Flora of Noble County

Tags: Elkhart River, Moist places, Rich woods, STATE GEOLOGIST, beech woods, Sparta Township, Township, NOBLE COUNTY, Orange Township, L. Pigweed, forest tree, western part, Yellow Lily, False Nettle, Sandy Boils, Green Amaranthus, Botanical Gazette, L. Red Mulberry, waste places, Spike Rush, L. Leatherwood, Common Hop, Michx, Jefferson townships, Swamp Thistle, Wild Lettuce, York Township, False Foxglove, Common Plantain, Common Dandelion, Common Thistle, L. Golden Ragwort, L. Loosestrife, Jefferson Township, white plant, fence rows, Canada Thistle, L. Peppermint, Common Mullein, L. Lobelia, Allen Township, CLEMATIS VIRGINIANA
Content: FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY. BY W. B. VAN GORDER. REMARKS. In 1884, after three seasons' careful work, a list of the plants of this county was published, enumerating nearly 700 species. The work has been continued since then, as time and opportunity permitted, and the few additions that have been made lead me to think that the present list comprises quite fully the flora of the county. In some respects, the flora of Allen, Swan and Jefferson townships is much the same; that of 'Vayne, Orange and Green townships bears much resemblance; while the flora of the western half of the county contains many forms different from the eastern half of the county. Along the Elkhart Hiver and its branches grow many plants common mostly to river territory. It is also noticeable that some plants common farther northward make their appearance here in our connty, at the same time apparently being the northern limit of some of those common farther southward. The following catalogue includes 724 species belonging to 99 orders, and grouped under 363 genera. Many of them here named are usually regarded as "weeds" and "wild grasses," many others as "wild flow ers," while numerous others are our shrubs and valuable forest trees; but all of them have their value and place in the economy of nature. In giving the names of the plants, the order as presented in Gray's Manual of th« Flora of the Northern UNITED STATES, 5th edition, has been strictly adhered to, although aware that several changes in nomencla ture are now recognized. The common names of the plant!! have been added, as they will be of more interest to those who are not botani~ts. The locality and ranges of the plants, 80 far as observed, have also been given, along with luch other information as is thought would be of gen eral interest. It is not likely that any of our native plants has yet been extermi· nated, as is the case in some places, but the cultivation of the soil, the pasturing of the woodlands, the draining of the marshes, is rapidly re ducing their abundance. Some are already quite scarce from these causes, while along our railroads, roadsides, and in grainfields, new ones occasionally make their appearance. 3-G1IOL.
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST. CATALOGUE.
RANUNCULACE1E-CROWFOOT F A,.~ILY.
CLEMATIS VIRGINIANA, L. Common Virgin's Bower. Scarce. Aug.
ANElIIONE CYLINDRICA, Gray. Long-fruited Anemone. A few speci.
mens seen in Sparta Township.
VIRGINIANA, L. Virginiana Anemone. ,Not cQmmon. July.
PENNSYLVANICA, L. Pennsylvanian .Anemone. Not common.
June.
NEMOROISA, L. W"ind-flower. wood anemone. Plentiful at
one place in Orange Township, section 10. A few sped.
mens seen in York and J eff'erson Townships. May.
HEPATICA ACUTILOBA, DC. Liver-leaf. Common.,
THALICTRUlII ANEMONOIDES, Michx. Rue-Anemone. Common in
sandy soil.
DIOICUM, L. Early Meadow-Rue. Common in woods,
early spring.
PURPURASCENS, L. Purpli~h Meadow-Rue. Common.
CORNUTI, L. Tall Meadow-Rue. Common.
RANuNcuLus DIVARICATUS, Schrank. Water-Crowfoot. At one place
in the lake at Rome City. Scarce.
AQUATILIS, L., 'val'. tridlOphyllus, Chaix. White Water-
Crowfoot. Plentiful at several places in the Elkhart River.
lIIULTIFIDUS, Pursh. Y ellow Water-Crowfoot. Comm.n.
AI...ISlIIlEFOHUS, Geyer. Water Plantain Spearwort. At one
place in Green Township, on roadside between sections 19
and 30. Rare.
ABOR'l'IVUS, L. Small flowered Crowfoot. A ~ommon weed.
SCELERATlTS, L. Cursed Crowfoot. Growing in a ditch on
roadside north of Kendallville, 1886.
RECURVATUS, Poir. Hooked Crowfoot. Common.
PENNSYLVANICUS, L. Bristly Crowfoot. Scarce.
FA8CICULARIS, Muhl. Early Crowfoot. Common. April, May.
REPENS, L. Creeping Crowfoot. Moist woods. Common.
May, July.
BULBOSUS, L. Bulbous Crowfoot. Roadside.. Very scarce.
May, July.
·
ISOPYRUM BITERNA.TUlII, Torr & Gray, False Rue-Anemone. Common
at places in rich beech woods. May.
CALTIll PALUSTRIS, L. Mal'!!h Marigold. Common. May.
"
·
.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
36
'
COPTIS TlUFOLU, SALISB. Three-leaved Goldthread. Common in a
few tamarack marshes. May. AQUILJllGIA CANADENSIS, L. '\Vild Columbine. Not common.
VULGARIS, L. Garden Columbine. Escaped from cultivation.
Scarce. DELPHINIUM OONSOLIDA, L. Field Larkspur. Escaped. Scarce. HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS, L. Orange-root. Yellow puecoon. Rich
woods. Very scarce. May. AOTlEA ALBA, Bigel. "White Baneberry. Rich woods. Common. Early
spring. The most of these plants of the Crowfoot family are handsome wile flowers.
MAGNOLIACElE.-A-iAGNOLIA FAlHLY.
One representative, viz.: LIRIODENDRON TULIFIFERA, L. \vhite·w~od. and valuable forest tree.
Poplar.
A common
ANONACElE.-CUSTARD-AppLE FAMILY. One representative only: ASThlINA TRILOBA, Dunal. Papaw. Common in all rich beech woods.
MENISPERMACElE. -MOONSEED FAMILY. One representative, viz.: MENISPERMUM CANADENSE, L. Canadian Moonseed. Common.
BERBERIDACElE.-BARBERRY FAMILY. . CAULOPHYLLUM THALICTROIDINYMPHlEACElE.-WATER-LILY FAMILY. BRA8ENU PELTATA, Pursh. 'Vater Shield. Common in a few of the lakes of the county. NYMPHlEA '.rUBEROSA, Paine. Water-Lily. Common in most all the lakeli in the county. NUPHAR ADVENA, Ait. Yellow Pond.Lily. Spatter Dock. Very common. Swamps and lakes.
36
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
SARRACENIACE.LE,-PITCHER-PLANT8. 8ARRACENIA PURPUREA, L. Side Saddle Flower. Pitcher-Plant. Huntsman's Cup. Peat bogs. C(1)mmon.
PAPAVERACE.LE.-PoPPY FAMILY. PAPAVER so:r.rNIFERUM, L. Common Poppy. Escaped from cultiva tion. Scarce. STYLOPHORmi DIPHYLLmr, N utt. Celandine Poppy. Plentiful in a rich woods in Wayne Township. Sec. 32. SANGillNARIA CANADENSIS, L, Blood-Root. Open rich woods; not common. April, May.
FUMARIACE.LE.-FuMITORY FAMILY. DICENTRA CUCULLARIA, DC. Dutchman' B Breechel Rich woods. Very commo~. April, May. CANADENSIS, DC. Squirrel Corn. With the last. Very common.
CRUCIFER.LE.-}{uSTARD FAMILY. NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE, R. Bs. True Water-Cress. Escaped from cultivation. Plentiful in several brooks and ditches in Orange Lownship. PALUSTRE, DC. Marsh Cress. Common. June. AmlORACliA, Fries. Horshradish. Escaped from oultivation. DENTARIA LACINI.A.TA, MuhL Pepper-Root. Rich woods. Common. April, May. CARDAMINE RHOlliBOJDEA, DC. Spring Cress. Wet meadows. Com mon. April, June. VAR PURPUREA, Torr. Spring Cress. Rich woods. Common. April, May. HIRSUTA, L. Small Bitter Cress. Wet !!Ioils. Rather com mon. June. ARABIS C.ANAllENSfS, L. Sickle Pod. South shore High Lake; high banks of streams in woods. Scarce. HIRSUTA, Scop. Scarce. LAEVIGATA, DC. Rock Cress. On creek bank south of Albion. Scarce. SISYM:BRIUM OFFICINALE, Scop. Hedge Mustard. A very common, homely weed.
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FLORA OF' NOBLE COUNTY.
37
BRASSICA NIGRA, Koch. Black Mustard. Escaped from cultivation. Common. CAPSELU, BURSA-PASTORIS, Mrench. Shepherd's Purse. The com monest of weeds. LEPIDIUM VIRGINICUM, L. Wild Peppergrass. A common weed.
VIOLACEJE.-VIOLET FAMILY. VIOLA BLANDA, Willd. Sweet White Violet. Common. CUCULLATA, Ait. Blue Violet. Common. PEDATA, L. Bird-foot Violet. Common on hills north of Diamond Lake, 1887. Our finest species. ROSTRATA, Pursh. Long-spurred Violet. At places in dry beech woods. Not common. STRIATA, Ait. Pale Violet. Common. CANADENSJ8, L. Canada Violet. Rich wood. Common. PUBESCENES, Ait. Downy Yellow Violet. Common in the woods.
CISTACEJE.-RoRK-ROSE FAMILY. HELIA~"THEMUM CANADENSE, Michx. Frost 'Veed. Sandy soil. Sparta und Orange Township. Not common.
DROSERACEJE.-SUNDEW FAMILY. DROSERA ROTUNDIFOLIA, L. Round-leaved Sundew. Only a few spec imens on the bank! of a lake ilil Orange Township, sections 2 and 11.
HYPERICACEJE.-St. John'S-WORT FAMILY. HYPERICUM PROLIFICUM, L. Shrubby St. John's-wort. A small patch on a roadside in Allen Town~hip, between sections 26 and 27. PYRAMIDATUM, Ait. Great St. John's-wort. Scarce. PERFORATUM, L. Common St. John's-wort. On roadside in Orange Township, section 20. Scarce. CORYMBOSUM, Muhl. St. John's-wort. Not common. CANADENSE, L. St. Sohn's-wort. Seen at a few places in Or ange Township, on wet, sandy soil. Scarce. ELODES VIRGIlUCA, Nutt. Marsh St. John's-wort. Rather common.
