huds., Dactylis glomerata L.; Lolium perenne L., Phleum pratense L., Medicago sp. and Trifolium sp. Before telling about a biota of Dendrological Park we must note the changes taken place in pedosphere. At the present time glades' soil (particularly The Big Steppe Glade on area of 7 ha) is classified as dark chestnut residually alkaline (, , 2003) and typical for the whole region. The soil of park irrigated culture is classified as dark chestnut calcareous soil improved deeply (, 2001). The last one was formed because of three main factors: deep manual digging, long term irrigation and forest culture. Combination of annual broad-leaved tree waste with high level of moisture providing, perennial activity of soil mesofauna and impact of wood vegetation root system led hereto that more than 120 years of being the dendropark a soil profile different from the profile of original virgin dark chestnut residually alkaline soil was formed. It is typical of him an absence of residually alkalinity, humus redistribution according to profile with concentration at upper its parts (a ceiling amount of humus of the park's soil is concentrated in upper stratum 10 cm: 0-5 cm ­ 6.21 %; 5-10 cm ­ 4.09 %; its amount rapidly falls with depth in stratums 25-30 and 45-50 cm that makes up 1.86 % and 1.56 % respectively), useful increase of sum of absorbed grounds concerning with weighting of mechanical composition, supporting of relative density of a bridging part of profile in optimum range and formation of grainy water-stable structure, contributing to creation of favourable water-air regime in soil. The soils of old part of the dendropark which is under conditions of irrigated culture more than 100 years possess the largest potential productivity as compared to other soils of the biosphere reserve besides of the virgin variants, according to a set of indices: color, density, composition, structure, moisture, new formations, and character of transition between horizons (, , 2005). Two blocs are studied well: collection fund of aliens and spontaneous component in flora of the dendropark. Cultivated flora includes 766 species, 265 forms and sorts (1031 taxons) belonging to 170 genera of 66 families. Pinophyta is presented by 66 species, 65 forms and sorts (131 taxons), 17 genera, 6 families; Magnoliophyta is presented by 700 species, 200 forms and sorts (900 taxons) relating to 153 genera and 60 families (..., 2003). Among Pinophyta two families dominate in taxonomic respect: Cupressaceae Bartl. ­ 8 genera, 21 species, 51 forms and Pinaceae Lindl. ­ 5 genera, 38 species, 11 forms. The most numerous genera are Juniperus L.­ 10 species, 18 form; Thuja L. ­ 3, 22; Pinus L. ­ 16, 1; Picea Dietr. ­ 8, 6; Chamaecyparis Spach ­ 3, 7; Abies Mill. ­ 7, 1; Larix Mill. ­ 6, 1; Taxus L. ­ 3, 3. Among Magnoliophyta the most taxonomic diverse families are Rosaceae Juss. ­ 35 genera, 215 species, 69 form and sorts; Caprifoliaceae Juss. ­ 6, 58, 13; Oleaceae Hoffmgg. et Link ­ 7, 38, 23; Fabaceae Lindl. ­ 9, 24, 6; Fagaceae Dumort. ­ 3, 21, 10; Salicaceae Mirb. ­ 2, 27, 5; Betulaceae S.F. Gray ­ 2, 18, 2; Berberidaceae Torr. et Gray ­ 2, 16, 4; Celastraceae R. Br. ­ 2, 16, 6; Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth ­ 3, 16, 1, the representatives of such genera dominate: Crataegus L ­ 43 species, 2 form and sorts;. Rosa L. ­ 16, 34; Lonicera L. ­ 36, 4; Acer L. ­ 22, 10; Cotoneaster Medik. ­ 25, 2; Syringa L. ­ 15, 14; Quercus L. ­ 18, 4; Betula L. ­ 17, 1; Populus L. ­ 16, 1; Tilia L. ­ 15, 2; Salix L. ­ 11, 4; Celtis L. ­ 11, 1. A list of alien grass plants numbers 564 species, forms and sorts relating to 194 genera of 62 families: Magnoliopsida ­ 160 genera, 147 families; Liliopsida ­ 34 genera, 15 families.
