LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY PROFILE

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Content: Ministero dell'Educazione, dell'Universitа e della Ricerca Dipartimento dell'Educazione Direzione Generale degli Affari Internazionali dell'Istruzione Scolastica Ufficio Scolastico Regionale per la Lombardia LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY PROFILE REGIONAL REPORT LOMBARDY Ministry of Education, University and Research Education Department General Directorate of international relations Regional Education Authority for Lombardy ITALY APRIL - NOVEMBER 2005
In the context of preparing a Language Education Policy Profile in cooperation with the Council of Europe (Language Policy Division), the Lombardy Report has been prepared by the Regional Education Authority. This report has been elaborated in collaboration with the State University of Milan, with the support of the General Directorate of International Relations, Education Department, Ministry of Education and Research. Coordinator: Gisella Langй, Regional Education Authority for Lombardy Contributors for the Regional Education Authority for Lombardy: Gisella Langй and Lorena Parretti Contributors for the State University of Milan: Giovanni Iamartino and Elena Bianchessi Contributor for the General Directorate of International Relations: Francesca Brotto © Copyright 2005 Ministero dell'Educazione, dell'Universitа e della Ricerca Dipartimento dell'Educazione Direzione Generale degli Affari Internazionali dell'Istruzione Scolastica Ufficio Scolastico Regionale per la Lombardia 2
CONTENTS Section 1 - Factual description 1.1 Lombardy - general overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2 Lombardy and Italy: an economic perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 Lombardy student population - some raw data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.4 Local characteristics of schooling in Lombardy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.5 The Education Reform in Italy - some basic facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.5.1 School Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.5.2 University Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 1.6 Administration of Education at the regional level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Section 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 2.1 New school curricula and language-learning opportunities in Lombardy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2 Further language-learning opportunities at school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.3 Provision for language learning at university in Lombardy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.4 Promoting a language learning society: implementation of Council of Europe and European Union initiatives and programmes at regional level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.5 Language-learning opportunities in Lombardy outside formal education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.6 Publishing houses for language materials in Lombardy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2.7 Language Resource Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 2.8 Testing language competences: examinations, external certifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Section 3 - Policies and responsibility for language learning/teaching 3.1 Policies for "new" world languages: Arabic, Chinese, Japanese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.2 Regional policies for adult education in Lombardy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 3.3 Conditions promoting a language learning society: implementation of Council of Europe and European Union policies and tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3.4 Teacher training: initial and in-service professional development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Section 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.2 Sign language users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.3 Roma / Sinti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.4 Immigrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.4.1 Emigration and immigration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4.4.2 Schooling for immigrant children in Italy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.5 Language learning for learners with Special Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Section 5 - Issues for discussion / Regional concerns 5.1 Defining targets and optimizing foreign languages teaching time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5.2 Students' learning opportunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5.3 Personal / regional identity in transition due to immigration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 5.4 Secondary school leavers' foreign language competence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 5.5 The role of English and strategies for diversity and plurilingualism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Information Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 3
