Effects of violence prevention programs on middle and high school violent behaviors

Tags: VIOLENCE PREVENTION PROGRAMS, EFFECTS OF BULLYING, conflict management, violence prevention, students, anti-bullying programs, character education, social skills, school shootings, curriculum, academic performance, prevention, Prevention programs, teachers, Middle and High School, Conflict resolution curriculum, employability skills, Statement of the Problem, Conflict resolution strategies, prevention program, Vocational teachers, conflict skills, classroom management, bullying in schools, emotional learning, Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, conflict management programs
Content: EFFECTS OF VIOLENCE PREVENTION PROGRAMS ON MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL VIOLENT BEHAVIORS KIMBERLEE CARR SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION AT NORTHERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY November 27, 2013
APPROVED BY: DATE:
Derek L. Anderson, Ed.D. November 29, 2013
ABSTRACT Effects of Violence Prevention Programs on Middle and High School Violent Behaviors By Kim Carr Implementing conflict management and social skills training into existing subject areas is one of the many prevention strategies against violence and bullying in schools . Hate crimes, brutal attacks, bullying, and school shootings are examples of violent acts that can result from conflicts among adolescents. Much of the literature reviewed shows how schools implemented conflict management and the resulting student behaviors. Creating a positive and caring climate in schools can be achieved through character education and less punitive measures. Implementing programs into existing programs rather than adding additional programs can help to solve the problem of increasing demands on educators and students. Instructing students in social skills can have important preventative effects. Programs reviewed show that social skills in the classroom can lead to increased Academic Performance. Prevention programs can improve academic performance, self-esteem, social skills, and employability skills.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I: Introduction..................................................................................................................1 Statement of the Problem..............................................................................................................2 Research Question ........................................................................................................................3 Definition of Terms.......................................................................................................................3 Chapter II: Literature Review .......................................................................................................5 Violence Prevention: Conflict Management and Character Education ........................................5 Integrating Conflict Management into existing subject areas.......................................................5 Conflict resolution training integrated into English Literature.........................................5 Statewide conflict management initiative and integration into existing curriculum ........7 Teaching tolerance in a civics course .............................................................................10 Bringing together education standards and social and emotional learning.....................12 Character Education: Implementing school-wide prevention program ..........................13 Olweus Bullying Prevention Program ........................................................................................15 Chapter III: Results and Analysis Relative to the Problem ........................................................17 Chapter IV: Recommendations and Conclusion.........................................................................21 Recommendation ............................................................................................................21 Areas for Further Research .............................................................................................21 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................22 References ...................................................................................................................................23 Appendix .....................................................................................................................................27
LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Common Characteristics: Low Tolerance Levels....................................................... 16
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Chapter I: Introduction Today, many schools are forced to address a number of issues related to violence. Hate crimes, brutal attacks, bullying and school shootings are examples of violent acts that can result from conflicts among adolescents. Common reactions to youth violence include peace education, bullying prevention, character education, and conflict management programs implemented in middle and high schools. In North America and Europe, many schools have implemented peace education curricula (Lintner, 2005). Many of these programs are reactive in nature, but counselors and educators should instead encourage a proactive approach. Effective programs should involve parents, community and staff. Preventative programs should also consider the increasing demands of educators and students including the lack of time and resources. Instructing students in social skills can have important preventative effects. There is compelling evidence that addressing social skills in the classroom can lead to increased academic performance. Prevention programs can improve academic performance, self-esteem, social skills, and employability skills. Recent research and incidents such as the six teenage girls, who attacked Victoria Lindsay and posted the incident on the internet, indicate an unrelenting call for prevention programs. "Fear of being ridiculed, harassed, threatened, and ostracized at school interferes with a student's ability to learn (U.S. Department of Education [DOE], 2002). School safety is an important issue today and often low-level violence such as bullying leads to more serious forms of violence. It is common for chronic, less extreme violence to occur daily on many school campuses. Chronic acts of violence may include verbal threats, cursing, name calling, insults, racial slurs, pushing, grabbing, and fighting. (Bastian & Taylor, 1991; Opotow, 1989).
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Bullying is a problem within schools that can escalate into outcomes that are more violent. Bullying is a type of violence and is the most frequent form of violence found in schools (Boulter, 2004). Bullying can include physical aggression, verbal abuse, non-verbal abuse, social ostracism, and spreading rumors. Although all of these incidents may not initially lead to physical harm to the student, bullying is many times responsible for potential violent outbursts from students who are victimized. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold chose violence after experiencing social isolation from their peers and will forever be remembered in the Columbine Tragedy. They were quoted from actual tapes saying, "Isn't it going to be fun to get the respect we are going to deserve" (Gibbs & Roche, 1999, p. 44). The Columbine tragedy is more complex than just a case of bullying. School violence could be the result of a multitude of issues. After the increasing trend of school shootings in the 1980's and 1990's, the secret service performed an indepth study into causes and conditions of thirty-seven student attacks since 1974. "Seventy-one percent of the attackers felt persecuted, bullied, threatened, attacked, or injured before they turned to violence. Many individual attackers experienced long-standing and severe bullying and harassment. Attackers were also described by their classmates as the kid everyone teased" (Bazelon, 2013, p. 206). Schools have shown some success with bullying prevention measures such as conflict management programs and character education but they are often difficult to implement. Statement of the Problem Program implementation can be difficult in schools due to the lack of money and time. Educators and counselors are limited when testing requirements already pose constraints on successful program implementation. How can schools implement successful programs considering minimal resources, time, and increasing expectations for educators and students?
