Glossary and topical index, HP Abbott

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Content: Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-88719-9 - The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative, Second Edition H. Porter Abbott Index More information Glossary and topical index
What follow are definitions of useful terms for discussing narrative. Terms in bold face are the terms that are essential and that have been emphasized in this book. Other terms (in italics) have been included because they have either proven their use or been used so often that they are now unavoidable in the discussion of narrative. This glossary also serves as a topical index for the book.
Act: Action: Adaptation: Adaptive reading: Agency: Agon or conflict: Analepsis: 228
An event caused by a character (as opposed to a happening). The sequence of events in a story. The action and the entities are the two basic components of story. Some prefer the term "events," since "action" is also used synonymously with act. 7, 13, 19, 121, 130, 132, 133, 163, 173, 184 The transmutation of a narrative, usually from one medium to another. See adaptive reading. 112 One of three fundamental modes of interpretation (see also intentional and symptomatic readings). Adaptive readings range from interpretations freed from concerns for overreading or underreading to fresh adaptations of the story either in the same medium or in a different one, as, for example, the film versions of Flaubert's Madame Bovary or Shakespeare's Henry V. 80, 106, 109, 209 The capacity of an entity to cause events (that is, to engage in acts). Characters by and large are entities with agency. Agency is often linked to the capacity to act with intent. 131 Most narratives are driven by a conflict. In Greek tragedy, the word for the conflict, or contest, is the "agon." From that word come the terms protagonist and antagonist. 55, 56, 171, 173, 175, 181, 193, 197 Flashback. The introduction into the narrative of material that happens earlier in the story. The opposite of prolepsis. 165, 194
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Antagonist: Author: authorial intention: Autobiography: Beginning and end: Central intelligence:
Glossary and topical index 229 The opponent of the protagonist. He or she is commonly the enemy of the hero. 55, 177 A real person who creates a text. The author is not to be confused with either the narrator or the implied author of a narrative. 40, 68, 69, 84, 86, 102, 103, 104, 106, 147, 148, 149 The author's intended meanings or effects. The concept of authorial intention took a beating in the twentieth century on a variety of grounds. It has been argued that authorial intention is indeterminable; that authors are as fallible as the rest of us in reading their own work and therefore unreliable guides to reading; that the idea of an author essentializes and presumes to fix an identity that is indeterminate and fluid; and finally that seeking authorial intention encourages the idea of a single privileged meaning for a narrative even though narratives are necessarily plural in their meanings. But don't count this concept out. We seem strongly inclined, in spite of all arguments, to read for authorial intention. Witness, for example, how authors continue to be praised or blamed for the meanings and effects readers attribute to them. An important related, but distinct, concept is that of the implied author. See intentional reading. 84 A narrative about the author, purporting implicitly or explicitly to be true in the sense of nonfictional. Autobiographies come in many forms, even in third-person narration, as in The Education of Henry Adams. Autobiography is another one of those porous concepts, and the field abounds in narratives that seem to fall in a generic no-man's land between autobiography and fiction, as in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man or Maxine Hong Kingston's The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood among Ghosts. 53, 68, 81, 138­142, 158 Though the meanings of these concepts would seem to be obvious, their functions can be both complex and crucial. Sometimes the end can relate to a narrative the way a clinching point does to an argument. Bear in mind, too, that neither the beginning nor the end of the narrative discourse necessarily corresponds to the beginning or end of the story. Epic narratives, for example, traditionally begin in the middle of the story (in medias res). See closure. 28, 30, 56, 57 See focalization.
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230 Glossary and topical index
Character: Chronotope: Closure: Constituent and supplementary events:
Human or humanlike entity. Sometimes the broader terms "agent" or "actor/actant" are used for character. Characters are any entities involved in the action that have agency. These would include, in addition to persons, any quasi-volitional entities like animals, robots, extraterrestrials, and animated things. E. M. Forster distinguished between "flat" and "round" characters. The former can be "summed up in a single phrase" and usually have no existence outside of a single dominating quality. Round characters cannot be summed up in the same way and are not predictable. In this sense, they have depth. 19, 51, 116, 117, 121, 130, 132, 137, 183, 187 Bakhtin's multidimensional term for the complex ways in which narrative time "thickens" as it moves along. 161, 165, 167 When a narrative ends in such a way as to satisfy the expectations and answer the questions that it has raised, it is said to close, or to have closure. Notice that there is a distinction here between "expectations" and "questions." By expectations are meant kinds of action or event that the narrative leads us to expect (the gun introduced in Chapter One that has to go off in Chapter Three). King Lear, for example, satisfies the expectations that are aroused early on when we perceive that its narrative pattern is tragedy. We expect among other things that Lear will die, and he does. But major questions are raised over the course of the play that for many viewers are not answered by the conclusion. So for many, King Lear has tragic closure (giving satisfaction at the "level of expectations") but not closure of understanding (giving satisfaction at the "level of questions"). See end. 56, 59, 67, 68, 87, 88, 89, 90, 97, 157, 194, 205, 212 Also referred to as "bound' and "free motifs" (Tomashevsky), kernels and satellites (Chatman) and nuclei and catalyzers (Barthes), these concepts distinguish two fundamental kinds of events in narrative. Constituent events are essential to the forward movement of the story (Barthes also called them "cardinal functions"); they are not all necessarily "turning points," but at the least they are essential to the chain of events that make up the story. Supplementary events are not necessary to the story; they seem to be extra. The distinction between constituent and
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Crux: Diegesis Direct style: Discordant narrator:
Glossary and topical index 231 supplementary events is often helpful because it reminds us to ask the question: Why has this supplementary event been included in this narrative? Since it is not necessary to advance the story, why did the implied author see fit to include it? Like many of our distinctions, however, this one is not always obvious ­ one reader's constituent event may be another's supplementary event. 22, 24, 35, 36, 51, 60, 95, 97, 115, 140, 178, 182, 190 A critical point, often a gap, in a fictional narrative where there is an insufficiency of cues, or where cues are sufficiently ambiguous, to create a major disagreement in the intentional interpretation of the narrative. Whether or not Heathcliff killed Hindley Earnshaw in Wuthering Heights is such a crux because how we might fill the gap determines whether or not we see Heathcliff as capable of murder. 92, 95, 98 (1): Strictly speaking, this is the telling of a story. It goes back to Plato's distinction between two ways of presenting a story: as mimesis (acted) or as diegesis (told). (2): Frequently "the diegesis" is used to refer to the storyworld, the world created by the narration. Narratologists also speak of levels of diegesis. The "diegetic level" consists of all those characters, things, and events that are in the storyworld of the primary narrative. A narrator who belongs to that world, like Jake Barnes in Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises, is a homodiegetic narrator. But there can be other events and characters in the text that are not in the primary narrative at all but in a storyworld located outside it. Such framing narratives exist on a heterodiegetic level. Chaucer's pilgrims are heterodiegetic narrators when they tell their tales. If the narrator is situated outside any of the diegetic levels of a narrative, he or she is considered extradiegetic, as, say, the voice that narrates Tolstoy's Anna Karenina. 75, 165 The direct expression of a character's speech or thought, either "untagged" or "tagged" (set off from the narration by quotation marks and other indicators like "he said," "she thought"): "It was a hot day. Elspeth wondered to herself: `What on earth am I doing lugging stones on a day like this?'" Also called direct discourse. See indirect style, free indirect style, and interior monologue. 51, 69, 70, 77, 78 See unreliable narrator. 77, 84