SECTION 1 - Factual description SECTION 1 - Factual description 1.1 Lombardy - General Overview Lombardy (Lombardia) is a region in northern Italy between the Alps and the Po river. Its land includes high peaks, hills, lakes, rivers and plains. Lombardy's capital is Milan. One-sixth of Italy's population lives in Lombardy, and the Milan area is one of the largest conurbations in Europe with more than 6.5 million inhabitants. Lombardy is one of the richest regions in Europe, with a Gross Domestic Product per capita much higher than the rest of Italy. Lombardy is not only a centre for business, finance and industry: it has also artistic and natural resources. Agricultural activities are present as well, with top quality products (such as wine, cheese and salami). The region is divided into the following provinces: Bergamo, Brescia, Como, Cremona, Lecco, Lodi, Mantova, Milano, Pavia, Sondrio, Varese and subdivided into a total of 1562 municipalities. The total area of the region is 23,859 square Km., the total population about 9,122,000 with a density of 382 persons/Km2. To the north it borders on Switzerland, to the west, east and south it borders on the Italian regions of Piedmont, Emilia Romagna and Veneto/Trentino-Alto Adige respectively. The official language is Italian, with no officially recognized minority languages. 5
SECTION 1 - Factual description 1.2 Lombardy and Italy: an economic perspective COMPANIES In Italy there are almost 5 million companies. Of these 15.4%, almost 760,000, are located in Lombardy. Service firms represent 60.2% of the total 760,000, industries rank second with 32%. Agriculture accounts for only 7.9% whereas nationally this sector represents 20.6% of the total. In Italy industries represent only 26% and service firms 53.4%. Among the most important sectors in Lombardy are: trade (26%), manufacturing (17%), building industries (15%), estate agencies, rent agencies, ICT and research (16%). EMPLOYMENT Lombardy employs 17% of the total workers in Italy, more than 4 million. The employment rate is about 50.4% while the unemployment rate is 3.7% (Italy 9.5%). In Lombardy the sectors with most workers are services (58.2%), followed by industry (32.6%) - higher than on a national level (23.8%) - and building (7.1%). The agricultural sector employs only 1.9% (5.2% in Italy as a whole). SMALL BUSINESSES AND EMPLOYMENT Small companies, defined as those which employ less than 9 workers each, represent 92.6% in Lombardy, just a little less than the national average of 95.3%. 37% of workers in Lombardy are employed in such firms. Those with more than 250 workers represent only 0.1% and employ 24.4% of Lombard workers. The average number of workers per firm is thus 5.1 versus 3.5 in Italy as a whole. 23.2% of Lombard workers are employed in firms with 10 to 49 workers, which represent 6.4% of Lombard companies. 15.4% of Lombard workers are employed in firms with 50 to 249 workers, which represent 0.8% of Lombard firms. VALUE ADDED As regards value added Lombardy accounts for 20.1% of the national figure. Services have a high impact on the value added (61.9%), whereas agriculture represents only 1.7%. EXPORT/IMPORT Lombardy accounts for 37.6% of Italian imports. The balance of trade is negative in Lombardy. Exports reach 28.6% of the national total. 984 Lombard firms participate in foreign firms and this represents 34% of the national figure, more than one out of three. 825 foreign firms choose Lombardy (43.6% of the national total). NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS 14% of non-profit organisations are located in Lombardy. 6
SECTION 1 - Factual description
1.3 Lombardy student population - some raw data
In the 2004 - 05 school year more than one million students enrolled in state schools in Lombardy, as can be seen in the table below:
Table 1 Bergamo Brescia Como Cremona Lecco Lodi Mantova Milano Pavia Sondrio Varese Total % of total
Nursery 8,802 12,364 6,008 5,122 3,144 2,908 8,019 44,751 6,927 3,206 6,339 107,590 10.4
Total number of pupils
Primary
Lower secondary
Upper secondary
45,377
26,965
37,234
51,557
30,818
41,755
23,506
14,284
16,386
13,206
8,334
14,114
13,289
7,838
10,663
8,452
5,561
8,325
15,869
9,716
11,321
148,029
88,990
120,275
18,905
11,876
17,028
8,534
5,270
7,887
34,690
21,534
33,055
381,414
231,186
318,133
36.7
22.3
30.6
Total 118,468 136,494 60,184 40,776 34,934 25,246 44,925 402,045 54,736 24,897 95,618 1,038,323
% of total 11.4 13.1 5.8 3.9 3.4 2.4 4.3 38.7 5.3 2.4 9.2 -
They represent 13.5% of the entire national school population (7,676,269) and the largest regional group. The number of pupils in state schools in Lombardy has been constantly increasing in recent years: since September 2000 the school population has increased by 39,513 (+ 3.9%), particularly nursery school (+6.2%) and primary school (+4.2%). With reference to a forecast based on the most recent demographic dynamics1, the Lombard population in school age (3 - 18 years) will increase progressively in the next few years, at least until 2010. Later it will rapidly decrease at a rate inferior as a whole to the current one (-2.3% in 2015). This trend will be highly different according to the province and the level of schooling (Graph 1), with a marked decrease in infant school (-21.1% in 2015) and a progressive and constant increase in secondary school, both lower and upper.