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The goal of this literature review is to: a) define and describe bullying and violence prevention programs in middle and high schools b) summarize programs successes and obstacles, and c) show resulting adolescent behaviors from the preventative programs. Research Question What are the characteristics of successful middle and high school bullying and violence prevention programs that are integrated into existing middle and high school courses? Definition of Terms Bullying - Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time. Peer Mediation - a program and a process where students of the same age -group facilitate resolving disputes between two people or small groups. Social Emotional Education - the educational process that leads to the development of emotional intelligence - that is, the process by which we become better at understanding and managing our emotions AND learning how they impact the choices we make, the relationships we have and our outlook in life. Role-Playing - A therapeutic technique, designed to reduce conflict in social situations, in which participants act out particular behavioral roles in order to expand their awareness of differing points of view. Conflict Management - Conflict management is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting.
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cooperative learning - a form of active learning where students work together to perform specific tasks in a small group. Pro-social attitudes - behaviors intended to help other people. Behaviors characterized by a concern about the rights, feelings and welfare of other people. Integrative-Negotiation ­ negotiation procedure where both parties find a solution to a problem they both find satisfying. Perspective Reversal Procedure ­ negotiation procedure that includes role reversal, which encourages individuals to look at problems from another perspective. Social Learning Theory - a perspective that states that people learn within a social context. It is facilitated through concepts such as modeling and observational learning.
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Chapter 2: Literature Review Violence Prevention and Anti-Bullying Programs Several different strategies are implemented in schools to help reduce violence and encourage peaceful solutions. These programs encourage communication, negotiation, peace, diversity, and empowerment of young adults. Many of the programs are multi-faceted and include a combination of strategies including conflict management curriculums, peer mediation, promoting diversity and peace, and including parents and community. In this review, I examine the following topics: integrating conflict management into existing subject areas, character education programs, and the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program. I also examine the behaviors and academic achievement of students involved in many of the conflict management programs. Integrating conflict management into existing subjects areas Conflict resolution training integrated into English literature. Integrating conflict resolution strategies in literature is a common application represented in published research of conflict management programS. Literature is often used as a basis for role-playing character conflicts that allows students to practice negotiation procedures. Stevahn, Stevahn, Johnson, and Real (1997) studied 40 students in two ninth-grade English classes in a suburban high school in Ontario, Canada. Two teachers were recruited to teach an identical ninth-grade English course. The two courses were offered during third and fourth period. The experimental groups were students who studied a novel and received training in conflictresolution. The control group strictly studied the novel without the conflict-resolution training. The experimental group utilized negotiation procedures, integrative-negotiation and perspectivereversal procedures. The integrative-negotiation procedure involves both parties finding a
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solution to a problem they both find satisfying. Perspective-reversal procedure includes role reversal, which encourages individuals to look at problems from another perspective. The groups were measured before taking the English course and after the four-week program. Academic achievement was tested by administering a test that included 17 open-ended questions about the novel. Students were also tested on the negotiation procedure as well. The application of the negotiation procedure was tested by presenting scenarios to both groups of students. The role-playing procedures utilized by Stevahn et al. (1997) included a negotiation procedure common to social and emotional education. Six negotiation steps are utilized, which include stating your desires; stating your feelings; stating the reasons underlying your desires and feelings; your understanding of the other person's desires, feelings, and underlying reasons; three optional agreements that maximize the benefits to both sides; and an agreement based on mutual selection of one of the options . Results showed an improvement in the students' academic achievement when integrating conflict resolution training in the English curriculum. Students had an opportunity to explore a novel in more insightful ways because of role-playing and discussion about conflict resolution. Students were also tested on the negotiation procedure as well, and 85% of the students who received training mastered the negotiation process. The conflict resolution strategies were not only relevant to their academic standards but they also apply to everyday life. The results showed mastery and retention of the negotiation procedure for the experimental group and the control group demonstrated little or no improvement. Students in the experimental group also performed significantly higher on their achievement test than the control group. Stevahn et al. (1997) was a
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small study including 40 ninth-grade students, which shows supports for infusion of conflict management programs into existing curriculum. Statewide conflict management initiative and integration into existing curriculum Even though Stevahn's study showed promising results, it represented a small sample of our population. A representative sampling of individuals was considered in a statewide conflict management initiative in Ohio (Tschannen-Moran, 2001). The data came from many different perspectives from 37 schools in Ohio, including document analysis, recorded interview data from students and faculty, and faculty surveys. Data from teacher interviews were collected from 36 teachers including 20 telephone interview and 16 on-site interviews. At the end of funding, 452 teachers completed a survey on the implementation and impact of the programs. The survey also reviewed school climate, collective efficacy, and faculty trust. Conflict resolution curriculum was infused into already existing curriculum. In addition to this conflict management strategy, peer mediation was used in some of the schools. Other schools chose to incorporate special events promoting peace and tolerance within their school. They also publicized conflict resolution strategies and attitudes through school announcements, poster contests, and creating public service announcements for their community and school. Two or more of these approaches were utilized in all of the schools involved in the Grant Project. Schools participating in the program received $3,000 the first year and $1,450 the second. A core team of school leaders were selected and received four hours of training and eight hours of follow-up consultation. The conflict management curriculum utilized was similar to the negotiation procedures utilized in previous research. The integrative negotiation procedure steps included: a) describing what one wants b) describing how one feels c) describing the underlying reasons for one's
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desires and feelings, d) reversing perspectives e) inventing at least three optional agreements that maximize joint outcomes, and f) reaching one integrative agreement and shaking hands. Programs were implemented within the existing curriculum or they could be a standalone course. Curriculum infusion among the schools studied for the 50 schools in the statewide initiative in Ohio included many content areas of study (Tschannen-Moran, 2001). Faculty were surveyed to measure the impact and implementation of the conflict management programs. English teachers connected conflict management into literature and writing. Two thirds of the schools showed the Social Studies curriculum incorporated conflict management lessons into their existing curriculum. Health Family and Consumer science teachers reported the elements of conflict management already existed in their required curriculum. Through cooperative learning, the Physical Education, math, and science teachers reported that they emphasized conflict management skills. Vocational, career, and business courses utilized these skills when dealing with conflicts in work settings. The conflict management lessons were also integrated into suspensions, Saturday School and out-of school suspension time. Of the teachers surveyed for this study, 71% reported that they integrated the skills and concepts from the conflict management curriculum into their classroom lessons (TschannenMoran, 2001). English teachers found integration easier than most subject area teachers to find the connections between conflict resolution to literature and writing in their classes. Conflict management curriculum was included in many classroom activities involving cooperative groups, lab work and class discussions. In science courses, teachers used conflict skills to explore ethical issues, which encourage debate. Vocational teachers found the conflict management skills especially important when looking at conflicts that emerge in the workplace.
