Group rights in the Indian and international discourses

Tags: Oxford University Press, India, Delhi, Human Rights, New Delhi, London, Cambridge University Press, International Relations, Indian Society, pp, Tahir Mahmood, Social Action, Religion and Society, Indian Social Institute, Minorities Council, Minority Rights Group International, International Law, Consultative Committee of Indian Muslims, Human Rights Law, Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Christian Perspective Association, Cornell University Press, Dalit Liberation Education Trust, the International Court, Secularism, University of Pennsylvania Press, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Political Parties Ahmad, International Organization, International, International Commission, Interviews Ahmad, Indian Muslim, Maulala Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Ali, Muslim League, Human Rights Watch, Delhi University, Princeton University Press
Content: SOURCES PRIMARY SOURCES Government Documents/ Domestic Legislation India, Constitution of the Republic of India, quoted in D.D. Basu, Introduction to the Constitution of India, New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 1994 (Sixteenth edition). India, Government Policy Norms and Principles, 1989, for Recognition of Minority-managed Educational Institutions, 1989, quoted in James Massey, Minorities in a Democracy: The Indian Experience, New Delhi: Manohar, 1999, Appendix 7(B), pp. 188-190. India, National Commission for Minorities Act, 1992. India, National Commission for Minorities, Guidelines for the Determination of Minority Status, Recognition and Related Matters in respect of Minority Educational Institutions under the Constitution of India, 1986, quoted in Ja:,les Massey, Minorities in a Democracy: The Indian Experience, New Delhi: Manohar, 1999, Appendix 7(A), pp. 185-187. India, National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, A Handbook, New Delhi: NCSCST, 1997. India, Prime Minister's 15-Point Programme for Minorities, February 1983,, quoted in James Massey, Minorities in a Democracy: The Indian Experience, New Delhi: Manohar, 1999, Appendix 6, pp. 182-183. India, Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1976. India, Protection of Civil Rights Rules, quoted in National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, A Handbook, New Delhi: NCSCST, 1997, Annexure V, pp. 63-64. India, Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. India, Report of the States Reorganisation Commission, 1956. India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities Act), 1989, quoted in National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, A Handbook, New Delhi: NCSCST, 1997, Annexure IV, pp. 47-61. India, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Rules, 1995, including Norms for Relief Amount, quoted in National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, A Handbook, New Delhi: NCSCST, 1997, Annexure VI, pp. 65-84. India, Untouchability Offenses Act, 1955. United States, "Congressional Record", http://www.khalistan.com United States, 105th session, H.Con.Res. # 37 in the House of Representatives by Mr. Condit of California, Concurrent Resolution released on 7 March 1997, downloaded from "Congressional Record", http://www.khalistan.com. 215
International Conventions/Declarations International Labour Organization, Convention No. Ill, 25 June 1958. International Labour Organization, Convention No. 169, 27 June 1989. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Convention against Discrimination in Education, 14 December 1960. United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization, Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice, 27 November l9n: · United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Elimination ofAll Forms of Racial Discrimination, 20 November 1963. United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Elimination ofAll Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion and Belief, 25 November 1981. United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Rights of Persons' Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, 18 December 1992. United Nations General Assembly, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms ofRacial Discrimination, 21 December 1965. United Nations General Assembly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 16 December 1966. United Nations General Assembly, International Covenant on economic, social and cultural rights, 16 December 1966. United Nations General Assembly, Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, 10 December 1948. United Nations Sub-Commission on Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, "Bellagio Declaration", January 2000, [A/CONF/189/PC.l/10].
Judgements/Documents of the Permanent Court of International Justilce and the International Court of Justice
Case concerning Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment
of the Crime of Genocide [Bosnia and Herzegovina vs. Yugoslavia (Serbia and
Montenegro) (Provisional Measures)], Order of 8 April 1993, quoted in United
Nations, Summaries of Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the
International Court of Justice, 1992-96, ST/LEG/SER.F/1, New York: United
Nations, 1998, pp. 45-50.
!
Case concerning Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide [Bosnia and Herzegovina vs. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (Provisional Measures)], Judgement of 11 July 1996, quoted in United Nations, Summaries of Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the International Court of Justice, 1992-96, ST/LEG/SER.F/1, New York: United Nations, 1998, pp. 104-108.
