Electromagnetic band gap structures in antenna engineering, F Yang, Y Rahmat

Tags: Cambridge University Press, Fan Yang, Yahya Rahmat-Samii, Antenna Engineering, EBG, Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures, surface wave, Electromagnetic Band Gap, Radio Frequency IDentification, Surface Wave Antenna, Circular Polarization, wire antennas, Global Positioning System, Finite Element Method, surface waves, Artificial Neural Network, ElectroMagnetic Interference, Absorbing Boundary Condition, Finite Difference Time Domain, Electromagnetic Theory, University Press, Dominique Schreurs, Dr. Yang, Electrical Engineering Department, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, antenna applications, Yanghyo Kim, ground plane, University of Mississippi, F. Yang
Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering This comprehensive, applications-oriented survey of the state of the art in Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) engineering explains the theory, analysis, and design of EBG structures. It helps you to understand EBG applications in antenna engineering through an abundance of novel antenna concepts, a wealth of practical examples, and complete design details. You discover a customized finite difference time domain (FDTD) method of EBG analysis, for which accurate and efficient electromagnetic software is supplied (www.cambridge.org/yang) to provide a powerful computational engine for your EBG desgins. The first book covering EBG structures and their antenna applications, this provides a dynamic resource for engineers, and researchers and graduate students working in antennas, electromagnetics and microwaves. Fan Yang is Assistant Professor of the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Mississippi. Dr. Yang received Young Scientist Awards in the 2005 General Assembly of International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and in the 2007 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory. Yahya Rahmat-Samii is a Distinguished Professor, holder of the Northrop-Grumman Chair in Electromagnetics, and past Chairman of the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He has received numerous recognitions and awards including IEEE Fellow in 1985, IEEE Third Millennium Medal, the 2005 URSI Booker Gold Medal, the 2007 Chen-To Tai Distinguished Educator Award of the IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, and membership of the US National Academy of Engineering.
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information The Cambridge RF and Microwave Engineering Series Series Editor, Steve C. Cripps, Hywave Associates Peter Aaen, Jaime A. Plaґ, and John Wood, Modeling and Characterization of RF and Microwave Power FETs Enrico Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators Dominique Schreurs, Maґirtґin O'Droma, Anthony A. Goacher, and Michael Gadringer, RF Amplifier Behavioral Modeling Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii, Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Forthcoming Sorin Voinigescu and Timothy Dickson, High-Frequency Integrated Circuits Debabani Choudhury, Millimeter Waves for Commercial Applications J. Stephenson Kenney, RF Power Amplifier Design and Linearization David B. Leeson, Microwave Systems and Engineering Stepan Lucyszyn, Advanced RF MEMS Earl McCune, Practical Digital Wireless Communications Signals Allen Podell and Sudipto Chakraborty, Practical Radio Design Techniques Patrick Roblin, Nonlinear RF Circuits and the Large-Signal Network Analyzer Dominique Schreurs, Microwave Techniques for Microelectronics John L. B. Walker, Handbook of RF and Microwave Solid-State Power Amplifiers
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering FAN YANG University of Mississippi YAHYA RAHMAT-SAMII University of California at Los Angeles
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sa~o Paulo, Delhi Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521889919 C Cambridge University Press 2009 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2009 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication data Yang, Fan, 1975­ Electromagnetic band gap structures in antenna engineering / Fan Yang, Yahya Rahmat-Samii. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-521-88991-9 (hbk. : alk. paper) 1. Antennas (Electronics) ­ Design and construction. 2. Wide gap semiconductors. I. Rahmat-Samii, Yahya. II. Title. TK7871.6.Y35 2008 621.382 4­dc22 2008031949 ISBN 978-0-521-88991-9 hardback
Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. © Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information Contents
Preface Acknowledgements Abbreviations
page ix xi xii
1
Introduction
1
1.1 Background
1
1.2 Electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures
2
1.2.1 EBG definition
2
1.2.2 EBG and metamaterials