38
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
CARYOPHYLLACE.2E.-PINK FAl\HLY. SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS, L. Common Soapwort. Bouncing Bet. Es caped from cultivation to roadsides; many places. SILENE STELLATA., Ait. Starry Campion. A few specimens seen in Noble and Washington Townships; July. VIRGINICA, L. Fire Pink. Catchfly. Rich Woods. Not common ; June. NOCTIFLORA, Muhl. Night Flowering Camhfly. Wayside and waste places. Scarce. LYCANIS GITHAGO, Lam. Corn Cockle. "Cockle." A weed in wheat fields. Common. STELLARIA MEDIA, Smith. common chickweed. Everywhere in damp grounds. LONGIFOLIA, Muhl. Long-leaved Stitchwort. "Vet grassy place. Rather common. CERASTIUM VISCOSUlII, L. Mouse-eared Chickweed. Fields. Common; June. MOLLUQO VERTICILLATA, L. Carpetweed. Sandy ground, York Town ship. Not plentiful.
PORTULACACE.2E.-PURSLANE FAMILY. Portulaca oleracea, L. Common Purslane. A weed in every gar den. CLAYTONIA VIRGINICA, L. Spring Beauty. A handsome wild flower, common in moist woods; April, May.
MALVACE.2E.-MALLOW FAl\IILY.
MALVA ROTUNDIFOLIA, L. Common Mallow. Roadsides. Plentiful many places; also common around dwellings.
1II0SCHATA., L. Musk Mallow. Raodsides. Scarce. ABUTILON AVICENNJE, Grertn. Velvet-Leaf. A tall roadside weed,
most abundant in the eastern part of the county. HIBISCUS TruONUM, L. Bladder Ketmia. Escaped from cultivation. Scarce.
TILIACE.2E. -LINDEN F AlIIILY. TILIA AMERICANA, L. Basswood. A common forest tree.
FLOR~ OF NOBLE OOUNTY.
89
LINACElE.-FLAX FAMILY. LINUM VlRGINIANCM, L. Flax. Dry Oak woods. Common. CSITATISSIMCM, L. Common Flax. Growing as a weed along railroads.
GERANIACElE.-GERANIUM FA~ULY. GERANIU]\f MACULATUM, L. Wild Crane's ,Bill. Common; April, July. IMPATIENS PAUIDA, Nutt. Pale Touch-me-not. Common; July. FULVA, Nutt. Spotted Touch-roe-not. 'Yith the last, common. OXALIS STRlfiTA, L. Yellow W ood·sorr~l. Cultivated ~eldil. Com mon; May, September.
RUTACElE.-RuE FA~nLY. One representative, viz. : ZA!'fTHOXYLUl\I AMERICANUM, Mill. Prickly Ash. A common shrub of rich woods. \
ANACARDIACElE.-CASHEN F.UULY. RHUS TYPHINA, L. Staghorn Sumach. Hillsides. Common. GLABRA, L. Smooth Sumach. Common. Sandy soil. VE!'fENATA, DC. Poison Sumach. Swamps. Common. t. ToxICoDENDRO!'f, Poison Ivy. A common climbing shrub. VITACElE.-VINE FAlIHLY. VITUlli LABRUSCA, L. Northern Fox-Grape. Occasional in thickets ttlong the Elkhart River. JESTIVALIS, Michx. Summer Grape. Thickets. Not common. CORDB!'OLIA, Michx. Winter or Frost Grape. Thickets. Com mon. AMPELOPSIS QUINQUE FOLIA, Michx, Virginian Creeper. A common woody climbing plant of rich grounds. RHAMNACEЈ.-BuCKTHORN FlifILY. CEA.NOTHUS AMERICANUS, L. New Jersey Tea. Red Root. A small shrvb, common in sandy dry woodlands, eapecially in Wayne, Orange, Sparta and York townships. July.
40
REPORT OF STATE OEOLOGIST.
CELASTRACE1E.-STAFF-TREE FAMILY. CELASTRUS SCANDENS, L. 'Vax-work. Climbing Bitter SweQt. A climbing shrub. Not common. EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS, Jacq. Burning-Bush. Waahoo. In thickets along streams. Scaree. AMERlCANUS, L. Strawberry Bush. One specimen only. VAR. OBOVATUS, Torr & Gray. Strawberry Bush. A very small shrub; common in all beech woods.
SAPINDACEJE.--SOAPBERRY FAMILY. STAPHYLEA TRlFOLIA, L. American Bladdernut. A shrub in thickets along streams. Scarce. AESCULUS GLABRA, Wild. Buckeye. A common forest tree. AC1im SACCHJlRINUM, Wang. Sugar or Roek Maple. A common forest tree. VAR. NIGRUM. Black Sugar Maple. DASYCARPUM, Ehrhart. Silver Maple. Plant4!d for shade trees. Also escaped. RUBRmI, L. Red or Swamp Maple. Common. NEGUNDO ACEROIDES, Mrench. Ash-leaved Maple. Box-Elder. Rich soil. Along streams. Scarce.
POLYGALACEJE-MILKwoRT FAMILY. POLYGALA VERTICILLATA, L. ~1ilkwort. A few specimens seen in Orange and Washington townships. SENEGA, L. Seneca Snakeroot. Sandy soil of woods. Scarce. SANGUINEA, L. A few specimens seen in York Township, Sec. 15, 1892.
LEGUMINOSJE.-PULSE FAMILY. LUPlNUS PERENNIS, L. Wild Lupine. Common on sandy Boil. TRIFOLIUM ARVENSE, L. Rabbit·toot Clover. Stone Clover. Dry fieills aId road sides throughout the western part of the county. Scarce. PRATENSE, L. Red Clover. Cultivated. REPENS, L. 'Vhite Clover. Common. HYBRIDUM, L. A.lsike Clover. Common. MELILOTUS ALBA, Lam. White Melilot. Sweet Clover. Escaped to waste grounds.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
41
ROBINIA PSEUDAOAOIA, L. Common Locust. Escaped from cultivation many places. TEPHROSIA VIRGINIANA, Pers. Goat's Rue. North shore Bear Litke ~nd Diamond Lake. ASTRAGALUS CANADENSIS, L. Milk·Vetch. North shore Bear Lake and Diamond Lake. DESMODIUM NUDIFLORUM, DC. Tick-Trefoil. Rich woods. I Common. August. AOUMINATUM. DC. Tick-Trefoil. With the last. Common. ROTUNDIFOLIUM, DC. Tick-Trefoil. Sandy dry woods. Not common. DILLENII, Darlingt. Tick-Trefoil. open woodlands. Rather common. PANIO{JLATUM, DC. Tick-Trefoil. Open woods. Not com mon. CANADENSE, DC. Tick-Trefoil. Scarce. RIGIDUM, DC.? Tick-Trefoil. 'Voods. August. OILIARE, DC. Tick-Trefoil. A few specimens seen in York Township. LESPF-DEZA VIOLAOEA, Pers. Bush Clover. Rather common on sandy soil. VIOlA CAROLlNIANA, ,,,alt. Vetch. Very common in Orange, Green and York townships. Sandy open woodlands. AMERICANA, Muhl. Vetch. Occasional with the last. Plen tiful north shore Bear Lake. LATRYRUS OOHROLEUOUS, Hook. Vetchling. Everlasting Pea. Small
patches of this plant are occasional throughout the county. VENOSUR, Muhl. A small patch in fenge corner ou road side,
Section 16, Washington Township. A rare plant. 1888. PALUSTRIS. L. Marsh Vetchling. In marshes about lakes.
Not common. VAR. MYSTmOLIUS. :a.larsh Vetchling. Occasional with the last. bIOS TUBEROSA, Mamch. Ground-nut. 'Vild Bean. In thickets of . rich low grounds. Rather common. PHASEOLUS PERENNIS, 'Valt. Wild Bean. Thickets. Scarce. BAPTISIA LEuANTHA, Torr & Gray. :False ·ludigo. Two or three specimen. have been seen in each of the following town ships, viz.: Orange, Elkhart, Noble, Sparta, Perry and Swan. CERCIS CANADENSIS, L. Red Bud. A small ornamental tree, rather common in thickets at places along the Elkhart River. Otherwise scarce.
42
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
CASSIA MARILANDICA, L. 'Vild Senna. In rich soil along streams. Plentiful many placcs. GYMNOCLADUS CANADENSIS, Lam. Kentucky Coffee-tree. Scarce. \ GLEDIT8SHIA TRIACANTHOS, L. Honey-Locust. Rich soil along streams. Not common.
ROSACElE-RosE FAMILY. PRUlWS AMERICANA, Marsball. Wild Plum. Common. VIRGINIANA, L. Choke-Cherry. Fence ro~n. Comm<9ll. SEROTINA, Ehrhart. Wild Black Cherry. Common. SPIRAEA 8ALICIFOUA, L. Common Meadow-Sweet. Low grounds everywhere. July. TOMENTOSA, L. Steeple Bush. A few specimenil seen in Birch Marsh, Section 15, York Township. AGRIMONIA EUPATORIA, L. Common Agrimony. Fence rows and borders of wood. Common. PARVIFLORA, Ait. Small·Flowered Agrimony. Along a road side in Sparta Township, near Eagle Lake. Surprised to find this plaut within the limits of Noble County. GEUM ALBUM, Gmelin. Avens. A common homely herb. VIRGINIANUM, L. Avens. A common homely herb. RIVALE, L. Water Avens. Birch Marsh, Section 7, J effer son Township. Rare. POTENTILLA NORVEGICA, L. Norway Cinque:foil. A common homely weed. CANADENSIS, L. Common Cinque-foil, or Five-Finger. Com mon. ARGENTEA, L. Silvery Cinque-foil. On road eide east of Skinner Lake, Jefferson Township. and road Ilide Section 11, York Township. Rare. FRUTICOSA, L. Shrubby Cinque-foil. A shrub two to four feet high, with numerous yellow flowers. Common in low grounds along the Elkhart River, and in marshes around lakes at various place!!. August. PALUSTRI8, Scop. Marsh Five-Finger. In cranberry marshes. Rather common. June. FRAGARIA VIRGINIANA, Ehrhart. Wild strawberry. Common. RUBUS 8TRIG08U8, Michx. Wild Red Raspberry. Thickets. Common at least in the eastern part of the county. OCCIDENTALI8, L. Black Raspberry. Common. VII,LOSUS, Ait. Blackberry. Common. CANADENSIS, L. Low Blackberry. Dewberry. Sandy soil. Common.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
43
HISPIDUS, L. Swamp-Blackberry. Low rich woods. Rather
common.