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Schools chose a variety of methods to communicate the importance of conflict management in their school. Two-thirds of schools used posters to demonstrate constructive nonviolent conflict management strategies, to promote mediation services in their school, and to remind students of the steps of conflict resolution. Schools also used special events to promote diversity, tolerance and raise awareness of Special Issues involving conflict resolution. Activities like Peace Week, and a Multicultural Fair were held at schools to encourage a positive school climate. School announcements were also used by 43% of schools to promote conflict management efforts and recognize students involved in random acts of kindness. Professional videos were another strategy of communication used by 41% of the schools. Peer mediation was another strategy used by the schools involved in the study and schools reported important considerations when implementing a peer mediation program. Ongoing training and money were challenges reported to sustaining peer mediation programs. Additional obstacles included winning over faculty, peer acceptance, scheduling logistics, parent and community involvement, and empowering students to train others. Tschannen-Moran (2001) conducted a follow-up survey to measure the long-term effects of the program. One year after program funding ended, school survey results showed that more than 80% of teachers agreed that the level of physical fighting had decreased to some degree in their school since the beginning of program. Almost half (47%) of teachers stated that the conflict management program had contributed to a safer school environment to a moderate or a great degree. Results not only showed positive effects involving school safety, but in classroom management. Teachers reported spending less time dealing with student conflict and discipline within their own classrooms. Schools usually struggle to offer programs beyond grant funding
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and the long-term results are encouraging for this program. However, the weakness of this study is that the teachers reported the data and their interest in success of the program could lead to biased results. Teaching tolerance in a civics course Unlike the statewide conflict management program in Ohio, Avery, Sullivan, and Wood (1997) measured student data instead of using teacher surveys. A longitudinal study was conducted in three different schools in Minnesota where ninth-grade students participated in a 4week unit entitled, Tolerance for Diversity of Beliefs, integrated into their civics course. The three schools were comprised of one school which was an inner-city urban high school and the other two schools were junior high schools in a rural area within 40 miles of a major urban area. The urban high school population of 1,848 consisted of 44%students who were not Caucasian; whereas, the rural schools were 99% Caucasian. Participants included 338 students who completed a pretest prior to receiving the curriculum. The pretest and posttest assessed the students' level of tolerance based on their least liked group of individuals. In additional to their responses using the Likert scale, they were asked to include a brief explanation of their responses to each question. Also measured was their level of perceived threat from the least liked group, support for democratic norms, authoritarianism and empathy, as well as many standard demographic variables. Tolerance for Diversity of Beliefs included role-playing, simulations, structured discussions, journalizing and interviews. Active learning strategies promoted understanding of course content while developing conflict resolution techniques. The unit supported students by increasing self-esteem and confidence in expressing their opinions.
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Results showed a significant increase in levels of tolerance. Both high and low achieving students showed positive increases in tolerance. Tolerance increased dramatically (more than one standard deviation) for many students while studying the curriculum. These students were identified as having a high level of self-esteem. These 85 students tended to have a high level of self-esteem and did not exhibit authoritarian characteristics; they were open to new experiences, flexible, and reflective. Without instruction, most students show low to modest levels of Political Tolerance (Avery et al., 1997). Students still chose the same least-liked group but showed greater tolerance for the group. Conflict will always exist in our democratic society, and teaching students to find a way to manage the conflicts and work towards a solution is a necessary life skill. Limitations to all conflict management programs exist because of innate characteristics of individuals, genders differences, violent communities, and family violence (Avery et al., 1997). The program showed increases in levels of tolerance were more prevalent in individuals with common characteristics. These qualities include high self-esteem, low authoritarian characteristics, and open to new experiences, flexible, reflective, and highly empathetic. Figure 1 shows characteristics that are common among students that experienced low levels of tolerance. Twenty of the 107 students did not show improvement in tolerance after the 4-week curriculum, but they also exhibited low self-esteem, low levels of empathy and high levels of authoritarianism. Individuals who are innately intolerant unfortunately pose challenges to conflict management programs. The program did not assess student engagement and academic achievement but stressed the importance of actively engaging students in conflict. The curriculum encouraged students to explore both sides of an argument and learn to respect the opinions of others.