4
1.3 Analysis methods for EBG structures
6
1.4 EBG applications in antenna engineering
8
1.4.1 Antenna substrates for surface wave suppressions
8
1.4.2 Antenna substrates for efficient low profile wire antenna designs
9
1.4.3 Reflection/transmission surfaces for high gain antennas
10
2
FDTD method for periodic structure analysis
14
2.1 FDTD fundamentals
14
2.1.1 Introduction
14
2.1.2 Yee's cell and updating scheme
15
2.1.3 Absorbing boundary conditions: PML
18
2.1.4 FDTD excitation
22
2.1.5 Extraction of characteristic parameters
23
2.2 Periodic boundary conditions
24
2.2.1 Fundamental challenges in PBC
24
2.2.2 Overview of various PBCs
25
2.2.3 Constant kx method for scattering analysis
26
2.3 Guided wave analysis
30
2.3.1 Problem statement
30
2.3.2 Brillouin zone for periodic waveguides
31
2.3.3 Examples
33
2.4 Plane wave scattering analysis
37
2.4.1 Problem statement
38
2.4.2 Plane wave excitation
39
2.4.3 Examples
41
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information
vi
Contents
2.5 A unified approach: hybrid FDTD/ARMA method
45
2.5.1 A unified approach for guided wave and scattering analysis
45
2.5.2 ARMA estimator
49
2.5.3 Examples
51
2.6 Projects
54
3
EBG characterizations and classifications
59
3.1 Resonant circuit models for EBG structures
59
3.1.1 Effective medium model with lumped LC elements
59
3.1.2 Transmission line model for surface waves
61
3.1.3 Transmission line model for plane waves
62
3.2 Graphic representation of frequency band gap
63
3.2.1 FDTD model
63
3.2.2 Near field distributions inside and outside the frequency band
gap
65
3.3 Frequency band gap for surface wave propagation
67
3.3.1 Dispersion diagram
67
3.3.2 Surface wave band gap
68
3.4 In-phase reflection for plane wave incidence
69
3.4.1 Reflection phase
69
3.4.2 EBG reflection phase: normal incidence
70
3.4.3 EBG reflection phase: oblique incidence
71
3.5 Soft and hard surfaces
74
3.5.1 Impedance and reflection coefficient of a periodic ground plane
75
3.5.2 Soft and hard operations
77
3.5.3 Examples
80
3.6 Classifications of various EBG structures
84
3.7 Project
85
4
Designs and optimizations of EBG structures
87
4.1 Parametric study of a mushroom-like EBG structure
87
4.1.1 Patch width effect
87
4.1.2 Gap width effect
89
4.1.3 Substrate thickness effect
89
4.1.4 Substrate permittivity effect
90
4.2 Comparison of mushroom and uni-planar EBG designs
91
4.3 Polarization-dependent EBG surface designs
95
4.3.1 Rectangular patch EBG surface
95
4.3.2 Slot loaded EBG surface
97
4.3.3 EBG surface with offset vias
97
4.3.4 An example application: PDEBG reflector
99
4.4 Compact spiral EBG designs
103
4.4.1 Single spiral design
103
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information
Contents
vii
4.4.2 Double spiral design
105
4.4.3 Four-arm spiral design
105
4.5 Dual layer EBG designs
107
4.6 Particle swarm optimization (PSO) of EBG structures
112
4.6.1 Particle swarm optimization: a framework
112
4.6.2 Optimization for a desired frequency with a +90 reflection
phase
113
4.6.3 Optimization for a miniaturized EBG structure
117
4.6.4 General steps of EBG optimization problems using PSO
118
4.7 Advanced EBG surface designs
120
4.7.1 Space filling curve EBG designs
120
4.7.2 Multi-band EBG surface designs
120
4.7.3 Tunable EBG surface designs
120
4.8 Projects
124
5
Patch antennas with EBG structures
127
5.1 Patch antennas on high permittivity substrate
127
5.2 Gain enhancement of a single patch antenna
130
5.2.1 Patch antenna surrounded by EBG structures
130
5.2.2 Circularly polarized patch antenna design
132
5.2.3 Various EBG patch antenna designs
136
5.3 Mutual coupling reduction of a patch array
138
5.3.1 Mutual coupling between patch antennas on high dielectric
constant substrate
139
5.3.2 Mutual coupling reduction by the EBG structure
142
5.3.3 More design examples
147
5.4 EBG patch antenna applications
149
5.4.1 EBG patch antenna for high precision GPS applications
149
5.4.2 EBG patch antenna for wearable electronics
149
5.4.3 EBG patch antennas in phased arrays for scan blindness
elimination
151
5.5 Projects
153
6
Low profile wire antennas on EBG ground plane
156
6.1 Dipole antenna on EBG ground plane
156
6.1.1 Comparison of PEC, PMC, and EBG ground planes
156
6.1.2 Operational bandwidth selection
158
6.1.3 Parametric studies
161
6.2 Low profile antennas: wire-EBG antenna vs. patch antenna
164
6.2.1 Two types of low profile antennas
164
6.2.2 Performance comparison between wire-EBG and patch
antennas
166
6.2.3 A dual band wire-EBG antenna design
169
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information
viii
Contents
6.3 Circularly polarized curl antenna on EBG ground plane
171
6.3.1 Performance of curl antennas over PEC and EBG ground planes
172
6.3.2 Parametric studies of curl antennas over the EBG surface
175
6.3.3 Experimental demonstration
178