ROSA CilOLINA, 'L. Swamp Rose. Common.
eR. PARVIFLORA, Ehrhart.
LUCIDA, PH.) Dwarf Wild Rose.
Commen.
RUBIGINOSA, L. Sweet Brier. Occasional.
CRATlEGUS COCCINEA, L. Scarlet-fruited Thorn. Common.
T01I1ENI'OSA, L. Black or Pear Thcnn. Common.
CRUS-GALLI, L. Cock-spur Thorn. Common.
PYRUS CORONARIA, L. American Crab-Apple. Sandy woods. Com
mono
ARRUI'IFOLIA L. Choke·berry. Low grounds. Rather
common.
Al.I'lELANCHIER CANADENSIS, T. & G.
June·berry. Shad-bush. Service-berry. Common.
RIBE!! CYNOSBA'l'I, L. Wild Gooseberry. Woods. Common. HIRTELLUM, l\Iichx. Wild Gooseberry. Scarce. FLORIDUM, L. Wild Black Currant. Woods and fence rows. Common. PARNASSIA CAROLINIANA, :;V[ichx. Grass of Parnaslus. A pretty wild flower. Very common iIl the low rich meadows of York and Sparta townships; also common on low grounds along the Elkhart River, in Orange Townehip. August and September. SAXIFRAGA PENNiYLVANICA, L. Swamp Saxifrage. A homely herb. Common in marshes. June. HEUCHERA. AMERICANA; L. Alum-root. Hillsides and fence rows. Not common. l\:hTELLA DIPHYLLA, L. Mitre wort. A delicate little plant. Common in rich woods. 1\'lay. CRASSULACEJE.-ORPINE F.Al~IILY. PENTHORUH SEDOIDEIl, L, Ditch Stone·crop. A very common herb. SEDUM ACRE, L.. Mossy Stone-crop. Occasional on road sides.' TEL.EPHINUM,.L. Garden Orpine or Live-for-ever. Occa sional on road sides.
One representat.ive within our limits, viz. : HAl.I'IAMELIS V JRGINICA, L. Witch Hazel. A common 8hrub.
44
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
HALORAGElE.-WATER-:MiLFOIL FAMILY. MYRIOPHYLLUM SPICATUM, L. Water-Milfoil. Plant found in deep water. A few specimens seen in the lake at Rome City. August. PROSERPINACA PALUSTRIS, L. Mermaid-weed. In wet swamps, grow ing with smart weed. Very common many places. August.
ONAGRACElE.-EvENING·PlUl\ffiOSE FAMILY.
CIRCAlE LUTETIANA, L. Enchanter's Nightshade. A little inconspicu
.
ous plant of woods. Common.
ALPINA, L. Enchanter's Nightshade. With the last, but not
so abundant..
EPILOBIUM ANGUS'l'IFOLIUM, L. Great Willow·herb. A small patch
in each of the following townships on the B. & O. R. R.
track: Allen, J eiIerson and Yor'k. A handsome plant,
-five feet high, with numeroull very showy flowers. June
and .July.
PALUBTRE, L., VAR. LINEARE. '\Villow-herb. Peat bogs.
Rather common.
COLORATUM, Muhl. Willow-herb. '\Voods and fields. Com
mon. August.
(ENOTHERA BIENNIS, L. Common Evening Primrose. Fields, fence
rows and waist places. Very common. July-September.
PUMILA, L.? Sundrops. Open woodlands. York and Orange
townships. June.
LUDWIGU PALUSTRlS, Ell. Water Purslane. Common in Creeks,
ditches, etc. August.
LYTHRACElE.-Lo08ESTRIFE FAMILY. But one species so far known to be within the limits of Noble County, viz.: NESAEA VERTICILLATA, H. B. K. Swam~ LooBel!trife. Growing around the shore of lakes. Stems 2-8 feet long bending to the water and bearing many fine rose purple flowers. Common several places. August.
FLQRA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
45
CUCURBITACEЈ.-GouRD FAMILY.
This order includes several of the most common cul
tivated plants, but only the following as wild plants in the
,'
State:
EOHINOOYSTIS LOBATA, T. & G. Wild Baba,m-apple. W~te places;
also cultivated.
8wyos ANGULATUS, L. One-seeded Star-Cucumber. Scarce.
U:M:BELLIFERlE.-PARSLEY FAMILY. HYDROOOTYLE Ul\fBELLATA, L. Water Pennywort. A small patch on the moist shore of a lake in Green Township, section 30 ; and another on the moist shore of Long Lake, in Wayne Township. Rare. SANICULA CANADENSIS, L. Black Snakeroot. Woods. Common. MARILANDICA, L. Black Snakeroot. Common. DAucus CAROTA, L. Common Carrot. Escaped. HERAoLEUM LANATUM, :M:ichx. Cow-Parsnip. Scarce. PASTINACA SATIVA, L. Common Parsnip. Escaped from cultivation. ARCHANGEI.ICA ATROPURPUREA, Hoffm. Great Angelica. Occasional on low grounds along the branches of the Elkhart River. A tall coar!'e plant. CONIOSELINLl\fCANADENSE, T. & G. Hemlock-Parsley. In low marshes around lakes., Scarce. THASPIUM TRIFOLIATL'M. Gray, Meadow Parsnip. Dry woods. Rather common. CrcUTA MACULATA, L. Spotted Cowbane. Common. BULBIFERA, L. Spotted Cowbane. Growing in swamps with smartweed. Not common. SlUM LINEARE, :M:ich. Water.Parsnip. Common. CRYPTOTAENIA CANADENSIS, DC. Honewort. Thickets. June. OSMORRHIZA LONGIS'l'YI.IS, DC. Sweet Cicely. June. BREVISTYLIS, DC. Sweet Cicely. Moist woods. Common. ERlGENIA BULBOSA, Nutt. Harbinger-of.Spring. A delicate and very comnlOn little plant of all beech woods. April.
ARALIACEЈ.-GINSENG F AMIIN.
ARALIA RACEMOSA, L. Spikenard. Rich woods. Scarce.
.NUDICAULIS, L. 'Vild Sarsaparilla. Rich woods. Rather
common.
·
QUL"QUEFOLIA, D. & P. Ginseng. Rich woods. Very scarce.
TRIPOLIA, Dwarf Ginseng. Ground nut. A very delicate
little plant, very common in beech woods. April, May.
46
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
COHNACElE.-DomvooD FAlIULY. CORNUS FLORIDA, L. Flowering'Dogwood. A small fereftt tree. SERICEA, L. Silky Cornel. "Willow swamps. Common. STOLONH'ERA, M:ichx. Red-osier. Dogwood. With the last. Common. PANICULATA, L. ' Her. Panicled Cornel. Thickets. Scarce. NYSSA MULTIFLORA, 'Yang. Tupelo. Pepperidge. Black or sour gum. A few small trees sian in Orange and 'Vayne Townships, and several large ones on the bank of Tippecanoe Lake, Noble Township. CAPHIFOLIACE1E.-HONEYSUCKLE F"J~nLY. SYMPHORICARPUS VULGARIS, Michx. Indian Currant. Coral-berry. Escaped. Occasional. LONIOERA PA1tVIFLORA, Lam. Small Honeysuckle. Not common. TRIOsTEuM PERFOLUTUM, L. Fever-wort. Horse Gentian. Not common. SAMBUCUS CANADENSIS, L. Common Elder. PUBENS, l\Iichx. Red-berried Elder. Common, at least in the eastern part of the county. VIBUBNUM LENTAGO, L. Sweet Viburnum. Sheep~berry. Common. PRUNIFOLn:;M, L. Black Haw. Common. ACERIFOLIUl\f, L. Ma,ple-Ieaved Arrow-wood. Very common in beach woods. OPC"LU8, L. Cranberry, tree. A few specimens seen in Jefferson Township, section 1. Rare. RUBIACElE.-MADDER FAI\IILY. GALIUM APARINE, L. Cleavers Goose-Grass. Common in rich woods. ASPRELLUM, Michx. Hough Bedstraw. Common in low thick ets along streams. TRIFIDUM, L. Small Bedstraw. Very eo~mon. VAR. TINCTORIUM, Gray. Common. VAR. LATIFOLIUl\f, Gray. Common in swamps. TRIFLORUM, Michx. Sweet-seented Bedstraw,. Common. PILOSUM. Bedstraw. Scarce. CICAEZANS, Michx. ,"Vild Licorice. Common. LANCEOLATUM, Torr. "Wild Licorice. Dry woods. Not com mon. BOREALE, L. Northern Bedstraw. Hather common.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
4:7
CEl'HALANTHUS OCCIDENTALIS, L. Button-bush. A very commoa shrub of swamps. MITCHELLA REPENS, L. Partridge-berry. A trailing little evergreen herb of dry woods. Common.
DIPSACElE.-TEASEL FA~ILY.
DIPSACUS SYI>VESTRIS, Mill. Wild Teasel. A roadside weed. Too common.
COMPOSITlE. -COMPOSITE FAMILY.
VERNONIA NOVEBORACENSIS, \ViIld. Iron-weed. A tall cOI!trlJe weed with purple flowers, growing in low grounds, pastures, etc. Common; August. FASCICULATA, Michx. Iron-weed. Too near the last. Grow ing along the Elkhart Hiver. Not common. LIATRI8 SCARIOSA, Willd. Blazing Star. Dry soil. Rather common. SPICATA, Willd. Blazing Star. ~:[Oi8t grounds along the Elk hart Hiver. Very common some places. August. Both are handsome plants. EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM, L. Joe.Pye Weed. Trumpet Weed. A taU stout plant with purple flowers and leaves three to six in a whorl. Low grounds. Common. August. PERFOLIATUM, L. Thoroughwort. Boneset. O~e of the com monest of plants of all low grounds. August. AGERATOIDES, L. \Vhite Snakeroot. Rich woods. Common. August ASTER CORYMB08US, Ait. Aster. \Voodlands. Common, at least in the eastern part of the county. August. MACROPHYLLICS, L. Aster. With the last, Common. August. PATEN8, Ait? Aster. Scarce. Leaves usually contracted be low the middle. August. CORDIFOLWS, L. Aster. Scarce. DUMOSUS, L. Aster. Thickets, fence rows. Eather common. TRADESCAN'l'I, L. Aster. Moist, shady grounds. Common. August. PANICULATUS, Lam. Aster. Found in cold peat bogs. Scarce. Gray's Flora of North America, p. 187. LONGIFOUUS, Lam. Aster. Noble County. Editors Botanical Gazette. PUNICEU8, L. A.8ter. Moist thickets and swamps. Common. NOVAE·ANGLIAE, L. Aster. Moist grounds of the northern and western part of the county. Common. August. As ter is far the most difficult of our genera. Gray.
