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Content: Research Paper Impact Factor: 3.029 Peer Reviewed & Indexed Journal
IJMSRR E- ISSN - 2349-6746 ISSN -2349-6738
Dr Tahreem Noor Khan* Dr Hanan Khalil Qatawneh** * Department of Business, Al Yamamah University, Female Section, Saudi Arabia. **Department of Business, Al Yamamah University, Saudi Arabia.
Purpose The purpose of this research is to develop a theoretical model that aims to motivate and increase job satisfaction of lecturers in academic universities.
Design/Methodology/Approach. The research was qualitative inductive in nature and based on extensive literature review of articles, journals and previous studies about motivation and job satisfaction. The researcher deduced five main critical points to achieve motivation and job satisfaction in academic context.
Findings To improve lecturer motivation and job satisfaction there is a need to apply the following factors; 1) Management Behaviour 2) Colleague's Behaviour 3) Employee Self- behaviour4) Environmental factors and 5) System and Work Job Design. As organizational environment varies, the strategies must be crafted to take these variabilities into account.
Research Limitations/Implications The absence of empirical research is the limitation of this study. The validity and the theoretical soundness of the proposed five critical factors can only be tested by collecting empirical data from real-life cases and testing the propositions of the framework.
Practical Implications The proposed Model is essential to increase lecturer motivation and job satisfaction which will positively affect their performance an action.
Originality/Value Despite the remarkable contributions of existent research about motivation and job satisfaction, however the concept remains a complex phenomenon that is not fully understood. The proposed model in this study has included five critical success factors that filled that gap within the literature.
Key Words: Motivation, Academic, Education, Job Satisfaction. 1. Introduction Motivation and job satisfaction is highly related to employee and business results. Field (as cited in Teohet al., 2013) stated "that company business success is usually tied to having a team of employees who are greatly satisfied with what they are doing and the conditions and environment that the company offers them in their workspace"(p.143). "Motivation is significant contributor in teachers' performance in delivering knowledge and grooming their students as the global citizens and master of their specialized field" (Imran et al., 2010, p. 4).Ololube (2004) cited in (Imran et al) explored the same point of view that "increased motivation of teachers' leads to an increase in productivity that gives boost to the educational systems; hence the function of educations motivational methods cannot be underemphasized"2010, p. 4).
There are wealth of theories for motivation and job satisfaction (Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, Skinner's reinforcement theory, McClelland's Theory, McGregor's Theory X and Y) discussed within last 60 years which emphasized different factors affecting individual motivation and job satisfaction.
However the concept remains a complex phenomenon that is still not fully understood. There is a lack of agreement concerning a universally accepted theoretical model of motivation because some existing theory contain rigid hierarchy: lower hierarchy need to met first then higher hierarchy, focusing either on physiology or environment need only, different preference because of culture, satisfaction is short-lived, hard to measure human motivation.A study by Alfonso et al. (2000) found that "having an interesting job" and "having good relation with management" explained the largest proportion of variance in job satisfaction and motivation.
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The most critical aspect to organisational effectiveness is Human resource, which need to be effectively managed. Organisational behaviour and Organizational research psychology relies on the ability to explain and predict the determinant of attitudes and behaviours among individuals and groups; their satisfaction, commitment, performance, and outcome including organisational effectiveness (John and Keith, 2002).
In this research paper, researchers are aiming to explore the critical success factors to improve motivation and job satisfaction of lecturers in universities and academic context. The findings of this are expected to be of great benefit to university management, strategic planners and lecturers in identifying the critical success factor needed to achieve motivation and job satisfaction.
2. research methodology The research was qualitative inductive in nature and based on extensive literature review of articles, journals and previous studies about motivation and job satisfaction. The researcher deduced five main critical points to achieve motivation and job satisfaction in academic context which are: Management Behavior Colleague's Behavior Employee Self- behavior Environmental Factors System and Work Job design
The model discussed in the literature review may have achieved one or two of the above five points, however, there is no existing study that achieves the above five points together. Before proposing the model, a discussion of the above five points and the grounding theories and relevant literature review that led to the deduction of these points will be presented.
3. Research Background The researchers believe that the mix of many principles like (organizational strategy, organizational culture, intrinsic and extrinsic reward system, leadership commitment, training and self- development, job design etc.) mentioned in previous studies all is important and cannot be neglected. What is more critical to motivation and job satisfaction as the researcher is proposing in this research- is how organization can achieve and integrate the following points together:
3.1. Management Behaviour Goetsch and Davis assert that "Old school managers are often found to be more task-oriented than people-oriented. They tend to focus more on task at hand and getting it done than on the people who actually perform the task" (2013, p.116).