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Bringing together education standards and social and emotional learning Like many of many of the programs mentioned the following study includes a comprehensive approach which may can be difficult and costly to implement but offers ways to improve school climate while reaching academic standards. Kress, Norris, Schoenholz, Elias, and Seigle (2004) reviewed social and emotional learning curriculums and connections to student retention of academic standards. Two comprehensive, research validated prevention programs were assessed including Social Decision Making/Social Problem Solving (SDM/SPS) and the Open Circle Curriculum. An overlap of social and emotional learning, academics, and curriculum standards are important pieces to both programs. Teacher training with a focus on
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this overlap is a yearlong process. Relevancy to both academic content and everyday life is inherent in the programs reviewed, which provide emotional connections to content. Emotional connections are linked to improved attention and learning. SDM/SPS and the Open Circle Curriculum support both academic and social/emotional goals of educators (Kress et al., 2004). Conflict management programs are social and emotional learning programs, which not only show evidence of improving middle and high school behaviors but also show an increase in academic achievement. Participants in such programs are given a set of social skills they will utilize in their future careers and relationships. Kress et al. support social and emotional learning programs like conflict resolution and peer mediation programs. "Social and Emotional learning facilitates the achievement of state standards by strengthening students' preparedness for learning and promoting the development of pro-social attitudes" (Kress et al., p. 72). Competencies most important to society as adolescents mature are skills associated with social and emotional learning. Higher-level thinking/problem solving, interpersonal communication, decision making, communicating effectively and self-management are the most frequently mentioned social and emotional competencies (Kress et al., 2004). All of these skills are important in conflict resolution curriculums. Schools that provide a safe learning environment allow adolescents to focus on learning. Character Education: Implementing school-wide prevention program Most of the programs reviewed continue to show the importance of providing a comprehensive school program. Schools involved in a study by Holtzapple et al. (2011) implemented strategies addressed by the Capturing Kids' Hearts-Campus by Design model. Students received social skills training to encourage active engagement in school. Teachers received training to encourage effective classroom management. Professional development for
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teachers and administrators included ways to meet the emotional needs of their students. The program provided teachers and administrators the tools to create trusting and caring relationship to improve school climate. The program was designed to create a culture where students and adults model leadership qualities, show respect for others, share and celebrate successes, demonstrate caring concern for others, communicate effectively, listen attentively to others, have a sense of justice and fairness, help others, resolve conflicts, and work together as a team. The sample which included 8,350 students in grades 7-12 and 469 teachers from 6 high schools in New York and California. Schools were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The intervention group demographic included 4% of students who were African American, 33% Hispanic, and 57% Caucasian. In the control group, 5% of students were African American, 26% were Hispanic and 65% were Caucasian. In the overall group 30% of the students were eligible for free or reduced lunch. The experimental group used the intervention program, Capturing Kids' Hearts Campus by Design. Schools randomly assigned to the treatment condition received all of the programs and processes in the school-wide model, Capturing Kids' Hearts Campus by Design. Training involves social skills instruction (SSI) that improves student behavior. The socials skills training includes a 3-day teacher and administrator training that provides staff with the skills necessary to teach and model relational skills, communicative competencies, problem-solving skills, citizenship, and consequential thinking. Teacher and administrators within the experimental schools are also provided additional training so that they can serve as mentors to their colleagues. The following items were utilized in data collection: pre and post surveys, direct observations and school records. A 19-item survey was created and measured specific teacher behaviors that encourage a positive classroom/school climate. In addition to measuring teacher
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behaviors, 40 random classrooms were selected for observation and evaluated teacher and principal implementation. The 40 randomly observed classrooms were selected using a webbased randomizer; 5 teachers per school. Classroom observations of students that assessed their pro-social behaviors were also measured. Surveys and observations were conducted before implementation of the program, at the middle of the school year, and at the end (Holtzapple et al., 2011). The number of teachers who successfully implemented the program showed a direct relationship to improved pro-social behaviors for students. Successful implementation was measured by observation and survey results. Schools that successfully implemented the program also showed a reduction in discipline referrals. There were a number of teachers who did not implement all of the skills. Lack of administrative support, increasing educator demands and curriculum requirements were considered potential problems to implementing this preventative program within schools. Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Dr. Dan Olweus started research on bullying in Sweden in the early 1970's. Olweus came up with a definition for bullying that remains the standard among academics and educators (Bazelon, 2013). The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) was designed to provide support at three interrelated levels. The first level included clear rules against bullying throughout the school and improved supervision during unsupervised times. The second level involved classroom level intervention with regular teacher-led meetings with students. The third level includes procedures for handling individual bullies and follow-up for the perpetrators, targets and parents.