48
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
ERIGERON CANADE:NSE, L. Horse·weed. Butter·weed. A very com mon weed of fields, gardens and waste places. July, October. BELLIDIFOLIlJM, L. Robin's Plantain. Dry banks and open woodlands of sandy soil. Common. May and June. PmLADELPHICUJlI, L. Common Fleabane. Moist grounds along streams. May and June. ANNUUM, PerS. Daisy Fleabane. Sweet Scabions. Plant four feet high. flowers white. A nuisance in every meadow. July. STRIGOSUM, Muhl. Daisy Fleabane. With the last. A nui sltnce in meadows. July. SOLIDAGO LATIFOLIA, L. Golden-rod. Moist Woods. Common. Au gust. OAESIA, L. Golden-rod. ',,"oods and fields. Common. August. STRIOTA, Ait. Golden-rod. Cold peat bogs and" fiats," along the Elkhart River. Scaroe. .Tuly and August. s. RIGIDA, L. Golden·rod. A few specimens in Noble and Perry Townships. RIDDELLII, Frank. Golden-rod. Low grounds along the Elk hart River in Orange and York Townships. Not common. PATULA, Muhl. Golden·rod. Low, moist grounds. Rather common. ALTISSIMA, L. Golden,rod. The plant is not tall, as the name indicates. \Voods. Common. August. ULMIFOLIA, Muhl. Golden-rod. With the last. Common. OANADENt-lIS, L. Golden-rod. Fence rows. Common. August. GIGANTEA, Ait. Golden-rod. With the last. Common. August. Solidago il a difficult genus. INuLA HELENIUl\I, L. Elecampane. A tall, stout plant. Roadsides. Common. August. POLYMNIA CANADENSIS, L. Leaf.cup. Common in rich woods. SILPHIUl\1 TEREBINTHINAOEUM, L. Prairie Dock. Dry, open places of woods j northern and western part of the county. Not abundant. TRIFOLIATUM, L. Prairie Dock. ·With the last. Common. Both are tall plants. August. AMBROSIA TRIFLDA, L. Great Ragweed. At places along the Elkhart River. August. ARTEMISIAEFOLIA, L. Roman·wormwood. Hogweed. Rag weed. A very common, homely weed of fields and waste places. July, August. XANTHlUM STRUMARiuM, L. Cocklebur. Roadsides. Common. A nuisance. August.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
49
RUDBECKIA LAClNIATA, L. Cone-flower. Low thickets. Sandy soil. Common. August. TRILOBA, L. Cone-flower. Dry soil. Common. August. HIRTA, L. Cone-flower. Naturalized in meadows. Plant a foot or so high, with large, yellow flowers. HELIANTHU8 ANNL'1]S, L. Common Sunflower. El"caped from cultivation. GIGANTEU8, L. Wild Sunflower. Moist thickets. Not com mon. August. DlVARICATU8, L. Wild ~unflower. Thickets. Common. July. DECAPETALU8, L. Wild Sunflower. Moist soil. Common. August. TUBElt08U8, L. Artichoke. As a weed in waste places. Rare. ACTINOllfERI8 8QUARR08A, Nutt. Actinomeris. A tall, stout plant growing everywhere in rich soil along streams. Flowers yellow. August. COREOPSIS TRLPTERI8, L. Tall Coreopsis. Swamps. Common. August. ARI8T08A, Michx. Coreopsie.. Found in Noble County. Cata logue Indiana Flora. BIDENS J!'RCNDOSA, L. Beggar-tick!!. Spanish Needles. Fields and waste places. A very common lind troublesome weed. CONNATA, Muhl. Swamp Beggar-ticks. Not so common as the last. CHRY8ANTHEMODE8, Michx. Bur-Marigold. Swamps. Com mon. August. BIPINNATA, L. Spanish Needles. Moist soil. August. A troublesome weed. Rather common. HELENIUlIf AUTU~fNALS, L. Sneeze-weed. Not common. MARuTA COTULA, DC. ~Iay-weed. Dog.Fennei. Common everywhere. ACHILLEA MJtLEJ!'OLIUM, L Yarrow. Roadsides. Common. July. LEUCAlilTHEMUM VULGARE, Lam. Ox.eyed Daisy. A very troublesome weed that has been introduced at few places. TANACET1JM VULGARE, L. Common Tansy. Roadsides, some places. AR'ЈEMSIA BIENNIS, Willd. Wormwood. A very co~mon weed of all waste places. September. . GNAPHA.LIUlIf ULIGINOSUM, L. Low Cudweed. Fields and roadsides. Not common. ANTENNARIA lIfARGARITACEA, R. Brown. Pearly Everlasting. Road sides. Common. August. PLANTAGINIFOLIA, Hook. Piantaill-leaved Everlasting. Dry, open woodlands of sandy soil. Common. 1\Iay. ERECHTHITES HIERACIJ!'OLIA, Raf. Fireweed. A tall weed, very com mOD it! new fields. August.
4-GEOI,.
50
REPORT OF STATE G1ll0LOGIST.
SENECIO AUREUS, L. Golden Ragwort. Moist places. Not com· mono May. VAR. OBAVATUS. Golden Ragwort. Not common. May. OIRSWM LANCEOLATUM, Scop. Common Thistle. Very Common. July. DISCOLOR. Thistle. Very tall and branched. Scarce. July. MUTICUM, Michx. Swamp Thistle. Common. ARVENSE, Scop. Canada Thistle. Patches of Canada Thistle are numerous, but in most cases the plants are cropped to prevent the ripening of the seed; yet this is much neg lected. At one place in an open wood-land, at least a quarter of an acre of this pernicious pest had matured and the seed scattering broadcast with the wind. LAPPA OFFICINALIS, Allioni. Burdock. Fields and waste places. Common. CICHORUM INTYAUS, L. Cichory. Occasional on road sides. HIERAC1UM SCABRUM, Michx. Rough JIawkweed. Fields. Common. N AllALUS ALBUS, Hook. White Lettuce. ~Woods. Common. ALTISSIMUS, Hook. TalL White Lettuce. Sandy soil. Common. RACEMOSUS, Hook. Sections 7 and 22 Jefferson Township. A few specimens. Rare. TARAXACUM DENS-LEONIS, Desf. Common Dandelion. Common everywhere. LAcTucA CANADENSIS, L. 'Wild Lettuce. A tall plant of woods and fence rows. Common. July. vAR. INTEGRlFOLIA, T. and G. ~Wild Lettuce. Common. SCAROLA, L. Prickly Lettuce. This plant was first noticed in 1890. It is a bad weed and is becoming plentiful everywhere. SONOHUS ASPER, Vill. Spiny-leaved Thistle. A very common weed of fields and gardens.
LOBELIACELE.-LoBELIA FAMILY. LOBELIA CARDINALIS, L. Cardinal flower. Low grounds. Common. July. SYPHILITICA, L. Great Lobelia. Low grounds. Common. INFLATA, L. Indian Tobacco. Copses. Common. SPIClATA, Lam. Lobelia. Dry sandy Boil. Not Com_on. KALMII, L. Lobelia. Very common in the low rich meadows of Sparta and York townships. August.
, /
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
61
CAMPANULACElE. -CAMPA-NULA FAMILY. CAHPANULA APAnINOIDES. ·Pursh. Marsh Bellflower. Cranberry marshes and wet grassy places of lakes. Common. AMERICANA. Tall Bellflower. A very common plant of fence rows and roadsides. July-August. SPECULARIA PERFOLIATA, A. DC. Venus, Looking-glalls. A few specimens seen in Orange Township.
ERICACElE.-HEATH FAMILY. GAYLUSSA-CIA RESINOSA, T. & G. Black Huckleberry. Dry sandy woodlands. Common. VACCINIUM MACROOARPON, Ait. Cranberry. Many marshes of this plant still exist throughout the county. OORYMBOSUM, L. Swamp Blueberry. Huckleberry. Common. GAULTHEItIA PROCUMBENS, L. Creeping Wintergreen. At one place in Orange Towlll!hip. CASSANDRA CALYCULA'l'A, D. Leather-Leaf: A small evergreen shrub -plentiful at one place in Orange Township. (Section S.) .ANDROMEDIA POLIFOLIA, L. Wild Rosemary. A small evergreen shrub, very common about Pleasant Lake, Noble 1'own ship. Sparingly at few other places. PYROLIA ROTUNDIFOLIA, L. Shin leaf. In woods along the high banks of streams. Not common. OHIMA.PHILA UMBELLATA, Nutt. Prince's Pine. Section 36, Allen Township, there is a small patch (about ten feet square) of this beautiful plant growing in a woods on my father's farm. Not noticed at any other place in the county. MONOTROPA UNIFLOA, L. Indian Pipe. Corpse-Plant. A small waxy white plant. Common in beech woods. July. HYPOPITYS, L. Pine sap. False Beech drops. But one specimen.
AQUIFOLIACElE.-HOLLY FAMILY. hEX VERTICILLATA. Gray. Black Alder. Winterberry. A common shrub of swamps. PLANTAGINACElE.-PLANTAIN FAHILY. PLANTAGO MAJOR, L. Common Plantain. Moist grounds 'of fields and door yards. Very common. LANCEOLATA, L. English Plantain. A few specimens seen in Allen and Wayne townships.