Nowadays, Organizational success is based on people management. `Any organization will go only as far as the people who are driving it. In fact, a company is really just a group of people who interact to achieve a common purpose. They are the ones who make up the organization' (Harting, 2008, p.1). Managers are responsible for the motivation, assisting, setting goals and direction for the employees of an organization. However, employees will feel distracted if the goals and values are not properly conveyed. Similar issue specify by Ayenew (2007, p.65) that employees of the colleges do not seem to know the goal and values of the colleges properly and do not seem to be willing to exert additional efforts to perform activities which are important for the development and growth of the colleges.Furthermore, to ensure person fit into organizational environment, Cabrera and Cabrera (2005) proposed that during staffing process, they should select employees who share specific value which organization is seeking.
University management should design a balance extrinsic (work conditions, supervision, security, salary, and company policy) and intrinsic (achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, and advancement) motivation strategy for faculty to participate in development of the program. In case of non-availability of extrinsic factor, anxiety can reflect from employee behaviour such as Akram found out in his research that "the faculties in Saudi Arabia's did not feel motivated to participate in the development and improvement of the academic program due to: (a) lack of monetary and non-monetary incentives, (b) management not involving faculty in decision-making, and (c) lack of recognition and moral support" (2014, p.77).
Another research finding indicate that academic staff was critical about Management behaviour: laidback attitude, incompetent, bureaucratic, and non-responsive (Afia et al., 2012 p.77). Similarly, Teachers of Engineering Colleges in India (Kumar, 2013 p. 35) and Teachers in British University in Egypt (Pauline, 2013 p.457-460), faculty in Pakistan (Imrab, 2013 p.111) are not satisfied with the managerial policies, accountability system of their university and placement policies of their
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colleges. Such studies finding revealed that, dissatisfaction with administrative policies can decrease the motivation of academic staff.
In such scenario, "Senior leaders should inspire and motivate the entire workforce and should encourage all employees to contribute, to develop and learn, to be innovative, and to be creative. Senior leaders should serve as a role models through their ethical behaviour and their personal involvement in planning, communications, coaching, development of future leaders, review of organizational performance, and employee recognition" (Evans, 2011, p. 376).Effective leadership connects more than controls; it demonstrates more than it decides. It does all this by engaging (Mintzberg, 2004 p. 143). However, Debowski and Blake (2004) found that leadership specific development programs for roles like Head of School and teaching in universities is generally not well recognised, understood or supported.
Therefore it is highly recommended on the basis of existing research to provide training to the Chairman/Head of School at university to make them good administrator, as their role is more vertical in operation where they are responsible for the administration of a large budget, staff appraisal and supervision (Scott, 1995). Unfortunately existing literature indicate that there is a communication gap between the chairman and faculty members in Pakistan University, which dissatisfy staff (Imran, 2010, p. 12). Challenge for universities leaders is to identify a collaborative model which balances the needs of administrative demands and academic quality (Gayle et al., 2003, p.35). Anam et al. (2011) suggested conceptual framework which is useful for the academic leaders in term of research, educational and administration to make the institute more effective for faculty motivation and satisfaction.
She elaborated further that, faculty satisfaction is important for the management because they want to retain and attract talented staff and value their loyalty and commitment. There are thousands of educational institutes; if faculty members are not happy with the management of their institute then they couldpsychologicallyor physically switch to any other educational institute. It will be adverse effects on institution, university will not only loose its valuable employee but also whole image of university will go down. Students' academic, personal, and professional developments depend on faculty's sincere effort, that's why faculty motivation is lying in the center of this model (Anam et al., 2011, p.189).
Conger and Kanungo (1988) agreed that job characteristics and leadership played a major role in determining worker intrinsic motivation. Some researches has also shown that Leadership Styles the way of communication can influence the way people perceive the design of their job, and can also influence compensation system which impact on employee motivation (Gagnй and Forest, 2008; Piccolo and Colquitt, 2006). Successful leaders need to adopt different managerial-practices that promote high performance and provide motivation and direction for all their employees at all levels toward achieving their work targets and above all organizational main goals. Based on the above, it is hypothesized that: H1: Management's Behaviour has a significant effect on Motivation and Job Satisfaction that affect business results. 3.2. Colleagues' Behaviour Elsbachet al.believe that "organizations should consider three primary factors when motivating employees: factors internal to the individual, factors related to the social interaction among employees and factors related to the organization and job itself" (2016, p. 188). "Behavioural scientists have devoted considerable research to determine the influence of group affiliation on the individual worker" (Reece and Brandt 2008, p. 12).
