Investigating communication

Tags: communication, researchmethods, text, Illinois University, Purdue University, Santa Clara University, Youngstown State University, North Dakota State University, Lawrence W Hugenberg, State University, Illinois StateUniversity, Illinois State University, Western Michigan University, University of California, NATURALISTIC INQUIRY, Interaction Analysis, Content Analysis, SIGNIFICANCE TESTING, Ronald J. Pelias, culture, Ordinal Data, research methods, Rhetorical Criticism, Qualitative Data, Nominal Data, Analyzing Qualitative Data, Rutgers University, Loyola University, Importanceof Distinguishing Research, Lawrence R. Investigating, Scholarly Journal Articles, Electronic Composition, GARY L. KREPS, Lawrence R. Frey, COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, National Cancer Institute ALLYN AND BACON Boston, Christopher H. Rawlings, INTRODUCTIONTO RESEARCHMETHODS SECONDEDITION LAWRENCE R. FREY, Lawrence R, research, textbook, Northern Illinois University, Allyn and Bacon, Carl H' Botan, EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH, introduction to research methods, Data Frey, California State University, Fullerton
Content: INVESTIGATINGCOMMUNICATION AN INTRODUCTIONTO RESEARCHMETHODS SECONDEDITION LAWRENCE R. FREY The University of Memphis CARL H. BOTAN Purdue University GARY L. KREPS National Cancer Institute ALLYN AND BACON Boston. London. Toronto . Sydney . TblEo . Singapore
Series Edito r : rKaron Bowers VicePresident,Editor-in-Chief: Paul A' Smith Edit ori al Assistant: Jewif et B ecket Marketing Manager: Iackie Aarcn Prod,uction Editor.' Christopher H. Rawlings Editorial-Production Service: Oinegatype Typography, Inc' iComposition and PrepressBuyer: LindaCox Manufacturing Buyer : Megan Cochran CoverAdministrator: JennY}Iatt Electronic Composition: OmegatypeTlpography, Inc'
Copyright @ 2000, l99l by Allyn & Bacon A Pearson Education ComPanY 160 Gould Street Needham Heights, MA 02494
Internet: www. abacon.com All rights reserved. No part ofthe material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any forrn or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any inflrmation and siorage retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner. Between the times website information is gathered and then published, it is not unusual for some sites to have closed. Also, the transcription of URLs can result in unintended typographical errors' The publisher would appreciate notification where these occur so that they may be correited in subsequenteditions. Thank You. Library of Congress Cataloging'in'Publication Data
Frey, Lawrence R. Investigating communication : an introduction to research methods. - 2nded./ Lawrence R. Frey, Carl H' Botan, Gary L' Kreps'
p. cm. Rev. ed. of: Investigating communication / Lawrence R' Frey ' ' '
[et al.]. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : PrenticeHall, c1991' Includes bibliographical references and index' ISBN (invalid) 0-205- 19826-0 1. Communication-Research-Methodology' I' Botan, CarlH'