52
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
PRIMULACEЈ.-PRIMROSE FAMILY. DODECATHEON MEADIA, L. American Cowslip. A few specimens seen in the rich meadows of Sparta Township. A very hand some wild flower. ,June. TRIENTALIS AMERICANA, Pursh. Star·flower. A small plant growing in tamarack marshes in mo.~s near the roots of the trees. Very common in some places. May. LYSIMACHIA THYRSIFLORA, L. Tufted Loosestrife. Swamps. Com· mono CILATA, L. Loosestrife. Moist thickets. Common. LANCEOLATA, 'Valt. Loosestrife. Occasional in low grassy lauds about lakes. SAMOLUS VALERANDI, L., var. Americanus. Gray. "Water Pimper nel. Brook-weed. Plant a' foot high, much branched, with cherry wild leaves, and small white flowers. '\Vat places along streams ill woodlands. Scarce. J une-Au gust.
LENTIBULACEЈ.-BLADDERwORT FAMILY. UTR,[CULARIA ~IINOR, L.? Small Bladderwort. Shallow pools. Not common.
OROBANCHACEЈ.-BROOM-RAPE FAMILY. EpIPHEGUS VIRGINIANA. Bart. Beech.drops. Common everywhere in beech woods. August-Octoher. CONOPHLIS AMERICANA. 'Valroth. Squaw.root. Cancer root. In oak woods in clusters among fallen leaves. Not common.
SCROPHULARIACEЈ.-FIGWORT F.HIILY VERBAscmI THAP8US, L. Common Mullein. VERBASCUM BUTTARIA, L. Moth Mallein. Roadsides. Western part of county. Scarce. Linaria vulgaris, ::t1ill. Toad·Flax. Butter·and-eggs Fields and roadsides. [email protected] Too common. SCROPHULARIA NODOSA, L. Figwort. Fence rows General but not abundant. COLLINSIA VERNA, N utt. Collinsia. Rich woods. Common many places. A very showy wild flower. ::tfay, June. CHELONE GLABRA, L. Turtle·head. Snake head. Wet places. Rather common.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
1)3
PENTSTEMON PUBESCENS, 80lander. Beard·tongue. Plentiful on north shere Bear Lake. MIIIIULUS RINGENS, L. Monkey-flower. 'ltVet places. Common. GRATIOLA VIRGINIANA, L. Hedge-Hyssop. A Clelicate little plant of moist places in woods. Common. ILYSANTHES GR.A.TIOLOIDES, Benth. False Pimpernel. A small plant growing on the moist shores of ponds in fields. I VERONICA VIRGTNICA, L. Culver's root. Growing on sandy soil throughout the county. Common. ANAGALLIS, L. Water Speedwell. Brooks and ditchel'!. Not common. SCUTELLA'l'A, L. Mar!'!h Speedwell. Growing in marshes with smart-weed. Rather common. June and July. SERPYLLIFOLIA, L. Thyme-Leaved. Speedwell. A common weed everywhere. GERARDIA PURPUREA, L. Purple Gerardia. A handsome wild flower, very common in the low, rich meadows of Sparta Township. Also at places in York Township. August. TENUIFOLIA, V RbI. Slender Gerardia. Dry wood~ of western part of the county. Does not appear to be common. FLAVA, L. Downy False Foxglove. Open woods of sandy soil. Not common. PENDICULARIA, Benth. Foxglove. Scarce. 'Western part of county. CASTILLEIA COCCINEA, Spreng. Scarlet painted cup Sandy, low grounds along the Elkhart River of Orange Township. Also at a few places in York Township. Not common. A beautiful plant. PEDICULARIS CANADENSIS, L. Lousewort. Wood Betony. Common in oak woods. May. LANCEOLATA, Michx. Wood Betony. Sparingly in swamps along the Elkhart River. York Township. Common at lakes on sections 7 and 15, Jefferson Township. Septem. ber.
V"ERBENACEJE -VERVAIN FAl\IILY. VERBENA HASTATA, L. Blue Vervain. A Plant four to six feet high. Common everywhere along roadsides, waste places, etc. August. URTICIFOLIA, L. White Vervain. August. With the last. Common.
I' 54
RBPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
BRACTEOSA; Michx. Creeping Vervain. Seen at only one . place in the county. A small patch on a roadside in Allen Township. Rare. August. PHRYMA LEPTOSTACHYA, L. Lopseed. A common plant of the woods, flowering in July.
. LABIATlE.-:i\bNT FAMILY. TEUORIUM OA:NADENS}J, L. American Germander. Wood Sage. West ern part of county. Not common. MENTHA VIRIDIS, L. Spearmint. Common. PIPERITA, L. Peppermint. Roadsides and waste pl~ces. Rather common. OANADENSIS, L. Wild Mint. Not common. . Lyoopus VIRGINICUS, L.? Bungle weed. Wet places. Common. PY02fANTHEMUM LANOEOLATUM, Pursh. Mountain Mint. Basil. Not common. HEDEOMA PULEGIOIDES, Pers. American Pennyroyal. Woods and fields. Very common. COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS, L. Rich-weeD. Stone-root. Rich woods. Common. MON A.RDA FISTULOSA, L. Wild Bergamont. Woods and fence rows. Common. PUNCTATA. L. Horse Mint. Common. LOPH.A.NTHUS NEPETOIDES, Benth. Giant Hyssop. Borders of woods and fence rows. Common. BLEPHILIA OaIATA, Raf. Blephilia. Scarce. HIRSUTA, Benth. Blephilia. Scarce.. NEPETA CATARIA, L. Catnip. Common. GLEOHOMA, Benth. Ground Ivy. Gill. A nuisance in yards. BRUNELL&. VULGARIS, L. Heal-all. Woods and fields. Very common. June, July. SOUTELLARIA VERSICOLOR, N utt. Skullcap. Sparingly along the Elk hart River. GALERIOUJ.A'l·..., L .. Skullcap. Usually found growing in tam· arack marihes. ScarCe. LATERIFLORA, L. 8kmllcap. Wet shady places. Rather com mon. LEONURUS CARDIAOA, L. Common Motherwort. Moist places, road sides, etc. Rather common. L.A.MIUM AMPLEXICAULE, L. Dead-Nettle. Waste places. Scarce. STACHYS PALUSTRIS, L.? Hedge-Nettle. Along the banks of streams. Scarce.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY. BORRAGINAOElE.-BORAGE FA..'1ILY. LITHOSPERMUM ARVENSE, L. Corn Gromwell. Sandy soil. Rather common some places. LATIFOLIUM, Michx. Borders of woods. Rare. HIRTUM, Lehm. Hoary Puccoon. 'Noods of sandy soil. Scarce. C....NASlJENS, Lehm. Hoary Puccoon. Open woods of sandy soil. Not common. ECHINOSPERMUM LAPPULA, Lehm. Stickseed. A common weed. CYNOGLOSSUM OFFICINALE, L. Common Hound's-Tongue. A common weed of waste grounds and pastures. MORISONI, DC. Beggar's Lice. A common weed of woods, copses, etc. VIRGINICUJ\!, L. Wild Comfrey. Oak woods of sandy soil. Scarce. HYDROPHYLLACElE.-WATERLEAF FAMILY. HYDROPHYLLUM VIRGINICUM, L. Waterleaf. Damp rich w00ds. Com mon. MACROPHYLLUM, Michx. Waterleaf. Rich woods. Searce. APPENDICULATUM, Michx. Water-Leaf. Common in rich woods. June, July. PH....CELIA PURSHII, Buckley. Hawpatch. Perry Township. POLEMONIACElE.-POLEMONIUM FAll-lILY. POLEMONIUM HEPTANS, L. Greek Valerian. Ill, dch woods south of Tippecanoe Lake, Noble Township. PHLox PILOSA, L. Phlox. A pretty plant, common on sandy soil throughout the coullty. Growing in open woods, borders of thickets, etc. May, June. DIYA.RICATA, L. Phlox. Wild Sweet-William. Rich woods. Very common. June. CONVOLVULACElE.-CoNVOLVULUS FAMILY. lPOM56
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
CALY8TEGIA SPITH.ilfEA, Pursh. Bindweed. railroad track!!. Plenti ful in many places. CUSCUTA GRONOVII, Willd. Dodder. A herb, common everywhere in low rich grounds. The yellowish and thread like stems climbing and twining ovet various other herbs and small shrubs. July, August. GLOMERATA, Choisy. Dodder. In York Township, in low grounds along the Elkhart River. Scarce.
SOLANACE1E.-NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. SOLANU1I1 DULCAMARA, L. Bittersweet. General, but not abundant. June, September. NIGRUM, L. Common Nightshade. Shady places. Common. July, September. CAROLINENSE, L. Horse Nettle. Scarce. July. PHYSALIS PHILADELPHICA, Lam. Ground Cherry. In waste grounds, some places, where it has escaped from cultivation. PUBESCENS, L. Ground Cherry. Fields. Not common. DATuRA S'l'.l{AlIIONIU1l1, L. Common Stramonium. Waate grounds. SCH,rce. TATULA, L. Purple Stramonium. Waete ground!!!. Very common.
GENTIANACE1E.-GENTIAN FAMILY.
FRASERA CAROLINE);,SIS, Walt. American Columbo. Dry woods. Orange, "Vayne, Green. Common. July.
GJ:NTIANA QUINQCf<:FLORA, Lam. Five·flowered Gentian. At places along the banks of the lake at Rome City. September. CRINITA, Froel. Friuged Gentian. A very pretty wild Hower, growing in moist grounds along the Elkhart in Orange; also at several places in York. August, September. DETONSA, Fries. Smaller Fringed Gentian. A small patch in Y(,Irk Township. Rare. ALBA, Muhl. White Gentian. A IImall patch in moist meadow, York Township. Rare. ANDREWSII, Griesb. Closed Gentian. Borders of swamps, general, but not abundant. September. BARTONIA TEN~jLLA, Muhl. Bartonia. A smaH herb, a few speciJDens at one place on the moist shore of a lake in Orange. Rare. August. MENYANTHES TRIFOLIATA, L. Buckbean. Moist shores of lakes very common at Pleasant Lake, Noble Township. May, June.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
57
APOCYNACE-,E -DOGBANE FAMCLY. APOCYNUM ANDROSlE)flFOLIUM, L. Spreading Dogball6. common. CANNABINUM, L. Indian Hemp Common.