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232 Glossary and topical index
Distance: Electronic narrative: Embedded narrative: Emplotment: End: Entity: Event: Existent: Extradiegetic narration: Fabula and sjuzet: Fiction:
Used in two main senses: 1) the narrator's emotional distance from the characters and the action (the degree of his or her involvement in the story); and 2) the distance between the narrator's moral, emotional or intellectual sensibilities and those of the implied author. A narrator's distance (in both senses) affects the extent to which we trust the information we get from the narrator and assess its moral and emotional coloring. 74, 75, 80, 97 Now used primarily to refer to narrative forms that take advantage of computer and on-line technology to achieve effects unique to these media. These include, notably, effects enabled by the hypertext function. The "role-playing game," a hybrid with fascinating implications for narrative theory, migrated to the computer in the 1980s and to the internet in the 1990s. See hypertext narrative. 32, 37 Commonly, a "story within a story," or a narrative nested in a framing narrative. Ryan and Palmer have encouraged expanding the meaning of narrative embedding to include all those micro-narratives that characters imagine in the ordinary course of their thinking or conversation. 28, 30, 38, 50, 167, 169 See plot. 155 See beginning and end. 56, 57, 207, 209 Also referred to as "existents" or "actors and actants," entities comprise one of the two basic components of a story, the other being the events or action. Humanlike entities capable of agency are referred to as characters. But we can also tell stories of insentient objects incapable of action on their own ­ of a planet, for example, and how it was struck out of its course by an immense asteroid. It would be an error to refer to such entities as characters, particularly if scientific objectivity is at a premium. 19 The fundamental unit of the action. Also called an "incident," an event can be an act (a kick or a kiss), or a happening when no character is causally involved (a bolt of lightning). 4, 8, 13, 22, 36, 164, 173, 184 See entity. See diegesis, metalepsis. 80, 81, 169 See story. 18 Made-up, as opposed to factual. As a noun it refers to the whole range of made-up narratives that stand opposed to "nonfictional" genres of narrative like
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Glossary and topical index 233
First-person narration: Flat and round characters: Focalization: Forking-path narrative: Frame and framing narrative:
history, biography, autobiography, reportage, etc. 145, 147 Conventionally, narration by a character who plays a role in the story narrated. Note that there are many examples of narrators who are not characters in the story but who talk in the "first person" ­ sometimes at length (the narrative persona of Henry Fielding, for example, in Tom Jones). These are not usually considered "first-person" narrators because they tell the story in the third person. For this reason, Geґrard Genette found greater utility in the distinction between homodiegetic and heterodiegetic narration. 70, 71, 72, 75 See character. 133, 134 The position or quality of consciousness through which we "see" events in the narrative. In British and North American criticism, the phrase point of view has been used for this concept, or something quite close to it, but point of view is more general and often includes the concept of voice. "Focalization" may be more polysyllabic, but it is more exact. Usually the narrator is our focalizer, but it is important to keep in mind that focalizing is not necessarily achieved through a single consistent narrative consciousness. Focalization can change, sometimes frequently, during the course of a narrative, and sometimes from sentence to sentence, as it can, for example, in free indirect style. Sometimes a novelist will rely on a single character as a focalizer. Henry James called such a figure a reflector or central intelligence. In James's The Ambassadors, Lambert Strether serves this function. In this study, I present focalization and voice as companion concepts. Both frequently convey a sensibility, the one through what we "see," the other through what we "hear." 73, 74, 123, 125, 155 Narrative in which two or more incompatible worlds cohabit in the same diegetic level. See metalepsis. 167, 169, 173, 174 The term "frame" is used in so many ways in discussions of narrative that it is important to define how you are using it. It can refer to the way a shot is framed in a film or, more broadly, the way a scene is framed in a play or novel. It can refer to the templates, or frames, in our mind that we bring to a narrative and that are elicited and perhaps manipulated by the text or that
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Free indirect style: Gaps: Genre: Gutter: Happening:
impose their own constructions on a text. Another use of the term refers to any preliminary and/or concluding material in a narrative not essential to the story. More specifically such a frame can be a framing narrative, that is, a narrative that frames an embedded narrative. 28, 29, 38, 51, 79, 169, 171, 180 Third-personnarration in whicha character's thoughts or expressions are presented in the character's voice without being set off by quotation marks or the usual addition of phrases like "he thought" or "she said" and without shifting into grammatical first-person discourse: "It was a hot day. What on earth was she doing lugging stones on a day like this?" Here, the second sentence is marked by Elspeth's intonations, but it is cast in the third person and in the past tense, neither of which she would use, were she speaking or thinking this question. Also called free indirect discourse. See direct style, indirect style, interior monologue. 70, 77, 78, 80, 149 The inevitable voids, large or small, in any narrative that the reader is called upon to fill from his or her experience or imagination. In the intentional interpretation of fictional narrative, this process is limited to what is consistent with the text and its cues. In historical and other forms of nonfiction narrative, it is possible to fill critical gaps through further research. See crux. 90, 95, 97, 98, 101, 121, 123, 132, 133, 134, 156, 157, 183, 184, 195, 209, 212 A recurrent literary form. There are narrative and nonnarrative genres. The novel, the epic, the short story, the ballad are all examples of narrative genres. Genres can be highly specialized. The Bildungsroman, for example, tells the story of its hero's coming of age. It is a genre that fits within the larger genre of the novel. Sometimes, genres can be so discrete and specialized that scholars use the term "sub-genre" to describe them. 2, 14, 49, 58, 61, 102, 151, 154, 155 The space between frames in a cartoon comic sequence. The gutter is a form of narrative gap that is built into the medium of the comic strip. It is the space in which the reader imagines events unfolding in time. 112 One of the two kinds of event in a narrative. Unlike actions, happenings occur without the specific agency of a character.