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Student involvement can be important to prevention programs, but Olweus (1999) stressed the importance of adult involvement in bullying prevention programs. Peer mediation in bullying conflicts may inappropriately imply that both parties are equal. In a bullying situation usually one individual is victimized or bullied and has not provoked bullying or violence. If peers are left to mediate the situation without adult supervision, administrators/teachers may assume that the situation was handled appropriately. Preventative measures of the OBPP include academic tutoring, mentoring at-risk youth, conflict resolution training, work experience and parent effectiveness training. Similarities exist among the programs reviewed and included negotiation procedures, role-playing, infusing conflict management strategies within existing curriculum, and peer mediation. All of the programs provide strategies that will help create an environment that facilitates student growth and academic achievement. Integrating these strategies into existing curricula can save time, but training is necessary. Many schools already provide students with social skills necessary to be actively engaged in school, use effective classroom management methods, and promote a positive learning environment. The comprehensive programs reviewed provide professional development for teachers and staff to enable them to meet the emotional needs of adolescents.
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Chapter III: Results and Analysis Relative to the Problem Conflict management programs and social and emotional learning provide improvements in student behavior and they also promote life-long learning, problem solving, and thoughtful citizens (Kress et al., 2004). When implementing new preventative programs, educators should consider teacher support and student involvement. The first thing to consider is how to support educators who have numerous responsibilities. Infusion of the conflict management curricula into already existing programs was a reoccurring theme in most of the programs reviewed. State standards can be met and be taught authentically when incorporating real life negotiation skills into existing programs. Literature is often used as basis for role-playing negotiation procedures (Stevahn et al., 1997). Role-playing allows students to make emotional connections to the content matter, which improves attention and learning (Kress et al., 2004). Student involvement in conflict management programs is more than just actively engaging students in classroom activities. Involvement also includes peer mediation and student promotion of tolerance and peace programs. If students are supporting the change they are more likely to be receptive to changes made during implementation of conflict management programs. Improving Academic Achievement Students involved in peer mediation and role-playing negotiation procedures have the opportunity to practice conflict management. Problem solving, decision making, communicating effectively, and self-management are skills necessary to succeed in the real world. Negotiation procedures developed in Student for Peace encourage conflict management strategies utilized in daily life and the experimental group showed great retention rates and high academic
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achievement. Students retained many of the steps of negotiation when tested 7 months later. Retention of academic content in the experimental group far exceeded the control group Life skills important to future employers were improved as well as the academic standards (Stevahn et al., 1997). Many educators are challenged with how they can make their content relevant and including conflict management programs into existing curriculum provides emotional connections for improved Student learning. Empowering Students Students from the Tolerance for Diversity of Beliefs programs reflected on their learning in the following statements. "We've learned that tolerance is important but also to express our ideas. And have courage to speak in what we believe in. We've learned that we should let others think and say what they feel but that it's also OK to disagree with them" (Avery et al., 1997, p. 32). Regardless of the challenges, peaceful resolutions of conflict should be practiced in education to better prepare our youth for challenges in their future professional and personal relationships. Encouraging young adults to initiate change by voicing different opinions and helping them develop confidence to challenge current systems in an effective manner will help our society to advance. Looking at the resulting behaviors and comments from students exposed to conflict management curricula, students appear to feel more comfortable expressing their opinions regardless of criticisms. Students who once felt threatened or isolated experience confidence and acceptance when their opinions are validated through the negotiation process (Avery et al., 1997). Conflict management programs help students develop empathy for others by listening and considering opposing perspectives (Stevahn et al., 1997). Acceptance of individuals who
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experience social ostracism and bullying provide hope for a reduction of violent behaviors among adolescents. Support for anti-bullying and non-violent behaviors through conflict management programs provides hope for peaceful and tolerant attitudes among adolescents. Proactive and comprehensive conflict management programs could prevent violent acts like Columbine and give our youth the tools to exist in a world where bullying is prevalent.
Challenges to Implementing Preventative Programs into Existing Curricula Implementing new programs within a school present a number of challenges, and looking at previous research can make us more aware of the potential pitfalls that can occur. Administrator support, parent support, teacher training, resources, curriculum integration, and student involvement are all important considerations. Youth exposed to violence within their family and communities are more likely to respond in violent ways when faced with conflict (Corvo, 1997). Adolescents who experience community and family violence demonstrate a high incidence of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Symptoms generally include anger, anxiety, depression, and dissociation (Corvo, 1997). Successful conflict management programs often have support of the community and parental involvement. Success of prevention programs can be increasingly difficult in a community where violence is prevalent and little or no parental involvement exists. Violent communities may pose a difficult challenge, but they need conflict management strategies more than anyone. Respecting community and family dynamics and researching success in similar situations could improve violence prevention goals. Violence prevention goals in schools also face challenges because of peer relationships and decision-making.
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Peer relationships are extremely important for adolescents and peer pressure has a strong influence on the decision making process of young adults. Meyer et al. (1998) presented information regarding youth decision-making skills and challenges, which exist in conflict resolution education. Due to the lack of life experiences, adolescents struggle with coping mechanisms in their peer relationships (Meyer et al., 1998). According to Meyer and Farrell (1998), situational factors can create a barrier to a successful conflict management program. Situational factors might include the availability of weapons, drugs, and alcohol. Community support is crucial to a program's success, which may require a community based violence prevention program. Stereotypes about gender and ethnicity could also deter a conflict management program. Males and females possess innate differences, which could encourage them to respond to conflict in different ways. Males are more likely to be involved in physical aggression. A direct relationship exists between innately intolerant individuals and the lack of success (Avery et al., 1997). Peer pressure and adolescent decision-making skills are also a hindrance to successful conflict resolution programs. Decisions are strongly influenced by peers and the lack of life experience may get in the way of violence prevention strategies. Some educators find it difficult to bring conflict into their classroom discussions because students may get out of control (Avery et al., 1997). Consistent and effective teacher training can help to alleviate fears.