II. Kreps,GarYL. III. Title.
P91.3.F742000 302.2',07',2-4c2r
99-344M CIP
Printedin theUnited Statesof America 20t9 l8 L716 1312lr l0 09
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PREFACE tx
PART ONE CONCEPTUALIZING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO THE RESEARCH CULTURE The Importanceof Knowing ResearchMethods 3 Making Claims and Offering Evidence 6 Everyday ways of knowing 8 PersonalExperience 8 Intuition 9 Authority 10 Appeals to Tradition, Custorn,and Faith l0 Magic, Superstition,and Mysticism l1 The ResearchProcess 12 Characteristicsof Research 12 Researchas Culture 17 Researchas Conversation 20 The Importanceof Distinguishing Research from Pseudoresearch 2I Conclusion 26
CHAPTER 2
ASKING QUESTIONS ABOUT COMMUNICATION
27
Defining Communication 27
What ConstitutesCommunication Research? 28
Areas of Communication Research ZB
Basic versusApplied Communication ResearchTopics 30
Basic CommunicationResearch 30
Applied CommunicationResearch 33
An IntegratedModel of Basic and Applied
CommunicationResearch 36
Justifying Communication ResearchTopics 38
ResearchQuestionsand Hypotheses 39
DescribingCommunicationBehavior 39
Relating CommunicationBehavior to Other Variables 40
Conclusion 47
CHAPTER 3 FINDING, READING, AND USING RESEARCH
48
Reasonsfor Reviewing PreviousResearch 48
The Searchfor Research 50
TypesofResearchReports 50
IY
CONTENTS
Finding ResearchRePorts 56
"Internet and World Wide WebResourcesfor Research"
by Diane E Witmer 62
How ResearchIs Presented:Reading Scholarly
journal articles 66
A Typicat Quantitative Scholarly Journal Article 66
WritingaLiteratureReview
69
Conclusion 74
PART TWO PLANNING AND DESIGNING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 79
CHAPTER 4
OBSERVING AND MEASURING
COMMUNICATION VARIABLES
81-
ConceptualversusOperationalDefinitions 81
EvaluatingOperationalDefinitions 82
MeasurementTheory 83 Quantitative and Qualitative Meqsurements 83 Levels of Measurement 85
M easuring Unidimensional and
Multidimensional ConcePts 94
MeasurementMethods 95
Self-Reports 96
Others'Reports 97
Behavioral Acts 98
Measurement Techniques 99
Questionnairesand Interviews 99 Observations 104
Conclusion 107
CHAPTER5DESIGNINGVALIDCOMMUNICATIONRESEARCH
109
Internal and External Validity
109
MeasurementValidity and Reliability 111
MeasuremenRt eliability 111
MeasurementValidity 115
Threats to Internal ValiditY ll9
ThreatsDue to How ResearchIs Coruducted 119
ThreatsDue to ResearchParticipants 121
ThreatsDue to Researchers 123
External Validity
125
Sampling 125
EcologicalValidity 133
Replication 135
Conclusion I39
1tD9
CONTENTS
CHAPTER6
RESEARCHETHICSANDPOLITICS
140
Ethical Issuesin Communication Research 140
ThePolitics of AcademicResearch l4I
Ethical IssuesInvolving ResearchParticipants 146
Ethical Decisions Involving ResearchFindings 16I
Conclusion . 165
PART THREE METHODOLOGIESFOR CONDUCTING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 167
CHAPTERT
experimental research
169
Establishing Causation 169
Exercising Control in Experimental Research IlI ExposingResearchParticipantsto an IndependentVariable I7I Ruling Out Initial Dffirences betweenthe Conditions 175 Controllingfor the Effectsof ExtraneousInfluences 178 Experimental ResearchDesigns 182
PreexperimentalDesigns 183
Quasi-ExperimentalDesigns 186 Full Experimental Designs 189
FactorialDesigns 190
factorial design Statementsand Diagrams 192 Between-Groupand Within-Group (Repeated-Measures) Designs 194
Laboratory versusField Experiments 195
Conclusion 197
CHAPTERS
SURVEYRESEARCH
198
The Prevalenceof Surveys 198
Applied Usesof SurveyResearch 198
Useof Surveysin CommunicationResearch 202
Survey ResearchDesign 204
SelectingSurveyRespondents 204
Cross-SectionalversusLongitudinalsurveys 208
SurveyMeasurementTechniques 209
Designing Questionsfor SurveyInstruments 210 QuestionnaireSurveyResearch 213
Interview SurveyResearch 216
Using Multiple Methods in Survey Research 222
Conclusion 223
CHAPTER9 TEXTUALANALYSIS
225
Purposesof textual analysis 225
Important Considerationsin Textual Analysis 22j
TypesofTexts 227
YT
CONTENTS
Acquiring Texts 228
Approachesto TextualAnalysis 229
Rhetorical Criticism
229
ConductingRhetoricalCriticism 230
Typesbf Rhetorical Criticism 231
Content Analysis 236
Valueof Quantitative ContentAnalysis 238 Quantitative Content-AnalyticProcedures 239
Interaction Analysis 243 Describing Interaction and Relating It to Other Variables 243
