Impacts of Taipei-Yilan Highway on Social and Service-Sector Changes, CH Chen

Tags: Yilan County, Radisson Blu Hotel, social environment, economic development, Taipei, Beijing, China, Yilan Plain, Chen Yilan Plain, Service-Sector, Yilan citizens, development, longitudinal analysis, commercial development, telephone, Taipei-Yilan, tourism industry, Arts, Entertainment, References Chen, Global Business and Social Science Research Conference, Social Science Methodology, significant impact, Political Research Incorporated, LQ, basic industries, metropolitan area, Suao Township
Content: Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 Impacts of Taipei-Yilan Highway on Social and Service-Sector Changes Chih-Hsien Chen Yilan Plain early barrier due to geographical factors and limitations, resulting in the commercial development retardation and young population exodus. Therefore, transportation and economic development has been the fervent hope of Yilan. However, the improvement of transportation is not just a space changes with shortening of travel time, but also affect people's life, economic, and social environment. This article aims to explore the difference of social environment and service-sector in Yilan County between before and after the opening of the Taipei-Yilan Highway (TYH), including from expectations, impact to the cognitive process. This study conducted longitudinal analysis with telephone interviews, the time period including 2006, before the opening of TYH, and after the opening of TYH in 2009 and 2012. In the social aspects of the long-term changes of Yilan County, "shorten the living gap between Yilan and Taipei" and "promote the metropolitan nightlife into Yilan" appeared significant impact, and the impact is positive. However, "metropolitan consumption patterns into Yilan" and "outreach road and railway usage is low" also appeared a significant impact, but the impact is negative. In the service-sector impact of TYH, in addition to "finance and insurance industries", the perception of Yilan citizens on the other service industries is significantly affected, and significantly believed to bring positive influence. Keywords: Taipei-Yilan Highway, Longitudinal Analysis, Social Impact, Service-Sector Change 1. Introduction Yilan County is located in the northeast corner of Taiwan, with a land area about 2,143,320 square kilometers. The Yilan east facing the Pacific Ocean, north, west, south, surrounded by mountains on three sides (including snow-capped mountains and the Central Mountain Range); therefore, Yilan represents a complete and closed geographical environment. Transport is one of the necessary drivers for industrial development, meanwhile, Yilan Plain early due to the geographical barriers limited the development opportunities of Yilan. It would take more than two hours between Yilan and Taipei because the traffic is inconvenient, in the past, resulting in the industrial and commercial development limitation and the outflow of young workers; therefore, the improvement of transport and economic development is the common expectations of Yilan citizens. After years of efforts, traffic obstacles were overcome because the Taipei-Yilan Highway (TYH) is opened to traffic, resulting in the distance of space and time between Taipei and Yilan shortened significantly. Google map shows, the distance _______________________________ Chih-Hsien Chen, Fo-Guang University, Taiwan. 1
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 from Taipei City Government to Chiaohsi train station is 44.8 km, 76.4 km, and 98.7 km respectively, passing through the TYH, Taipei-Yilan road, and coastal road. After consideration of the factors of the road and speed limit, furthermore, the driving time passing through TYH is less than one half passing through Taipei-Yilan road or coastal road. The length of TYH is 54 km, it's the first highway across the east-west of Taiwan links Taipei City, New Taipei City and Yilan County. Declared after about 10 years of planning and evaluation, the environmental impact assessment was passed in 1991, TYH was opened to traffic on June 16, 2006. There are five tunnels across the Hsuehshan (Xueshan) mountain along the TYH, including Nangang Tunnel, Shiding Tunnel, Wutu Tunnel, Pengshan Tunnel, and Hsuehshan Tunnel. Moreover, the Hsuehshan Tunnel, a total length of 12.9 km, is known worldwide for the construction of the high degree of difficulty. It is the longest tunnel in Taiwan, the second longest road tunnel in Asia, and the world's fifth longest road tunnel. The opening of TYH, not just changes in the space, or transportation tool change. For Yilan, TYH affects the lifestyle changes for the relatively closed Yilan residents, as well as a comprehensive and deeply affected by the economic, social and environmental ecology. After the opening of TYH, because of the rapid increase of one day and two days tour, the tourists demands of transportation, catering and tourism are also increasing significantly. These demands resulting in a peak and off-peak