216
Case concerning Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punislunent of the Crime of Genocide [Bosnia and Herzegovina vs. Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (Provisional Measures)], Order of 13 September 1993, quoted in United Nations, Summaries of Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the International Court of Justice, 1992-96, ST/LEG/SER.F/1, New York: United Nations, 1998, pp. 58-62. Case of German Minorities in Poland, PCIJ Advisory Opinion No.6, paragraphs 248-249, 313, and 315, quoted in Edward Hambro, The Case Law of the International Court: A Repertoire ofJudgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the Permanent Court of Internationui Justice and of the International Court of Justice, Leyden: A.W. Sythoff, 196f, p. 243,259 and 261. Case of Minority Schools in Albania, PCIJ Advisory Opinion No.64, paragraph 247, 250 and 251, quoted in Edward Hambro, The Case Law ofthe International Court: A Repertoire of Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the Permanent Court ofInternational Justice and ofthe International Court ofJustice, Leyden: A. W. Sythoff, 1961, pp. 203-204. Case of Rights of Minorities in Upper Silesia, PCIJ Advisory Opinion No. 15, paragraph 243, quoted in Edward Hambro, The Case Law of the International Court: A Repertoire of Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the Permanent Court ofInternational Justice and ofthe International Court ofJustice, Leyden: A.W. Sythoff, 1961, p. 199. Greco- Bulgarian Communities Case, PCIJ Advisory Opinion No. 17, paragraph 343, quoted in Edward Hambro, The Case Law of the International Court: A Repertoire ofJudgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders ofthe Permanent Court of International Justice and of the International Court of Justice, Leyden: A.W. Sythoff, 1961, p. 287. Greco- Bulgarian Communities Case, PCIJ Series AlB, Advisory Opinion No. 44, paragraph 245, quoted in Edward Hambro, The Case Law of the International Court: A Repertoire of Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the Permanent Court ofIntqrnational Justice and ofthe International Court ofJustice, Leyden: A.W. Sythoff, 1961, p. 201. Oscar Shinn Case, PCIJ Advisory Opinion No. 63, paragraph 319, quoted m Edward Hambro, The Case Law of the International Court: A Repertoire of Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the Permanent Court of International Justice and of the International Court of Justice, Leyden: A.W. Sythoff, 1961, p. 265. Oscar Shinn Case, PCIJ Advisory Opinion No. 7 paragraph 244, quoted in Edward Hambro, The Case Law of the International Court: A Repertoire of.Judgements, Advisory Opinions and Orders ofthe Permanent Court ofInternational Justice and ofthe International Court ofJustice, Leyde'n: A.W. Sythoff, 1961, pp., 199-200. League ofNations Documents League of Nations, Protection ofLinguistic, Racial or Religious Minorities by the League of Nations: Resolutions and Extracts from the Minutes of the Council, 217
Resolutions and Reports adopted by the Assembly relating to procedure to be followed in Questions Concerning the Protection of Minorities, Second edition, [C.8.M.5. 1931.!], [Place Missing]. Reports of the Special Rapporteurs Benito, Elizabeth Odio, Report on Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and Discrimination based on Religion or Belief, New York: United Nations, 1989. Capotorti, Fransesco, Study on the Rights of Persons belonging to Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, New York: United Nations, 1979, 1991. Cobo, Jose R. · Martinez, Study of the Problem of Discrimination against Indigenous Populations, New York: United Nations, 1986/87. Goonesekara, R. l(., Report on Racism and Racial Discrimination, 1998, [E/CN.4/1998/79, Paragraphs 57-59]. Krishnaswami, Arcot, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices, United Nations, New York, 1960. Santa Cruz, Heman, Report on Racial Discrimination, New York: United Nations, 1976. State Party Reports and their Consideration by the United Nations CEDAW, Comment on India's First State Party Report, [CEDAW/C/2000/CRP.J/Add.]. CEDAW, Comment on the position of Dalit Women, 1 April 2000, [CEDA W/C/2000/CRP.J/Add]. CERD, Concluding Observation on India's Report, [CERD/C/304/Add.B]. Human Rights Committee (ICCPR), Concluding Observations on India's Third State Party Report, [CPR/C/79/Add.81]. India, First State Party Report to CEDAW, [CEDAW/C/IND/1]. India, First State Party Report to Human Rights Committee (ICCPR), [CCPR/C/1 0/Add.8]. India, Second State Party Report to Human Rights Committee (ICCPR), [CCPR/C/37/Add.13]. India, Tenth to Fourteenth State Party Report to CERD, [CERD/C/299/Add.3]. India, Third State Party Report to Human rights Committee (ICCPR), [CCPR/C/76/Add.6]. 218
