Lamentations

Tags: Lamentations, translation, figures of speech, Jerusalem, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Peter Martyr Library, Ibn Ezra, University Press, Joseph C. McLelland, Peter Martyr, Bomberg Bible, interpretation, pseudo-Jerome, Truman State University Press, Latin, Biblical Hebrew, Latin Dictionary, Thomas Jefferson, Christian Hebraism, Jerome Friedman, Masoretic text, Thomas Aquinas, Professor John Patrick Donnelly, Jewish Scripture, E. Kautzsch, M. E. J. Richardson, McGill Jewish Studies, Oxford Latin Dictionary, trans, Oxford Dictionary, Christian Church, Truman State, English translation, A. E. Cowley, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Latin Church, McGill Faculty of Religious Studies, Alister E. McGrath Wycliffe Hall Oxford University, Hebrew text, Latin scholars, Peter Martyr Masoretes, Ibn Adonijah, Rabbi Levi ben Gershon, patristic commentary, Ephrem Syrus, Saint Jerome, Paschasius Radbertus, Christian interpretation, Eusebius Praep, Saadiah Sabbath, Ibn Saruq, Truman State University Designer Printed, Jerome, Daniel Shute, Delbert R. Lamentations, McGill University, Frank A. James III, John Patrick Donnelly, Daniel John, Firenze The Peter Martyr, Printed Library Materials, Lamentations Vulgate
Content: The Peter Martyr Library Volume Six Commentary on the Lamentations of the Prophet Jeremiah
Editors of the Peter Martyr Library, Series One General Editors John Patrick Donnelly, S.J., Frank A. James III, Joseph C. McLelland Editorial Committee W. J. Torrance Kirby, William J. Klempa, Paula Presley, Robert V. Schnucker
Editorial Board
Irena Backus Institut d'histoire de la Rйformation Universitй de Genиve
Alister E. McGrath Wycliffe Hall Oxford University
Peter S. Bietenholz University of Saskatchewan
John McIntyre University of Edinburgh
Fritz Bьsser Institut fьr Schweizer Reformationsgeschichte, Zurich
H. Wayne Pipkin Associated Mennonite Biblical Seminaries, Elkhart, Indiana
Richard C. Gamble Reformed Theological Seminary
Jill Raitt University of Missouri, Columbia
Robert M. Kingdon Institute for Research in the Humanities University of Wisconsin­Madison
Pamela D. Stewart McGill University, Montreal
John H. Leith Union Theological Seminary of Virginia
John Tedeschi University of Wisconsin­Madison
Diarmaid MacCullough St. Cross College, Oxford University
Thomas F. Torrance University of Edinburgh
Michael Percival-Maxwell McGill University, Montreal
John Vissers The Presbyterian College, Montreal
Cesare Vasoli Universitа di Firenze
The Peter Martyr Library Volume Six Commentary on the Lamentations of the Prophet Jeremiah Peter Martyr Vermigli Translated and Edited with Introduction and Notes by Daniel Shute VOLUME LV sixteenth century ESSAYS & STUDIES KIRKSVILLE, MISSOURI USA N 2002
This book has been brought to publication with the generous support of Priscilla and Stanford Reid Trust for Reformed and Presbyterian Theological Education in Canada
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Vermigli, Pietro Martire, 1499­1562.
[In Lamentationes sanctissimi Ieremiae prophetae commentarium.
English]
Commentary on the Lamentations of the prophet Jeremiah / Peter
Martyr Vermigli ; translated and edited, with introduction and
notes by Dan Shute.
p. cm. -- (Sixteenth century essays & studies ; v. 55) (The Peter
Martyr library ; ser. 1, v. 6)
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN 0­943549­64­7 (alk. paper)
1. Bible. O.T. Lamentations--Commentaries--Early works to
1800. I. Shute, Dan (Daniel John), 1949­ II. Title. III. Series.
BS1535.3.V4713 2002
224'.307dc21
2002006448
Cover Art and Title Page by Teresa Wheeler, Truman State University Designer Printed by Thomson-Shore, Dexter, Michigan, USA Text is set in ITC Stone Serif 10/13; display in Morris Ornaments Copyright © 2002 by Truman State University Press, Kirksville, Missouri 63501 U.S.A. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any format by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. The paper in this publication meets or exceeds the minimum requirements of the American National Standard--Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48 (1984).
Contents Abbreviations Used in This Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Type Conventions Used in This Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii Translator's Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Commentary on the Lamentations of the Prophet Jeremiah . . . . . . . . 3 Alphabet, or Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Alef, or Verse 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Bet, or Verse 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Gimel, or Verse 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Dalet, or Verse 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 He, or Verse 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Vav, or Verse 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Zain, or Verse 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Het, or Verse 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Tet, or Verse 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Yod, or Verse 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Kaf, or Verse 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Lamed, or Verse 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Mem, or Verse 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Nun, or Verse 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Samekh, or Verse 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Ayin, or Verse 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Pe, or Verse 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Tzade, or Verse 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Qof, or Verse 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Resh, or Verse 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Shin, or Verse 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Tav, or Verse 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Alphabet, or Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Alef, or Verse 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 v
vi
Contents
Bet, or Verse 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Gimel, or Verse 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Dalet, or Verse 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 He, or Verse 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Vav, or Verse 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Zain, or Verse 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Het, or Verse 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Tet, or Verse 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Yod, or Verse 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Kaf, or Verse 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Lamed, or Verse 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Mem, or Verse 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Nun, or Verse 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Samekh, or Verse 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Ayin, or Verse 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Pe, or Verse 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Tzade, or Verse 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Qof, or Verse 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Resh, or Verse 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Shin, or Verse 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Tav, or Verse 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Alphabet, or Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Alef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Bet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Gimel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Dalet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 He . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Vav . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Zain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Het . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Tet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Yod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Kaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Lamed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Mem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Nun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Samekh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Pe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Ayin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Contents
vii
Tzade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Qof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Resh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Shin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Tav . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Alphabet, or Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Alef, or Verse 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Beth, or Verse 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Gimel, or Verse 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Dalet, or Verse 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 He, or Verse 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Vav, or Verse 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Zain, or Verse 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Het, or Verse 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Tet, or Verse 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Yod, or Verse 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Kaf, or Verse 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Lamed, or Verse 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Mem, or Verse 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Nun, or Verse 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Samekh, or Verse 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Pe, or Verse 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Ayin, or Verse 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Tzade, or Verse 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Qof, or Verse 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Resh, or Verse 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Shin, or Verse 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Tav, or Verse 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Chapter 5, or the Prayer of Jeremiah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Verse 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Verse 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Verse 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Verse 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Verse 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Verse 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Verse 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Verse 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Verse 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Verse 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Verse 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Verse 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
viii
Contents
Verse 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Verse 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Verse 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Verse 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Verse 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Verse 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Verse 19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Verse 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Verse 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Verse 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Scripture References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 About the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Abbreviations Used in This Volume
ABD ANF BAGD BDB BHS BIB CBTEL CCCM CP CR CSEL DBI DCB DEL DIAL EncJud ET Even-Shoshan
Anchor Bible Dictionary. Ed. David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Ed. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. New York: Scribners, 1925. Walter Bauer. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. Ed. and trans. William F. Arndt, F. Wilbur Gingrich, Frederick W. Danker. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979. Wilhelm Gesenius. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Ed. Francis Brown, S. R. Driver, Charles A. Briggs. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelstiftung, 1977. A Bibliography of the Writings of Peter Martyr Vermigli. John Patrick Donnelly and Robert M. Kingdon, with Marvin W. Anderson. Kirksville, Mo.: Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, 1990. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. Ed. John McClintock and James Strong. 1867­82. Corpus Christianorum. Continuatio Mediaevalis. Common Places of Peter Martyr Vermigli. "Translated and partly gathered" by Anthony Marten. London, 1583. Corpus Reformatorum. Ed. Karl Gottlieb and Heinrich Ernst Binseil. Halle, 1834­. Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum. Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation. Ed. John H. Hayes. 1999. Dictionary of Christian Biography. Ed. William Smith and Henry Wace. 1877. Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Latin. Ed. Leo F. Stelton. l995. Dialogue on the Two Natures in Christ. Translated and edited by J. P. Donnelly. Peter Martyr Library, 2. Kirksville, Mo.: Sixteenth Century Journal Publishers, 1995. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 1972. English Translation. A New Concordance of the Bible. Ed. Abraham Even-Shoshan. Jerusalem: Kiryat Sefer, 1991.
ix
x
Abbreviations
GKC
Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. Ed. E. Kautzsch and A. E. Cowley. Trans. A. E. Cowley. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910.