"People are limited in what they can do individually, however, when people organize and work together in harmony, there is virtually no limit to what can be accomplished" (Brannick et al., 2007, p.141).Mosley et al.indicate that "Social or belonging needs include the need for belonging, for association, for acceptance by colleagues and for friendship and love" (2011, p. 200) further added "when employees social needs and safety needs are not met they may behaves in ways that tend to defeat organizational objectives by becoming resistance, and antagonistic, and uncooperative" (2011, p.200). Grant stated that "most research on work motivation overlook the relational context of work" (2007, p.394). The emphasis of his study is on "the relational architecture of jobs that increases the motivation to make a prosocial difference by connecting employees to the impact they are having on the beneficiaries of their work. Beneficiaries are the people and groups of people whom employees believe their actions at work have the potential to positively affect" (2007, p. 395). He said that "The Managers are emphasizing the importance of relationships both externally, with clients and customers (Cascio, 1995), and internally, with a greater focus on teamwork and collaboration (Osterman, 1994, 2000)". Individuals differs in work place and "the norms of the society are institutionalised and internalized by the individuals in it through a process of socialization. These norms steer their actions and subordinate individuals to the social order, reducing the uncertainty they experience when International Journal of Management and Social Science Research Review, Vol.1, Issue.3. March- 2016 Page 44
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interacting. Without this social mechanism, interaction would be much less predictable, the motives and reactions of those involved much less certain" (Browaeys and Price, 2008, p.81). Elsbachet al. say that "group vary in the purpose that they serve the organization and the duration that they are needed. Various barriers exist that derail a group or a team but teamwork is a competency that can be learned, norms can govern effective behaviour, and psychological safety can be developed over time" (2016, p.316).
Individual do make comparisons to others in work setting, and employees who felt dissatisfied are the one who felt disadvantage relative to their colleagues (Oldham et al., 1982, p. 84). In that specific case, employees will be less likely to share information with anyone than if they were competing with someone for a promotion (Wang, 2004).
Drew's (2006, p. 121) conducted research in Australian university and found that the quality of interactions between people registered higher development needs than other areas relevant to strategic and operational management in academic setting.Ayenew (2007) and Pauline (2013) and Mustapha (2013), deduced in their studies that there is a strong effect of attractive co-workers relationship in the colleges and their satisfaction/motivation at work. Based on the above, it is hypothesized that: H2: Colleagues' Behaviour has a significant effect on Motivation and Job Satisfaction that affect business results. 3.3. Employee Self- Behaviour and Self-Satisfaction People have different personality and unique style to enhance their natural capacity for motivation (Elsbachet al., 2016, p. 195). By knowing their style, employee can have greater self-awareness (Reece and Brandt, 2008 p.85). Accurate selfknowledge and self-understanding is truly the starting point for effectiveness at work (Reece and Brandt, 2008 p.85). Doing an activity for its self-satisfaction, fun or challenge rather than for external products, pressures or rewardmean intrinsic motivation is high (Ryan and Deci, 2000, pp. 56).List of behaviours that have been associated with intrinsic motivation: flexibility, creativity, resiliency, initiative, meaningfulness, empowerment, self-regulation, and concentration (Thomas and Velthouse, 1990 p.667). People who are self-motivated are inclined to set their own goals and monitor their own progress, their attitude is "I am responsible for this job" (Reece and Brandt, 2008 p.140). Such personal initiative, self-determination and proactive behaviour overcome barriers, able to change the complexity to attain self-set goal (Roe, 1999; Freseet al., 2000, Chak and Suzane, 2008 p.1114).
When individuals are intrinsically motivated, their internal desire to teach with interest will be greater: for example they will show patience with slower learners which can have positive effects on students' learning motivation (Lukaset al., 2012).
Xinyan (2014 p.6), probe the insights of motivation, in China universities, the quantitative data indicated that intrinsic motivation factors are more likely to be the main factor that motivate higher level academics to conduct research.