1. Calculations taken from Progetto di aggiornamento e integrazione del Piano regionale di dimensionamento ottimale della rete scolastica - Rapporto finale, IRER, July 2004, based on demographic predictions processed by the Department of Statistics, Lombardy. 7
SECTION 1 - Factual description Graph 1 Demographic trends (+/-%) of population in school age (3-18 years) in 2003, according to the level of schooling - Lombardy *ISTAT Year 2003: the percentage is calculated as the ratio between the students enrolled in upper secondary school (school year 2000 - 2001) and the population aged 14 - 18 years. *ISTAT Year 2003: students with high school leaving certificate (school year 2000-01) per 100 people aged 19 years. To give a complete view of the learning pathways at present after lower secondary school (students aged 14), it must be underlined that the percentage of students attending upper secondary school in Lombardy is only 86.5%, definitely inferior both to the average national figure (89.8) and that of the nearby regions (Piedmont: 89.9; Liguria: 96.8: Veneto: 88.0; Emilia-Romagna: 95.6). As a result the percentage of students with a high school leaving certificate remains distinctly inferior in Lombardy (65.1) to the national average (70.4). However a new system is in the process of being developed within the framework of the Education Reform Act (see Section 1.5). Students with special needs in state schools In state schools students with special needs totalled 21,690 for the school year 2004-05. This figure increased with respect to the previous school year, by 1,185, corresponding to 5.8%. 1.4 Local characteristics of schooling in Lombardy a. A widespread and complex school network The Lombardy school network is the largest and most complex seen from a national level. State schools account for 1,312 school institutions, made up of 5,096 school buildings, where lessons are given. To these, 2,357 independent schools must be added (they are officially recognized by the State, and are known as paritarie translated hereafter as fully equivalent schools. See section 1.5.1 g). This complex scenario also corresponds to a highly fragmented pattern of local administration: in fact there are 1,546 local councils most of which (60,4% against 48,3% of the national average) govern a resident population of less than 3,000 people or, in villages, even less than 1,000 (25,2%). That said, the regional administration has made a great effort to guarantee the highest quality to all schools, seen as an important part of regional heritage. 8
SECTION 1 - Factual description
Mountain schools A further element to be considered is the geographical nature of the territory. In fact 44% of Lombardy consists of mountain communities (543 councils out of 1546 equal to 35.1%) where more than 1,200,000 people live (13.6% of the total population). The above mentioned councils are grouped in 30 mountain communities which experience some transport problems in particular periods of the year because of weather conditions. In some cases these problems have been addressed by concentrating all the pupils in a central school, in others the solution of more scattered schools has been preferred, above all in the past. In the mountain areas of 7 Lombard provinces 193 state school institutions can be found (14.7% of the total), spread over 1,073 separate school buildings.
b. A European school with local roots There are two most remarkable peculiarities about the way the school system has evolved in Lombardy. The first regards the particularly noteworthy intertwining of the state and independent education sectors, while the second highlights the great number of projects linking schools firmly to their territorial roots and traditions.
Independent education system Law 62/2000 set the basis for the integration of the state and independent sector, giving students the chance to choose from as different and varied a range as possible. More than 200,000 students attended independent schools in Lombardy ( school year 2002-03), roughly 17.4% of the total, thus approaching the European average of 21%, while the Italian average is 11.2%. The figures range from 56% of total students in infant schools to primary schools with only 7.5%. In short the percentage at any level is higher in Lombardy than in Italy. See the following table:
Table 2 Comparison between students attending state and independent schools in Italy and Lombardy 2002/03
Italy Lombardy
Infant school
state 62.0% 44.0%
indpt 38.0% 56.0%
Primary school
state 94.1% 92.5%
indpt 5.9% 7.5%
Lower secondary school
state
indpt
96.4%
3.6%
91.9%
8.1%
Upper secondary school
state
indpt
94.4%
5.6%
90.6%
9.4%
One further option is open to students in Lombardy: a 3-year-pathway in vocational schools set up by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Labour. This three-year track leads to a vocational qualification. It is then possible for learners to go on to a high school leaving certificate after two further years at school and after successfully passing school-leaving examinations. Towards a devolved curriculum The recent reform of the Italian education system (see Section 1.5) has left some room for manoeuvre and negotiation of a curriculum organised according to local needs, with a 15% quota to be devoted to school-based curriculum options. Most proposals which have been sent to the USR (hereafter referred to as the Regional Education Authority) rely heavily on the direct involvement of local institutions, above all in the initial steps. Some of the new projects refer to the environment, both local and global, and to the management of mobility, clearly related to local environmental conditions. Weekly school timetables In school year 2004-05, 41.7% of all primary schools had classes with a timetable of up to 40 periods of 60-minutes (so-called tempo prolungato translated hereafter as full-time). This confirmed a tendency starting in 2001-02 (+ 1.7% in 2002-03, +1.5% in 03-04, +4.1% in 04-05). These percentages varied in the different provinces in the region: from 86.5% in Milan to 4.8% in Como.