HALOT
The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Ed. Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner. Trans. M. E. J. Richardson. 1994­2000.
Hillers, Lam.
Hillers, Delbert R. Lamentations: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary, 2d ed. Anchor Bible 7A. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Ibn Ezra
The first section of Ibn Ezra'a commentary on Lamentations as found in the 1525 Bomberg Bible.
Jastrow
A Dictionary of the Targumin, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashto Lituraturo, comp. Marcus Jastrow. 1950.
JE
The Jewish Encyclopedia. 1901­1906.
Jerome
The Vulgate translation of the Bible; Lamentations Vulgate as found in Conrad Pellican's Commentaria Bibliorum.
KJV
Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible.
Lam. Rab.
Midrash Rabbah. Ed. H. Freedman and Maurice Simon. London: Soncino, 1939.
LC
Loci Communes of Peter Martyr Vermigli. London: R. Masson,
1576. 3 vols. Basle: P. Perna, 1580­82.
LLS
Life, Letters and Sermons. Trans. and ed. John Patrick Don-
nelly. Peter Martyr Library, 5. Kirksville, Mo.: Thomas Jef-
ferson [Truman State] University Press, 1994.
LSF
A Latin Dictionary Founded on Andrew's Edition of Freund's
Latin Dictionary. Ed. Charlton Lewis and Charles Short.
1962.
LSJs
A Greek-English Lexicon. Comp. Henry George Liddell and
Robert Scott; rev. ed., Henry Stuart Jones. 1986.
LXX
Septuagint.
MT
Masoretic text of the Bible.
Mьnster, Heb. Bib. Sebastian Mьnster. Hebraica Biblia Latina. Basle, 1534­35.
NLG NPNF1 NPNF2
Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar. Ed. J. B. Greenough et al. New Rochelle: Caratzas, 1992. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. Ed. Philip Schaff. New York: Scribners, 1886­89. A Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. 2d Series. Ed. Philip Schaff. New York: Christian Literature Co., 1890­1900.
NRSV
New Revised Standard Version of the Bible.
OCD ODCC OLD OTD Pagnini Perush PG PL PML PW Rashi RSV ST STS Targum WO'C
Commentary on Lamentations
xi
Oxford Classical Dictionary. Ed. N. G. L. Hammond and H. H. Scullard. 2d ed. 1970. Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church. Ed. F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingston. 3d ed. 1997. Oxford Latin Dictionary. Ed. P. G. W. Glare. 1992. The Oxford Treatise and Disputation on the Eucharist, trans. and ed. Joseph C. McLelland. Kirksville, Mo.: Truman State University Press, 2000. Santi Pagnini's "new translation" of Scripture: Biblia. Lyons, 1528. The second part of the Lamentations commentary of "Ibn Ezra" in the 1525 Bomberg Bible. Patrologiae Cursus Completus: Series Graeca. Ed. J. P. Migne. Paris, 1857­. Patrologiae Cursus Completus: Series Latina. Ed. J. P. Migne. Paris, 1844­. Peter Martyr Library, series 1 (followed by vol. no.). Philosophical Works: On the Relation of Philosophy to Theology, trans. and ed. Joseph C. McLelland. Peter Martyr Library, 4. Kirksville, Mo.: Thomas Jefferson [Truman State] University Press, 1996) Rashi's commentary on Lamentations as found in the 1525 Bomberg Bible. Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Thomas Aquinas. Summa theologiae. Cambridge: Blackfriars, 1963­81. Thomas Aquinas. Summa theologica. Vol. 3, Containing Supplement QQ. 1­99. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1948. The Targum of Lamentations: Aramaic text in the 1525 Bomberg Bible and the English translation, Йtan Levine. The Aramaic Version of Lamentations. New York: Hermon Press, 1976. Bruce K. Waltke and M. O'Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
Type Conventions Used in This Volume The translation of Martyr's exposition is set in plain serif type (as is this paragraph). Typefaces that identify sources within Martyr's translation of the Masoretic Text verses are identified as follows: serif small capitals . . . . . . . . . . Vulgate translation sans-serif small caps obliqued. . Mьnster's trans. of Vulgate semi-sans serif . . . . . . . . . . . Pagnini's trans. copied by Mьnster condensed sans-serif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pagnini's trans. not copied by Mьnster serif italic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Translation from none of these sources; probably Martyr himself Typefaces that identify sources in the footnotes are: sans serif small caps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jewish/premodern sources SANS SERIF LARGE CAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SCRIPTURE QUOTES WITHIN FOOTNOTES xii
Acknowledgments In a more primitive form this translation of Peter Martyr Vermigli's commentary on Lamentations was part of my doctoral dissertation written under the direction of Dr. Joseph C. McLelland, the founding editor of the Peter Martyr Library. Professor McLelland made it possible for me to be assisted by two skilled language experts. Dr. Natalie Polzer of the Faculty of Religious Studies of McGill University led me line by line through the sometimes obscure medieval Hebrew of the Bomberg Bible commentators. Mr. Leszek Wysocki of the McGill Classics Department patiently corrected the dissertation stage of my translation and alerted me to classical allusion that I would otherwise have missed. Finally Professor John Patrick Donnelly, S.J., of Marquette University made a word-for-word check of a revision of my dissertation translation. The following scholars read through part or all of my dissertation and gave invaluable criticisms: Professor Gerald Hobbs of Vancouver School of Theology; the late Professor Edward Furcha of the McGill Faculty of Religious Studies; Professor Barry Levy, then of McGill Jewish Studies, now the dean of the McGill Faculty of Religious Studies. Ronald Finegold, Reference Librarian of the Jewish Public Library of Montreal, and Professor Lawrence Kaplan of the McGill Jewish Studies Department answered many questions for me. I must also mention the patience and generosity of librarians and curators who obtained for me so many texts: David J. Wartluft, director of Krauth Memorial Library of Lutheran Theological Seminary; Cheryl Jaffee, curator of the Jacob M. Lowy Collection of the National Library of Canada; Tom Amos of the Houghton Library of Harvard University; Terrance L. Dinovo, curator of the Lutheran Brotherhood Foundation Reformation Research Library of Luther Seminary. Jutta Benfey, German tutor for the McGill Faculty of Religious Studies, and Dr. Herre de Groot, formerly professor of Anglo-Saxon at the University of Montreal, helped me through several German texts. Most recently Professor Torrance Kirby of McGill Faculty of Religious Studies read through my introduction to Martyr's Lamentations commentary and made constructive criticisms. I gratefully acknowledge the Reid Trust's generous support, which, among other xiii
xiv
Acknowledgments
things, made possible both the computer hardware and software used in writing this book. Were Peter Martyr still among us, he would remind me that the completion of this project was due not only to the efforts of those mentioned above but also to the sheer grace of God.