In academic setting, some researches deserve attention that measure level of intrinsic motivation amongst the faculty. In Bangladesh (Afiaet al., 2012, p.77), Pakistan (Mubbasher, 2013, p.46), Cambodia(Kim, 2013, p 72), Colorado (Glass, 2011, p.20) faculty feel innate satisfaction helping younger generation, contributing in developing human resource, nobility, honesty,personal interest and dignity in this profession are valued by them much higher than money or any other job.Interestingly, extrinsic factors were de-motivating in their teaching and may lead them to leave the profession (Kim, 2013 p.60).
In agreement with above context, it is accepted that attitudes, feelings and emotions of academic staff towards their job play a vital role in determining staff performance, productivity and behaviour, therefore Osakwe (2014, p.50) believe that Universities should develop a climate that recognizes individual differences encourage creativity, supportive work environment and gives academic staff a sense of autonomy: freedom in making choices at work, and taking responsibility for these choices. Employers often retain and promote those employees who take initiative to make their own way of doing their jobs (Recce and Brandt, 2008 p.140). Organizations are trying to address internal motivation by allocating a percent of their work time to a project of their choice (Elsbachet al., 2016, p. 195). Although the importance of understanding individual difference discussed in organizational behaviour context, but surprisingly the relation of intrinsic motivation of faculty in teaching is limited and narrowed in research context.
Based on the above, it is hypothesized that: H3: Employee self- behaviour has a significant effect on Motivation and Job Satisfaction that affect business results. International Journal of Management and Social Science Research Review, Vol.1, Issue.3. March- 2016 Page 45
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IJMSRR E- ISSN - 2349-6746 ISSN -2349-6738
3.4. Environmental Factors Along with supervisor support, task performance, colleague behaviour, `working environmental' factor is considered as one of the potential factor that could affect motivation and job satisfaction (Das, 1999 p.400; Chang et al., 2010). Working environment includes all the facilities for doing the job such as workstation partitions, availability of storage, lightening, ventilation, safety workspace, and the degree of noise(Parson, 2000 p. 592; Vischer, 2008).Experts in ergonomics techniques for adapting the work environment to the human body say that anyone spending hours in front of a computer should get the right equipment and use it properly" (Reece and Brandt, 2008, P. 335). Further added, that loud voices ­like a voice of a person who occupies the cubicle nearby- can increase stress level without your conscious awareness.This can cause headaches, sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression (2008, P.335).If organizations become unable to provide better working environment high dissatisfaction will arise from the part of employees (Herzberg, 1959). The research was conducted by Gensler (2013), survey of 2,035 professionals to take the pulse of the US workplace how design can better support employee engagement, satisfaction, and performance. It is found that 53% of employees are disturbed by others when trying to focus. 69% are dissatisfied with noise levels at their primary workspace. In another study (ASID, 1999), employees identify effective utilization of space and having a workplace allows them to work efficiently and managers focused on issues of privacy as important aspects of design of their workspaces.In relating environment issues to academic sector, Afia (2012) explore that in adequate infrastructure was a major cause of faculty demotivation. Employee expresses great concern for delayed action in establishing permanent campus. Many believe due to lack of space and insufficient up-to date facilities, the university will eventually have tremendous setback or even lose what it has accomplished during the last 15 years (p. 77). Furthermore, Teachers strongly agreed that inadequacy of teaching and learning resources in schools de-motivates teachers (Nyakundi, 2012, p. 36). In similar context, scarce facilities and out-dated learning resources, bad internet connection greatly hindered teacher research potential (Afiaet al., 2012, p.77; Wengya, 2012p.148).Xinyan (2014, p. 176) suggested that it is better to support research with grants, library resource, research workshop, and separate research areas for faculty. Based on the above, it is hypothesized that: H4: Environmental factors have a significant effect on Motivation and Job Satisfaction that affect business results. 3.5. System and Work Job Design "Organizational structure and design have always been important factors influencing the behaviour of individuals and groups that comprise the organization; the news rules of operating in today's global business environment make structure and design consideration even more critical" (Ivanceveich, 2008, p.449).Leading organization nowadays should design their work systems, arrange task, and set clear duties and responsibilities to achieve high performance work. A system can be defined as a "series of elements connected by relationships or links surrounded by a clearly defined boundary to the external environment and with a role of transforming its inputs into desired outputs" (Jashapara, 2004, p.130). Evans and Lindsay say "the design of work should provide individuals with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to achieve quality and operational performance objectives' (2011, p. 