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Glossary and topical index 235
Heterodiegetic narration: See diegesis. 75, 80, 169
Homodiegetic narration: See diegesis. 75, 80, 167, 169
Hypertext narrative:
Narrative conveyed in electronic media (on CD or on-
line) that capitalizes on hypertext capability to permit
(or require) the reader to switch attention instantly
to other lexia ­ texts or graphics, which may (but not
necessarily) be different segments of the narrative dis-
course. See electronic narrative. 32, 34
Implied author:
Neither the real author nor the narrator, the implied
author is the idea of the author constructed by the
reader as she or he reads the narrative. In an intentional
reading, the implied author is that sensibility and
moral intelligence that the reader gradually constructs
to infer the intended meanings and effects of the nar-
rative. The implied author might as easily (and with
greater justice) be called the "inferred author." 65, 76,
77, 84, 86, 87, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100, 102, 109, 135,
152
Implied reader (implied audience): Indirect style: Intentional reading: Interior monologue:
As the implied author should be kept distinct from the actual author, so the implied reader should be kept distinct from the actual reader. The implied reader is not necessarily you or I but the reader we infer to be an intended recipient of the narrative. Some argue that the implied reader is the reader the implied author writes for. See also narratee. 76, 94 Speech or thinking of a character rendered in the narrator's own words: "It was a hot day. Elspeth asked herself why she should be lugging stones on a day such as that." If it is not as common as directly quoted speech, in most novels this is the commonest way of rendering a character's thoughts. Another term for indirect thought is "thought report." See direct style, free indirect style, interior monologue. 69, 70, 77, 78, 149 An interpretation that seeks to understand a text in terms of the intended meanings of its implied author. See symptomatic reading, adaptive reading. 86, 89, 90, 102, 108, 109, 135, 137, 208 Any of a number of radical experimental modes of direct style used to convey the thinking and feeling of a character without the usual grammatical tags (e.g., quotation marks or the phrases "he thought" or "she thought"). "Interior monologue" is sometimes used interchangeably with the phrase "stream
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Interpretation: Intertextuality: Kernels and satellites: Lexia: Masterplots:
of consciousness." My preference is to use the latter to describe how thinking and feeling occur and the former for the actual conveyance of that stream of thinking/feeling. See indirect style, free indirect style. 70, 78, 149 The act of expressing in one's own way the meanings ­ including ideas, values, and feelings ­ communicated by a text. Interpretation can take a number of forms. Commonly it is found in critical writing. But the production of a play is often referred to as an "interpretation" of the play, and even a narrative can be seen as an interpretation of a story that has been told before. In this book, I distinguish three kinds of interpretation: intentional readings, symptomatic readings, and adaptive readings. 24, 28, 40, 67, 68, 83, 84, 100, 101, 155 The condition of all texts, including narratives, as composed of preexisting texts. Intertextuality can be distinguished from "allusion" and "imitation" as an inevitable, rather than a necessarily selective, condition of texts. It is based on the assumption that we can only express ourselves through words and forms that are already available to us. In this view, the work of even the most original artists draws throughout from the work of predecessors. The power of such work must lie in the way it recontextualizes the multitude of bits that have been cannibalized in this way. 101, 102, 113 See constituent and supplementary events. Roland Barthes in S/Z called lexia the "units of meaning" in a text, "blocks of signification" which amount to anything from a few words to several sentences. The term has since been adapted in discourse on electronic narrative to refer to passages of varying length triggered by hypertext linking. See hypertext narrative. 33 Recurrent skeletal stories, belonging to cultures and individuals that play a powerful role in questions of identity, values, and THE UNDERSTANDING of life. Masterplots can also exert an influence on the way we take in new information, causing us to overread or underread narratives in an often unconscious effort to bring them into conformity with a masterplot. As masterplots, by their nature, recur in many different narrative versions, it is at least a technical mistake to employ the common term "master narrative" for this concept. See plot. 19, 46, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58, 61, 94, 97, 127, 138, 139, 140, 155, 185, 189, 195, 197
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Medium: Melodrama: Metalepsis: Mimesis: Montage: Motif: Narratee: Narration: Narrative:
Glossary and topical index 237 The vehicle conveying a narrative ­ written language, film, oil paint, fabric, lithe bodies moving silently on a stage. Some of these media would be considered unfit for narrative by the first set of scholars referred to in the definition of narrative below. 79, 80, 112­127 Sensational narratives deploying flat characters who are either very good or very bad and who often speak in overwrought language. Originally used to describe plays, the term is frequently used in a derogatory way to describe narratives in other media. 55, 133, 207 A violation of narrative levels, usually in which the diegesis, or storyworld, is invaded by an entity or entities from another narrative level or even from outside the narrative altogether, as for example when an extradiegetic narrator enters the action, or a "spectator" leaps on stage and becomes a part of the action, or the "author" appears and starts quarrelling with one of the characters. See forking-path narrative. 169, 173, 174 The imitation of an action by performance. According to Plato, mimesis is one of the two major ways to convey a narrative, the other being diegesis or the representation of an action by telling. By this distinction, plays are mimetic, epic poems are diegetic. Aristotle (Plato's student) used the term "mimesis" as simply the imitation of an action and included in it both modes of narrative representation. 121 Literally, in French, "assembly." The art of editing film by connecting disparate shots one after another. 18, 121, 123, 124 A discrete thing, image, or phrase that is repeated in a narrative. Theme, by contrast, is a more generalized or abstract concept that is suggested by, among other things, motifs. A coin can be a motif, greed is a theme. 99 Prince's coinage for the narrator's intended audience. The professionals on the deck of the Nellie are Marlowe's narratees in Heart of Darkness. The narratee is not to be confused with the reader, real or implied, nor do all narrators have narratees. 14 The telling of a story or part of a story. Often used indistinguishably from narrative, narration as it is used here is a subset of verbal narrative, referring to the activity of a narrator. 68, 75, 169, 171 The representation of a story (an event or series of events). Some scholars have argued that there cannot