Commentary on the Lamentations of the Prophet Jeremiah Translator's Introduction Peter Martyr Lectures from a Rabbinic Bible In 1542 Peter Martyr Vermigli, a refugee from Catholic Italy, arrived in Strasbourg and found work in Martin Bucer's academy as a lecturer on the Old Testament. Martyr began teaching first the Minor Prophets and then Lamentations. An able Hebraist, he found so many of his students already knew Hebrew that he lectured on the Hebrew text; in an earlier period of the Christian church, Martyr would have had no such students, since knowledge of Hebrew among Christians was restricted to a few specialists.1 In his classroom, Martyr moved consciously away from the fanciful, often allegorical, exegesis of the Middle Ages and toward the newer, more philological methods of interpretation developed by Renaissance humanists; that is, he sought the most correct text available and its original meaning. The Old Testament text that he used was a so-called Rabbinic Bible, a Hebrew-Aramaic text surrounded by the commentary of medieval Jewish grammarians such as Rashi and Ibn Ezra.2 These grammarians had, in their own scholarly communities, introduced philological exegesis almost half a millennium earlier. Martyr expected his Christian students to follow him when he cited or alluded to the Jewish grammarians' discussions of difficult points in the Hebrew text. 1In a letter to his former congregation at Lucca, written soon after his arrival in Strasbourg, Martyr writes: "Because many in this academy know Hebrew, I expound the Hebrew text in Latin." See LLS, 98; hereafter Donnelly's translation of this early biography is referred to as, Simler, LLS. Simler first published Oratio de vita & obitu ...Petri Martyris Vermilii in 1563. For Hebraism as an elistist phenomenon, see Jerome Friedman, The Most Ancient Testimony: Sixteenth-Century Christian-Hebraica in the Age of Renaissance Nostalgia (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1983), 13­14. 2For a fuller description of this Bible and Martyr's personal copy of it, see "The Rabbinic (Bomberg) Bibles," p. xxvi below. xv
xvi
Commentary on the Lamentations of Jeremiah
Taken in isolation, Martyr's lecturing from a Rabbinic Bible seems astonishing; nonetheless there were more than a few precedents for such Hebraism in the Latin Church, particularly during the three hundred years that preceded him, and more particularly between 1512 and 1542. The bulk of this introduction will lay the foundation for understanding Martyr's Scripture commentary and its Hebraism by surveying how Martyr inherited the following: Christian Hebraism from Jerome, early Jewish Scripture interpretation from the church fathers (especially Jerome) and from Rashi, Jewish philology from late Medieval and Renaissance scholars, the great Rabbinic Bible from Jewish and Catholic scholars of his own century, and Renaissance Catholic and Protestant Hebraism from his contemporaries. Once we understand this legacy of Hebraism, we shall then look at Martyr's ability as a Hebraist, his community of Scripture interpreters, his Lamentations commentary in the context of his other lectures on Scripture, and the characteristics of his Scripture commentary in general. Finally we will consider the enduring value of his Lamentations lectures. Martyr's Inheritance of Christian Hebraism from Jerome While Hebraism was firmly entrenched in the Latin Church by Martyr's time, things had not started out that way. The early church had lost Hebrew as a sacred tongue when its membership became predominantly Gentile, and examples of Hebraism among the fathers are few.3 The early church's Bible was the standard Greek translation, the Septuagint (LXX), which was also the source for the Old Testament portion
3DCB, s.v. "Hebrew Learning among the Fathers." There were two Gentile Hebraists apart from Jerome: Dorotheus, who was martyred during Diocletian's persecution (Eusebius Hist. eccl. 7.32, PG 20:722; NPNF2 1:317); an Arian priest of the early fifth century named Timothy (Socrates Hist. eccl. 7.6, PG 67:747; NPNF2 2:156), and Origen, who in spite of the fact that he copied or caused to be copied every word of the Hebrew Bible into his Hexapla, knew very little Hebrew. See the confused study of the Hebrew word for Passover that Origen presents in his Treatise on the Passover, trans. and ed. Robert J. Daly, Ancient Christian Writers, 54 (New York: Paulist Press, 1992), 27. John A. McGuckin, "Origen on the Jews," in Christianity and Judaism: Papers Read at the 1991 Summer Meeting and the 1992 Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical Historical Society, ed. Diana Wood (Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1992), 8, affirms that Origen's knowledge of Hebrew was minimal. The church fathers Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Chrysostom taught that the Jews corrupted the Hebrew Bible to fit their doctrine. See Andrew Charles Skinner, "Veritas Hebraica: Christian Attitudes toward the Hebrew Language in the High Middle Ages" (Ph.D. diss., University of Denver, 1986), 41­75.
Translator's Introduction
xvii
of the Old Latin Bible.4 The man responsible for the recovery of the Hebrew text as authoritative for the Latin Church was Jerome, the church father whom Martyr cites more frequently than others, save Augustine, Chrysostom, and possibly Ambrose.5 Jerome is the only competent early church Hebraist of non-Jewish origin whose writings have survived in any quantity. An able philologist, he defended stri- dently his decision to return to "the Hebrew truth" as he retranslated the Old Testament into Latin. In so doing, he set his shoulder against the wheel of three centuries of Christian tradition. In a process not dis- similar to the gradual acceptance of the King James Version of the Bible as the standard English translation, Jerome's version (the Vulgate) eventually became the common Bible of the Latin Church. Since "the Hebrew truth" was the source of correct translation, Hebrew was accorded the status of a sacred tongue.6 When Latin Church scholars of the Middle Ages did original language exegesis, they were more likely to work from the Hebrew Bible than from the Greek Testament.7 Renais- sance and Reformation scholars, to obviate the encrustation of centu- ries of Christian tradition around the Vulgate, drew from the same spring--the Hebrew Bible--as had Jerome. The Vulgate simultaneously 4William McKane, Selected Christian Hebraists (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 1. 5John Patrick Donnelly, Calvinism and Scholasticism in Vermigli's Doctrine of Man and Grace (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1976), 34. 6Francis J. Thomson, "SS. Cyril and Methodius and a Mythical Western Heresy: Trilingualism: A Contribution to the Study of Patristic and Medieval Theories of Sacred Literature," Analecta Bollandiana 110 (1992): 79 ff., esp. 86 n. 132. Of course, Jerome's new translation, based as it was on the Hebrew text of the Jews, met with stiff resistance. Jerome's contemporary, Augustine, while at first cool toward Jerome's project, later endorsed it. Augustine, in his a.d. 396 work, De doctrina Christiana (2.15, PL 54:45­46, NPNF1 2:542), favors the Septuagint over the Hebrew. Jerome produced the Vulgate a.d. 391­406. Augustine, De civitate Dei (completed a.d. 427), acknowledges the priority of the Hebrew text (15.13, PL 41:452­54; NPNF1 2:294­95; 18.42­43, PL 41:602­4; NPNF1 2:385­86). 7This was partly due to the inaccessibility of Greek. The Byzantine Empire maintained a presence only in southern Italy, and even that was lost in the eleventh century. Irish Celtic scholars kept the knowledge of Greek alive until their communities were devastated by Norse invasions. While Greek was little known, and the Byzantines were feared and hated, there were scattered Jewish communities in Europe, and Christian scholars could and did have recourse to them for knowledge of the Hebrew text. See Beryl Smallie, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages, 2d ed. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1952), 360­62. In spite of a theoretical veneration of the Hebrew text, no pre-twelfth-century medieval scholar of Gentile origin has yet been discovered who could read Hebrew fluently. See Friedman, The Most Ancient Testimony, 13­14; and Skinner, "Veritas Hebraica: Christian Attitudes," esp. chap. 2, "The Early Church and `God's Language,'" and chap. 3, "Veritas Hebraica: Jerome and Beyond."