279).They further presented the model of Hackman and Oldham that helps understand how job design impact motivation, satisfaction and organizational effectiveness. In this model Hackman and Oldham identified five core job characteristics (Task significance, task identity, skill variety, autonomy and feedback) have high impact on critical psychological states that includes: Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work And knowledge of the actual results of the work activities The finding of Gebrekiros (2015 p. 6) research shows that respondents were least satisfied with the context in which their job was performed. To deal with this issue, the environment in which university academic work is performed should be assessed to improve the context. Department heads and Directors should conduct a job analysis for each position and seek innovative ways to enhance the work academic staff actually perform. "Four design decision regarding division of labour, delegation of authority, departmentalization, and span of control shape the design of organizational structure. These decisions in turn are affected by a variety of factors" (Ivanceveichet al. 2008, p.468). Communication and Information Sharing: Hittet al. say that `sharing knowledge among employees does not diminish its value for any one person. To the contrary, two people sharing their individualized knowledge sets often can be leveraged to International Journal of Management and Social Science Research Review, Vol.1, Issue.3. March- 2016 Page 46
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create additional knowledge that, although new to each of them, contributes to performance improvements for the firm' (2007, p. 77) they added that `the firms challenge is to create an environment that allows people to integrate their knowledge individual knowledge with that held by others in the firm so that, collectively, the firm has significant organizational knowledge' (2007, p. 80). Turban et al. say that there are three sets of technologies to be used in a knowledge management system: (2001: p.406): 1. Communication technologies that allow users to access needed knowledge, and to communicate with each other ­ especially with experts. 2. Collaboration technologies that provide the means to perform group work. Groups can work on the same documents at the same time (synchronous) or at different times (asynchronous); in the same place or at different places. 3. Storage technologies originally meant using a database management system to store and manage knowledge. Cashon and Terwiesch say that one weak link can negatively affect every other location in the chain (2013, p.373). Minimizing problem in the process can be achieved through communication and information sharing (Summer, 2009, p.238). However in academic setting faculty of China universities indicate that communication channels are not open, no employee participation, did not feel to follow their interest, limited recognition and remuneration for staff affect their motivation level (Wengya, 2012, p.203).
Feedback on employee performance: Lecturers do daily task and deliver lectures to students, they are also part of systemic knowledge such as policies and guidelines that facilitate their work. However in some cases, teachers are not aware of their students' expectations and they receive very little feedback on their performance (Menyhбrt, 2008, p.127; Imran, 2010, p.15).
As a result of above findings, it is suggested that teachers must be properly recognized for their achievements and feedback must be provided to them continuously and they must be given a sense of appreciation by involving them in departmental decision making(Imran, 2010, p.20).
Workload of Teachers: Communication and work relationship can be improved between managers and employees because of less workload (Kosseket al., 2007, p.2). Anxiety showed about workload and remuneration schemes of academic personnel at universities of Georgia (Kordzadze, 2013. p. 117) workload of instructors in Pakistan university i.e. 12 credit hours per week is much high along with other administrative activities (Imranet al., 2010, p.10), it require improvement and reduction in order to avoid demotivation of academic staff.
Research: Lack of research training, lack of research collaboration and too much administrative work, were indicated by some academics for low research performance (Xinyan, 2014, p.175-176). Mawoli and and Abdullahi (2011, p.9) study revealed that the academic staff's job performance in term of research undertaking is moderate. Comparatively, the University staff devotes more time and energy to teaching than research, therefore motivation does not exert any significant influence on research performance (Dauda and Abubakar, 2012, p.147). Therefore, more opportunities for research collaboration across faculties and universities are needed (Xinyan, 2014, p.175-176).
According to instructors, scarce facilities consider as a reason greatly hindered their research potential (Afiaet al., 2012 p.79).University need to aid more research facilities to faculty members (Farhanet al., 2015 p.8). Universities should also set aside special funds for sponsoring publication and even marketing of researches conducted by the academic staff (Dauda, 2012, p.147). Academic staff performance appraisal should focus on the quality of publication rather than the quantity of publication (Xinyan, 2014, p.176).
Salary, Reward and Job Insecurity: Low salary, job insecurity, inadequate teaching facilities, insufficient time for family and stress are demotivating factors and negatively affects teacher performance (Menyhбrt, 2008 p. 131; Pauline, 2013, p.456).