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Chapter IV: Recommendations and Conclusion Implementing preventative programs should start with the required time and resources necessary for educators, administrators and staff within a school district. I have designed a professional development day for teachers. I would like to provide them with the resources and time to integrate conflict management and other bullying prevention lessons into their existing curriculum. Incorporating themes of conflict can invigorate subject areas across the curriculum. Student comprehension and retention of material was enhanced when students applied conflict concepts and skills in their academic subjects (Johnson et al., 2002). The professional development day will consist of an introduction to conflict management/ bullying prevention lessons and the benefits of incorporating such programs. It will also allow them the time to plan lessons that can reach state content standards as well as provide engaging content. The attached PowerPoint and handouts are available in the Appendix. Areas for Further Research It is necessary to find additional research where schools don't base their results entirely on teacher and faculty responses. Some of the research identified in this literature review looked at multiple sources for program success such as improved student achievement, discipline referrals, student surveys, and observation. I believe it is important to find more examples where student perceptions are considered and they use student surveys to identify the student's feelings on safety within their school. Student's perceptions of safety within their schools should be measured frequently to identify needs. Possible areas of concern are identifying the times and places where students feel unsafe so that schools can specifically address their weaknesses. Smaller learning communities have been established in numerous schools to address school climate and safety. Looking at the success of these programs in creating a safe school
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climate and the amount of resources necessary to make programs successful could provide additional insight in providing violence prevention in schools. Program implementation is of particular concern to educators with limited time and resources available. Integration of conflict management is only one way to address this problem but educators still need the time to coordinate activities and lesson plans to address their standards in addition to conflict management. Conclusion Conflict management training and social and emotional learning can provide students with the tools to survive both at work and on a personal level. Teachers can include many of the lessons into existing curriculum if they are given the time to plan. Providing our students a safe learning environment is necessary for meaningful learning to occur and it should be important to educators to find ways to incorporate these needed life skills into their subject areas.
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REFERENCES Avery, P., Sullivan, J., & Wood, S. (1997). Teaching for tolerance of diverse beliefs. Theory into Practice, 36, 32-38. doi:10.1080/00405849709543742 Bastian, L. D., & Taylor, B. M. (1991). School Crime: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report. Bazelon, E. (2013). Sticks and stones: Defeating the culture of bullying and rediscovering the power of character and empathy. Random House Digital, Inc. Bennett-Johnson, E. (2004). The root of school violence: Causes and recommendations for a plan of action. College Student Journal, 38, 199-202. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/236561564?accountid=2745 Boulter, L. (2004). Family-school connection and school violence prevention. The Negro Educational Review, 55, 27-40. Retrieved from http://www.oma.osu.edu/vice_provost/ner/index.html Breunlin, D., Cimmarusti, R., Bryant-Edwards, T., & Heterington, J. (2002). Conflict resolution training as an alternative to suspension for violent behavior. The Journal of Educational Research, 95, 349-357. doi:10.1080/00220670209596609 Casella, R. (2000). The benefits of peer mediation in the context of urban conflict and program status. Urban Education, 35, 324-355. doi: 10.1177/0042085900353004 Colvin, G., Tobin, T., Beard, K., Hagan, S., & Sprague, J. (1998). The school bully: Assessing the problem, developing interventions, and future research directions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 8(3), 293-319. Corvo, K. (1997). Community-based youth violence prevention: A framework for planners and funders. Youth & Society, 28, 291, 316. doi:10.1177/0044118X97028003002
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Haynie, D., Alexander, C., & Walters, S. (1997). Considering a decision-making approach to youth violence prevention programs. Journal of School Health, 67, 165-170. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.1997.tb07161.x Heller, C., & Hawkins, J. A. (1994) Teaching tolerance: notes from the front line. Teachers College Record, 95, 337-368. Hernandez, T. (2004). A safe school climate: a systemic approach and the school counselor. Professional School Counseling, 7, 256-262. Retrieved from Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213309199?accountid=2745 Holtzapple, C. K., Griswold, J. S., Cirillo, K., Rosebrock, J., Nouza, N., & Berry, C. (2011). Implementation of a school-wide adolescent character education and prevention program: Evaluating the relationships between principal support, faculty implementation, and student outcomes. Journal of Research in Character Education, 9(1), 71-90. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1014264691?accountid=2745 Johnson, D. W. (2005). This issue. Theory Into Practice, 44, 275-279. doi:10.1207/s15430421tip4404_1 Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Stevahn, L. (2002). Effects of conflict resolution training integrated into a high school social studies curriculum. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 305-331. doi:10.1080/00224540209603902 Johnson, D. W. (2005). Essential components of peace education. Theory Into Practice, 44, 280292. doi:10.1207/s15430421tip4404_2 Kress, J., Norris, J., Schoenholz, D., Elias, M., & Seigle, P. (2004). Bringing together education standards and social and emotional learning: Making the case for educators. American Journal of Education, 111, 68-87. doi:10.1086/424720