ConductinglnteractionAnalysis 248
PerformanceStudies 252
"Performanceas a Method" by Ronald J. Pelias 252
Conclusion 256
CHAPTER 10
NATURALISTIC INQUIRY
257
Common AssumptionsGuiding Naturalistic Inquiry
Types of Naturalistic Inquiry
259
EthnographY 259
Ethnomethodology 259
Critical Ethnography 260
Autoethnography 261
The Flow of Naturalistic Inquiry 262
Collecting Data in Naturalistic Inquiry
264
naturalistic observationalReseqrch 264
Interviewing in Naturalistic Inquiry 273
Start Making Sense:Analyzingarrd Reporting
Qualitative Data 280 Analyzing Qualitative Data 280
Reporting Findingsfrom Naturalistic Inquiry
Conclusion 285
258 284
PART FOUR ANALYZING AND INTERPRETING QUANTTTATTVEDATA 287
CHAPTER 11 DESCRIBING quantitative data
289
Making Senseof Numbers: StatisticalData Analysis 289
Describing Data through summary statistics 292
Measuresof Central TendencY 292
Measuresof Dispersion 296
Describing Data in StandardScores 301
Describing Data through Visual Displays 305
FrequencyTables 305
CONTENTS vlt
Pie Charts 307 Bar Charts 309 Line Graphs 31I FrequencyHistograms and FrequencyPolygons 312 Conclusion 314
CHAPTER 12 INFERRING FROM DATA: ESTIMATION
AND SIGNIFICANCE TESTING
315
Estimation 316
Thenormal distribution 316
Useof RandomSampling 318 Inferring from a RandomSampleto a Population 3j9
Significance Testing 323
TheLogic of SignificanceTbsting 325
ThePractice of Significanceksting
329
TypeI Enor andtype II error 332
Statistical Power 333
Conclusion 334
CHAPTER13
ANALYZINGDIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROUPS 336 Typesof Difference Analysis 337 Nominal Data 337 Ordinal Data 342 Interval/Ratio Data 344 AdvancedDifference Analysis 354 Conclusion 354
CHAPTER14
ANALYZINGRELATIONSHIPS
BETWEEN VARIABLES
356
Typesof Relationships 356
UnrelatedVariables 356
LinearRelationshipsbetweenVariables 357
NonlinearRelationshipsbetweenVariables 358
Correlations 359
Conelation Cofficients
359
Cofficient of Determination 367
Multiple Correlation 368
Partial Coryelation 369
RegressionAnalysis 369
Linear Regression 370
Multiple Linear Regression 371
AdvancedRelationshipAnalysis 373
Conclusion 376
viii
CONTENTS
PART FfVE ' RECONCEPTUALIZING COMMUNICATION RESEARCH 379
CIIAPTER 15 EPILOGUE: CONCLUDING RESEARCH
381
DiscussingResearchFindings 381
Interpreting the Meaning of ResearchFindings 381
Identifying Limitations of the Research 389
SuggestingDirectionsfor Future Research 394
Conclusion 395
APPENDICES
397 Random Number Thble 397 Chi-SquareTable 398 tTable 399 FTable 400 PearsonrTable 406 Spearman rhoTable 407
GLOSSARY 408
REFERENCES 444
NAME INDEX 499 SUBJECTINDEX 507
PnBrnce Reseqrch methods-two little words that seemto intimidate eventhe best college student. Indeed, when we asked a group of studentsthe first thought that came to mind when they heard thesewords, they said, "Difficult," "Time consuming," "Worth the effort?" "Boring," and "C" (asin grade).faculty members,in contrast,respondedwith, "The pursuit of truth," "Plannedinvestigation,"and "Proof." To quote the boss of the labor camp (an unfortunate analogy, we know!) in the movie Cool Hand Luke, "WhaI we havehereis a failure to communicate."Studentsdon't understandthe full value of learning about researchmethods. They seeresearchas the province of the elite, asdifficult or evenimpossible to master.Unforfunately, this attitude is often reinforced by how researchmethods are taught. Researchmethods coursescan become a battle or proving ground, with students wishing merely to survive and then forgetting about what they learned as soon thereafter as possible. In short, the gap between the attitudes of teachersand studentsis an obstacle to learning aboutresearchmethodsthat must be oyercome.To that end,our goal hasbeento write a text that encouragesyou asa studentto becomeexcitedaboutstudyingresearchmethods. Call us optimistic, but we seekto makeresearchmethodsaccessibleratherthanimpossible to learn and, hopefully, to encourageyou and your teachersalike to havefun in the process. One way we attempt to do this is by framing research methods in some potentially helpful ways. First, we equatelearning about researchmethods with learning about a new culture. Like a foreign culture, researchmethods have their own languages,rules, and social customs. Learning about a foreign culhrre takes time and patience, and learning about researchmethods is no different. We, the authors, remember what our entry period into the