gap in transportation, catering and tourism , besides, the imbalance development of urban and rural and social changes are the emerging and important issues for Yilan local governance. Behind in local governance, cognition and perception to people is one of the important reference for Local Government administration. Then, this study employed the longitudinal method to explore the differences among the expectations, impact, and long-term changes for social environment and industrial structure of Yilan. Therefore, this study has two purposes: First, to explore the perception differences on social impact of Yilan citizens between before and after the opening of TYH; second is to explore the cognitive differences for service industry changes before and after the opening of TYH. 2. Literature Review Taiwan since TYH opened to traffic, have accumulated a lot of research literature related to major transportation infrastructure, the following will be divided into two parts of the literature review. First, investigate the TYH opened to traffic on the impact of Yilan, second is the impact on the industry due to major transportation infrastructure. 2.1 TYH Opened to Traffic on the Impact of Yilan Lin (2008) explore the expectations and cognition of the coming impact of TYH for Yilan citizens, he discussed the impacts on natural, human, and social environmental aspects. From the view of residents of Yilan County, he also found that the positive expectations is greater than negative worries after the opening of TYH on the environmental impacts. 2
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 Hsu & Tsao (2007) explore the cognition of the impact on tourism for Suao Township residents after the opening of TYH, they conducted a questionnaire survey during July 2006 to May 2007. Its findings show a strong positive impact to economy feelings, followed by social and cultural, minimum experience in the environmental aspect. Meanwhile, the strongest negative perception is the environment aspect, followed by economic aspect and social/cultural experience. Chen et al. (2008) explore the impact of the economic benefits for Yilan couty after the opening of TYH. Their findings, after the opening of TYH, the characteristics of tourists in Yilan come to the changes, including 21-30 year-old females, level of education is universities and unmarried, two days tour, and accommodation prices between NT$ 2,001 to NT$ 3,000. Wu and Shih (2012) found that, after the opening of TYH, the duration of stay for tour is reducing, the travel patterns appeared significant difference among the age, Education Level, area of residence, peer type, and child-friendly of tourists. 2.2 Major transportation infrastructure impact on the industry Huang et al. (2010), investigated the changes in population structure before and after the completion of TYH. The study indicated that the labor force has been mainly based on commercial areas. GЬlcan et al. (2009) tried to find out the important industry in the area of Aegean Sea in Turkey and the impact on the value-added of tourism industry from the government investment. The study revealed that tourism industry, especially for the hotel service, is the basic industry in the area of Aegean Sea by the analysis of LQ during 1995 to 2001. Miller et al. (1991) indicated that LQ has been widely used in studying economic geography and local economic. The data can be used to determine the number of work force, factories, productivity, or operating income. Moineddin et al. (2003) compared the difference of employment ratio between local county and whole nation. The value of LQ more than 1 indicated that basic industry is more emphasized, there are more labor force for this industry, the employment opportunities or industry cluster is better than expected and the extra works are provided, the goods and services can be distributed to other areas to bring profits. Chen et al. (2012) also indicated that the basic industries can export outputs to other areas, rather than the basic industries, non- basic industries means supporting basic industries. They used location quotient (LQ) to analyze the services industry changes due to the opening of TYH in Yilan County around 2003-2010 period. The results found that hospitality industry is the important basic industry for Yilan County. 3. Methodology This study employed the telephone interview method to reveal the impact of Taipei-Yilan Highway on social and service-sector changes. Firstly, collecting relevant literatures for the awareness and expectations of social environment and services changes during before and after the opening of the TYH. Secondly, through the systematic random sampling, interviews Yilan's citizens to conduct the longitudinal analysis. 3