xviii
Commentary on the Lamentations of Jeremiah
obscured the Hebrew text and drew Latin scholars toward it. When the Reformers sought a standard of authority to set against Catholicism's magisterium, they went back to the Scriptures, which, in the case of the Old Testament, led them, as Latins, to the Hebrew text. On the whole, Jerome the translator was an immense help to philologists, such as Martyr, who came after him. Jerome the commentator is another matter. Jerome learned Hebrew from Jews who had not yet analyzed their language scientifically, and he himself held certain ideas about the interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures that were anything but philologically sound. In particular Jerome had the idea that the meaning of alphabetical acrostics in the Hebrew Bible was governed by the mystical meaning of the letter--a notion he probably inherited from Eusebius.8 I coin the term "letterish" to describe this interpretive method. The first four chapters of Lamentations are alphabetical acrostics; the Septuagint and Jerome's Vulgate begin each verse or section with the name of a Hebrew letter. Sometime after the death of Jerome an unknown commentator apparently took Jerome's notion of letterish interpretation and produced a commentary on the first chapter of Lamentations.9 This pseudo-Jerome work was the only Lamentations commentary of supposedly patristic origins available to the Latin west before the modern era. Thus it was the starting point for expounding Lamentations until scholars such as Erasmus exposed its pseudonymity and discredited its interpretive methods.10 This work is not lengthy; it 8In a letter to one of his better-known disciples, Paula, Jerome follows up on a lesson he had given her on the alphabetical Psalm 119. DomenicoVallarsi's careful editing of this letter is reprinted in PL 20:441­45; also Sancti Eusebi Hieronymi Epistulae (eps. 1­70), ed. I. Hilberg, CSEL 54 (Vindobonae: F. Tempsky, 1910). There is no ET. Eusebius apparently derived these definitions from someone whose first language was Greek, maybe from a lost work of Origen or Philo (Eusebius Praep. ev. 10.5, PG 21:787­90.) The interpretation of the dalet [d] as "tablet" is a calque, or transposition, of the Greek delta [D] for "tablet": see PL 22:443 n. b. Nor are Jerome's Hebrew etymologies always accurate: see Dennis Brown, Vir Trilinguis: A Study in the Biblical Exegesis of Saint Jerome (Kampen: Kok, 1992), 74­78. 9There is no modern critical text for it. Migne, In Lamentationes Jeremiae, PL 25:787­92, merely reprinted Domenico Vallarsi's of 1734­42. See ODCC, s.v. "Vallarsi." 10For an enumeration of premodern commentaries on Lamentations, see CBTEL, s.v. "Lamentations, Book of." In fact, very little patristic commentary on Lamentations survived the ruin of the ancient world, and none of that was in Latin; see Origen, Scholia (in Greek); Ephrem Syrus, Explicatio (in Syriac); and Theodore, Interpretatio (in Greek). The editio princeps of Theodoret's work came in 1642, and Origen's Greek works and Ephrem's Syriac later than that; see ODCC, s.v. "Theodoret," "Origen," "Ephraem Syrus." Erasmus included in his first edition of Jerome's works this pseudonymous commentary on Lamentations among Jerome's genuine works. On sober second thought Erasmus suggested that it might be a patchwork creation of the Venerable Bede; see PL 25:787­88.
Translator's Introduction
xix
occupies little more than five columns in Migne's patrology. It is composed in very straightforward Latin, but its interpretations seem extremely fanciful to those unfamiliar with patristic or medieval commentary and, in particular, with Jerome's letterish interpretation.11 This false interpretive key gives the pseudo-Jerome its notion of a verse's "literal" meaning. However inauthentic this so-called Hebrew exegesis of Lamentations may be, it is an excellent example of how deeply Christian interpretation could be affected by what were thought to be Jewish methods of interpretation. The next oldest surviving Christian commentary on Lamentations after the pseudo-Jerome is the commentary of the ninth-century Benedictine theologian Paschasius Radbertus (d. 865). Radbertus made a name for himself by laying a major foundation stone for the medieval doctrine of transubstantiation. Less well known is his lengthy commentary on Lamentations.12 In true medieval style Radbertus tried not to depart too far from his authorities, and he alluded liberally to various classical and patristic sources, including the pseudo-Jerome. He used letterish interpretation for all five chapters.13 Radbertus's exposition of Lamentations passed into the corpus of a mostly patristic exegesis known as the glossa ordinaria. For a philologically sound exegesis of Lamentations, Latin scholars had to get past the pseudo-Hebraism of letterish interpretation. Two pre-Renaissance commentators did exactly that: Hugh of St. Victor ignored it, and Nicholas of Lyra ridiculed it.14 In most circumstances Martyr, who admired the church fathers, 11"At the beginning of each verse, an alphabetical series punctuates its order. The interpreter, who translated them from Hebrew into Latin, did not wish to join together impediments so he might observe this; rather, he put the letters of the alphabet at the beginning of each verse because the verse's meaning hangs on the interpretation of the letter" (Jerome, In Lamentationes Jeremiae, PL 25:787). 12Paschasius Radbertus, Expositio in Lamentationes Hieremiae Libri Quinque, ed. Beda Paulus, CCCM 85. 13Radbertus, In Lamentationes, 1311 (ed. Paulus, 1.136­40). 14Hugh of St. Victor, Adnotatiunculae elucidatoriae in Threnos Jeremiae secundum multiplicem sensum et primo secundum litteralem, PL 175:255­322. Nicholas of Lyra (d. 1340) drew extensively from Rashi when producing his Postilla Litteralis, which was revolutionary inasmuch as it focused on what was called the "literal" meaning of the text: "[These interpreters] also imagine that these letters are not integral parts of the verse but are placed in front of them as if they were titles. This is not true because in Hebrew the letters are an integral part of the verses. We have a similar case in the hymn A solis ortu [From the rising of the sun]. The other Latin letters a through g inclusive are integral parts of the verses": Nicholas of Lyra, Postilla super Totam Bibliam (Strasbourg, 1492; repr. Frankfurt/ Main: Minerva, 1971), one fol. preceding sig. SS.