culture of researchwas like; indeed,someof us did not do all that well in our first research methods course! Yet here we are today teaching and writing about communication research methods. Understanding the maturation process firsthand and being sensitive to the diffrculty of leaming this new culture, we start at the very beginning and proceed slowly, making sure that everyone is with us along the way. Second,in line with a communicationperspective,it is helpful to think about the researchmethods culture as a series of conversationsthat take place among and between its members and constituents. There is, for example, the conversation that goes on between a researcherandthe peoplehe or shestudies.Thereis alsothe conversationthat goeson between a researcherand his or her colleaguesin the form ofjournal and book publications and conventionpresentations.Both conversations,and a number of others,although they are quite different in purpose and nature, arepart ofthe researchprocess.The value of such a perspective,then, is that it grounds the researchprocessin communication acts and processes-something you, asa communicationstudent,alreadyunderstand. Third, within any culture there are subculfures where members carry on conversations using particular words and phrases;in somecases,thesesubculturalconversationsarenot understoodeasily by membersof other subculturesor by membersof the larger culture. For example, if you are a surfer, you know that words llke hollow, closed-out, andsucking describetypes of waves,while drop-in, cut-back, andoffthe-lip describesurfing maneuvers (seeScheerhorn& Geist, 1997).T}r.eresearchmethodsculture alsohassubcultureswithin
PREFACE it; as one example, subcultures are represented by the different methodologies that researchersuse to study communication, such as experimental, survey, textual analysis, and naturalistic inquiry. Hence, researchers who conduct experiments believe in and understandthe importanceof randomization, which refers to the processof assigningresearch participants to the different conditions that arepart of an experiment (such astreatment and nontreatmentconditions)in such a way that eachpersonhas an equalchanceof being put into eachcondition so asto rule out the possibility of initial differencesbetweenthe conditions (seeChapter7).Eachmethod, thus, hasits own terminology and rules about how researchersconversewith the people being studied,with colleaguesin the discipline and other fields, and with the pressand generalpublic. We seekto teachyou aboutthesesub- culturesand the conversationsthat occur therern. Finally, we seeresearchersas being similar to detectives.Like a detectivetrying to solve a crime, a researcheris trying to uncover new knowledge. The researcher-detective startswith a topic worth studying, posesquestionsthat needasking, and then attemptsto find the answersin a systematicmanner.Researchmethods are, thus, the strategiesresearchersuse to solve puzzlingquestions.Like a detective,a researchersearchesfor evidence as carefully and as systematically as possible, sorts the meaningful from the trivial, and adopts the most likely solution or answer. Learning about the conversations that take place in the research methods culture, in general, and the various methods subcultures, in particular, is helped by exposure to the ways other social detectivesdo it. For that reason,we provide you with many examplesof real-life communication research.By the time you finish this text, we are sure you will agree that there are many exciting topics studied in the communication discipline and intriguing waysin which researchis done.And while we review many classicexamplesof research,communicationis a young andgrowing field that seemsto changealmostdaily. For that reason,we concentrateon sharing with you the latest, cutting-edgeresearchstudies conductedduring the 1990s. Although a number of good researchmethods textbooks are available, our approachis particularly helpful in learning this subject in five ways. First, we aim at studentswith little or no familiarity with research methods. We know that research methods and findings are often steepedin mystery and obtuse language, making it diffrcult for new learners (and evenseasonedveterans),sowe try hard to demystify the researchprocess,making it accessible insteadof esoteric.This doesnot meanthat we do not deal with important, substantive, and, at times, difficult