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 Investigations in the social environment, the study applied the Social Change Scale for Yilan in Lin (2008). This scale includes: 1.shorten the living gap between in Yilan and Taipei, 2.the metropolitan nightlife into Yilan, 3. the metropolitan consumption patterns into Yilan, 4. Speculation soared rose the Yilan real estate, 5. existing outreach road and railway usage low. Through statistical analysis to explore the trends of Yilan residents' cognitive and expectations for the impacts on humanities and social environment after the opening of the TYH. In the service sector survey, this study applied 9 questions based on the services standard classification of government. The scale includes: 1.the effects of wholesale and retail trade, 2. the effects of transportation and warehousing, 3. the effects of hotel industry, 4. the effects of food and beverage industry, 5. the effects of financial and insurance, 6. the effects of real estate, 7. the effects of education services, 8. the effects of health care and social work, 9. the effects of arts, entertainment and leisure industry. The object of this study was to interview citizens in 12 townships in Yilan County, including the Yilan City, Luodong Town, Toucheng Town, Yuanshan Township, Sanxing Township, DongShan Township, Suao Township, Jiaoxi Township, Jhuangwei Township, Wujie Township, Datong Township, and Nan'ao Township. The respondents must live in Yilan County and more than twenty years old. In order to reveal the cognition and perception to citizens of the impact on Yilan industry and social environment after the opening of TYH,, this survey includes three parts, namely: 1. the cognition and perception of with/without experience changes and the intensity of changes on social environment, 2. the cognition and perception of with/without experience changes and the intensity of changes on service industry, 3. demographic information of respondents. The survey conducted the telephone interview via Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) system. CATI is a system of telephone access to the questionnaire, so that access quickly and to ensure the quality of investigation. It is a computerized telephone access to the operating system developed using computer-assisted telephone survey; combination of computer, telephone equipment and communications technology. There are five steps for executing CATI, firstly, questionnaire is entered into the computer system; secondly, interviewers dial to the respondents according to the sampling of CATI in accordance with the instructions on the screen; thirdly, questionnaires access by computer display; fourthly, click the respondents answer directly on the computer; fifthly, after the interview, the data directly turned into the computer analysis. The population of this survey is all the residential telephone directory in Yilan County. Following the stratified systematic sampling method, a detailed description is divided into three stages. In the first stage, first of all, divide Yilan County population into 12 layers according to the administrative region and calculate the ratio of population aged 20 or older; followed, according to the ratio to calculate the number of samples of each layer for next stage sampling. The second stage is Systematic sampling, first of all, according to the page number of phone book and the number of samples for every township, selecting a number randomly to determine the average interval of pages out of a sample; followed by a random column and random number for the 4
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 sample of respondents in each page. In the third stage, type the extracted telephone number into the phone database, followed by choosing randomly a new number for the last two codes of the prior sampling number to generate a new telephone number of respondents. Such sampling can cover all residential telephone in Yilan County, because the numbers not registered in the telephone directory of the phones also have the same probability of respondents. In addition, preventing sampling may encounter an empty telephone number, not at home, refusing to be interviewed and other conditions, the sample database of telephone number run up to 15 times of sample size. The phone number is accessed randomly by the computer system and assigned to the interviewers. 4. Findings 4.1 Profile The survey is expected to conduct 1,200 respondents, actually, the 1,203 respondents were successfully interviewed. Refusing to be interviewed sample, including refusing to be interviewed and unsuccessful interview, with 2770 samples, so the successful access rate was 30.3 %. In addition, the invalid samples, including respondents who were not in, non-residential telephone, empty number, fax and answering machine, no answer, busy, unable to determine whether there qualified respondents et al., with 14,029 phone numbers. Telephone interview survey, the inspector confirmed data integrity, rationality, and consistency and make logical proofreading and review. Goodness-of-fit test showed that there is no significant difference between population and samples in gender and age. The demographic information of respondents are described below: (1) Gender: male 46.1%, female 53.9%. (2) Age :20-29 years old, the lowest proportion of respondents 11.1%; 30-39 years and 60 years the proportion of about 18%; 40-49 ratio up to 26.3% of respondents; aged 50-59 accounted for 24.1%. (3) Education: senior high school education were the highest proportion of 32.1%, the junior high school and university ratio is about 17% respectively, college and elementary school education was 15.4% and 12.4% respectively, above the master degree was 4.5%. (4) Occupation: the non-economic producers was the highest proportion of 35.4%, arts, entertainment, and recreation employees was the lowest proportion of 1.7%. 