Rather
ASCLEPIADACE}E.-MILKWEED FAMILY. ASCLEPIAS CORNUTI, Decaisne. Common Milkweed. Fields and road ~ide8. Common. PHYTOLACCO IDES, Pursh. Poke Milkweed. Rather common. PURPURASCENS, L. Purple Milkweed. Not common. VARIEGATA, L. Variegated Milkweed. Scarce. INCARNATA, L. Swamp Milkweed. Low grounds. Common. TUBEROSA, L. Butterfly-weed. Pleurisy-root. Scarce in the eastern part of the county, but common in the western part. OLEACE2E.-OLlVE FAMILY. FRAXINUS AMERICA, L. White Ash. A common and valuable forest tree. SA1trnUCIFOLU, Lam. Black or 'Vater Ash. A common tree of low grounds. QUADRANGULATA, Michx. Blue Ash. A forest tree, not very plentiful.
ARI8TOLOCHIACE2E.-BIRTHWORT FAl\llLY. ASARUM CANADENSE, L. Wild Ginger. Rich wood. Not common. ARILTOLOOillA SERPENTARIA, L. Virginia Rnakeroot. Rich beech woods. Very searce, A well known medical plant.
PHYTOLACCACE2E.-POKEWEEI> FAMILY. PHYTOLACCA DECANDRA, L. Common Poke or Scoke. A tall and stout plant. Common. CHENOPOCIACE2E.-GoosBFoOT FAMILY. CHENOPODIUM ALBUM. Pigweed. A very common homely weed. HYBRIOUM, L. Maple-leaved Goosefoot. Waste places. Scarce. BOTRYs, L. Jerusalem Oak. Feather Geranium. W8.lte places. Not rare.
58
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
AMARANTACElE.-AMARANTH FAMILY. AMARANTUS RETROFLEXUS, L. Pigweed. Green Amaranthus. A very common weed of cultivated grounds. PANICULA.TUS, L. Prince's Feather-of-the-Garden. Rarely es caped to waste grounds. ALBUS, L. Tumble weed. Waste places. Not plentiful.
POLYGONACElE.-BuCKwHEAT FAMILY. POLYGONUM ORIENTALE, L. Prince's Feather. Escaped. Scarce. CAREYI, Olney. Prince's Feather. Reported from this county by the editors of the Botanical Gazette. PENNSYLVANICUM, L. Moist places. Common. INCilARNATUM, Ell. Moist places. Common. PERSICARIA, L. Lady's Thumb. Common everywhere in damp places. June-August. HYDROPIP:J:R, L. Common Smartweed. Common. HYDROPJPEROIDES, Michx. Wild Water Pepper. Not very plentiful. AMPHIBIUM, L. Water Persicaria. shallow water. Rather common. V IRGINI.ANUM. Common in woods. AVICULARE, L. Door-weed. The commonest weed in yards. v AR. ERECTUM, Roth. Door-weed. Common everywhere with the last. ....RIFOLIUM, L. Halbert-leaved Tear-thumb. Low grounds. Common in the eastern part of county. SAGITTATUM, L. Arrow-leaved Tear-thumb. Low grounds. Common. DUMETORUM, L. Climbing False Buokwheat. A common plant. V....R. SCANDENS, Gray. Climbing False Buckwheat. Rich grounds of thickets, climbing high over bushes. F AGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM, Moench. Buckwheat. Remaining as a weed in fields after cultivation. RUMEX ORBICULATUS, Gray. Great Water Dock. Plant four to six feet high. Swamps. Scarce. VIlRTICILLA.TUS, L. Swamp Doek. Common. ORISPUS, L. Curled Dock. A very common weed of cultivated grounds and waste places. OBTUSIFOLIUS, L. Bitter Dock. With the last. Both are very unwelcome weeds of grain field·. ACETOSELLA, L. Field or sheep sorrel. Dry field. and road. sides. Very common.
FLORA rF NOBLE COUNTY.
59
LAURACE1E.-LAURAL FA:>IILY. SASSAFRAS OFFICINAI,E, Nees. Sassafras. A shrub or small tree. Sandy soil. Common. LINDERA BENZOIN, Menner. Spice bush. Rich woods. Common. THYJ\tIELEACE1E. -}IEZEREuM PAMILY. DIRCA PALUSTRIS, L. Leatherwood. Moose-wood. A small shrub of beech woods. Rather common. 8ANTALACE1E.-SANDALWOOD FAMILY. COMANDRA UMBELLATA,Nutt. Bastard Toad-flax. Dry open woods of sandy soil. Common. May. SAURURACE1E.-LIzARD' S'TAIL FAMII,Y. SACRURUS CERNUUS, L. Lizard's Tail. Moist places along streams in woods. Rather common. July. EUPHORBIACE1E.-SpURGE FAMII.Y. EUPHORBIA MACULATA, L. Spurge. A very common weed. HYPERICIFOLIA, L. Spurge. Plant one or two feet high. Very common in all cultivated fields. CORROLLATA, L. Flowering Spurge. Plant two to three fQat high. Sandy soil. Very common. CYPARISSIAS, L. Cypress Spurge. Escaped from gardens to roadsides, and has become quite abundant some places. COl\IlIfUTATA, L. Engelm. Spurge. Dry SB.udy soil. Scarce. ACALYPHA VmGINICA. Three-seeded Mercury. A very common homely weed. VIRGINICA, VAR. GRACILENS. Gray. Three-seeded Mercury. Rich SQils. Scarce. URTICACE1E.-NETTLE FAMILY. ULMUS FULVA, Mich. Slippery or Red Elm. A common forest tree. AMERICANA, L. White Elm. A very common forest tree. RACEMOSA, Thomas. Corky White Elm. Common. CELTIS OCCIDENTALIS, L. Sugarberry. Hackberry. "A emaIl, or middle-sized tree, with the aspect of an elm." Common in the low rich lands along streams.
60
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
MORUS RUBRA, L. Red Mulberry. "General but not abundant." URTICA GRACILIS, Ait. Nettle. A commol'l weed of fence rows and moist grounds. LAPORTEA CANADENSIS. Gaudichaud. Wood-Nettle. Everywhere in rich woods. July, September. PILEA PUMILA, Gray. Richweed. Clearweed. Cool shady places in woods. BOEHMERIA CYLINDRICA, Willd. False Nettle. Common. CANNABIS SATIVA, L. Hemp. 'Vaste grounds. Common. HUMULUS LUPULUS, L. Common Hop. Etscaped from cultivation at some places, while at others it is probably native.
PLATANACE..E. -PLANE-TREE FA:1fILY. PLATANUS OCCIDENTALIS, L. American Plane-tree. Sycamore. A large and well-known forest tree. Very common in rich soils along stres,ms. JUGLANDACElE.-walnut family. JUGLANS CINEREA., L. Butternut. White Walnut. A middle-sized forest tree. Common, especially in rich soils along streams. NIGRA, L. black walnut. A valuable forest tree. CARYA ALBA, Nutt. Shell-bark or Shag-bark Hickory. A common and valuable forest tree. SULCATA, Nutt. Western Shllll-bar'k: Hickory. A valuable forest tree. Not so common as the last. PORCINA, Nutt. Pig-nut HickQry. A common forest tree. AMARA, Nutt. Bitter-nut or Swamp Hickory. A forest tree. Common in moist soils. CUPULIFERlE.-OAK FAlIfILY. QUERCUS ALBA, L. 'White Oak. A common and very valuable forest tree. MACROCA.BP.A., Michx. Burr Oak. A common and valuable forest tree. PRINUS, VAH. ACUMINATA, Michx. Yellow Chestnut Oak. Valuable forest tree. Scarce. BICOLOR, Willd. Swamp 'White Oak. This specie also affords excellent timber. IMBRICAHIA, Michx. Laurel or Shingle Oak. A few specimeu seen i.n Orange, Green, Noble and Washington townships. A tree thirty to fifty feet high, with smooth shining leaves.
FLORA OF NOBLE OOUNTY.
61
COCCINEA, Wang. Scarlet Oak. A large or middle-eized forest tree, with much the appearance of the common Red Oak. Scarce. VAR. TINCTORIA, Gray. Black Oak. A middle-sized tree. Common. Sandy Boils. "This is probably entitled to the specific rank that Bartram first assigned it."-Editors of the Indiana Botanical Gazette. RUBRA, L. Red Oak. A very common and well-known forest tree. Timber used for rails. PALUSTRIS, Du R{)i. Pin Oak. Swamp or Spanish Oak. Scarce. F AGUa FERRUGINEA, Ait. American Beech. A common forest tree which affords excellent timber for fuel. CORYLUS AMERICANA, Walt. Wild Hazelnut. Sandy soiL Common. OSTRYA VIRGINICA, 'Yilld. American. Hop.Hornbeam. Leverwood. A small tree, common in all rich woods. The hop-like fruit very noticeable in August. CARPINUS AMERICANA, Michx. Hornbeam. Iron-wood. Blue or 'Yater Beech. A small tree growing in rich soil along streams, moist places in woods. Common.
BENTULACEЈ.-BIRCH FAMILY. BETULA LENTA, L. Cherry Birch. Sweet or Black Bireh. A few specimens seen in Orange Township in a low moist woods westof Wolcottville. There is also a marsh of several acres of birch, section 15, York Township; another, section 7, Jefferson Township. A middle·sized tree with cherry-like leaves, and sweet, aromatic bark with the fragrance of Wintergreen. Rare in Indiana. ALNUS SERRULATA, Ait. Smooth Alder. A small shrub, common on the borders of ponds, in peat bogs.
SALICACEЈ.-WILLOW FAMILY. SALIX CANDIDA, Willd. Hoary Willow. Usually in bogs. Not com mon. DISCOLOR. Glaucous Willow. Borders of ponds, etc. Common. PETIOLARIS, Smith. Petioled' ·Willow. Common in ewamps. LUCIDA, Muhl. Shining Willow. Most plentiful in the" flats" along the Elkhart River. A handsome species.
62
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
ALBA, L., VAR. VITElLINA, Gray. Yellow Willow. A middle·sized tree. Rather common. ~IYRTILLOIDES, L. Myrtle Willow. Quite a small shrub grow ing in cold peat bogs with cranberry vines. Not common.
, POPULUS TREMULOIDES, Michx. American Aspen. Quaking Asp. A small tree. Common. MONILIFERA, Ait. Cotton-wood. A middle-sized or large for est tree. Rather common. Timber not valuable.
CONIFER.:E.-PINE FAMILY. LARIX AMERICANA, Michx. Tamarack. A tall slender tree growing in swamps. Common. JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS, L. Common Juniper. A: small shrub. Scarce. JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA, L. Red Cedar. Several small trees on tlte north shore of Bear Lake.