Scripture References
Genesis 3:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 4:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30n 9:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 10:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201n 10:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185n 11:1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lvii 14:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 15:12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163n 15:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 16:1­4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .103n 18­19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160n 19:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 22:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185n 24:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7185n 27:41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185n 28:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83n 28:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131n 31:36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181n 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204n 36:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125n 36:28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185n 47:13­26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Exodus 6:30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150n 7:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79n 11:2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53n 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72n 12:33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15n 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25n 16:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38n 18:13­26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 19:5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125n 19:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72n 1:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79n 20:5­6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .196n 24:10 . . . . . . 162­63, 163n 33:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138n Leviticus 1:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174n
Leviticus (cont'd.) 13:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110n 15:19­24 . . . . . . . . . . . .52n Numbers 5:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161n 12:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 12:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53n 12:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53n 14:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196n 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19n 22­24. . . . . . . . . . . . . .169n 34:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Deuteronomy 2:32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46n 4:12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 4:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 6:5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139n 7:7­8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21n 8:1­14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96n 8:17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 12­13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36n 13:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93n 17:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22n 17:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84n 23:3­7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36n 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . 22n, 174n 28:43­44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 32:27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Joshua 10:13. . . . . . . . . . . l Judges 6:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46n 7:19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101n 11:37 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34n 15:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79n 16:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205n Ruth 4:1­2 . . . . . . . . . . 19n 212
1 Samuel 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128n 9:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173n 10:1­6 . . . . . . . . . . . . .183n 14:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127n 15:35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68n 16:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68n 16:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121n 18:6­7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19n 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66n 28:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158n 2 Samuel 12:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 13:1­29 . . . . . . . . . . . .204n 15:19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30n 15:26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 16:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169n 20:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131n 22:44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117n 24:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 1 Kings 3:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62n 6:28­29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 10:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154n 10:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154n 12:25­31 . . . . . . . . . . . . 18n 14:25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25n 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18n 18:13ff. . . . . . . . . . . . . .25n 18:44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138n 18:45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69n 18:46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26n 19:11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201n 19:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183n 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18n 21:27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 22:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86n 22:36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101n 24:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25n
Scripture References
213
1 Kings (cont'd.) 24­25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 25:5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 2 Kings 2:15ff. . . . . . . . . . . . . 183n 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185n 21:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170n 1 Chronicles 1:17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185n 1:42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185n 11:19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201n 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19n 2 Chronicles 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19n 17­18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70n 24:15­22 . . . . . . . . . . .103n 24:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104n 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18n 28:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18n 35:25 . . . 8, 153­53n, 183n 36:12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117n 36:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Ezra 1:1­2:67 . . . . . . . . . 12 Nehemiah 9:2ff. . . . . 53n Esther 2:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158n 4:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86n Job 1:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185n 1:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86n 1:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94n 3:1­31:40 . . . . . . . . . .121n 6:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94n 13:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109n 14:7­12 . . . . . . . . . . . .199n 16:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116n 29:7­11 . . . . . . . . . . . . 86n 29:21­23 . . . . . . . . . . . 86n 36:32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138n 38:11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92n 38:13­17 . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Psalms 3:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147n 3:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147n 5:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137n 5:12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116n 10:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137n 14:1­3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137n 14:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 14­6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125n 18:34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26n 19:5­6 . . . . . . . . . . . 1340n 19:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 19:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 23:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 34:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116n 36:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137n 38:12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54n 43:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 43:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183n 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92n 47­49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44n 48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97n 50:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139n 51:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 51:15­16 . . . . . . . . . . .139n 55:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34n 73:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180n 73:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180n 74:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18n 74:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18n 75:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58n 79:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168n 79:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78n 116:11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .121n 119:126 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61n 122 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97n 124:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 128:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 136:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . .201n 137:7 . . . . . . . . 185n, 201n 139:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116n 139:12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69n 140:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137n 145:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 147 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97n Proverbs 1:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137n 7:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93n
13:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174n 15:14­15 . . . . . . . . . . . .98n 31:10­31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Ecclesiastes 9:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 11:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185n Isaiah 1:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 1:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96n 3:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 6:9­13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 7:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26n 13­23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62n 19:25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70n 21:13­14 . . . . . . . . . . . .55n 41:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209n 51:17ff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 57:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209n 59:7­8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137n 59:17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116n 60:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70n 62:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47n 63:1­6 . . . . . . .47­48, 116n 66:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 66:2­4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .200n Jeremiah 2:26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47n 7:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81n 8:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20n 9:1ff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68n 12:1­3 . . . . . . . . . . . . .128n 15:19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38n 17:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122n 18:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47n 20:1­2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117n 20:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 22:13­17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48n 25:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185n 36:29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9n 37:14­16 . . . . . . . . . . . 145n 37:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 37:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148n 38:4 . . . . . . . . . . . 53n, 149 38:6­7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145n
214
Commentary on the Lamentations of Jeremiah
Jeremiah (cont'd.) 38:7­13 . . . . . . . . . . . .148n 38:17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180n 39­42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 42:11­17 . . . . . . . . . . . .149 43:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 48:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174n 52 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180n 52:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101n Lamentations 1:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxiii 1:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101n 1:3 . . . . . . . . . xxxviii, lxiii 1:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lx, lxiii 1:7 . . . . . . .xxi, lvi, lx, 23n 1:8 . . . . . lx, lxiii, lxv, 58n 1:11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38n 1:12­22 . . . . . . . . . . . 108n 1:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxiii 1:15 . . . . . . . . . . .lx, 56, 62 1:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 1:19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21n 1:20 . . . . . . . . . . . 58n, 89n 1:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23n 1:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 142 2:2 . . . . . . . lxin, lxii, 105n 2:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxiii 2:5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lvi 2:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23n 2:11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49n 2:11­22 . . . . . . . . . . . 108n 2:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39n 2:20 . . . . . . . . . 155n, 165n 2:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxii 2:21­22 . . . . . . . . . . . 109n 2:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . lx, 150n 3:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . lxii, 117n 3:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117n 3:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150n 3:43 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 4:1ff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . lxv, 165n 4:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lv 4:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163n 4:17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194n 4:21 . . . . . . . . lx, lxii, 185n 4:21­22 . . . . . . . . . . . 201n 4:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184n
Lamentations (cont'd.) 4:60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150n 5:7 . . lv, 101n, 130n, 132n 5:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53n 7:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lxii Ezekiel 1:26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163n 3:17­18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163n 4:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18n 11:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 12:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119n 16:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21n 17:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 17:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194n 18:19­20 . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 20:19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195n 24:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120n 32:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34n 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165n 34:1­10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Daniel 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128n 2:34­35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 6:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 7:3­8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75n 7:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 7­8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 7:29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 8:5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75n 10:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 10:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 12:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200n 12:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18n Hosea 2:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115n 6:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138n 9:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110n 10:12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 13:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116n Amos 1:6­12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 2:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 7:10­17 . . . . . . . . . . . .170n
Obadiah 12­13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185n 1:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68n Micah 3:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 7:11­17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62n Zephaniah 1:12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138n 1:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 2:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 2:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72n 3:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Zechariah 1:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83n 1:18­21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75n 10:11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92n Malachi 3:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209n 3:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211n 4:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61n 1 Maccabees 1:20­24 . . 36 Matthew 5:12 . . . . . . . . . . 128n, 150 5:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 5:35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 5:39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130n 5:44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5:45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 6:16­17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 6:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 7:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36, 85 7:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 7:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 7:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 10:14­15 . . . . . . . . . . . 160n 10:25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 11:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 11:29­30 . . . . . . . 45, 128n 12:29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 12:43­45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 15:1­9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94n 15:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 15:19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 16:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Scripture References
215
Matthew (cont'd.) 16:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 19:13­16 . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 20:1ff. . . . . . . . . . . . . 128n 21:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 21:33­41 . . . . . . . . . . . .160 21:33­46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 22:32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199n 23:13­31 . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 23:35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104n 24:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169n 26:38 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189n 26:39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113n 26:57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170n 27:38­44 . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 27:39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 27:30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130n Mark 4:28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 6:48 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101n 7:1­9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94n 8:33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 10:17­18 . . . . . . . . . . 126n 12:42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94n 13:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169n 14:34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189n Luke 6:28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 9:55 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 10:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 15:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 18:1­8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113n 21:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94n 23:34 . . . . . . . . . . .63, 113n 24:36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120n John 3:30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 6:32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38n 11:49­51 . . . . . . . . . . .169n 14:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97 16:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118n 20:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120n Acts 2:14­36 . . . . . . . . . . . . 113n 5:1ff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66n