material; we do, but we never forget that you are an introductory student.Insteadof throwing you into the deepend of a pool and seeingwhetheryou swim or drown, we prefer to take you into the water slowly, first getting your feet wet and then immersing yourself in the pool at a comfortablerate' Second,the primary goal of this text is to enableyou to becomea more knowledgeable and critical consumer of research.We are not trying to train you as a professional researcher; this is more appropriate for graduate education. Indeed, the primary difference between undergraduateand graduateeducation is the extent to which studentslearn to engage in original research as part of their graduate coursework (both in terms of taking a number of methodscoursesand asthe basisfor a thesisor dissertation).We are awarethat you may not haveto conductresearchin your professionallife, but, aswe showin the very fust chapter,you most certainly will have to be able to find, read, understand,and evaluate researchaspart of your work life and as an informed citizen who is called on to make important decisions,suchasvoting for political candidatesor serving onjuries. Understand-
It re. and rderurch t and g put conhow : and sub- n_Eto ftn'e pts to ]s rer e\-lrhial. re- ln ro rhe ,le-sof r s-ill nd ingfrer-. For nrdies nch is h little .gs are s (and accesbstanuctory r swim d then geable nal reerence rto enrkinga re that re very raluate ke imrstand-
PREFACE
xl
ing the researchprocess,of course,is thefirst steptowardbecominga producerof research, so if you chooseto go on to graduateschoolor if you areaskedto conductresearchaspart of this or anoiher course during your undergraduate career,this text will prove invaluable. Third, we have written this textbook explicitly for students who wish to understand how researchmethods are used to study communication behavior. This approachprepares communication majors to study,research,and analyzethe real-world communication issuesthey encounterin the variouscareerstheypursue.Most of the principleswe talk about, however,cut acrossdisciplines;thus, this text also helps you to becomea knowledgeable andcritical consumerof many othertypesof research,suchaspsychological,sociological, business.and medical research. Fourth, in a national survey about the teaching of undergraduate communication researchmethods,Frey and Botan (1988) found that most professorswho teachthis course require studentsto readandreport on communicationresearchpublishedin scholarlyjournals. Many other communication coluses,as well as coursesin other fields, also require students to read journal articles. If you are to remain current and make use of primary sourcematerial in this field, you must be able to find and understandthe information generatedby scholars.Doing so,however,is far more difftcult than merely obtaining the leading scholarly journals andreading them. Few researchreports are written clearly and in the standardway describedin researchmethodstextbooks.The proseis usually inflated, using words not found in everydaylanguage.Studentsoften feel bewilderedby what they encounterin thesescholarlyacademicjounfals, so theyjust skim the contentsof articles,and vow to avoid all further contact with them. To combatthesefeelings,we provide you with the "code" in which scholarlyresearch articles are written. Once you know the purpose and the meaning of each section in researcharticles, the internal logic and value of an article emergesmore clearly. Accordingly, this text mirrors the format of a traditional scholarly journal article by proceeding in the following logical manner:
1. Introducing you to the researchprocess 2. Sharing with you someof the topics communication scholarsconsiderworth study- ing andhow researchquestionsandhypothesesareposed 3. Showingyou how to find andreadpreviousresearch 4. Examining how researchersplan anddesignstudies 5. Explaining how researchersconductstudiesusing variousmethodologies 6. Understandinghow the information collectedis analyzed 7. Discussinghow resultsfrom researchareinterpretedin a meaningful manner
We also provide you with the code by bolding Key Terms throughout the text and listing
them at 'We've
the
end
in
one ofthe
most extensiveand detailedglossariesyou
are likely
to
see.
evencross-listedtheseterms,using "see" sothatyou canfind othersimilar or related
terms and "compare" to enable you to compare how the term differs from other related
terms.