ARACE.:E.-ARUM FAMILY. ARISAEMA TRIPIIYLLmI, Torr. Indian Turnip. Jack-in-the-Pulpit. Rich woods. Very common. ~Iay. DRACONTIUM, Sehott. Dragon-root. Low rich grounds along streams in woods. Common. June. PELTANDRA VIRGINICA, Raf. Arrow Arum. Growing in shallow water. Very common at Long Lake, Green Township. Sparingly at Bowen Lake (Green), and Round Lake, Wayne Township. June. CALLA PALUSTRIS, L. 'Vater Arum. In a swamp, in Orange, west of ltVolcottville, on roadside; also on roadside south of Tip pecanoe Lake, Noble Township, and section 17, Elkhart Township. A beautiful and interesting plant growing in shallow water. June. SYMPLOC.ARPUS F'-", '
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
68
W OLFFIA COLl;M1SIANA, Karsten. W olffia. "The simplest lind smallest of flowering plants." ~Gray. The plant floating as little grains near the surface of stagnant water. BRASILIENSIS, Weddell. W olffia. With the last. Plentiful at places in the lake at Rome City.
TYPHACElE.-CAT-TAIL FAMILY.
TYPHA LATIFOLIA, L. Common Cat-tailor Reed-mace. Common.
Swamps.
.
SPARGANUM EURYCARPUM, Engelen. Bur-reed. Along streams and
ponds. Common.
Sn.[PLEX, Hudson. Bur-reed. Not so common al the last.
NAIADACE1E.-PoNDwEED FAMILY.
POTAMOGETON NATANS, L Pondweed. An immersed aquatic plant. Common in lakeB and large streams. CLAYTONII, Tuckerman. Pondw,eed. Common in lakes. Plant growing under water. P. COMPREBSUS, L. Pondweed. Lakes. Common. P. GRAMINENS, L. P'mdweed. Lakes. Common.
ALISM:ACElE.-WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY.
ALISMA PLANTAGO, L., VAR. At.fERICANUM. Water Plantain. A common plant of pools and ditches. SAGITTARIA VARIABILIS, Engelm. Arrow-head. A rather handsome plant of marshes, Common. VARlABILDS, VAR. AUGU8TIFOLIA, Gray. At places in the west~rn part of the county. GRAMINEA, Mich:%.. Growing in shallow water and mud. Not common. HYDROCHARIDACElE.-FROG' 8-BIT F A:r.IILY. ANACHARlS CANADENSIB, Planchon. Waterweed. Ditch MOil!!. Pla.nt growing under water in }>Gnds, streams, and lakes. Plen tiful several places. ORCHIDACElE.-ORCHIS FAMILY. ORCHIS SPECT.A:BILIB, L. Showy Orchis. Rich woods. Scarce. May. HABENAlUA VIRIDIS, R. Br., JlRACTEATA. Reichenbach. Rein-Orchil!. One specimen.
-
64
~EPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
HOOKERf, Torr. Hooker's Orchis. rl'hree specimens, the only ones that have been found in the State. June. ORBICULATA, Torr. Gr~at Green Orchis. A few specimens · seen in rich woods of Allen Township. June. LEUCOPHAEA, Gray. White·flowered Prairie Orchis. Common at Pll"asant Lake, Noble Township. This plant has not been found at any other place in the State. July. LACERA, R. Br. Ragged Fringed Orchis. Growing in tama rack marshes. Rather common. July. PSYCODES, Gray. PUJ;ple Fringed Orchis. Low meadows and bogO', Scarce. July, August. GOODYERA PUBESCENS, R. Br. Rattlesaake Plantain. Growing in oak woods. Scarce. August. SPIRANTHES LATIFOLIA, Torr. Ladies' Tresses. A few specimens at Wible Lake, Wayne Township, the only ones that have heen f(Hmd in the State. June. CERNUA, Richard. Ladies' Tresses. Plant growing with cran berry vines on the low Ilhores of lakes. A few places in the county. Scarce. September. GRACILIS, Bigelow. Ladies' Tresses. Two specimens. Sec tion 15, York Township, August, 1892. POGONIA OPHIOGLOSSOIDES, Nutt. Pogonia. Plant growing in cranberry marshes and on the low grounds along the Elkhart River in York Township. June. Plentiful. PENDULA, Lindl. Pogonia Rich woods. Scarce. August. OALOPOGON PULCHEfJLUS, R. Br. Calopogon. Grass Pink. Plentiful. June. Calopogon and Pogonia ophioglossoides are always found in the same locality. LIPARIS LmsELu, Richard. Tway-blade. A few specimens at one place in a tamarack marsh. Plant very rare. June. CORALLORHIZA MULTIFLORA, Nutt. Coral-root. Dry woods. Not com mon. July, September. APLECTRUM HYEMALE, Nutt. Putty-root. Adam-and-Eve. Rich woods. Scarce. ~iay. CYPRIPEDIUM PUBESCENS, Willd. Large YeIlow Ladies' Slipper. Dry woods. Northern Wayne. Also of Orange, Green and York townships. Rather common. May, June. I3PECTABILE, Swartz. Showy Ladies' Slipper, Moist, shady places of tamarack swamps, bogs, etc. Scarce. Plant two feet high, very handsome, the most beautiful of the genus. June. PARVIFLORUM, Salish. Swaller, Yellow Ladies' Slipper. A few specimens in Birch ~iarsh, section 7, J eiferson Township, June, 1893.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
65
AOAULE, Ait. Stemless Ladies' Slipper. "In a tamarack swamp in Noble County."-Editors of the Botanical Gazette, 1881. The plants of the Orehis family are among the most inter esting of our herbs. All are remarkable for their beauty, and especially for the curious structure of the flowers. Several of these here mentioned were once, probably, quite common; but the pas~uring of the woodlands, and the draining of the low grounds, haa nearly exterminated them.
AMARYLLIDACKE.~AMARYLLIS FAlIIILY. Hypoxys ERECTA, L. Star-gras~. Sandy shorelil of moist meadows of Sparta and York townships. Rare.
IRIDACELE.~IRIS FAlIfILY. IRIS VERSICOLOR, L. Blue Flag. Wet places. Very common. May, June. SISYRINOHIUlIf BER:lrIUDIANA, L. Blue·eyed Grass. A handsome little wild flower, growing in moist meadows among grass. Plentiful, but not everywhere. June, July.
DIOSCOREACELE.-YAIII FAMILY. DIOSOOREAVIHOSA, L. ~Wild Yam-root. In thickets along streams. Not rare.
SMILACELE.~SlIHLAX FAMILY. SMILAX ROTUNDIFOLIA, L. Common Greenbriar. A shrubby, climbing plant armed with prickles. Thickets and fence rows. Common. HlSPIDA, Muhl. Hi~pid Greenbriar. Much like the last. Thickets along streams. Rather common. HERBACEA, L. carrion flower. Plant not prickly. Not common. LILIACELE.-LILY FAMILY, TRILLIUM SESSILE, L. ~WakerobiD. ~Woods. Common. May. GRANDIFLORUM, Salisb. Large 'Vhite Trillium or Wake robin. Widely scattered, but quite abundant some places. W oodli'. June. 5-GEOL.
!
66
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
TRILLIUM RECURVATUM, Beck. Trillium. Rich woods. Sparta Town ship. ERECTUM, L. Purple Trillium. Rich woods. Common. May. MEDEOLA VIRGINICA, L. Indian Cucumber-root. Rich woods. Scarce. ·June. TOFTEI.llIA GLTTTINOSA, Willd. FalBe Asphodel. Moist grounds along the Elkhart River in Orange Township. June, August. UVULARIA GRANDIFLORA, Smith. BelJwort. Rich woods. Common. June. PERFOLIATA, L. Bellwort. Rich woods. May. SMILACINA RACEMOSA, Desf. False Spikenard. Woods and copses. Common. Plant flowering in June. Fruit, numerous pale red berries, speckled with purple. Ripe in August. STELLATA, Desf. False Spikenard. Moist banks.. Not com mon. BIFOLIA, Ker. Two-leaved Solomon's Seal. A delicate little plant three to five inches high. Moi.t woods. Common. May. POLYGONATUM BIFLORUM, Ell. Smaller Solomon's Seal. Woods. Com mon. }\>fay. GIGANTEUM, Dietrich. Great Solomon's Seal. Western part of county. Plant growing in fence rows, open woods, etc. Not very common. ASPARAGUS OFFICINALIS, L. Garden Alparagus. Cultivated in gar dens, but rarely escaped into waste places. LILIUM PHILADELPHICUM, L. Wild Orange-red Lily. A showy plant two feet high. Very plentiful in York and Sparta town ships. June. CANADENSE, L. Wild Yellow Lily. Generally distributed, but not abundant. July. SUPERBURN, L. Turk's.cap Lily. Widely distributed, but not abundant. Ju,ly. ERYTHBONIUM AMERICANUM, Smith. Yellow Adder's Tongue. Woods. Common. April, May. ALLIUM TRICOCCUM, Ait. Wild Leek. Rich woods. Common. June. CEID,'lJUM, &th. Wild Onion. Seen at a few placee in the western part of the couniy. Dry banks of open woodlands, etc. Scaree. July. CANADENSE, Kalm. Wild Garlic. Rich woods. Common. June;
FLORA OF NOBL~ COUNTY.
67
JUNCACElE.-RuSH FArlllLY. LUZULA. CAMPESTRIS, DC. Wood Rush. Open woodlands. Common. May. A grass-like plant a foot high. JUNCUS E1!'FUSUS, L. Common or Soft Rush. Low grounds. Very common. TENUIS, Willd. Rush. A wiry-stemmed plant, ten to fifteen inches high. Very common everywhere in moist grounds of fields, roadsides, yards, etc. NODOSUS, L. Knotty-Leaved Rush. Plant II. foot high, grow ing in swamps about lakes. Not common. August. VAR MEGACEPHALUS, Torr. Knotty-Leaved Rush. Plant two feet high, growing on the moist shores of lakes. Not com mon. August. CANADENSIS, J. Gray, VAR. LONGICAUDATus,Engelm. Knotty Leaved Rush Plant two to four feet high, growing in · cold peat bogEi. Not common. September. PONTEDERIACElE.-PwKEREL-WEED FAMILY. PONTEDERIA CORDATA, L. Pickerel-weed. A showy herb, two feet high, bearing a single stemleaf and a spike of blue flow ers. Plant growing in the shallow water of the muddy shores of lakes and ditches. Very plentiful at the lakes, section 30, Green Township. Sparingly at several other places, but mostly of the western part of the county. July, September. SCHOLLERA GRAMINEA, Willd. Water Star-grass. A grass-like herb, growing wholly under water or on the muddy shores of lakes. Scarce. July, August.