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Narrative discourse: Narrativity: Narratology: Narrator:
be a narrative without someone to tell it (a narrator), but this view would exclude most drama and film, which, though they present stories, usually do so without a narrator. Narratives consist of two main components: the story and the narrative discourse. The story as narrated ­ that is, the story as rendered in a particular narrative. Some narratologists use the term plot for this concept, but this can be confusing because in English we commonly use "plot" and "story" interchangeably. Note that the distinction between "story" and "story as narrated" can be taken to imply that stories exist independently of narrative presentation ­ in other words, the same story can be narrated in more than one way. 15, 16, 24, 33, 34, 47, 115, 116, 146, 154, 155, 193 A disputed term, used here to mean the degree to which a text generates the impression that it is a narrative. Prince coined the term "narrativehood" to refer to the bare minimum required for a narrative to be recognized as a narrative. There are no degrees of narrativehood. 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 42, 44, 45, 148 Coined by Tzvetan Todorov in 1969, narratology is the descriptive field devoted to the systematic study of narrative. Though it was originally conceived as a subfield of the structuralist study of literature, narratology has grown and continues to grow well beyond its origins in both scope and diversity of method. For this reason, scholars increasingly prefer the more inclusive term "narrative theory." Many of the terms in this glossary come from the work of narratologists. 201 One who tells a story. The narrator of fictional narrative is not to be confused with the author or the implied author, though in some cases it is hard to distinguish their views from those of the implied author. The narrator is best seen as a tool, devised by the implied author, to narrate the story. Thus, there are many unreliable narrators who can't possibly be confused with the author. Some hard-line narratologists would argue that the distinction between the narrator and the author should hold for all forms of narrative, including nonfiction forms like history and even autobiography. At the least, this position raises interesting philosophical questions involving the relation of voice, character, and identity (whose voice is this you are reading now? Is it my voice or is it the voice of a character-like entity I created to present these ideas ­ a
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Naturalizing: Normalizing: Omniscient narration: Overreading and underreading: Paratext: Performative:
Glossary and topical index 239 mask that I wear in print, my persona?). See narration. 14, 15, 51, 68, 77, 84, 93, 94, 97, 98, 148, 149, 164, 166, 167, 169, 170 Culler's term for the operation by which readers or viewers impose familiarity on a narrative, usually by overreading or underreading. Fludernik has adapted the term to mean the process by which new narrative forms that are at first strange (e.g. interior monologue) acquire an aura of naturalness through repeated use. See normalizing. 51, 168, 169, 172, 174 The power of narrative form, and particularly of masterplots, to convey a sense of reality or truth. See naturalizing. 44, 46, 49, 53, 156 Narration by a narrator assumed to know everything connected with the story narrated. Though it is widely used, this is a troublesome term that is finally more confusing than helpful. There are, it is true, narrators who seem to know everything, but no narration was ever omniscient (literally "all-knowing"). All narration is riddled with blind spots ­ gaps ­ which we must fill from our limited knowledge. See third-person narration. 73 The activities of importing into a text material that is not signified within it (overreading) or of neglecting material that is signified within it (underreading). Both would appear to be inevitable to some degree. Reducing them to a minimum could be said to be the object of an intentional reading. 86, 88, 89, 90, 91, 94, 97, 101, 107, 134, 140, 208 Genette's term for material outside the narrative that is in some way connected to it. Paratexts can be physically attached to the narrative vehicle ("peritexts"): prefaces, tables of contents, titles, blurbs on the jacket, illustrations. They can also be separated from the vehicle but nonetheless connected by association ("epitexts"): comments by the author, reviews, other works by the author. Paratexts have the capacity to inflect the way we interpret a narrative, sometimes powerfully. Genette did not include plays and movies in his discussion, but here, too, we can see paratextual material in the form of playbills, previews, marquees, public disclaimers, production scandals, notoriety of the actors. 30, 31, 38, 106, 108, 110, 114, 148, 181, 209 A term widely and diversely used in a variety of fields (linguistics, philosophy, dramatic art, feminist
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Persona: Plot: Point of view: Prolepsis: Protagonist: Rґecit:
theory). In this book, the term refers not to what a narrative is or is about, but to what it does ­ how it functions in the world, intentionally or unintentionally. 141, 142 Literally "mask," persona is used most commonly to refer to the personality constructed by an author to narrate a story or even to speak in his or her name. See first-person narration. 73 A vexed term. Commonly in English plot is used to mean story. Another (generally European) tradition equates plot with the order in which the story-events are arranged in the narrative. Plot has also been used to mean the chain of causally connected events in a story. But if it is used in this way, then the common phrase "episodic plot" would be a contradiction in terms, since in this context "episodic" usually means "causally disconnected" events. Close to this usage is the idea of emplotment, which Ricoeur describes as "the operation that draws a configuration out of a simple succession" (I, 65). Finally, plot is often used in the sense of story-type (revenge plot, marriage plot). My term masterplot draws on this last usage. 18, 19, 47, 200 Prince distinguishes point of view from focalization as being the perceptual or conceptual position as opposed to the perspective "in terms of which the narrated situations and events are presented." But in practice, perceptual/conceptual position and perspective are often difficult to discriminate. I recommend using the term focalization for that complex of perspective, position, feeling, and sensibility (or the lack of these) that characterize specifically our visual purchase on the narrative, even if it may fluctuate from moment to moment. And I recommend the use of the term voice for the same complex as it is achieved through the narrative voice that we hear. 73, 80 Flashforward. The introduction into the narrative of material that comes later in the story. The opposite of analepsis. In an agon, the hero (though not necessarily a "good guy"). Opposed by an antagonist (who is not necessarily a "bad guy"). 55, 59, 61, 177 Sometimes used in French narratology for narrative discourse and opposed to "histoire" (story). See narrative discourse and story.
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Glossary and topical index 241
Reflector: Reflexivity/reflexive narrative: Repetition: Retardation: Second-person narration: Setting: Sjuzet: Stereotype: Story:
See focalization. A reflexive or self-reflexive (or self-conscious) narrative is one that, either by formal or thematic means, calls attention to its condition as constructed art. Reflexivity is a condition that can be found in nonnarrative as well as narrative texts. 173, 181, 183 The recurrence in narrative of images, ideas, situations, kinds of characters. Repetition is one of the surest signs of the meaningful. If you are stuck trying to interpret a text, one good question to ask yourself is: What is repeated in this narrative? Theme and motif are terms commonly used for kinds of repetition in narrative. 95, 97, 99, 106 The slowing down of the narrative discourse. Often, but not always, a way of increasing suspense. 116 Narration in the second person ("You did this. You said that"). A comparatively rare grammatical choice for narration, it has been used increasingly in fiction and even autobiography. Its effects are a source of considerable critical dispute. 70, 71, 80, 81 All those elements serving as background in a narrative's storyworld. 20, 51, 52, 60 See story. 18, 19 See type. 49, 59, 186, 189 With narrative discourse, one of the two defining components of narrative. Conveyed through the narrative discourse, story is a chronological sequence of events involving entities. Slightly adapting Chatman, we can identify two kinds of events in a story, acts and happenings. Entities are also of two basic kinds: characters, who can engage in acts, and non-sentient entities, who cannot. Story should not be confused with narrative discourse, which is the telling or presenting of a story. A story is bound by the laws of time; it goes in one direction, starting at the beginning, moving through the middle, and arriving at the end (though whether a story must have a clear beginning and end is disputable). Narrative discourse does not have to follow this order. The distinction between story and narrative discourse was first anticipated early in this century by Russian structuralists. The terms they used for this distinction ­ fabula (for story) and sjuzet (for the order of events in the narrative) ­ are still widely employed in the discourse on narrative. 15, 24, 25, 33, 34, 36, 37, 115, 116, 146, 155, 165, 182, 183, 193
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242 Glossary and topical index
Storyworld: Stream of consciousness: Supplementary events: Suspense: Symptomatic reading: Temporal structure: Text: Theme:
The diegesis or world in which the story takes place. Normally, as a narrative progresses our sense of the storyworld grows richer and more complex. 20, 75, 160, 162 See interior monologue. 78 See constituent and supplementary events. 51, 52, 60, 95, 178, 182, 190 Uncertainty (together with the desire to diminish it) about how the story will develop. Suspense can vary from mild to acute, but it is possible to argue that suspense is always present to some degree in those narratives that keep us from closing the book or walking out of the theater. Much of the art of narrative lies in resolving suspense with some degree of surprise. 57, 62, 116, 155, 160, 163, 192 Decoding a text as symptomatic of the author's unconscious or unacknowledged state of mind, or of unacknowledged cultural conditions. Generally opposed to intentional reading. 104, 108, 109, 111, 137, 167, 208 How the time of the narrative discourse relates to the time of the story. There are three major ways in which the time of the narrative discourse can depart from that of the story: 1) by rearranging the order in which events are revealed to us (see prolepsis and analepsis); 2) by expanding or contracting the time devoted to individual events (see retardation); 3) by revisiting, sometimes repeatedly, moments or episodes in the story. Used broadly in much, though not all, narrative theory to mean the physical embodiment of the narrative, as book, short story, performed play, film, and so on. Texts, of course, are thought of in common discourse as things composed of words. The broader meaning of the term invoked here rests on the idea that, regardless of the vehicle, narratives are always "read" in the sense that we grasp them through a process of decipherment. Without some understanding of the symbolic code in which the narrative is told, we cannot know what happened. A subject (issue, question) that recurs in a narrative through implicit or explicit reference. With motif, theme is one of the two commonest forms of narrative repetition. Where motifs tend to be concrete, themes are abstract. 51, 95, 97, 106
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Third-person narration: Type: Underreading: Unreliable narrator: Voice:
Conventionally, narrative in which the narrator is not a character in the story, and the characters are referred to in the third person ("He did this"; "She says that"). Often, and misleadingly, referred to as omniscient narration. Like first-person narration, the term is not a satisfactory generic classification since third-person narrators can refer to themselves in the first person, and first-person narratives almost invariably abound in stretches of third-person narration. Genette features the cleaner distinction between homo-, hetero- and extradiegetic narration. See diegesis. 70, 71, 73, 75, 77 A kind of character that recurs across a range of narrative texts. Oedipus, Othello, and Willy Loman all fit within types of the tragic hero. But characters in narratives are almost invariably compounds of various types. Othello is a compound of the types of the tragic hero, the jealous husband, the outsider, the military hero, the man of eloquence, and the Moor. Willy Loman is a compound of the types of the tragic hero, the optimist, the dreamer, and the salesman. When a character is composed without invention, adhering too closely to type, it is considered a stereotype. Stereotype can also be used more broadly to refer to any literary clicheґ. 49, 51, 116, 126, 136, 140­141, 185, 189 See overreading. 86, 88, 89, 90, 97, 134, 140, 208 A narrator whose perceptions and moral sensibilities differ from those of the implied author. There can be degrees of reliability and unreliability among narrators. It is useful to follow Dorrit Cohn in distinguishing between those narrators who are unreliable in their rendering of the facts and those who are reliable in rendering the facts but unreliable in their views. The latter she designates as discordant narrators, and theirs is the commonest form of unreliability. 68, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 84, 98, 117, 180 The sensibility through which we hear the narrative, even when we are reading silently. Voice is very closely associated with focalization, the sensibility through which we see the characters and events in the story, and sometimes hard to distinguish from it. 70, 93, 155
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Aarseth, Espen J. 37, 38 Abbott, H. Porter 38 Adams, Henry 229 Aeschylus, Agamemnon 132 AI (Stanley Kubrick and Steven Spielberg) 103 Alger, Horatio 47­8, 53, 54 Allen, Graham 110 Amis, Martin, Time's Arrow 17, 26 Amsterdam, Anthony G., and Jerome Bruner 191 Andrew, Dudley 113, 127 Apocalypse Now (Francis Ford Coppola) 123, 124, 129, 173 Aristotle 15, 18, 57, 130­1, 132, 153­4, 160, 199­200, 237 Armstrong, Paul 110 Asheron's Call 35, 36 Atkins, G. Douglas 110 Atwood, Margaret, Alias Grace 159 Augustine, St. 100­1, 103 Confessions 139, 141, 143 Austen, Jane 65 Emma 65, 112­29 film adaptation (Amy Heckerling's Clueless) 127, 129 Film adaptation (Diarmid Lawrence) 129 Auster, Paul 3, 102 Bacon, Francis, Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion 10­11
Bakhtin, M. M. 161, 165, 167, 221n.5, 230 Bal, Mieke 13, 19, 80, 124 Balaґzs, Beґla 112­24 Ballard, J. M., The Atrocity Exhibition 26 Balzac, Honoreґ de 171 Old Goriot 71 Barbellion, W. N. P. [Bruce Cummings], The Journal of a Disappointed Man 31, 136­7, 138, 141­2, 143, 145 Barth, John End of the Road, The 213 Floating Opera, The 213 Barthes, Roland 1­2, 13, 22­3, 26, 33, 40, 43, 52, 57­8, 60, 65, 68, 69, 154­5, 209, 230, 236 Bazin, Andreґ 113 Beauvoir, Simone de, The Blood of Others 213 Beckett, Samuel Eleuthґeria 171 "Fizzle 1" 162 Molloy 53, 65, 98 Not I 174 "Ping" 136­7, 141­2 That Time 174 Unnamable, The 14, 26 Waiting for Godot 31, 109, 113­14, 126 Behn, Aphra, Oroonoko, or the Royal Slave 132 Being John Malkovich (Spike Jonze) 174
244
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Bellow, Saul The Adventures of Augie March 14 Herzog 213 Beowulf 99 Bergman, Ingmar 112 Bergson, Henri 133 Bernanos, Georges, Diary of a Country Priest 213 Film adaptation (Robert Bresson) 113 Bible Cain (story of) 186 Christ (prophecy in Isaiah) 185 Genesis 41 Judas (story of) 186 Wisdom of Solomon (story of in Kings) 194­5, 212 Black Elk, Black Elk Speaks 140, 144 Blair Witch Project, The (Eduardo Sanchez and Daniel Myrick) 38, 124 Blake, William 110 Bloom, Harold 108, 110 Bluestone, George 112, 127 Boccaccio, Giovanni, Decameron 28, 29 Booth, Alison 65 Booth, Wayne 52, 75­6, 80, 85, 97 Bordwell, David 13, 79, 81, 85, 97, 173 and Kristin Thompson 174 Borges, Jorge Luis, "The Garden of Forking Paths" 173 Branigan, Edward 81, 125, 215n.2 Braudy, Leo 117 Brazil (Terry Gilliam) 127 Brecht, Bertolt 171 Bremond, Claude 21 Bridgeman, Teresa 173 BronteЁ, Charlotte 92 Jane Eyre 25 BronteЁ, Emily, Wuthering Heights 65, 74, 75, 76, 78, 81, 88, 92­3, 95, 98, 114, 231 Film adaptation (William Wyler) 79, 115­17, 127
Brooke-Rose, Christine 110 Thru 38 Brooks, Peter 3, 18, 53, 188 and Paul Gewirtz 191 Brown, Arnold R., Lizzie Borden: The Legend, the Truth, the Final Chapter 191 Brown, Dan, The Da Vinci Code 150­1 Bruner, Jerome 52, 138­9, 143, 199, 212 Bruss, Elizabeth 138, 143 Bulwer Lytton, Edward 66 Bunyan, John, Grace Abounding 13 Burgess, Anthony, A Clockwork Orange Film adaptation (Stanley Kubrick) 79, 114, 129 Burroughs, William, Naked Lunch 26 Burton, Virginia Lee, Mike Mulligan and his Steam Shovel 54 Butor, Michel, La modification 70 Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (Robert Wiene) 127 Calvino, Italo, If on a Winter's Night a Traveler 70, 71, 98 Campbell, Joseph 53 Capote, Truman, In Cold Blood 159 Film version (Richard Brooks) 159 Capote (Bennett Miller) 159 Carpentier, Alejo, "Journey to the Source" 26 Carr, John Dickson, The Black Minute 161 Carroll, Lewis Alice in Wonderland 168 "Jabberwocky" 157 Cartmell, Deborah, and Imelda Whelehan 127 Cassavetes, John 18 Chandler, Raymond, Farewell My Lovely 81 Film adaptation (Edward Dmytryk's Murder My Sweet) 79, 81 Chatman, Seymour 16, 17, 22­3, 26, 42, 230, 241
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Chaucer 24, 137, 142, 231 Canterbury Tales, The 28, 137, 142 Troilus and Criseyde 113 Chekhov, Anton 60, 206 Christie, Agatha 218n.3 Witness for the Prosecution 191 Film adaptation (Billy Wilder) 191 Churchill, Caryl, Cloud Nine 174 Cinderella (the story) 21­2, 46, 49, 58, 89 Clarke, Arthur C. "Sentinal, The" 128 Film adaptation (Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey) 128 2001 128 2010: Odyssey Two 128 Film adaptation (Peter Hyams's 2010: The Year We Make Contact) 128 2061: Odyssey Three 128 Clueless (Amy Hackerling) 127, 129 Coetzee, J. M. 6, 84 In the Heart of the Country 174 Narrative of Jacobus Coetzee, The 168­9 Cohn, Dorrit 69, 80, 84, 146, 148­9, 150, 171, 243 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 197 Collins, Wilkie 65 The Moonstone 65 Conrad, Joseph, Heart of Darkness 38, 65, 81, 129, 169, 237 Contact (Robert Zemeckis) 124 Coover, Robert, "The Babysitter" 174 Corneille, Pierre 13 Corrigan, Timothy 127 Cortaґzar, Julio Cronopios and Famos 38 Hopscotch 33, 98 Coverly, C. D., Califia 39 Culler, Jonathan 20, 26, 36, 44, 52, 110, 239