114
ISSN 1726-1112. . 2011. . 22, 1­2
About 138 aliens have the sozological status (..., 2010): 24 of them is listed in the Red List of IUCN (Walter, Gillette, 1998), 11 ­ in the European Red List (..., 1996), 6 ­ in the List of Bern Convention (..., 1998), 3 ­ in the Lists of CITES (..., 1998), 62 species are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine (2009), 65 species are rare species of Eurasia ( ..., 1983). Spontaneous flora is unique in regional scale and numbers 484 species of vascular plants (, , , 2008). A flora of the core area of the Biosphere Reserve "Askania Nova" is comparable to volume ­ 505 species (, 2007), but a square of the core area exceeds square of the dendropark in more than 66 times. The following families dominate: Asteraceae ­ 83 species (17,1%), Poaceae ­ 50 (10,3%), Fabaceae ­ 31 (6,4%), Brassicaceae ­ 25 (5,2%), Chenopodiaceae ­ 23 (4,8%), Lamiaceae ­ 21 (4,3%), Scrophulariaceae ­ 20 (4,1%), Cariophyllaceae ­ 18 (3,7%), Apiaceae ­ 16 (3,3%), Boraginaceae and Polygonaceae ­ in 15 (3,1%). Thus a spectrum of spontaneous flora of the dendropark is not notable for originality and practically identical with the local floras of the region and also correlates with the same spectrum of flora of the south of Ukraine. About 27 species are included in protected lists: 6 ­ in the Red List of IUCN, 6 ­ in the European Red List, 3 ­ in the List of Bern Convention, 2 ­ CITES, 14 species are listed in the Red Book of Ukraine, 7 species are listed in the Red List of Kherson Region (, , 2002). Fungi diversity is rather great ( ., 2009). About 23 species of 7 genera Erysiphales are founded at the park. Erysiphe s.l., Golovinomyces and Podosphaera s.l. genera predominate (7, 6 and 5 species respectively). The general pests of wood species for Ukraine make up more than a third. However some rare species occur in the Steppe Zone: Erysiphe lonicerae, Podosphaera ferruginea, Phyllactinia fraxini, etc; the last one was not registered on the territories of others protected objects of the Left-bank Ukraine. About 94 species of anamorphous phytotrophic micromycetes of 31 genera are founded. They cause a blotch of leaves with following their yellowing and falling, drying of sprays. The genera of Diplodia (22 species), Camarosporium (9), Phoma (9), Phomopsis (8), Septoria (6), Ascochyta (5), Cytospora (4) are presented most of all. The basidial macromycetes (87 species) are notable for specific diversity: Agaricales ­ 55 species, Polyporales ­ 21, Hymenochaetales ­ 4, Phallales ­ 4, Boletales ­ 2, Russulales ­ 1. Leucopaxillus rhodoleucus and Volvariella gloiocephala are rare, and Agaricus romagnesii is listed in the Red Book. Lichenoflora of the dendropark and the reserve in whole is not studied enough (, , 1997). According to the analytical review of A.Ye. Chodosovtsew (, 1998) 32 species of lichen and lichenophilous fungi occur here. The park's bryoflora includes 46 species (, 1998). The families of Pottiaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Orthotrichaceae, Bryaceae, Amblystegiaceae predominate. Some rare and endangered species grow up here: Tortula intermedia, T. papillosa, Didymodon sinuosus, Pohlia annotina, Bryum bicolor, Amblystegium saxatile, Rhynchostegium murale. S.I. Medvedev carried out the fundamental researches on entomofauna for 25 years. He founded 121 species at the park (, 1950) and drew a conclusion that insect fauna of artificial plantation has very poor specific composition as compared with nearest natural forests in bottomland and on the sandy terrace of Dnieper. Fauna is generally formed due to species widely distributed in this area and immigrants from other more distant places at less measure. The most of insect imported with building materials or planting stock didn't take root here. Further the entomological papers were sporadic. V.N. Khomenko and Ye.H. Vakarenko had studied the specific composition and changes in structure of the reserve's carabidofauna in 1981-1987 and indicated 176 species of carabid beetles for the park (, , 1993); L.A. D'yakonchyk (1998) ­ Coleoptera, V.P. Dumenko (2001) ­ Lepidoptera (the theory of the reserve in whole is considered in these publications without accent on the dendropark). Since the middle of 80-th till 2004 S.V. Kapitonenko investigated phytophages of aliens and both the independent species and non-taxonomic insect groups integrated on type of wood plants damages have been studied. The vertebrate animals of the dendropark are presented by fishes ­ 2 species registered in permanent artificial ponds; amphibian ­ 3 species; reptiles ­ 5 species including steppe snake listed in Red Book of Ukraine; birds ­ 63 species (, 2000) and mammals ­ 13 species.