If you still find yourself having difficulty understanding primary sourcematerials, you
may wish to consultour othertext, entilledInterpreting CommunicationResearch:A Case
Sndy Approach (1992, alsoavailablefrom Allyn and Bacon). In that text, we usethe case
study method to walk students through actual communication research articles selected
from scholarlyjournals andbooks. Questionsareposedto considerprior to reading an ar-
ticle, the lines of the article are numbered, and we then analyze the article by referring to
xlt
PREFACE
specificline numbersanddiscussingthe decisionsthe researcher(sm) ade.We alsocite additional reference material that explains in greater depth the specific methodology beilg examined, and give an annotatedbibliography of five additional researcharticles that use that methodology. Finally, the field of communication is fragmented into many subspecialties.Diversity, thoughrich, alsomeansthe possibility of losing sight of what othersin the field aredoing' Too often textbooksaim at oneparticular subspecialtyof the discipline (suchasmasscommunication) or promote one kind of researchmethod (such asexperimental)while giving only lip serviceto someof the other researchmethods. We believe that understandingvarious researchmethods fosters the complementary integrationof thesevarioussubspecialtiesE. achof the authorsof this text hasextensiveexperiencein both teachingintroductory communicationresearchmethodscoursesandconducting research. Our various research efforts have spanned the major areas of the communicationdiscipline (i.e., speechcommunication,masscommunication,andjournalism), the four methodologieswe cover (experimental,survey,textual analysis,andnaturalistic inquiry), and the two ways of analyzing data (quantitative and qualitative). We believe that this diversity of interest and experiencehasresulted in a balanced approachto this textbook that could not possiblyhavebeenachievedhad any one of us written it alone. We havealsogrown in gur understandingof researchmethodssincethe first edition of this book was written. The presentedition, consequently,representsa substantiverevision of the original text. We were not content merely to change a few things around and put a new cover on it, but instead,took the time necessaryto do a thoroughjob. Virtually every chapter hasbeen significantly revised, mostly by adding new material that makestheseentirely new chapters (plus an entfuely new chapter in the analyzing and interpreting quantitative data section),by improving the discussionsin material retainedfrom the previous edition, and, of course,by including the most up-to-dateinformation about the research studiesconductedin the field of communication. In the final analysis,we encourageyou to approachthis textbook and this coursewith an openmind. Preexistingattitudestoo often obstructlearningnew ones,andthis certainly can be the casewith learning aboutcommunicationresearchmethods.So exposeyourself to research;asthe sayinggoes,"Try it, you might like it!" ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Writing and/orrevising a book involves an incrediblenumber of people.We areindebted to thosewho helped shapeboth the first edition and the presentedition, and would like to expressour sincerethanksto thesecolleaguesandfriends' We would like to thank SteveDalphin, our f,rrsteditor at Prentice Hall, for his faith in this projectfrom the very start;JoeOpiela,Editor-in-Chief of HumanitiesatAllyn andBacon, who inheritedthis text andplacedhis trust in us; Paul Smith, Editor-in-Chief of Education, Communication,and Health; and Karon Bowers,Acquisitions Editor at Allyn and Bacon,who helpedproducethis edition. We alsothank the superbteam selectedto review the first edition for their insightful cornments,criticisms, and suggestions:Mark B' Comadena,Illinois StateUniversity; Michael E. Mayer, Arizona StateUniversity; Robert D' McPhee, Aflzona State University; Marshall Scott Poole, Texas A&M University; and Brian J. Spitzberg,SanDiego StateUniversity.
r!t I r I Fd" hs |ue il$- b @@ llE'lt f1ffi.WIF- t dtuE nerr!mriF [ne ESI- mo[ w[41 Fa l{H1 eeflqEuns(Is ;ruch rqith ain\mself ebted ike to iftin dBaEdun and evlew i. Coert D. r; and
PREFACE xltl
We also want to expressour sincereappreciationto Paul G. Friedman,University of
Kansas,one of the authorson the flrst edition of this textbook.Paul'shelp on the first edi-
tion, aswell aSour othermethodstext, wasimmeasurable,andalthoughhe decidedfor per-
sonal reasonsnot to be a coauthor on this secondedition, he still graciously agreedto
review material and provided detailed feedback. There is no doubt that this textbook is sub-
stantially better becauseof the help he offered.
We arealsoindebtedto a nirmberof colleagueswho wrote researchoverviewsof some
areascoveredin the f,trstandlorpresentedition and allowed us liberal useof their material:
Richard L. Johannesen,Northern Illinois University, for help with rhetorical criticism; Dawn Kahn, The John Marshall Law School,for help with communicationissuesrelated ,
to the law; KathleenE. Kendall, StateUniversity of New York at Albany, for help with po-
litical communication;Leah A. Lievrouw, University of California, Los Angeles,for help
with bibliometrics; W. Barnett Pearce,Fielding Institute, for help with framing research
methodsasconversation;RonaldJ. Pelias,SouthernIllinois University,for his contribution
about performancestudies;Nancy L. Roth, for help with elecffonic searches;Thomas J.