Davis, Lennard J. 158 Defoe, Daniel 205 Journal of the Plague Year 159 DeLillo, Don, Underworld 98 de Man, Paul 110 De Palma, Brian 6 Derrida, Jacques 105, 110, 210 Dickens, Charles 65, 86, 113, 133 David Copperfield 65, 95 Great Expectations 66, 74, 75, 114 Nicholas Nickleby Stage adaptation (Royal Shakespeare Company) 114 Doherty, Thomas 137, 142 Dolezel, Lubomґir 19, 97, 98, 152, 155, 157, 159, 165 Dos Passos, John, USA 81 Dostoevsky, Fyodor 212 Brothers Karamazov, The 61, 62, 67­8, 98 Notes from Underground 65 Douglas, Frederick, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas 139­40, 143 Duck Amuck (Chuck Jones) 171, 174 Duffy, Bruce, The World as I Found It 159 Dujardin, Eґ douard, Les lauriers sont coupґes 78 Dungeons and Dragons 35 DuPlessis, Rachel Blau 65 Dworkin, Ronald, M. 191 Eakin, Paul John 138, 143 Eco, Umberto 85, 110 Edmunds, Lowell 212 and Alan Dundes 212 Eisenstein, Sergei 113, 121 Eliot, George 137, 142, 171 Middlemarch 137, 142 Eliot, T. S., The waste land 14 Ellison, Ralph, Invisible Man 48, 54, 134 Euripides, Medea 132
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Fahey, William A. 53 Faulkner, William 78, 135 Absalom! Absalom! 32, 34 Faustbuch 24 Fielding, Henry, Tom Jones 72, 73, 114, 233 Fish, Stanley 191, 212 Fitzgerald, F. Scott 90 The Great Gatsby 54, 81 Flaubert, Gustave, Madame Bovary 73­4, 77­8, 87, 89­90, 104­6, 134, 135, 147, 228 Floating Admiral, The 103 Fludernik, Monica 25, 80, 239 Foley, Barbara 158 Forster, E. M. 42, 97, 98, 133, 135, 137, 142, 230 A Passage to India 99 Four Hundred Blows, The (Francёois Truffaut) 117 Fowles, John, The French Lieutenant's Woman 170 Frayn, Michael, Copenhagen 152 Freud, Sigmund 200­201, 202, 204 Frey, James, A Million Little Pieces 145­6, 147, 148, 153, 158 Friedlander, Saul 159 Frost, Robert 102 Frye, Northrup 53 Gaimon, Neil 123 Garcґia Maґrquez, Gabriel, "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings" 87­8 Garnier, Michel, La douce rґesistance 8 Genette, Geґrard 13, 30, 38, 75, 80, 128, 233, 239, 243 Gerrig, Richard J. 65 Gide, Andreґ, The Counterfeiters 65 Gittes, Katherine S. 38 Godard, Jean-Luc 18 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Faust 24, 212 Sorrows of Young Werther, The 81
Goffman, Erving 29 Goodman, Nelson 34 Gorman, David 159 Gosse, Edmund, Father and Son 140, 144 Gould, Stephen Jay 47 Grand Illusion (Jean Renoir) 23 Greed (Eric von Stroheim) 114 Greimas, A. J. 220n.4 Griffith, D. W. 113 Groundhog Day (Harold Ramis) 168 Guare, John, Six Degrees of Separation 65, 82, 121 Film adaptation (Fred Schepisi) 82 Guyer, Carolyn, Quibbling 39 Hartman, Geoffrey 110 Harvey, W. J. 137, 142 Hayman, David 85 Hemingway, Ernest 106, 110 "Doctor and the Doctor's Wife, The" 74­5 Farewell to Arms, A 106 For Whom the Bell Tolls 106, 114 "Now I Lay Me" 90­1, 93­7, 100­101, 106­8, 112 "Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber, The" 106 Sun Also Rises, The 106, 231 Herman, David 80, 165, 173, 193, 211­12, 219n.6, 220n.4 Herman, Luc, and Bart Vervaeck 26 Hernadi, Paul 72 Highsmith, Patricia, The Talented Mr. Ripley 112, 123 Film adaptation (Anthony Minghella) 112 Hildesheimer, Wolfgang, Marbot 159 Hitler Diaries, The 159 Hochman, Baruch 137, 142 Hogan, Patrick Colm 53, 110 Hogg, James, The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner 76, 77, 84
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Homer 99 Iliad 137­8, 142 Odyssey 98, 131 Howard, Elizabeth, The Long View 20­6 Howells, William Dean 68 Imbert, Enrique Anderson, "Taboo" 56 Infamous (Douglas McGrath) 159 Iser, Wolfgang 91, 92, 97, 98, 101, 110 Ishiguro, Kazuo, The Remains of the Day 81, 84 Ivan the Terrible (Sergei Eisenstein) 159 Jackson, Shelley, Patchwork Girl 39 Jahn, Manfred 215n.2 James, Henry 114, 131­2 Ambassadors, The 125, 233 Beast in the Jungle, The 149 Turn of the Screw, The 28­9, 38, 65, 81, 98, 105­6, 118­19 James, William 78 Jameson, Fredric 1 Jazz Singer, The (Alan Crosland) 206­9 jennicam.org 140­1, 143 Johnson, B. S., The Unfortunates 38 Jonson, Ben, "Song to Celia" 2­3, 34 Joyce, James 78, 86 Finnegans Wake 26 Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, A 99, 229 Ulysses 78, 99 Joyce, Michael afternoon, a story 34, 39, 65, 98 Reach 34 Jules et Jim (Francёois Truffaut) 81 Jung, Carl 47, 52 Kafalenos, Emma 65, 217n.7 Kafka, Franz 63 "Burrow, The" 174 "Common Confusion, A" 62­3, 104­5 "Metamorphosis, The" 53
Karr, Mary, Cherry 81 Kawin, Bruce 97, 98 Kazantzakis, Nikos, The Fratricides 213 Keen, Suzanne 25, 26 Kendall, Robert, A Life Set for Two 34 Kenner, Hugh 80 Kermode, Frank 45, 46, 47, 65, 86, 87, 97, 100 King, Stephen The Colorado Kid 56­66 Kingston, Maxine Hong, The Woman Warrior 139, 143, 229 Koestler, Arthur, Darkness at Noon 213 Kohler, Sheila, The Perfect Place 81 Kristeva, Julia 101 Kindt, Tom, and Hans-Harald MuЁller 97 LaBute, Neil, Wrecks 212 Laffay, Albert 85 Landow, George 33, 34, 38 Lanser, Susan Snaider 139, 143 La ronde (Max OphuЁls) 81 Last Year in Marienbad (Alain Resnais) 38 Lawrence, D. H. 206, 208 Lawrence, Jerome, and Robert E. Lee, Inherit the Wind 192 Film adaptation (Stanley Kramer) 192 Lazarillo de Tormes 14 Lee, Harper, To Kill a Mockingbird 191 Film adaptation (Robert Mulligan) 191 Le Guin, Ursula, The Lathe of Heaven 168 Film adaptation (Philip Haas) 174 Lejeune, Phillipe 158 Lem, Stanislaw, The Cyberiad 81 Lermontov, Mikhail, A Hero of Our Time 38 Levinson, Sanford, and Steven Mailloux 191 Leґvi-Strauss, Claude 202­5 Lewis, C. S., The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe 168
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"Little Loca" 147 Lizzie Borden (the story) 175­87, 191 London Consequences 103 "LonelyGirl 15" 147 Long, Elizabeth 53 Lorde, Audre 107, 109 Cancer Journals, The 139, 143 Lyotard, Jean-Francёois 1 Madsen, Aage, Days with Diam or Life at Night 39 Mailer, Norman, The Armies of the Night 152 Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X 53 Malraux, Andreґ, Man's Fate 213 Mamet, David, Glengarry Glen Ross 128 Mann, Thomas Doctor Faustus 24 Magic Mountain, The 98, 212 Margolin, Uri 137­8, 142 Marlowe, Christopher, Doctor Faustus 24, 132 Mauriac, Francёois 205 McCarthy, Mary, Memories of a Catholic Girlhood 138­9, 143 McCloud, Scott 123, 128 McGrady, Mike 218n.3 McGrath, Ben 219n.5 McHale, Brian 71, 80, 174 McHarg, Tom, The Late-Nite Maneuvers of the Ultramundane 14 McInerney, Jay, Bright Lights, Big City 71 Memento (Christopher Nolan) 27 Mighty Aphrodite (Woody Allen) 55 Miller, Arthur, Death of a Salesman 243 Miller, D. A. 65 Miller, Frank 123 Miller, J. Hillis 98, 110, 210 Milton, John, Paradise Lost 41, 91­2, 110, 161 Minghella, Anthony 112­13