ISSN 1726-1112. . 2011. . 22, 1­2
115
CONCLUSSIONS Dendrological Park "Askania Nova" is the ecosystem of oasis type including the biocoenosis artificial created and formed spontaneously. The island character of location having the natural barriers lets to keep the unique collection funds including rare and endangered species. A stranger element of the dendropark forced by zonal biodiversity considerably increases the sozological status of the dendropark as a structural compotent of the Biosphere reserve "Askania Nova". REFERENCES . . "-": / . . // : . . . ., . 100- (-, 21­23 1998.). ­ -, 1998. ­ . 7-9. . . . , / . . , . . . [. 2-, . .]. ­ , 2002. ­ 32 . , , (1991) // . / . . . -. ­ . : ., 1996. ­ . 590-595. . . "-" / . . // "-": . ­ 2000. ­ . 58-66. . . "-" / . . , . . , . . // "". ­ 2008. ­ . 10. ­ . 49-73. . . "-" . .. - / . . , . . , . . . // . . 1. [.. , . . , .. .]. ­ : , 2009. ­ . 104-115. . . "-" / . . . ­ .: , 1962. ­ 202 . "-" / . . , . . , . . . ­ -, 2003. ­ 116 . "-" / . . . ­ -, 2010. ­ 37 . (, 1979 ). ­ . : , 1998. ­ 74 . . . - / . . , . . // . ­ 1997. ­ . 3, .. 2. ­ . 24-29. . . - / . . // .-. - . - . .. . ­ 1950. ­ . 14­15. ­ . 67- 88. , . ­ . : , 1983. ­ 302 . , . ­ ., 1998. ­ 181 . . . "-" / . . , . . // , : -. ., . 80- . ­ , 2003. ­ . 71-72. . . - / . . // "". ­ 2001. ­ . 3. ­ . 47-50. . . "-" / . . , . . // "-". ­ 2005. ­ . 7. ­ . 63-69.
116
ISSN 1726-1112. . 2011. . 22, 1­2
. . "-": / . . // : . . . ., . 100- (-, 21­23 1998.). ­ -, 1998. ­ . 9-12. . . (Coleoptera, Carabidae) "-": / . . , . . // . . ­ 1993. ­ 5. ­ . 26-35. . . : / . . // . : . . ., 18­22 . 2007 . : . ­ , 2007. ­ . 115-119. Walter K. S. Gillette H.J. 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants / K. S. Walter, H. J. Gillette. ­ Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN - The World Conservation Union. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 1998. - 862 p. 23.12.10
ISSN 1726-1112. . 2011. . 22, 1­2
117

NA HAVRYLENKO

File: ecosystem-of-dendrological-park-askania-nova-as-part-of-an-object.pdf
Title: StatiaNoospherologia
Author: NA HAVRYLENKO
Author: Nina
Published: Sat Jan 1 05:51:41 2005
Pages: 5
File size: 0.23 Mb


, pages, 0 Mb

Eclipse of the Kai, 159 pages, 0.53 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com