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Lintner, T. (2005). A world of difference: teaching tolerance though photographs in elementary school. The Social Studies, 96, 34-37. doi:10.3200/TSSS.96.1.34-37 Meyer, A. L., & Farrell, A. D. (1998). Social skills training to promote resilience in urban sixthgrade students. Education & Treatment of Children, 21(4), 461. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/202663028?accountid=2745 Olweus, D., Limber, S., & Mihalic, S. F. (1999). Blueprints for violence prevention, book nine: Bullying prevention program. Boulder, CO: Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. Opotow, S. (1989). The Risk of Violence: Peer Conflicts in the Lives of Adolescents. Prutzman, P. (1994). Bias ­related incidents, hate crimes, and conflict resolution. Education and Urban Society, 27, 71-81. doi:10.1177/0013124594027001008 Shaw, M. What's hate got to do with it? Using film to address hate crimes in the school community. The English Journal, 87(2), 44-50. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/821550?origin=JSTOR-pdf Smith, D., & Sandhu, D. (2004). Toward a positive perspective on violence prevention in schools: building connections. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 287-293. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00312.x Stancato, F. (2003). The Columbine tragedy: adolescent identity and future recommendations. The Clearing House, 77, 19-22. doi:10.1080/00098650309601223 Stevahn, L., Johnson, D., Johnson, R., Green, K., & Laginski, A. (1997). Effects on high school students of conflict resolution training integrated into English literature. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137, 302-315. doi:10.1080/00224549709595442
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Stevahn, L., Johnson, D., Johnson, R. & Real, D. (1996). The impact of a cooperative or individualistic context on the effectiveness of conflict resolution training. American Educational Research Journal, 33, 801-823. doi:10.3102/00028312033004801 Stoltz, J. (2005). Masculinity and school violence: addressing the role of male gender socialization. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 39, 52-63. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/195808958?accountid=2745 Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). The effects of a state-wide conflict management initiative in schools. American Secondary Education, 29(3), 2-32. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41064429 United States Department of Education. (2002). Retrieved December 8, 2008 from http://www.ed.gov/index.htmlU.S. Government Printing Office, 2002. Watts, I., & Erevelles, N. (2004). These deadly times: reconceptualizing school violence by using critical race theory and disability studies. American Educational Research Journal, 41, 271-299. doi:10.3102/00028312041002271 Woody, D. (2001). A comprehensive school-based conflict-resolution model. Children & Schools, 23(2), 115. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/210936017?accountid=2745
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Appendix
Slide 1
Prevention: Violence and Bullying in Schools Integrating Conflict Management Skills into Existing Subject Areas
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Slide 2
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT DAY
8:30-10:00 · Why do we need violence prevention and anti-bullying in schools? · The benefits of integrating conflict management and social skills into existing curriculum · Examples of integration
10:15-11:30
· Time for lesson development
11:30-12:45
Lunch
12:45-1:30 · Time for lesson development
1:30-2:30
· Including CCSS
2:45 ­ 3:30
· Sharing lessons with group
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Slide 3
Why do we need violence prevention or anti-bullying programs in schools? Nearly 30 percent of students have reported being involved in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim (Cook, Williams, Guerra, & Kim, 2010) Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to skip and/or drop out of school. (Berthold & Hoover, 2000) 84.6% of LGBT students reported being verbally harassed, 40.1% reported being physically harassed and 18.8% reported being physically assaulted at school in the past year because of their sexual orientation (GLSEN, 2009) "Fear of being ridiculed, harassed, threatened, and ostracized at school interferes with a student's ability to learn (U.S. Department of Education [DOE], 2002) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __
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Slide 4
Why do we need violence prevention or anti-bullying programs in schools? Bullying can include physical aggression, verbal abuse, non-verbal abuse, social ostracism, and spreading rumors. Although all of these incidents may not initially lead to physical harm to the student, bullying is many times responsible for potential violent outbursts from students who are victimized.
Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold chose violence after experiencing social isolation from their peers and will forever be remembered in the Columbine Tragedy.
http://press.emerson.edu/artsemerson/2013/09/21/t he-aftermath-of-columbine/
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Slide 5
Why do we need violence prevention or anti-bullying programs in schools? Victims of bullying are: · 4.6 times as likely as their peers to develop agoraphobia · 2.7 times as likely as their peers to develop generalized anxiety · 3.1 times as likely as their peers to develop panic disorder Individuals who both bully and are bullied are: · 4.8 times as likely as their peers to develop clinical depression Copeland, Wolke, Angold, & Costello (2013)
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Slide 6
Why do we need violence prevention or anti-bullying programs in schools? The Bully Project
Rachel Ehmke, 13, a 7th grader at KassonMaIntoJravniluleamryid2d0l1e0s,cPhhoole, bweasPrlainidceto, are1s5t -dyuerainrg-old fungeiral linseMrvaicsessacFhriudsaey,ttMs,akyil4le, d20h1e2r,sienlfKafstseorn, Msbuuiinsflclrynuiodi.rnm,evgiinlvcCoaasislfshlnaatdoteergsuwlrbsetmJheobmxoeeypeoasrkeininteenretinpgMehsMdhnsti,anacaWortnuesefedhnaspbselatoakeourcrtedttlhaheslryu.-ticdHghiEhslnyhaooehgtobotmsthaelvsc.knece,headrkow,uciohalsaollnaeesm. rdo1gam1fhsai-itsyinytmemteaedsatenerns-lfet school ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __
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Slide 7
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Slide 8
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Slide 9
ARE WE PREPARED TO STAND UP AGAINST BULLYING?