Minow, Martha 189 Mitchell, Margaret, Gone with the Wind 114 Mitchell, W. J. T. 159 Momaday, N. Scott, The Way to Rainy Mountain 41 Monster (Patty Jenkins) 159 Moore, Lorrie 81 Morris, Edmond, Dutch: a Memoir of Ronald Reagan 152­3 Moulthrop, Stuart, Victory Garden 39 Munro, Alice, "Miles City, Montana" 160­1, 162­4, 165­8 Murasaki, Tale of Genji 98, 132 Musil, Robert, The Man Without Qualities 44­5, 88, 136 Nabokov, Vladimir Ada or Ardor 98 Lolita 81 Pale Fire 65, 174 Naked Came the Stranger 103 Nelles, William 38 Nelson, Katherine 214n.4 Nietzsche, Friedrich 44, 154 Newman, John Henry, Apologia pro Vita sua 53 Norris, Frank, McTeague 114 North by Northwest (Alfred Hitchcock) 172­3 Oates, Joyce Carol, Blonde 152 O'Brien, Edna, In the Forest 159 O'Brien, Flann, At Swim-Two-Birds 174 O'Connor, Flannery 111 "Good Man is Hard to Find, A" 111 "Lame Shall Enter First, The" 111 "View of the Woods, A" 111 Oedipus (the story) 195­8, 212, 243 Olney, James 138­42 Ondaatje, Michael, The English Patient 128 Film adaptation (Anthony Minghella) 128
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O'Neill, Eugene, Long Day's Journey into Night 128 OphuЁls, Max 86 O'Sullivan, John 220n.12 Outrage, The (Martin Ritt) 192 Palmer, Alan 19, 20, 30, 80, 163, 173, 232 Pavel, Thomas 158 Pearson, Edmund, The Trial of Lizzie Borden 191 Penniston, Penny, now once again Perry, Menakhem 217n.7 Phantom Menace, The (George Lucas) 79 Phelan, James 18, 38, 53, 75, 80, 97, 137, 142 Piercy, Marge, He, She, and It 81 Pinter, Harold, Betrayal 27 Piper, Watty, The Little Engine that Could 54 Pirandello, Luigi Each in his Own Way 174 Six Characters in Search of an Author 174 Tonight We Improvise 174 Plato 75, 154, 231, 237 Posner, Richard A. 191 Pound, Ezra 126 Prince, Gerald 14­15, 26, 95, 237, 238, 240 Propp, Vladimir 201­2 Proust, Marcel, In Search of Lost Time 99 Pynchon, Thomas Crying of Lot 49,The 26, 38 Gravity's Rainbow 65 Queneau, Raymond, Fight of Icarus 174 Rabinowitz, Peter J. 38 Rabkin, Eric 65 Racine, Jean 18, 171 Ran (Akira Kurosawa) 128
Rashomon (Akira Kurosawa) 76­7, 177­8, 192 Rembrandt, Belshazzar's Feast 7 Return of the Jedi (George Lucas) 25 Richards, I. A. 63, 206 Richardson, Brian 13, 18, 25, 26, 52, 80, 174 Richardson, Dorothy 78 Richardson, Samuel, Pamela 111 Richter, David H. 65 Ricoeur, Paul 4, 18, 110, 212, 240 Riffatere, Michael 158 Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith 13, 80 Robinson, Sally 139, 143 Robbe-Grillet, Alain In the Labyrinth 26, 65, 169 Jealousy 81 Rorty, Richard 110 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, Confessions 111, 136, 139­40, 141, 143, 144 Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory 26 Rowling, J. K., Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire 47 Run, Lola, Run (Tom Tykwer) 168 Ryan, Marie-Laure 13, 25, 26, 29, 30, 32, 38, 151­2, 173, 219n.6, 220n.6, 232 Sacks, Oliver 214n.6 Saporta, Marc, Composition no.1 33 Sartre, Jean-Paul 22, 36, 135­6, 158, 212 Nausea 22, 135, 136, 141, 158 Words, The 139, 143, 159 Saving Private Ryan (Stephen Spielberg) 38, 138, 142­4 Sayers, Dorothy 218n.3 Schank, Roger 47 Schickel, Richard 217n.9 Scholes, Robert and Robert Kellogg 80 Scott, Walter, Waverley 159 Searle John R. 148­9 Seinfeld 27
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Shakespeare, William 24, 63, 112, 137, 142 Antony and Cleopatra 119­20 Hamlet 55, 212 Henry V Film adaptations (Laurence Olivier; Kenneth Branagh) 128, 228 King Lear 13, 24, 58­9, 63, 230 Film adaptations (Akira Kurosawa; Peter Brooks; Jean-Luc Goddard) 128 Macbeth 24, 107, 108, 132, 156, 186 Film adaptations (Akira Kurosawa; Orson Wells) 128 Midsummer Night's Dream, A 25 Much Ado about Nothing 113 Othello 243 Richard III 137, 142, 147, 151 Romeo and Juliet 113, 120­1 Troilus and Cressida 113 Twelfth Night 30, 113 Shaw, George Bernard 212 Shelley, Mary, Frankenstein 23, 29, 30, 38 Film adaptation (James Whale) 23 Shields, Rev. Robert 140 Simon, Claude, The Flanders Road 38 Sliding Doors (Peter Howitt) 174 Smith, Barbara Herrnstein 13 Sondheim, Stephen, Into the Woods 174 Sophocles 202 Oedipus at Colonus 197, 198, 202, 212 Oedipus the King 18, 132, 197, 200, 201, 202, 212 Stanzel, Franz 80 Star Wars (George Lucas) 79 Stendhal, The Red and the Black 98 Stephen, Leslie 131­2 Sternberg, Meir 97, 98, 217n.7 Sterne, Laurence, Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy 26, 115, 140, 144, 170 Story of Mulian 132
Strachey, Lytton, Eminent Victorians 149­56 Stranger than Fiction (Marc Forster) 174 Sturgess, Philip J. M. 19, 20, 25, 26 Sukenick, Ronald 199 Sutherland, John 98 Synge, J. M., Playboy of the Western World 212 Teresa of Avila, St., The Life of Saint Teresa of Avila by Herself 140, 143 Thomas, D. M., Eating Pavlova 152 Thousand and One Nights, A 28, 29 Throne of Blood (Akira Kurasowa) 128 Titanic (James Cameron) 38 Todorov, Tzvetan 193, 211­12, 238 Tolstoy, Leo 19, 20, 26, 135, 137, 142 Anna Karenina 20­6, 135, 137, 142, 231 War and Peace 47, 152, 159 Tomashevsky, Boris 230 Torgovnick, Mariana 65 Traver, Robert, Anatomy of a Murder 191 Film adaptation (Otto Preminger) 191 Triumph of the Will, The (Leni Riefenstahl) 193 Trollope, Anthony 65, 205 The Eustace Diamonds 65 Truffaut, Francёois 86 Twain, Mark 68 Twelve Angry Men (Sidney Lumet) 191 2001: A Space Odyssey (Stanley Kubrick) 128 2010: The Year We Make Contact (Peter Hyams) 128 Ultima Online 35 Vanishing, The (George Sluizer) 59, 61 Vertigo (Alfred Hitchcock) 59, 61 Virgil, Aeneid 41
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War of the Gods 41 Warhol, Andy 18 Warhol, Robyn 139, 143 Waugh, Evelyn, The Loved One 126, 127, 129 Film adaptation (Tony Richardson) 127, 129 Webster, John, The Duchess of Malfi 132 Weeks, Robert P., Commonwealth vs. Sacco and Vanzetti 191 Welty, Eudora, "Why I Live at the P.O." 53 Wharton, Edith Ethan Frome 38 House of Mirth, The 212 White, Hayden 10, 44, 52, 155­7, 159 Whitmore, Jeffrey, "Bedtime Story" 56 Wilde, Oscar, The Picture of Dorian Gray 31
Wilder, Thornton, Our Town 79 Williams, Nigel 81 Williams, Tennessee, A Streetcar Named Desire 128 Williams, William Carlos, "This is Just to Say" 83 Wittig, Rob 110 Woolf, Virginia 78, 109, 146 Jacob's Room 26 Mrs. Dalloway 78 To the Lighthouse 78, 99 World of Warcraft 35 Wright, Richard Black Boy 40­1 Native Son 54 Wyeth, Andrew, Dr. Syn 9­10 Young, Kay and Jeffrey Shaver 214n.6 Zunshine, Lisa 80, 173
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