Further finding interestingly indicate that demographically related factors influence job satisfaction. Males specifically professors, heads of departments, and deans, regard `job security' and for females `opportunity for training' and `recognitio n and achievement" have been significant factors for job satisfaction in in Egypt (Pauline, 2013, p.463). In study of Ethiopia University, among male and female both "Achievement" was the most motivating aspect and least motivating factor was "Salary" (Gebrekiros, 2015 p.6). Farhanet al.(2015 p.8) figure out that female faculty members in Pakistan University were more satisfied with their jobs than the male faculty members. In another research of Pakistan, male employees prefer extrinsic rewards more than the female instructor in Karachi University. However it is noted that, they have same needs of learning opportunities, financial appraisal and job security in order to get motivated and perform well (Lubna and Nida, 2013 p. 123).
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IJMSRR E- ISSN - 2349-6746 ISSN -2349-6738
Apart from monetary factor, prominent nonmonetary factors that can motivate faculty of Pakistan (Imran and Shakeel, 2010 p.8-21) and faculty of California (Cynthia, 2011, p.25) are: the work itself, job design, work environment, career development, responsibility, recognition, feedback, training, participation in decision making, and empowerment. Armstrong (2014 p.163), acknowledge that the reward systems consist of financial rewards (fixed and variable pay) and employee benefits with total remuneration. The system also incorporates non-financial rewards (recognition, praise, achievement, responsibility and personal growth).Recognition in less formal way can be simply manager saying, `Well done', `Thank you', `Congratulations' face-to-face or in a brief note of appreciation (Armstrong, 2014 p.381). Interestingly, employees while advancing to higher hierarchy seek fair promotions policies and practices (Locke, 1976). Research evidence indicate frustration in many of the extrinsic context of Lecturer work, the fact is there is a structural inequity exists between the amount of effort they commit to their work and the rewards offered by the organization (Ayenew, 2007 p.60;Nyakundi, 2012 p.36). Teachers who get low pay with regard to their inputs normally get de-motivated affecting their performance (Nyakundi, 2012, p. 40). Employees also perceived that they earn much lesser than other organizations pay for the same type of job. Benefits were considered inadequate and even unavailable, and the incentive system were considered very poor (Ayenew, 2007 p.60-61). None of the respondents are excited or enthusiastic about their compensation package, while a good many of them voice negative tone (Afiaet al., 2012 p.78). High turnover rate and selecting competent faculty members pose a great challenge to the departments as well as the administration (Ayenew, 2007; Afiaet al., 2012). Employees of the colleges feel that their job is unsecured and there is inadequate or no post-employment security available (Ayenew, 2007p.78). Moreover, human resource development through in house training and outside training were also regarded as very unsatisfactory. The management of the colleges did not care for their employee's welfare. Rather the management focused on achieving their objectives of securing high profit by saving from the human resource cost (Ayenew, 2007 p. 79). Imran and Shakeel added that "when head will be properly recognizing the achievements and accomplishments of their faculty members in their departments, there is no doubt that teachers will be more motivated to teach and they will be producing better results" (2010, p.20). In the view of the above concept, it is better to analyse instructors' job design and its impact on their performance. Most o f the teachers face the big problem in relation to their roles change periodically and become more complex because of the Curriculum development which includes changes in subjects, teaching methodology, evaluation and control. This changes highly impact on teachers' satisfaction and their performance. So, these issues need to be investigated more closely. Based on the above, it is hypothesized that: H5: System and Work Job Design has a significant effect on Motivation and Job Satisfaction that affect business results. 4. Proposed Model Figure-1 shows a detail motivational visual model with the predicted relationship between dependent and independent variables. To test the hypotheses, a secondary analysis needs to be conducted which is beyond the aim of this research.
Figure 1: Motivational Visual Model with the Direction of Relationship International Journal of Management and Social Science Research Review, Vol.1, Issue.3. March- 2016 Page 48
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5. Conclusion Not all people the same, people differ from each other. What satisfy me might not satisfy you. A good leader needs to be aware of these differences and try to satisfy and optimize all his employees' needs and preferences. Many studies emphasized the importance of motivation and job satisfaction and suggested different frameworks and factors that achieve that motivation and satisfaction that lead to improve organizational performance and business results. The researchers in this study believe that the mix of many principles like (organizational strategy, organizational culture, reward system, leadership commitment, training and self- development, job design, etc.) mentioned in previous studies all is important and cannot be neglected, however researcher noticed that the more critical factors to achieve that motivation and job satisfaction is the application of the following factors as seen in figure 1: Management's behavior Colleagues' behavior Employee self-behavior Environmental factors System and work job design
The main limitation of this study is the absence of empirical research. The validity and the theoretical soundness of the proposed five critical factors can only be tested by collecting empirical data from real-life cases and testing the propositions of the framework.
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