9
SECTION 1 - Factual description
No significant increase in the number of full-time classes was registered in lower secondary schools over the same period (+3 classes altogether , + 0.1%).
Teachers and school staff There were 104,060 teaching posts in state schools in Lombardy for school year 2004 - 2005.
Table 3 Teaching posts in Lombardy: school year 2004 -052
Bergamo Brescia Como Cremona Lecco Lodi Mantova Milano Pavia Sondrio Varese Total
infant 715 985 511 426 275 234 633 3.491 524 291 522 8.607
primary 3.976 4.592 2.097 1.203 1.220 846 1.371 14.861 1.733 836 3.070 35.805
lower 2ary 2.611 2.883 1.338 754 735 486 897 8.350 1.109 495 2.097 21.755
upper 2ary
Total normal posts
Special needs posts
Total posts
3.209 3.647 1.453 1.251 927 756 1.025 10.583 1.528 705 2.835 27.919
10.511 12.107 5.399 3.634 3.157 2.322 3.926 37.285 4.894 2.327 8.524 94.086
1288 1070 553 356 307 238 407 4140 562 262 791 9.974
11.799 13.177 5.952 3.990 3.464 2.560 4.333 41.425 5.456 2.589 9.315 104.060
The teaching jobs available in Lombardy increased by 156 with respect to school year 2003-2004 as a result of a small decrease in normal posts (-0.3%) and a considerable increase in the posts involving special needs children (+425 units corresponding to +4,5%). The two data confirm the trends consolidated at regional level: the small decrease in normal teaching jobs (-0.8% in the last three years, compared to an increase of 3.9% in the number of students) [see Graph. 4] and a constant increase in the number of teaching posts related to special needs children [see Graph 5]. Graph 2 Variations in normal teaching posts and students (+/-%) in school years '01/'02 - Lombardy '02/'03, '03/'04, '04/'05
2. Provisional situation updated on Oct 5, 2004 MIUR MONITORING. 10
SECTION 1 - Factual description Graph 3 Variations in teaching jobs related to special needs children (+/-%) in school year '02/'03 Lombardy - '03/'04, '04/'05 In school year 2003/2004 in Lombardy, 92,706 teachers 'di ruolo' or tenured teachers were appointed, while 13,286 teachers were awarded short term contracts lasting for the school year ('annual supply' teachers). [see Graph 4] Graph 4 Teachers according to contract - Lombardy - school year '03/'04 Of tenured teachers, 74,986 were women (80.9%), unevenly spread among the different school levels. [see Graph 5] 11
SECTION 1 - Factual description Graph 5 Tenured women teachers (% total) - Comparison Lombardy - Italy; school year 2003/04 The age spread is also different for tenured teachers at the various school levels with a high percentage of teachers older than 50 - almost one out of three - and with almost no teacher younger than 30. [see Graph 6]. This ageing population means that in the near future there will be a substantial turnover: estimates indicate that by school year 2015/16 between 30,000 and 36,000 teachers will have retired, particularly in lower secondary school (- 50% teachers) and upper secondary school (-40% teachers). Graph 6 Tenured Teachers according to age ­ Lombardy (% total); school year 2003/04 In Lombardy there are also 20,528 teachers working in independent schools, the highest percentage (47.8%) in infant schools. [see Table 4] 12
SECTION 1 - Factual description
Table 4 Teachers in independent schools ­ Lombardy School year 2003/043
Independent sector teachers
Infant 9.814
Primary 2.441
Lower sec. 2.401
Upper sec. 5.872
Total 20.528
In school year 2003/04 34,799 administrative and technical staff worked in state schools [see Table 5] and 7,707 in independent schools.