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Slide 10
WHAT DO WE NEED? · PREVENTION that is efficient, and "fits" with existing behavior support efforts and curriculum · PREVENTION, not just remediation · PREVENTION with the systems that make the program sustainable
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Slide 11
ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE BULLY PREVENTION Five Student Skills · School-wide behavioral expectations (respect others) · Stop routine when faced with disrespectful behavior · Bystander stop routine when observing disrespectful behavior · Stopping routine if someone tells you to "stop" · A recruit help routine to recruit adult help if you feel unsafe. For Faculty/Staff · Agreement on logic for bully prevention effort. · Strategy for teaching students core skills · Strategy for follow-up and consistency in responding · Clear data collection and data use process · Advanced support options Netzel, D. M., & Eber, L. (2003).
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Slide 12
BENEFITS: INTEGRATING CONFLICT MANAGEMENT INTO EXISTING CURRICULUM Literature is often used as a basis for role-playing character conflicts that allows students to practice negotiation procedures. Stevahn, Stevahn, Johnson, and Real 's (1997) study : · 40 students - small study · 2 ninth-grade English classes · Suburban high school in Ontario, Canada · 2 teachers were recruited to teach an identical ninth-grade English course · Experimental group were students who studied a novel and received training in conflict- resolution · Control group strictly studied the novel without the conflict-resolution training
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Slide 13
BENEFITS: INTEGRATING CONFLICT MANAGEMENT INTO EXISTING CURRICULUM Results of Stevahn, Stevahn, Johnson, and Real 's (1997) study : · Improvement in the students' academic achievement · Students had an opportunity to explore a novel in more insightful ways because of role-playing and discussion about conflict resolution · 85% of the students who received training mastered the negotiation process · Conflict resolution strategies were not only relevant to their academic standards but they also apply to everyday life · Control group demonstrated little or no improvement. · Students in the experimental group also performed significantly higher on their achievement test than the control group
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Slide 14
BENEFITS: INTEGRATING CONFLICT MANAGEMENT INTO EXISTING CURRICULUM A representative sampling of individuals was considered in a statewide conflict management initiative in Ohio (Tschannen-Moran, 2001) · 37 schools in Ohio · Interview data from students and faculty · Faculty surveys · 452 teachers completed a survey on the implementation and impact of the programs · Survey reviewed school climate, collective efficacy and faculty trust · Conflict resolution curriculum was infused into already existing curriculum · Peer mediation was used in some of the schools · Special events promoting peace and tolerance within their school · Publicized conflict resolution strategies and attitudes through school announcements, poster contests and creating public service announcements for their community and school · Two or more of these approaches above were utilized in all of the schools involved in the grant project. · Schools participating in the program received $3,000 the first year and $1,450 the second. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __
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Slide 15
BENEFITS: INTEGRATING CONFLICT MANAGEMENT INTO EXISTING CURRICULUM Tschannen-Moran, 2001 Results: · One year after program funding ended, school survey results showed that more than 80% of teachers agreed that the level of physical fighting had decreased to some degree in their school since the beginning of program. · Almost half (47%) of teachers stated that the conflict management program had contributed to a safer school environment to a moderate or a great degree. · Teachers reported spending less time dealing with student conflict and discipline within their own classrooms. · Weakness of this study is that the teachers reported the data and their interest in success of the program could lead to biased results
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Slide 16
LESSON PLANNING TIME: RESOURCES FOR TEACHERS · http://arkwand.com/?page_id=176 · http://rwtverio.ncte.org/lessons/lesson_view_printer_friendlyce72.html?id=802 · http://www.pbs.org/inthemix/educators/lessons/schoolviol3/ · http://charactercounts.org/lesson-plans/ · http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/00-2/lp2202.shtml · http://worldroom.tamu.edu/Workshops/CommOfRespect07/TeachingForTolerance/Conflict %20Management%20Activity%20Sheet.pdf · http://www.niot.org/nios
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Slide 17
Common Core State Standards http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards Include the standards you are reaching in your lesson plan Share lesson plans via google drive
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Slide 18
SHARE LESSONS WITH OTHERS
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Slide 19
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Slide 20
REFERENCES Berthold, K. A., & Hoover, J. H. (2000). Correlates of bullying and victimization among intermediate students in the Midwestern USA. School Psychology International, 21(1), 65-78. Cook, C. R., Williams, K. R., Guerra, N. G., Kim, T. E., & Sadek, S. (2010). Predictors of bullying and victimization in childhood and adolescence: A meta-analytic investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 25(2), 65. Copeland, W. E., Wolke, D., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2013). Adult Psychiatric Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and AdolescencePsychiatric Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied. JAMA psychiatry, 70(4), 419-426. Gay, L. Straight Education Network (GLSEN).(2009). Harsh realities: The experiences of transgender youth in our nation's school. Netzel, D. M., & Eber, L. (2003). Shifting From Reactive to Proactive Discipline in an Urban School District A Change of Focus Through PBIS Implementation. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 71-79. Stevahn, L., Johnson, D., Johnson, R. & Real, D. (1996). The impact of a cooperative or individualistic context on the effectiveness of conflict resolution training. American Educational Research Journal, 33, 801-823. doi:10.3102/00028312033004801 Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). The effects of a state-wide conflict management initiative in schools. American Secondary Education, 29(3), 2-32. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41064429 United States Department of Education. (2002). Retrieved December 8, 2008 from http://www.ed.gov/index.htmlU.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.
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