N9n-Government Organisations Statements to the United Nations Asian Legal Resource Centre, statement in the Human Rights Commission, 30 Jan 2001, [E/CN.4/NG0/61]. Berwa, Laxmi N., Volunteers in Service of the India's Oppressed and Neglectt:~d, "Persecution of Untouchables is no Internal Problem of India", Testimony submitted to the 35th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, on 31 August 1982. Human Rights Watch, statement indicting India's record under ICCPR and ICERD in the Human Right Commission, 16 January 2001, [E/CN.4/2000/NG0/28]. National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, "Caste, Race and the WCAR", downloaded from http://www.dalits.org. National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, "Dalits at Durban", downloaded from http://www.dalits.org. National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, "Pre-['urban _Aidvocacy at odds:", downloaded from http://www.dalits.org. National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, "UN Interventions", downloaded rom http://www.dalits.org. National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, "UN Perspectives", downloaded from http://www.dalits.org. National Campaign on Dalit Human Rights, "UN Submissions", downloaded from http://www.dalits.org. World Council of Churches, Statement at the First PrepCom of the World Conference, 3 February 2001, [E/CN.4/2000/NG0/102, paragraph 10]. Other United Nations Publications United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrmination, Report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Racism and Racial Discrimination, [E/CN.4/1998/79, paragraphs 53, 57-59]. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Cultural Rights as Human Rights, Paris, Geneva: UNESCO, 1970. United Nations General Assembly, Report of the Human Rights Committee, Official Records, Forty Sixth Session, Supplement No. 40. (N46/40), New York: United Nations, 1991. United Nations Sub-commission on Human Rights, Resolution before the WCAR, [E/CN.4/Sub.2/2000/1/Rev.1] and [E/CN.4/Sub.2/2000/L.14]. United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, comment on the submission of the World Council of Churches, 20 August 1998, [E/CN.4/Sub.2/SR.19, paragraph 36]. 219
United Nations Sub-Commission on Protection of Human Rights, 2000, [E/CN.4/Sub.2/2000/L.l4]. United Nations Sub-Commission on Protection of Minorities and Prevention of Discrimination, setting the agenda for the World Conference in Durban, 1 August 2000 [E/CN.4/Sub.2/2000/1/Rev.l]. United Nations, Human Rights, Minority Rights, Fact Sheet No. 18, New York: United Nations, 1992. United Nations, United Nations and Apartheid, 1948- 1994, UN Blue Book St:ries, Vol. 1, New York: United Nations, 1994. Documents of Religious Organisations [Author Missing], "Report of Workshop on Indian Christian Theology and SelfIdentity", quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXV, No. 3 September 1978, pp. 81-85. [Author Missing], "Statement of the Madras Consultation", quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXIV, No.2, June 1977, pp. 88-96. Christian Conference of Asia, "Letter" from Secretary General Yap Kim Hao to General Secretary M. Zachariah, NCCI, quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXIV No.2, June 1977, pp.47-49. Church of North India, "Executive Resolution", 21 September 1976, quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXIV No.2, June 1977, pp. 47-49. Dharmaatmadja, A New Way of Being Church in Asia, intervention made at the Asian Bishops Synod, quoted in Vidyajyoti Journal ofTheological Reflection, Vol. 63, No.12, December 1999, pp. 887-891. Mar Gregorios, Paulos, "Letter to Philip Potter", 13 November 1975, quoted in Religion and Society, Volume XXV, No.3, September 1978, pp. 53-60. National Conference of Theological Teachers, "Report", quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXV No.3, September 1978, pp. 73-92. National Council of Churches of India (NCCI), "Resolution of the NCCI Executive", quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXIV, No.2, June 1977, pp. 3839. National Council of Churches of India, "Resolution of the NCCI Executive", quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXIV No.2, June 1977, pp. 38-39. South Asia History Project, Some Important Documents ofthe Ghadar Movement, download,ed from http://members.tripod.corn/-INDIA_RESOURCE/ghadar.html Synod of Asian Bishops, "Message of the Synod of Bishops' Special Assembly for Asia", quoted in Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection, Vol. 62, No. 9, September 1998, pp. 700-706. 220