4.2 Impacts on Social Changes Table 1 showed the perception profile of impact on social environment due to the opening of TYH conducted in 2006,2009,2012 respectively. The impact on social environment includes shorten the living gap between in Yilan and Taipei, the metropolitan nightlife into Yilan, the metropolitan consumption patterns into Yilan, 5
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9
speculation soared rose the Yilan real estate, and existing outreach road and railway usage low. Both the data of 2006 and 2009 is cited from Lin (2008, 2009), meanwhile, this study conducted telephone interviews during June 28 to July 5 in 2012, from 18:00 to 21:00. Table 1: The Perception Profile of Impact on Social Environment Due To TYH
affected positive
2006
negative
unaffected affected positive
2009
negative
unaffected affected positive
2012
negative
unaffected
Shorten Metropolitan Metropolitan Real estate Outreach living gap nightlife consumption soaring transport
73.4%
61.9%
72.4%
80.8%
43.7%
806
455
713
633
311
71.8%
47.3%
64.6%
52.8%
47.2%
317
506
391
565
348
28.2%
52.7%
35.4%
47.2%
52.8%
26.6%
38.1%
27.6%
19.2%
56.3%
59.0%
42.2%
61.5%
73.3%
90.2%
461
254
397
310
463
87.8%
73.4%
72.2%
46.3%
69.7%
64
92
153
359
201
12.2%
26.6%
27.8%
53.7%
30.3%
41.0%
57.8%
38.5%
26.7%
9.8%
95.8%
84.9%
92.8%
88.4%
85.8%
984
478
618
389
368
90.8%
51.5%
59.2%
39.1%
40.7%
100
451
426
605
536
9.2%
48.5%
40.8%
60.9%
59.3%
4.2%
15.1%
7.2%
11.6%
14.2%
According to Table 2 shows that, whether in the surveys of 2006, 2009 or 2012, more than half of the citizens appeared significantly affected and also appeared significantly to good effect in the variable of "shortening the gap between Taipei and Yilan due to TYH" and "consumption patterns in the metropolitan into Yilan". As for the TYH opened to traffic on "the metropolitan nightlife into the Yilan" view, only in 2006 and 2012, more than half of the citizens appeared significantly affected, and in 2006 a significant worry will bring negative effects. In the TYH opened to traffic on "speculation soaring rising of Yilan Real Estate", the matter in 2006, 2009 or 2012, more than half of the citizens appeared affected significantly, and in 2006 will bring significant look good influence, but in 2009 and 2012 significant that bring negative influence. Finally, only in the surveys of 2009 or 2012, more than half of the citizens appeared significantly affected in the variable of "Outreach transport usage is getting 6
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9
low", and in 2009 will bring significant positive effects, but in 2012 significant that bring negative effects. Table 2: Longitudinal Analysis of Impact on Social Environment Due to TYH
affected
Shorten living gap
positive
negative
Metropoli- affected
tan
positive
nightlife negative
Metropoli- affected
tan
positive
consump-
tion
negative
Real estate soaring
affected positive negative
affected
Outreach transport
positive
negative
2006 % t-value 73.4% 16.02** 71.8% 14.93** 28.2% -14.93 61.9% 8.14** 47.3% -1.82 52.7% 1.82* 72.4% 15.37** 64.6% 10.00** 35.4% -10.00 80.8% 21.09** 52.8% 1.95* 47.2% -1.95 43.7% -4.35 47.2% -1.92 52.8% 1.92*
2009 % t-value 52.8% 1.82* 87.8% 24.92** 12.2% -24.92 36.5% -8.92 73.4% 15.43** 26.6% -15.43 55.1% 3.34** 72.2% 14.62** 27.8% -14.62 66.9% 11.11** 46.3% -2.41 53.7% 2.41** 82.2% 21.24** 69.7% 13.00** 30.3% -13.00
Note: **: P-value<.01
2012
% 90.1% 90.8%
t-value 26.43** 26.87**
9.2% -26.87 77.2% 17.93**
51.5% 0.96
48.5% 86.8% 59.2%
-0.96 24.25** 6.06**
40.8% 82.6% 39.1% 60.9% 75.1% 40.7% 59.3%
-6.06 21.49** -7.16 7.16** 16.54** -6.12 6.12**
Also, according to the respondents of Yilan citizens in 2012, this study conducted long-term trend analysis for the five social environmental impacts cognition, as shown in Table 3. Table 3 presents, only "Real estate soaring" didn't appear significant difference in affected impact and positive effects in the initial cognition from 2006 to 2009 for the opening of TYH impact on social environmental changes. In the late cognition from 2009 to 2012 for the opening of TYH impact on social environmental changes, only "shorten living gap" appeared significant difference in positive effects. In the long-term trend from 2006 to 2012, "shorten living gap" and "Metropolitan nightlife" appeared significant difference of positive effects, but "Metropolitan consumption" and "Outreach transport" appeared significant difference of negative effects.