6.4 Dipole antenna on a PDEBG ground plane for circular polarization
180
6.4.1 Radiation mechanism of CP dipole antenna
181
6.4.2 Experimental results
182
6.5 Reconfigurable bent monopole with radiation pattern diversity
185
6.5.1 Bent monopole antenna on EBG ground plane
186
6.5.2 Reconfigurable design for one-dimensional beam switch
188
6.5.3 Reconfigurable design for two-dimensional beam switch
191
6.6 Printed dipole antenna with a semi-EBG ground plane
191
6.6.1 Dipole antenna near the edge of a PEC ground plane
193
6.6.2 Enhanced performance of dipole antenna near the edge of an
EBG ground plane
194
6.6.3 Printed dipole antenna with a semi-EBG ground plane
195
6.7 Summary
200
6.8 Projects
200
7
Surface wave antennas
203
7.1 A grounded slab loaded with periodic patches
203
7.1.1 Comparison of two artificial ground planes
203
7.1.2 Surface waves in the grounded slab with periodic patch loading
206
7.2 Dipole-fed surface wave antennas
209
7.2.1 Performance of a low profile dipole on a patch-loaded grounded
slab
209
7.2.2 Radiation mechanism: the surface wave antenna
212
7.2.3 Effect of the finite artificial ground plane
215
7.2.4 Comparison between the surface wave antenna and vertical
monopole antenna
217
7.3 Patch-fed surface wave antennas
217
7.3.1 Comparison between a circular microstrip antenna and a
patch-fed SWA
218
7.3.2 Experimental demonstration
223
7.4 Dual band surface wave antenna
223
7.4.1 Crosspatch-fed surface wave antenna
226
7.4.2 Modified crosspatch-fed surface wave antenna for dual band
operation
228
7.5 Projects
236
Appendix: EBG literature review
238
Index
261
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information Preface
In recent years, electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures have attracted increasing interests because of their desirable electromagnetic properties that cannot be observed in natural materials. In this respect, EBG structures are a subset of metamaterials. Diverse research activities on EBG structures are on the rise in the electromagnetics and antenna community, and a wide range of applications have been reported, such as low profile antennas, active phased arrays, TEM waveguides, and microwave filters. We believe that the time is right for a focused book reviewing the state of the art on electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structures and their important applications in antenna engineering. The goal of this book is to provide scientists and engineers with an up-to-date knowledge on the theories, analyses, and applications of EBG structures. Specifically, this book will cover the following topics: r a detailed overview of the EBG research history and important results; r an advanced presentation on the unique features of EBG structures; r an accurate and efficient numerical algorithm for EBG analysis and an evolutionary optimization technique for EBG design; r a wealth of examples illustrating potential applications of EBG structures in antenna engineering. The book is organized into seven chapters and one appendix. Chapter 1 introduces the background and basic properties of EBG structures. The EBG analysis methods and antenna applications are also summarized. In Chapter 2, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is presented with a focus on periodic boundary conditions (PBC), which is used as an efficient computation engine for the analysis of periodic structures. The fundamentals of the FDTD method are reviewed and a constant kx (spectral) method is discussed to model the PBC. A hybrid FDTD/ARMA scheme is introduced to unify the guided wave and plane wave analysis and improve the simulation efficiency. Chapter 3 illustrates some interesting properties of EBG structures. The band gap features are clearly visualized from the near field distributions. The dispersion diagram and reflection phase for both normal and oblique incidences are presented. The soft and hard properties of the EBG ground plane are also discussed. A classification of various EBG structures is provided at the end of the chapter. Chapter 4 presents how to achieve the desired characteristics by properly designing the EBG structures. A parametric study on the mushroom-like EBG structure is performed
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information
x
Preface