Acts (cont'd.) 7:60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 13:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66n 13:46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 19:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 22:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128n 23:46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Romans 1:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 1:21­28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76n 1:24 . . . . . . . . . . . 46, 194n 1:26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1:28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2:28­29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 3:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24n 3:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3:3­4:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 3:10­18 . . . . . . . . . . . . 137n 3:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54n 5:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 5:4­5:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 6:21­23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 7:7­25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 8:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159n 8:7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 8:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157n 8:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 8:17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190n 8:26­27 . . . . . . . . . . . . .62n 8:28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 8:35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 9:1ff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20n 9:4­5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24n 9­11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiv 9:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 11:9­10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 11:11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 11:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 11:29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 11:30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 11:33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196n 12:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 12:15 . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 68n 15:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 16:20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 1 Corinthians 1:26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 2:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94n
1 Corinthians (cont'd.) 3:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 3:6­9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 3:10­15 . . . . . . . . . . . .198n 3:16­17 . . . . . . . . . . . . .80n 4:11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 4:21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 5:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6:15­19 . . . . . . . . . . . . .80n 10:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx 10:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88n 11:17­34 . . . . . . . . . . .158n 11:23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199n 12:12ff. . . . . . . . . . . . . 173n 12:22­25 . . . . . . . . . . . . 52n 13:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57n 14:40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96n 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200n 2 Corinthians 1:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 2:14­17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94n 3:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209n 11:16­33 . . . . . . . . . . .129n 12:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Galatians 1:8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 3:16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3:23­214 . . . . . . . . . . . .88n 3:24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6, 65 4:1 0 ­ 5:22 . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4:19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165n Ephesians 1:13­14 . . . . . . . . . . . .200n 1:22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3:10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4:27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 5:4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Philippians 2:1­2 . . . . 177 Colossians 2:18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129n 4:6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94n
216
Commentary on the Lamentations of Jeremiah
1 Thessalonians 2:17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165n 4:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 5:176 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 2 Thessalonians 2:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169n 2:9­12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 1 Timothy 4:1 . . . . . . .17n 2 Timothy 1:3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128n 2:25­26 . . . . . . . . . . . 201n 4:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66n
Titus 2:13 . . . . . . . . . . 113n Hebrews 1:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183n 1:14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73n 4:13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 6:4­6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24n 8:5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190n 9:26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88n 10:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200n 10:25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71n 11:25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 James 1:5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26n 1:15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94n
1 Peter 1:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130n 1:10­11 . . . . . . . . . . . .200n 1:23­24 . . . . . . . . . . . .130n 2 Peter 2:4. . . . . . . . .6, 31n 1 John 3:9 . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Jude 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24n 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31n 11­13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31n Revelation 8:2 . . . . . . . 73n
Index
adages "by their fruits you will know them," 9n126 "hate the sin but love the sinner," 63 "let us lift heart to hands," 138-39 "misery loves company," 40 "race not to the swift," 25 what is holy not to be given to dogs, 85 affliction and role of human sin, 136-37, 136n138 and will of God, 129-33, 131n120 aggadot (sing. aggadah), xx nn, 15-16, 29n87 Martyr's inheritance of, xx-xxii midrashic, of Rashi, 72n19, 73n20 altar, of the Temple, 81-82 anger of God, 176, 209, 211 (See also wrath of God) God's rod of, 109 and justice of God, 140 and retribution, 40-41, 69, 74, 101 animals dragons, 154 eagles, as bird of Jupiter, 181-82 foxes, 208 ostriches, 155-56 wild beasts, 114, 116 anthropomorphisms eye, 49, 100 feet, of God, 17, 70, 134-35 hands/right hand, of God, 74-76, 109 kidneys, 116 liver, 89 memory, of God, 189 Antichrist, 22, 169 Antiphon (poet), 32, 32n103 anti-Semitism, xxxv-xxxiv, 17 Aristotle Eth nic, 64n260 influence of, xxiii-xxiv
Aristotle (cont'd.) Poetics, 5 rule of contraries (Int), 54 assuagement (sublevatio), 68 Assyrians, 194 Augustine, lviii, 33n108 Babylonians, 16, 64, 180 descended from Ham, 201 baptism, 127 Bible for all believers, 157-58 commentaries, lxv (See also Gersonides; Ibn, Ezra; Kimh.i; Rashi); of Bomberg Bible, xxxxxxii, lxiii; inauthentic, xxx; Martyr's, on Romans, xxxiv; Masorah, xxvii-xxviii; Perush, xxiv-xxv, lxiii, 12n5, 42, 51; perush ha-ta'amim (on Lam.), xxiv-xxv; perush of Pentateuch, xxiv-xxv; Rabbinic and Protestant, xxvin37; of Reformers, xliii-xliv divisions of, 3-4 versions: Masoretic Text, xxii-xxiii, xxviii, lvii-lviii, lxiv, 27n79; Rabbinic, xxiv; Bomberg, xxvixxxii; Martyr's use of, xv-xvi; Septuagint (LXX), xvi-xvii, lix; Targum, xxviixxviii, xxx-xxxi, xxxvii-xxix, 16, 109, 133, 177; Vulgate, xvii-xviii bitterness, of Israel, 20-21 Bomberg, Daniel (d. ca. 1549­53), xxvii bread, and stones, 120 Brutus, M. Junius, 202 Bucer, Martin (1491­1551), xv, xlii, xlv- xlix, xlvi, lvii Bullinger, Heinrich, 151n213 Campi, Emidio, xxxiv cannibalism, 102, 103n188, 165
217
218
Commentary on the Lamentations of Jeremiah
Capito, Wolfgang (1478­1541), xlv carnality, 113 Cassius Longinus, C., 202 Cato, M. Porcius the Younger, 202 childbirth, 90-91 children abandonment of, 155-56 captivity of, because of iniquities, 23- 24 deaths of, 101 hunger of, 90, 101, 156-57 as orphans, 191 OT and NT views of, 89 Christ advent, 113 crucifixion, 118 fullness of, 183 prayer of, 189 second coming, 187-88 in the Trinity, 126n93 yoke of, 45 Christian Hebraism among church fathers, xvi-xvii of Martyr, lvi-lxiv Martyr' community of, xli-xliv Martyr's inheritance of, xvi-xx Renaissance Catholic, xxxii-xxxviii Christians charity, 46, 49 consolation, as duty of, 49 departure from the faith, 24 and kingdom of heaven, 190 and mourning, 87-88 church as "assembly," 35n117 authority of, 170-71 and authority of Scripture, 170 defined, 167 as human body, 173 NT appropriation of Israel's perfection, 96-97 OT, so-called, 58n232 Cicero De finibus and De oratore, 28n83 on opportunists, 55n214 Oratio pro M. Coelio, 40n146 city, as bereaved woman, 11-12 Clement of Alexandria, xx clothing, distinctiveness of Jews', 15
color, 163, 203 comfort, given by Holy Spirit, 97 compassion, 60, 96 of God, 5-6, 58, 123-24, 196 confession, 139 consolation, 12-14, 91 as Christian duty, 49 day of, 60n240 of Holy Spirit and word of God, 50 "misery loves company," 40 of religious people, 129 contempt, of God, 75 cowardice, 25 crimes, 32, 42, 44, 67 as punishments, 159 cup, of rejoicing, ironical statement, 185 curses. See also retribution/revenge against Capernaum, 69-70 of kings and priests, 81 NT and OT compared, 65 Daniel, 128 daughters of my city/people, 142n170, 154, 165-66 David, 25-26, 66 day of Judgment, 197 day of the Lord, 67 derision by enemies, 106, 115, 118 and motion, 141 desolation, 18-19, 48, 114 despair, 27, 110-13 devil, 36 power of, over rejecters of God, 22 dictionaries, Ma. beret, xxiii dirges, 3-4 Donnelly, John Patrick, 14n18 Edom as Rome, 187 slavery under, 201 as type of enemy of God's people, 18586 education, theological, in Strasbourg, xlvxlvi Egyptians, and Israel, 179-80, 194 elders, dislocation of, 206 elements, and human sustenance, 191-92
Index
219
enemies derision from, 106, 115 parallelism, with "consoler," 50 prayer for, 63 Epicureans, 28 eternal life, OT/NT views, 200 Eucharist, as celestial bread, 38n136 Evangelical Movement, xxxvi exile and disinheritance, 14-15 ignominy of, 175-76 result of straying from God, 31 of youths, as utter destruction, 53 extravagance, 158 Fagius, Paul (1504­49), xlii, xlv faithfulness, of God, 124, 209, 657 famine. See hunger figures of speech. See also typology archer, and bow and arrow, 115-17 artisan, potter's hand, 153 blindness, as defilement, 172-73 ceasing, as Sabbath, 29 childbirth/pain metaphor, 40n147 church, as body, 173 city: as abandoned child, 155; as bereaved woman, 11-12 contracted bowels, 58, 89 crimes: as harsh ropes/yoke, 42, 44; as menstrual uncleanness, 32 dead body, 59 exile, as wandering, 31 extend hands, and anguish, 50 eye, and mourning, 143-44 false friends, 54-57 females, as dragons, 154 fire, as wrath of God, 41, 74, 76-77, 166 footstool, of God, 69-70 fruit: of doctrine, 94; as pleasure, 102 "gulp down," 95 horn, as power, 75, 99 hyperbole, 163 ironical use of "cup," 185 irony, 185 Jerusalem, nakedness of, 29-31 Jews, as orphans and widows, 191 Judeans, as bad figs, 48n186 king and priest, 81 Martyr's adaptation of Perush, 42nn154-55