7
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 Table 3: T-Test for the Longitudinal Analysis of Social Environment Impact
2009 vs. 2006 2012 vs. 2009 2012 vs. 2006
t-value
t-value
t-value
affected Shorten living gap positive
-10.35** 9.74**
21.43** 2.29*
10.79** 12.21**
Metropolitan nightlife
affected positive
-12.49** 13.17 **
21.48** -11.16**
8.23** 2.00**
Metropolitan consumption Real estate soaring
affected positive affected positive
-8.70** 3.90** -7.59** -3.10**
17.66** -6.61** 8.76** -3.49**
8.83** -2.71** 1.16 -6.77**
Outreach transport
affected positive
20.80** 11.18**
-4.19** -14.60**
16.46** -3.19**
Note: *: P-value<.05, **: P-value<.01
Table 3 also showed, there exists three social impacts appeared significant difference both in the late cognition and long-term trend, including "shorten living gap", "Metropolitan nightlife", and "Metropolitan consumption". Thus, this study also prepared a service-sector changes scale based on the standard service-sector classification of government to explore the deeper reasons for the cognition difference in living gap, nightlife, and consumption pattern. 4.3 Impacts on Service-sector Changes In the perspective of service-sector changes, according to the results of this telephone interview, in addition to "Financial and Insurance" and "science and technical service", all the other service-sectors will be affected and significantly believed to bring good influence due to the opening of TYH. Table 4 also shows, the public opinion of the TYH opened to traffic affected by the top three as "catering", "lodging industry", "arts, entertainment and leisure services", percentages were 94.3%, 89.3%, 83.5% respectively.
8
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 Table 4: TYH Opened to Traffic Impact of the Service-Sector Industries
%
% t-value
affected
Wholesale/ retail
positive
negative
Transport/ affected
warehousi- positive
ng
negative
affected
Hotel
positive
negative
affected
Food/beverage
positive
negative
75.4% 16.74**
81.6% 18.4%
20.82** -20.82**
Real estate
affected positive negative
82.2% 21.23**
affected
92.6% 28.09** Education positive
7.4% -28.09**
negative
89.3% 25.89** Hhealth affected 77.8% 18.35** care/soci- positive
22.2% -18.35** al work negative
94.3% 29.17** Arts/ente- affected 94.8% 29.53** rtainment/ positive
5.2% -29.53** leisure negative
81.5% 20.74** 74.6% 16.21** 25.4% -16.21** 70.7% 13.61** 86.5% 24.04** 13.5% -24.04** 79.1% 19.20** 90.5% 26.72** 9.5% -26.72** 83.5% 22.11** 93.6% 28.76** 6.4% -28.76**
affected 43.9% -4.03
Financial/ insurance
positive
85.2% 23.22**
negative 14.8% -23.22**
4.4 Compare with LQ analysis Chen et al. (2012) performed the LQ analysis for service industries in Yilan, in terms of employed persons by industry in Yilan county, the t-test of the changes in LQ values has revealed that the hospitality, health care/social welfare, and art/entertainment/leisure industries appeared significant difference between before and after the opening of TYH. Based on the data of registered incorporation in Yilan county, the t-test of the changes in LQ values has revealed that the wholesale/retail, transportation/warehousing, hospitality, finance/insurance, real estate, and art/entertainment/leisure industry appeared significant difference between before and after the opening of TYH. Table 5 presented the significant difference in LQ between before and after the opening of TYH, the sign of * and ** showed the significant difference in the significance level of 0.05 and 0.01 respectively. Table 5 also showed, regardless of the LQ survey and telephone interview survey, both the hospitality--hotel, food and beverage industry--and arts/entertainment/leisure industry appeared significant difference simultaneously due to the opening of TYH.