Table 5 Administrative, technical and auxiliary staff according to contract - state school ­ Lombardy ­ school year 2003/04
Manager of general and administrative services Auxiliary staff Administrative assistant Technical assistant Other Total
Tenured Without tenure
1.275 14.621 5.985 1.494 20 23.395
0 8.365 2.155 868 16 11.404
Total 1.275 22.986 8.140 2.362 36 34.799
Academic achievement The results of Lombard students [see Graph 7] in school year 2003/04 confirmed the usual picture: the most critical phases are the passages between the different levels of schooling, at least as far as can be inferred from the pass rate to the following class. Graph 7 Passing students (% of total examined) according to school level and class in state schools ­ Lombardy school year 2003/04
The results in independent schools were different and definitely better. [see Graph 8] 3. The datum is underestimated since it concerns 87,8% of private schools 13
SECTION 1 - Factual description Graph 8 Passing students (% of total examined) according to school level and class in independent schools ­ Lombardy school year 2003/04 School success at upper secondary school is, as highlighted in the above two graphs, markedly different according to school year, and, above all, kind of school. [see Graph 9] At present, there are three main types of upper secondary school: Liceo (see section 1.5 below for a classification of the Liceo system), Istituti Tecnici (Technical Schools) offering various fields of specialisation and Istituti Professionali (Vocational Schools). Things are to change when the reform (see section 1.5) is implemented in upper secondary schools. Graph 9 Passing students and passing students with `debito' (need for remedial work in some subjects) (% of total examined) according to kind of school, upper secondary state school in Lombardy ­ school year 2003/04 Early school leaving (both formal withdrawal from school and informal drop-out) shows a similar distribution, virtually negligible in state primary and lower secondary school, definitely higher in upper secondary school, above all in the first year. [see Graph 10] 14
SECTION 1 - Factual description Graph 10 Early school leaving (early school leavers during the year, withdrawals and drop-outs, as % of the total of pupil population) according to school level and class in state school ­ Lombardy - school year 2003/04 Early school leaving, in the upper secondary school in Lombardy, varies greatly according to the kind of school, almost double in the technical schools and three times higher in the vocational schools in comparison with the liceo system (academic high schools. [see Graph. 11] Graph 11 Early school leaving (early school leavers during the year, withdrawals and drop-outs, as % of the total of pupil population) according to the kind of upper secondary state4 school ­ Lombardy - school year 2003/04 The early school leaving rate in upper secondary school has been slowly but constantly increasing over the last 4 school years. [see Graph. 12] 4. Elaborated by the Regional School Authority using MIUR data (Data Warehouse) relevant to school year 2003/04. 15
SECTION 1 - Factual description Graph 12 Early school leaving (early school leavers during the year, withdrawals and drop-outs, as % of the total of pupil population) in upper secondary state5 school ­ Lombardy ­ comparison between school years 2000/01, 2001/02, 2002/03, 2003/04 c. Quality Assurance Quality Assurance has been tackled through some projects, in particular by "Progetto STRESA" and "Progetto Qualitа". Progetto STRESA (www.retestresa.it) STRESA (STRumenti per l'Efficacia della Scuola e l'Autovalutazione) is a network of 30 schools whose main aim is to implement and monitor self-evaluation and organisational learning activities and instruments. Since 1998 this network has been carrying out intensive work focusing on the improvement of school quality by conducting surveys about pupils', parents' and teachers' perceptions of school life, teachers and headteachers development plans as well as performance tests in Italian language, mathematics and history in primary and lower secondary schools. These activities have provided benchmarks for significant aspects of innovation related to school autonomy and have provided tested instruments and procedures, comparison areas and conceptual references. The STRESA network has participated in various international activities and projects. A major project undertaken by STRESA in 2000 ­ 2003 was the NAPOA Project (Nuovi Apprendimenti per l'Organizzazione che Apprende), based on the concept of "learning organization" applied to a school context giving high importance to evaluation. NAPOA has developed a new network for upper secondary schools and local authorities and businesses. Progetto QUALITA' (www.requs.it) The `Progetto Qualitа' was developed after an agreement signed on Sept 21, 2004 between the Ministry of Education and Research (MIUR) and the Confederation of Italian Industrialists (Confindustria) with the joint aim of "planning and promoting common initiatives to monitor, evaluate and assess the output of the education system, thus favouring the link between education, training and the labour market". Priority is to be given to such areas as: quality assurance projects evaluation autonomy of state and independent schools integration between schools and the labour market job training provision within school curricula (work placement ) e-learning certification of credits. Two other key areas to be promoted by both parties are the further development of ICT in the school system and ways of harnessing the intake of foreign students as a positive resource. These activities have been carried out by the Regional Centres for the Development of Quality 5. Elaborated by the Regional School Authority using MIUR data (Data Warehouse) relevant to school year 2003/04. 16