Figures of speech (cont'd.) menstruating woman, as antithesis, 51-52 metaphor, 40 monarchs, compared to stags, 25 parallelism, of "consoler" and "enemies," 50 pleasure, as fruit, 102 plummet (plumb), 83, 83n69 rod, of God's anger, 109 sapphires, as color, 163 sea allusions, 91-92 slavery, as harsh ropes, 44 spurs on a running horse, 100 tears, 13, 48 "the LORD devoured," 71-72 thorns and brambles, 114-15 treading grapes, as slaughter, 48n187 wild animals, 114 windows of heaven, 143 winepress metaphor, 47-48, 48nn182- 89 wood and water, as slavery, 193, 205 Flaminio, Marcantonio, xxxiv free will, and sin, 46 friendship, 54-55 as opportunism, 55n214 Gaon, Saadiah (882­942; Heb. grammarian), xxiii, 162 Garden of Gethsemane, 113 Gentiles, 15, 35-36, 175 Gersonides (Rabbi Levi ben Gershon; 1288­1344), xxv glory, of israel, 70 gluttony, 37-38 God. See also love of God (charitas); mer- cies of God; will of God destruction of Sodom and Jerusalem, 160 not cruel or unjust, 134-35 only means of salvation, 208 providence of, 190 the Trinity, 126n93 unchangeableness of, 30-31 gold, darkened, 153 goodness, 125-26 the gospel, and retribution, 66 grace, of God, 66, 121
220
Commentary on the Lamentations of Jeremiah
Hebrew grammar/language, 40n147, 100n168, 106n202-3, 107n5 "abomination" interpreted as "motion," 51, 51n203 adjectival yod, 12 "crime" explained, 159 "daughters of my people," 143 difficulty with µkyla awl, 39n137 exegesis of, in Strasbourg academy, xv gender of "Judah," 15, 15n25 grammatical works, xxiv-xxv, xxvi- xxvii imperative, 122n78 "in," 41n148 Martyr's views on and use of, lvi-lxiv mem and nun usage, 18-19 dqcn [nishqad], 43 operative mood, 62, 62n49 philology, xxi, xxi n, xxii-xxvi, 22, 72n19 "she went down," 34 "to be silent," 143 triliteral verb roots, xxiiin27 "ыt" (corrupt; to weaken a lawsuit), 148 wordplay, 181 Hebrews (people), usage of the term, 3n1 Hobbs, R. Gerald, xliii Holy of Holies, 36 Holy Spirit, 183 as consoler and exhorter, 50 and inspiration of Scripture, 170 and "mode of providence," 65, 65n262 and prayer, 64 work of, 97 hope, 126 Hugh of St. Victor, xix, xixn14 human corruption, 54n210 human love (dilectio-diligio), 57, 57nn221- 24 hunger, 37, 166 and "gushing," 164-65 spiritual, 156-58 Ibn Adonijah, Jacob ben Hayyim, xxvii- xxviii Ibn Ezra, Abraham (1089­1164), xxiv-xxv, lxi, lxii-lxiii, 7, 9, 159 on Lam. 4:3, 155 on operative mood, 62, 62n49 translation of, 69, 110
Ibn Janah. , Jonah (ca. 1000­1050; Heb. grammarian), xxiii Ibn Saruq, Menah. em ben Jacob (fl. 950; Heb. grammarian), xxiii infertility, 102-3 infidels, 36 iniquities. See crimes; sin(s) irony. See under figures of speech Isaac (Jewish tutor of Martyr), xxxiii, xxxvi, xxxvii, xxxiv Israel captive, because of iniquities, 22-24 devastation of, 72 land of, as heritage from God, 190 racially, a kingdom, 72 Jeremiah as a boy, 127, 127n100 imprisonment of, 145-46 prophesies of, 146-47 Jerome (church father), 8 Christian Hebraism of, xvi-xxx, xviixix, xxi n, 21 philology of, xviii syntax in Lam. 1:7, 17nn80, 82 Jerusalem. See also Temple of Jerusalem contrasted with Sodom, 160 destruction of, 83 as naked, 29-30, 31n102 as pitiable spectacle, 105 Jews, 3n1, 175 Job, as an Edomite, 186 Judah, 71-72, 108n8 justice and day of the Lord, 67 divine, 135, 140; extent of, 67; and revenge, 41, 51, 63, 67 and punishment of future generations, 196-97 Kimh. i, David (Radak) (1160?­1235), xxvxxvi, lix kingdom of heaven, as heritage of Christians, 190 Kirby, Torrance, 28n83 Krьger, Thomas, li Lamentations as alphabetical acrostic, 5, 9, 152; variations of, 5, 9, 107n6, 144, 152
Index
221
Lamentations (cont'd.) Christian commentaries on, xviii-xx Jewish interpretation of, xx, 51n15 letterish commentaries on, xviii-xix, lvii origin of, 8-9 Latin grammar/language, 86n87, 107n1 love of God (charitas), 57, 57n221 magic, in Rashi's aggadot, 72-73 Maimonides (1135­1204), xxiii males, as nursing mothers, 155 Martyr, Peter. See Vermigli, Peter Martyr Masoretes (Jewish philologists), xxii McNair, Philip, xxxv-xxxvi Medes, 16 memory, 28, 33 and despair, 122 forgetting the good, 120 and seeing, 189 mercies of God, 123, 123n83, 131-33, 161 metaphor. See figures of speech midrash, xxn15, 72n19, 73n20, 84n75 mishnah, xxn15 mockery. See derision Moses, meekness commended, 66 mourning, 19-21, 34n112 sackcloth/dust and ashes, 85-87 unconsoled, 49-50, 206 Mьnster, Sebastian, xxxviii, xxxix, lix-lx translation compared with others', 47 translation of dqcn [nishqad], 43n158 nakedness, 20, 31 nature, and annihilation/death, 199 Nazirites, purity of, 161-62 Newman, Louis Israel, xxxvi Nicholas of Lyra (d. 1340), xix, xix n, xxvi, lxii, 14 oaths, in NT, 70 Oecolampadius, xliv-xlv oracles, 62n251 Ottoman empire, 71n10 Pagnini, Santes (d. 1536), xxxvii, lx translation compared with others', 59n235, 60n239 translation of dqcn [nishqad], 43n158 parents, duties of, 90
Pastore, Alessandro, xxxiv patience, 113, 126, 128 of God, 196 peace treaties, with enemies, 194 Pellican, Conrad, xxxviii, xl, xli perfection, of Israel, 96nn141-42 persecution, 128-29, 148-50 and flight, 192-93 Jews/Gentiles, 175 Persians, 16 Persius Flaccus (Roman poet), 38, 44n163 Perush. See under Bible, commentaries philology, lxiii-lxiv Plato Crito, 23n62 Leg, 60n243 pleasure, 97-98, 102 Pliny, Natural history, 155 Plutarch, Mor., Quomodo adulescens poetas audire, 32n103 poetry/poetical devices alphabetical acrostic, 5, 152; variations of, 9, 107n6, 144 as Christian prophecy, 62n250 Greek, 117-18 in Hagiographa, 4-5 in Lamentations, 5, 114n36 parallelism, 60n241 rhetorical repetition, 107n4 specifics denoting a totality, 105n197 used by Holy Spirit, 108 vulgar, 117-18 Postel, Guillaume (1510­81), xxxix prayer of Christ, 189 for enemies, 63 of Jeremiah, 189-211 as prophecy, 63-64 of repentance, 139-40 for restoration, 102-3 unheard, 112-13 predestination. See will of God prophecy collective, 108n8 forms of speech for, 62n251, 63 and imprecations, 63 purpose of, 93-95 prophets contempt for, 177 and priests: crimes of, 169-70;
222
Commentary on the Lamentations of Jeremiah
prophets (cont'd.) and priests (cont'd.) deceitful, 178; office of, 168-69 as seers, 172 Publilius Syrus, proverbs, 40n145 punishment completed, 186 for "crimes," 46 of God's people, 118 temporal vs. eternal, 197-99 of unbelievers, 198 purgatory, 197, 199 Radbertus, Pachasius (d. 865), xix Rashi (Rabbi Shemu'el ben Isaac, 1040­ 1105), xxiv, xxvi, lxi, 8-9, 12n6 aggadot on Lam. 2:2, 72n19 on false friends, 55-56 on Heb. grammar, 79nn48-50 interpretation of Lam. 1:17, 51 on Lam. 1:13, 41-42 on Lam. 1:21, 23 on Lam. 2:13, 91n110 on Lam. 4, 153 on Nazirite vows, 161-62 translation compared with others', 41, 58, 103 rebellion, and misfortune, 59 reference works, used by Martyr, lix remembering. See memory repentance, 138 public confessions of, 52-53 resurrection, of believers, 197-200 retribution/revenge. See also curses and anger of God, 40-41, 69 of/by God, 16, 151 in OT and NT, 65-66 as physical ailments and attacks, 107- 22 Reuchlin, Johannes (1455­1522), xxvi, xli, lvi, 59n235 "Book of Roots," lix, lxn153 Roussel, Bernard, xliii Saadia ben Joseph. See Gaon, Saadiah Sabbath, 29 sackcloth/dust and ashes, 85-87, 120 sacrifice, of repentance, 138-39 sapphires, color of, 162-63 Saruq, Ibn, xxiii
Satan, as an angel, 31 Scripture inspiration and authority of, 170 Martyr's doctrine of, ix-lv, xl Martyr's lectures on, xlvii-xlix Sefer ha-Shorashim dictionaries, Mah.beret, xxiii self-examination, 137 self-flagellation, 129nn108-9 Septuagint (LXX). See under Bible Sermon on the Mount, 66-67, 157 shame, and sordid death, 152 silence and ecstasies, 128-29 of elders, 86-87 as guilt, 171 and tears, 142-43 as a virtue, 127 simile. See figures of speech Simler, Josiah, biographer of Martyr, xxxii-xxxiv, xxxv sin(s) and anger of God, 74 crushing effects of, 45 and destruction of Temple, 207 of fathers, visited upon children, 195- 96 and free will, 46 as penalty and sacrifice, 159 as punishments, 46, 194 skin, blackened, 203 slavery under Babylonians, 201 of God's people, 191-99 Sodom, destruction of, 160 sorrow for sins, 207 and tears in the night, 13-14, stones precious, 162 of the sanctuary, scattered, 152-53 Strasbourg, Bucer's school, xlv-xlvi Stucki, Johann, 151n213 editor of Martyr's commentary, xlviii, lxvi Sturm, Johannes, xlv suffering and compassion of God, 5-6 and derision of enemies, 106, 115 of Jerusalem, 91
Index
223
suffering (cont'd.) portrayal of, 13-16 and sin, 5, 68 suicide, 201-2, 204 synagogue, as "OT church," 58n232 Tabernacle of God, 18 tears. See weeping teeth, shattered with pebble/stone, 119 Temple of Jerusalem, 18, 80 test, 24 thirst, 191-92 Thompson, John L., lv Threnoi (dirges), 3 tranquility, of conscience, 23 translation notes, lxvi-lxviii Tremellius, Emmanuel (b. 1510), xxxvi- xxxvii, xxxviin70, 11n1 Treschow, Michel, 46n173 truth, and pleasure, 97-98 Turks, 167, 195 as agents of God, 71n10 typologyl. See also figures of speech king of Judah and Christ, 183-84 of Temple and altar, 81-82nn unbelief, 26-27, 166-67 uncleanness, and pollution, 32, 174-76 unfaithful deeds, 121n72 Vergil, Aenid, 28n84 Vermigli, Peter Martyr as a Hebraist, xvi-xx, xxxvii-xli, xlv-xlvi, lvi-lxiv characteristics of commentary, lv-lvi community of Protestant Hebraists, xli-xliv doctrine of divine accommodatio, 70n6 doctrine of Scripture, xlix-lv expectation of raising a family, 24n64 on Godly imprecations, 61n247, 63 and Jewish philology, xxii-xxvi, 5n7, 72n19 lectures on Scripture, xlvii-xlix method of interpretation, 6-8 modern view of commentary, lxiv-lxvi
Vermigli, Peter Martyr (cont'd.) poetical translation, 4, 48n188, 256 and Rabbinic Bible, xv-xvi, xxxii, xxxix and Renaissance Catholic Hebraism, xxxii-xxxviii translation of Hebrew in Lam. 1:12, 39nn137-44 views of Jewish commentators, lxi-lxii views on purgatory, 197-98 vileness, of Jerusalem's people, 37-38 Wakefield, Robert (fl. 1524­32), lvi wander, expounded as "weep," 34n112 weapons, of God, 76-77 weeping, 13, 48-49, 49nn190-91, 100 as Christian charity, 46n193, 49 and exposition of "wander," 34n112 by God's people, 143-44 and silence, 142-43 will of God as: "decree" of the Lord, 51; "discourse" of God, 99; Israel, as God's particular portion, 125-26, 125n91; prediction, 62; providence, 136 and affliction, 129-31 and destruction of cities, 160 windows of heaven, 143 wisdom, of elders, 86 women, affect of, upon cities, 204 wounds, from shafts of quiver, 115-17 wrath of God. See also anger, of God balanced with long-suffering, 166 revealed in nature, 41 yoke of Christ, 45 as metaphor, 42-45 of youth, 127-29 youth compassion of, for elders, 177 dislocation of, 206 yoke of, 127-29, 205 Zwingli, Ulrich, 11n1 commentary on Lamentations, 4n6
About the Editor The Reverend Dr. Daniel Shute earned his B.A. at the University of Guelph, the M.L.S. from McGill University, the M.Div. from Knox College in Toronto, and the Ph.D. from Dr. Joseph McLelland at McGill University. Dr. Shute is an ordained minister of The Presbyterian Church in Canada, and has served in a pastoral charge in New Brunswick. Shute has been librarian of the Presbyterian College at McGill since 1979. His teaching appointments include seminars on preaching and Presbyterianism at McGill University, and Hebrew at Facultrй de Thйologie Evangйlique. His research interest is focused on the Italian Reformer, Peter Martyr Vermigli.

File: lamentations.pdf
Title: PML6.book
Author: ppresley
Published: Mon Aug 19 15:54:06 2002
Pages: 32
File size: 0.45 Mb


Spirit of the Liturgy, 28 pages, 0.46 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb

Draft Final Report, 16 pages, 0.88 Mb

, pages, 0 Mb
Copyright © 2018 doc.uments.com