Socha,Old Dominion University, for help with interaction analysis;Myoung Chung Wil-
son,RutgersUniversity Library, for help with online databasesand CD-ROMs; andDiane
F. Witmer, California State University, Fullerton, for her contribution about Internet aad
World Wide.Webresourcesfor research.
We want to thank all the students in our research methods courses over the years at
Illinois StateUniversity, Loyola University Chicago,Northern Illinois University, Purdue
University, Rutgers University, and University of Nevada,Las Vegas,who provided us with
feedback about the first edition of this text. We are also deeply indebted to JoAnn Fricke of
Loyola University Chicago for her wonderful secretarial help with the first edition.
The authorsextend specialthanks to SandraMetts of Illinois StateUniversity. San-
dra's only formal commitment for the fust edition was to write the instructor's manual, but
shewent over eachdraft of that manuscript with a fine-toothed comb and offered wonder-
ful suggestionsandrewrote much of the material.Her instructor's manualfor the first edi-
tion
i'Ws oenweeoref ,tihnedbeeeds,t
oneswe've seen. fortunate, then, when
Jim
Query
Loyola
University
Chicago,
agreed
to do the instructor's-manualfor this edition. He hasproducedan exceptionalmanual,one
that we know instructoli will appreciate very much. Thanks, Jim, for your excellent work.
In revising this text, we solicited feedback via a questionnaire from colieagues in the
communication discipline. They offered many excellent suggestionsthat we incorporated
into this edition. Specialthanks for taking the time to help is extendedto (in alphabetical or-
der):DennisC. Alexander,University of Utah; E. JamesBaesler,Old Dominion University;
ThomasN. Baglan,ArkansasStateUniversity; JamesBarushok,NortheastemIllinois Uni-
versity; Julie M. Billingsley, RutgersUniversity; JosephC. Chilberg, StateUniversiry of
New York College-Fredonia; Mark E. Comadena, Illinois State University; Judith M.
Dallinger, Westem Illinois University; Susan Fox, Western Michigan University; Philip
Gray, Northern Illinois University; StephenC. Hines, WestVirginia University; Ann House,
Santa Clara University; Lawrence W Hugenberg, Youngstown State University; Jerry M.
Jordan, University of Cincinnati; Richard A. Katula, Northeastem University; Dean Ka-
zoleas,TllinoisStateUniversity; SandraM. Ketrow,University of RhodeIsland;Ana Kong,
Govemors State University; Charles U. Larson, Northern Illinois University; Gail Mason,
EasternIllinois University; Michael E. Mayer, Aizona StateUniversity; Paul A. Mongeau,
xlY
PREFACE
othy L. Sellnow, North Dakota State University; Edward Sewell, Virginia Tech; John C. Sherblom, University of Maine; Christine B. Smith, University of Southern Califomia; searchmethods,We know this is not the easiestmaterial to teachor the most popular with students,but your dedication to helping studentsunderstandcommunication researchdoes make a difference in their lives' Finally, each of us would like to thank the following people:
about communication and researchmethods. I also want to thank my family for their love ancisupport, and my Chicago-basedfriends (especially Mark and Jiil and Mike and Heidi) for once again putting up with me during the work on this secondedition. This book, asbefore, is dedicated to Marni Cameron with all my love. -L' R. F' Any undertaking of this size intrudes on family life and requires that some things be put on hold. I would like to thank my wife, JenniferMcCreadie,for her comments,support' and patience throughout, particularly in reminding me that qualitative methods hold up half tThyenlerells, eaanrcdhb]rwoothrledr.RI oanlsaoldwBaonttaton,dtehdeicrealtuecthtaisnbtpooolkititcoiamnyinfatthheergJroohunpB.-oCta. n,Hm.oBth. er Julia I owe a great debt of gratitude to my coauthorson this book, Larry and Carl (as well as paul Friedman), who supportedme and patiently waited for my late-arriving chapter drafts through my movesfrom oneend of the country to the other (andback again)' I also sincerely thank-my loving family, Stephanie,Becky, and David, who loyally followed me from one job to another and know that they are the ultimate source of my affection. My hope is that this book will encourage rigorous, pluralistic, and social$ informed communication inquiry. -G. L. K.

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