COMMELINACElE.-SPTDERWORT FAMILY. TRADESCANTIA VIRGINICA, L. . Common Spiderwort. Very plentiful in York and Sparta townships. June, July. CYPERACElE.-SEDGE FAMILY. CYPERUS DIANDRUS, L. Moist grounds. Common. August. STRIGOSUS, L. Moist grounds. Common. DULIOHIUM SPATHAOEUM, Pers. Dulichium. Marshy grounds. Com mon. July, September.
68
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
ELEOCHARIS OBTU8A, Schultes. Spike RU(Ilh. Muddy places. Very common. June. PALU8TRIS, R. Br. Spike Rush. Low grassy grounds about lakes. Not common. TENUIS, Schultes. Spike Rush. Low moist meadows. Rather common. June. ACICULARIS, R. Br. Spike Rush. Muddy shores of lakes. Scarce. August. SCIBPU8 PUNGENS, Vah!. Bulrush. Stems triangular, four feet high. Plant growing at places along the Elkhart River. Also at Eagle Lake, tlparta Township. July. VALIDUS. Vahi. Great Bulrush. Very common. June. FLUVIATILIS, Gray. River Club-rush. Common along the Elkhart River in York Township. ATRovmENS, Muhl. Borders of ponds and bogs. Common. ERIOPHORUJlI, Michx. Wool-Grass. Plant four and five feet high. Moist place of fields and swamps. Very common. August. ER!OPHORU1t1 VmGINWml, L. Cotton-Grass. Bogs and low grounds about lakes. Rather common. July. POLYSTACHYON, L. Cotton-Grass. Bogs. Rather common. GRACILE, Koch. Cotton-Grass. Bogs. Not common. RHYNCHOSPORA ALBA, Vah!. White Beak-Rush. Low gras~y grounds of lakes. Not plentiful. August. CLAD1U1tr MARISCOIDES, Torr. Twig-Rush. Low grassy grounds of lakes. Rather common. JUly. The above five plants are most plentiful in the western part of the county. CAREX S'fEUDELII, Kunth. Sedge. Woods. Common. May. VULPINOIDEA, Michx. Sedge. Common. June. STIPATA, Muh!. f::Iedge. Common. June. CEPHALOPHORA, Muh1. Sedge. Woods. Scarce. May. ROSEA, Schk. Sedge. Woods. May. 'fENELLA, Schk? Sedge. A very slender grass-like plant. Common in tamarack swamps. STELLULATA, L. Sedge. Rather common. June. LAGOPODIOIDES, Schk. !3edge. Moist places of fields and roadsides. Very common. July. STRAMINEA, . Schk. Sedge. Common. June. . SCOPARIA, Schk. Sedge. Not common. CRlNlTA, Lam. Sedge. Common. May. GRISEA, Wah!. Sedge. Scarce. May. GRACILLIMA, Schew. Sedge. Open moist woodlands. Com mon. June.
·
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
69
PLANTAGINEA, Lam. Sedge. Moist, woodlands. (Jommon. May. LAXIFLORA, Lam. Sedge. Open woodlands. Common. May. YAR. STYLOFLEXA, Bott. Sedge. With the last. Common. May. YAR. BLANDA, Carey. Sedge. With the last. Common. May. VAR. LATIFOLIA, Bott. Sedge. With the last. Common. May. HITCHCOCKIANA, Dew. Sedge. Woods. Common. May. PE::>NSYLYANICA, Lam. Sedge. Not plentiful. Woods. May. FLAYA, L. Sedge. "Noble County."-Editors Botanical Gazette. ARISTATA, R. :Hr. Sedge. Moist open woodlands. Rather common. June. OOMOSA, Bott. Sedge. In swamps. Not plentiful. June. PSEUDO-CYPERUS, L. Sedge. "Noble County." -Catalogue Indiana Plants. HYSTRICINA, WiUd. Sedge. Scarce. June. TEN1'ACULATA, Mubl. Sedge. Swamps. Not plentiful. June. INTUMEBCENS, Rudge. Sedge. Moist shady places of woods. Rather common. June. . GRAYlI, Carey. Sedge. With the last. Rather common. June. LVPULINA, Muhl. Sedge. Moist, open places. Very common. June, July. STENOLEPIB, Torr. Sedge. Moist places. Common. July. UTRICULATA, Bot1J. Sedge. Growing in swamps. Rather common. June. TuCCERMANI, Bott? Sedge. Low places of woods. Rather common. The Sedges ltre usually known as " wild grasses."
GRAMINE1E.-GRAss FAlIIILY. LEERSIA ORYZOIDES, Swartz. Rice Cut-Grass. Low wet places. Com mon. August. ZIZANIA AQUATICA, L. Indian Rice. Water Oats. Plant six to nine feet high. Common a~ong the Elkhart River in York Township. August. ALOPECURuS ARISTULATUB, Mich:x. Wild Foxtail Grass. In water and wet places. A few specimens seen in Orange and Green townships. June. Rare in Indiana.
70
REPORT OF STATE GEOLOGIST.
PHLEllI PRATENSE, L. Timothy. Cultivated for hay. Common every where. AGROSTIS SCABRA, ·Willd. Hair Grass. Scarce. VULGARIS, With. Red-top. Wet plaees. Common. ALBA, L? White Bent-Grass. Scarce. CIN~A ARUNDINACEA, L. Wood Reed-Grass. Swamps. Not common. August. MUHLENIlEEGIA DIFFUSA, Schreber. Drop-seed Grass. Rather common. CALAMAGROTlS CANADENSIS, Beauv. Blue Joint·Grass. \Vet groundli. Rather common. SPARTINA CYNOSUROIDES, 'Villd. Fresh-water Cord-Grass. A few speci mens seen in a mMsa in Noble Township. Plant three to six feet high; leaves narrow, about one-half inch wide, and two to four feet long. Rare in Indiana. August. DACTYLOCTENIUM ЈGYPTIACUM, Willd. Egyptian Grass. Fields and yards. Common. ELEUSINE INDICA, Galrtn. Wire Grass. Common. Yards. DACTYLIS GLOMEl'tATA, L. Orchard Grass. Cul.tivated. Common. EATONIA PENNSYLVANICA, Gray. Moist woods. Scarce. GLYCERIA ELONGATA, Trin. Mana Grass. Moist woods. Scarce. July. NERVATA, Trin. Fowl-l\tleadow Grass. Moist meadows. Common. PALLIDA, Trin. Fowl-Meadow Grass. Common. POA ANlWA, L. L. Low Spear-Grass. Very common. COMPRESSA, L. 'Vire Grass. Common. July. PRATENSIS, L. Blue Grass. Common. June. FEsTucA ELATIOR, L. Meadow Fescue. Moist meadows. Common. June. NUTANS, W'illd. Meadow Fescue. Moist copses. Common. June. BROltIUS SECALINUS, L. Cheat or Che8s. Too common in wheat fields. RACEltIOSUS, L. Upright Chess. In grainfields. Probably scarce. CILIATUS, L. Wild Chess. l\-loist woods. Rather common. July. PHRAGMITES CO:alMUNIS, Trin. Reed Grass. Very tall, ten to twelve feet high. Branches of the Elkhart River. HORDEUM JUIlATUM, L. Squirrel·tail Gra.."8. A few specimens seen in the western part of the county. Rare in Indiana. PANICUM CAPILIJARE, L. Old-witch Grass. Sandy soil and cultivated fields in the northern and western part of county. Not abundant. SANGUINALE, L. Finger-Grass. Cultivated grounds. Common. LATlFOLIUJl-l, L. Witch GraBS. Thickets. July. CRUS-GALLI, L. Barnyard GraBS. Very Common. August, September.
FLORA OF NOBLE COUNTY.
71
SETA1UA GLAUCA. Foxtail Grass. Common. VIRIDIS. Green Foxtail Grass. Common. CENCHRUS TRIBULOIDES, L. Bur Grass. Seen at few places on sandy soil, wpere it has proba~ly been introduced. A trouble some weed. ANDROPOGON PURCATUS, Muhl. Beard Grall5. Sandy soil. Northern and western part of the county. August, September.
EQUISETACElE.-HoRSE.TAIL FAMILY. EQUISETUM ARVENSE, L. Common Horsetail. Moist sandy Boil. Very common. April, May. HYEMALE, L. Scouring Rush. Wet banks. Rather common.
FILICES.-FERNS. POLYPODIUM VULGARE, L. Polypody Fern. A common plant of moil'lt woods. ADIANTUM PEDATUM, L. Maiden-hair Fern. Moist woods. Common. July, August. PTERIS AQUILINA, L. Brake Fern. Scarce. ASPLENIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM, Michx. Spleenwert Fern. Moist woods. Rather common. THELITTEROIDES, Michx. Spleenwort Fern. Rich moist woods. Rather common. FILIX-FCEMINA, Bernh. Spleenwort Fern. Rich moist woods. Rather common. July. ASPIDIUM THELYPTERIS, Swartz. Wood Fern. Swamps. Rather common. NovEBoRAcENsE, Swartz. Wood Fern. Moist woods. Com mon. July. ACROSTICHOIDES, Swartz. Wood FerN. Woods. Not com mon. July. CYSTOPTERIS FRAGILlS, Bernh.? Bladder-Fern. Woods. Not com mon. July. ONOCLEA SENSIBILIS, L. Sensitive Fern. Moist woods. Common· ·Tuly. OSMUNDA REGALIS, L. Flowering Fern. Found in Noble County. Catalogue Indiana Flora. CLAYTONIANA, L. Flowering Fern. CINNA.~OMEA, Cinnamon Fern.
These three species grow in low, wet woods, and in swamps; and are the largest of the ferns. Specimens four to Bix feet in height are common. BOTRYCHIUM VIRGINIUM, Swartz. Moonwort-Fern. Moist woods. Very C6mmon. June, July.

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