9
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 Table 5: Significant Difference for the Service-Sector Industries
LQ
Telephone interview
Employment population
Incorporation registered
Affected
Positive
Wholesale /retail
transportation/warehousing
hotel industry
**
food/beverage
**
financial/insurance
real estate
health care/social work
*
arts/entertainment/leisure
*
Note: *: P-value<.05, **: P-value<.01
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
**
5. Conclusions According to the investigation and empirical results of this study, in the social aspects of the long-term changes of Yilan County, the public remarkable that "shorten the living gap between in Yilan and Taipei" and "brought the metropolitan nightlife into Yilan" have a significant impact, and the impact is positive. For the "metropolitan consumption patterns into Yilan" and "existing outreach road and railway usage low", appearing a significant impact, but the impact is negative. As for the "soared rising of Yilan real estate", although not completely presents a significant influence, but may still have a significant impact in the future, and for the negative effects. However, the study also conducted a survey of service-sector changes in order to reveal the relationship between the changes in the social environment and in service-sector industries. The results showed that, in addition to "finance and insurance industries", the perception of Yilan citizens on the "wholesale and retail trade", "transportation and warehousing industry", "hotel industry", "food and beverage industry", "real estate" , "education services", "health care and social work", "arts, entertainment and leisure services" will be significantly affected, and significantly believed to bring positive influence. Among them, the public opinion of the TYH opened to traffic affected by accounting for 94.3% of the "food and beverage industry" was the highest, 89.3% of the "hotel industry", followed by addition of 83.5% of the "Arts, entertainment and leisure services". In addition, 70.7% of the "Educational services" and do not have a significant impact of "Finance and Insurance" 43.9%, compared to the relative minimum. Contrast LQ literature findings with this study, "hotel industry", "food and beverage industry", and "arts, entertainment and recreation industry" does possess a significant impact. Therefore, this article inferred that because of TYH, makes "shorten the living gap 10
Proceedings of 7th Global Business and Social Science Research Conference 13 - 14 June, 2013, Radisson Blu Hotel, Beijing, China, ISBN: 978-1-922069-26-9 between in Yilan and Taipei" and "brought the metropolitan nightlife into Yilan" have a significant impact on Yilan, and "Hotel and Food/beverage Services" and "Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation service" also has a significant impact, both with a high degree of correlation and causation. According to Friedmann (1963) proposed the Core-Periphery model shows that, with the transportation revolution, the boundary between urban and rural will become blurred or disappeared, possibly reconstruct a new metropolitan area . Therefore, to explore space integration and shortening the gap between urban and rural, will be an important issue and research topics in the further. TYH opened to traffic impact is not only a single area (Yilan County), near the area also has a considerable impact, they need more cities around Yilan joint consultation integration, such as the improvement of traffic outside the cities, the industry development policies and integrated tourism planning and so on, also the future research directions. References Chen ,C. H., Lu, Y. L. and Huang, S. N. 2012. Impacts of Major Transportation Project on the Transition of Service Industries in Taiwan - An Empirical Study of Taipei-Yilan Highway, RC33 Eighth International Conference on Social Science Methodology, Australian consortium for Social and Political Research Incorporated (ACSPRI), p.45. Chen, I,. T., Shu, H. C. and Hu, W. Y. (2008). How can Increases the Lodging Benefit of Yilan Area after the Syueshan Tunnel have Been Opened to Traffic? Journal of Chia Institute of Technology, 39, pp.-179 (. Friedmann1963. Regional economic policy for developing areas. Regional Science, 11(1), pp.41-61. Lin, Da-Sen (2008). The expectation and cognition of Taipei-Yilan Highway from the opinions of Yilan citizens, Pro-Ed Publishing Company . Wu, X. X. and Shi, F. Y. (2012). Analyze the Changes of Yilan's Industries through the Operation of Taipei-Yilan Highway, Yilan studies 2012, pp.65-84 . 11

CH Chen

File: impacts-of-taipei-yilan-highway-on-social-and-service-sector.pdf
Author: CH Chen
Author: pcroom18
Published: Tue Jun 4 13:46:58 2013
Pages: 11
File size: 0.37 Mb


The Aftermath of Battle, 12 pages, 0.41 Mb

CoffeeScript, 43 pages, 0.37 Mb

The widening gyre, 3 pages, 0.02 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb

High-Wire Act, 88 pages, 0.25 Mb

For a Second Time Now, 81 pages, 0.2 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com