World Council of Churches, "Letter from Dr. Phillip Potter, Secretary General of the World Council of Churches, to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi", 9 October 1975, quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXIV, No.2, June 1977, pp.3-4. World Council of Churches, "Seeking Community: The Common Search of People of Various Faiths, Cultures and Ideologies", extracted from Breaking Barriers, Report of Section III of the Fifth Assembly of the World Council of Churches, quoted in Religion and Society, Vol. XXIII, No.3, September 1976, pp. 70-85. World Council of Churches, And So Set up Signs, The World Council ofChurches' First forty Years, Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1988. World Council of Churches, From Canberra to Harare: An Illustrated Account of the Life of the World Council of Churches 1991-98, Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1998. World Sikh Organization, "Constitution", downloaded from http://"'rww. worldsikh.org/wso/ introductionlconstitution/default.htm
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Amnesty International, Human Rights in India, the up-dated Amnesty International Report, New Delhi: Vistaar Publication, 1993.
Ansari, Iqbal, Protection of Human & Minority Rights Under the Indian Constitution: A Review, Report on the memorandum submitted by the Minorities Council to the Constitution Review Committee, Aligarh: Minorities Council, :2.000.
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Hiro, Dilip, The Untouchables of India, Report of the Minority Rights Group International, London: MRG, 1975.
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Sorabjee, Soli J., Minorities: National and International Protection, Aliga.rh: Minorities Council, 1995.
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223
Guru, Gopal, Proi'essor, Department of Political Science, Delhi University, interviewed on 07.10.03 at Delhi University. Hilsayan, Sudhir, Executive Editor, Voice of Buddha, interviewed on 23.08.2000 at 34 Malviya Nagar, New Delhi. Jodhka, Surinder S., Professor, Centre for Study of Social Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University, interviewed on 02.10.03 at his residence. Kumar, Vivek, Associate Professor, Centre for Study of Social Systems interviewed on 06.10.03 at Jawaharlal Nehru University. Oonk, Gerard, India Committee Netherlands, interviewed in May 2002 at Park Hotel. Qaiser, Rizwan, Professor, Department of History, Jamia Millia Islamia, interviewed on 26.09.03 at Jamia Millia Islamia. Rodrigues, Valerian, Professor, Centre for Study of Political Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University, interviewed on 03.10.03 at Jawaharlal Nehru University. Thampu, Valsan Rev., Chaplain, St. Stephens College, Delhi University, telephonic interview on 29.09.03. Thorat, Sukhdeo, Director, Institute of Dalit Studies, interviewed on 05.09.03 at Institute of Dalit Studies, South Extension, New Delhi. Varhade, Yogesh, Ambedkar Centre for Justice and Peace, Toronto, telephonic interview in April2002 at Queens University, Kingston. SECONDARY SOURCES Books Abbasi, M. Yusuf, London Muslim League (1908-1928), An Historical Study, Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research, 1988. Ackerman, Bruce A, Social Justice in the Liberal State, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980. Ahmad, Imtiaz, ed., Modernization and Social Change among Muslims in India, New Delhi: Manohar, 1983. Ahmad, Imtiaz, Ghosh, Partha S. and Reifeld, Helmut, eds., Pluralism and Equality: Values in Indian Society and Politics, New Delhi: Sage, 2000. Ahmad, Ishtiaq, State, Nation and Ethnicity in Contemporary South Asia, London and New York: Pinter, 1996. Ahmad, Jami1-ud-din, ed., Speeches and Writings ofMr. Jinnah, Volume I, Lahore: Ashraf Press, 1982. Ahmad, Qeyamuddin, The Wahabi Movement in India, Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1966. 224
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