first, followed by a comparison between two popularly used planar EBG structures, mushroom-like EBG surface and uni-planar EBG surface. Novel EBG designs such as polarization-dependent EBG (PDEBG), compact spiral EBG, and stacked EBG structures are also studied. Furthermore, utilizations of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique are demonstrated in EBG synthesis. The applications of EBG structures in antenna engineering are presented in Chapters 5, 6 and 7. In Chapter 5, the EBG structures are integrated into microstrip patch antenna designs. The surface wave band gap property of EBG helps to increase the antenna gain, minimize the back lobe, and reduce mutual coupling. Some applications of EBG patch antenna designs in high precision GPS receivers, wearable electronics, and phased array systems are highlighted at the end of the chapter. Chapter 6 introduces a novel type of antennas: low profile wire antennas on an EBG ground plane. Using the in-phase reflection feature of the EBG structure, the radiation efficiency of wire antennas near a ground plane can be greatly improved. A series of design examples are illustrated, including dipole, monopole, and curl. Various functionalities have been realized, such as dual band operation, circular polarization, and pattern diversity. Chapter 7 presents a grounded slab loaded with periodic patches that can enhance the surface waves along a thin ground plane. Using this property, a low profile surface wave antenna (SWA) is designed, which achieves a monopole-like radiation pattern with a null in the broadside direction. Different feed techniques are explored and a dual band SWA is developed. In the Appendix, a comprehensive literature review is presented based on nearly 300 references. This is to help both the seasoned and new comers in this research arena to establish a clear picture of the EBG developments and identify published work related to their own research interests. We regret if we have missed some of the publications as it has been very hard to identify all the research and development works that have been conducted in various international organizations. We hope that the readers find this book useful and we welcome all their constructive suggestions. F. Yang and Y. Rahmat-Samii
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information Acknowledgements One of the authors (Rahmat-Samii) would like to express his sincere gratitude to his former students at the UCLA Antenna Research and Analysis Laboratory whose research contributions under his supervision were the basis of this book. In particular, special appreciation is extended to Michael Jensen, Joseph Colburn, Alon Barlevy, Zhan Li, Fan Yang, Hossein Mosallaei, Amir Aminian, and Nanbo Jin. Nanbo Jin is particularly thanked for his authoring Section 4.6, "Particle swarm optimization (PSO) of EBG structures" of this book. The other author (Yang) also thanks his colleagues for the helpful discussions and productive collaborations in this research, including Ji Chen, from the University of Houston, Atef Elsherbeni, Ahmed Kishk, Veysel Demir, Yanghyo Kim, and Asem Al-Zoubi from the University of Mississippi. In particular, Yanghyo Kim's contribution on the graphic user interface (GUI) and manual of the periodic FDTD software is greatly appreciated. We also thank the Cambridge University Press staff, Julie Lancashire, and Sabine Koch, for their continuous support during the compilation of this book.
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information Abbreviations
ABC ANN AMC AR ARMA CP DNG DBSWA EBG EMI FDTD FEM FSS GA GPS GUI HIS LH LHCP LTCC MEMS MMIC MoM NRI PBC PBG PCB PDEBG PEC PMC PFSWA PML PSO RCS
Absorbing Boundary Condition Artificial Neural Network Artificial Magnetic Conductor Axial Ratio Auto-Regressive Moving Average Circular Polarization Double NeGative Dual Band Surface Wave Antenna Electromagnetic Band Gap ElectroMagnetic Interference Finite Difference Time Domain Finite Element Method Frequency Selective Surface genetic algorithm Global Positioning System Graphic User Interface High Impedance Surface Left Handed Left Hand Circular Polarization Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Method of Moment Negative Refractive Index Periodic Boundary Condition Photonic Band Gap Printed circuit board Polarization-Dependent Electromagnetic Band Gap Perfect Electric Conductor Perfect Magnetic Conductor Patch-Fed Surface Wave Antenna Perfectly Matched Layers Particle Swarm Optimization Radar Cross Section
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org
Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88991-9 - Electromagnetic Band Gap Structures in Antenna Engineering Fan Yang and Yahya Rahmat-Samii Frontmatter More information
Abbreviations
xiii
RHCP RFID SFDTD SWA TE TEM TM WLAN
Right Hand Circular Polarization Radio Frequency IDentification Spectral Finite Difference Time Domain Surface Wave Antenna Transverse Electric Transverse ElectroMagnetic Transverse Magnetic Wireless Local Area Network
© Cambridge University Press
www.cambridge.org

F Yang, Y Rahmat

File: electromagnetic-band-gap-structures-in-antenna-engineering.pdf
Title: 7 x 11 long.p65
Author: F Yang, Y Rahmat
Author: artit
Published: Wed Oct 15 14:05:48 2008
Pages: 13
File size: 0.17 Mb


The learning revolution, 62 pages, 0.65 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com