SECTION 1 - Factual description Assurance, with the assistance of the most important centres, located in Mantua, Milan, Naples, Padua, Rome and Vicenza. The project puts forward a model of school considered as an organisation which provides a service for students and their families, but also for their communities. School is a result of processes which must be programmed, governed and verified to guarantee quality and reliability in the educational offer, so that a variety of approaches may be turned to advantage. The governance of processes and objectives allows schools to improve the relevance of their offer and the efficiency of their work. The reference to UNI EN ISO 9001:2000 norms for quality certification along with models for quality global management (EFQM ­ European Foundation Quality Management) allow the development of school quality management according to guidelines which permit a comparison between different contexts without losing sight of the school's own identity. In this way school operators and customers can share a culture of quality and can implement and verify this quality, at each step. The total number of schools ISO certified in Lombardy amounts to 393 (of which 84 are independent) out of a total of 1306 state schools and 2229 independent schools, which means approximately 10% of Lombardy schools are certified at the moment. d. The European School of Varese: an exceptional school The city of Varese hosts a European School, a public institution organized on the basis of a specific Statute of the European Union. It is accountable to an Authority (the Board of Governors of the European Schools) composed of the 25 EU Education Ministers (or their legal representatives), this body being responsible for all the educational, administrative and financial matters of the thirteen European Schools throughout the Union. It comprises a Nursery School (2 years), a Primary School (5 years), a Secondary School (7 years) and has five language sections (ENGLISH - FRENCH - GERMAN - ITALIAN ­ DUTCH). The fundamental principles governing the curriculum are: The main subjects (mother tongue, mathematics, Latin, philosophy, biology, chemistry, physics) are taught in the pupils' mother tongue Instruction is given on the basis of harmonized syllabuses and timetables To foster the unity of the School and mutual understanding and cultural exchange between pupils in the different language sections, some subjects are taught in composite classes of the same level. At primary level this is done by means of a regular "European hour" and at Secondary level by teaching certain subjects (such as human sciences, history and geography, sometimes music, education in plastic art and physical education) in the first foreign language which the pupils begin to learn from the 1st Primary Year. Second foreign language is learnt from the 2nd Secondary Year; third foreign language from the 4th Secondary Year; Latin as optional subject from the 3rd Secondary Year. The years of study successfully completed at the School and the diploma and certificates are recognized in the territory of the Contracting Parties. The Secondary section course leads up to the European Baccalaureate examination. The certificate awarded after the examination is fully recognized in all 15 EU Member States and in many other countries and enables its holders to seek admission to University. The European School of Varese offers a model that is suggesting new trends in syllabi to the schools of the region. Visits and exchange of teachers, students and materials emphasize the opportunity of internationalising curricula and achieving international diplomas. e. Data on university students in Lombardy For selected data on university students in Lombardy see Section 1.5.2 on Universities in Lombardy and the relevant tables in Appendix 5. 17
SECTION 1 - Factual description 1.5 The Education Reform in Italy - some basic facts 1.5.1 School Reform The Italian school system has recently undergone, and is still undergoing, major changes, especially as a result of the School Autonomy Decree and the Education Reform Act . School Autonomy Decree (no. 275/1999) `Schools are expression of a working autonomy and are responsible for defining and implementing the educational offer .... School autonomy is a guarantee of the freedom of teaching and of the cultural offer and substantiates itself in the planning and realisation of educational, training and instructional acts, tending to develop human beings. These acts will be adequate to the different contexts, the requests of the families and the characteristics of the people involved, so that their educational success can be guaranteed, according to the aims and general objectives of the education system and to the need of improving the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process.' (Capo I ­ Art I) Profound changes in school organization have occurred since then. Key Ideas of the School Autonomy Decree are teaching autonomy, organization autonomy, autonomy in research, experimentation and development. The school plan is called Piano dell'offerta formativa (POF). With school autonomy, the role of schools as centres of professional development for all staff members (teachers and non teaching staff) has been enhanced. Recruitment and the professional development of school heads has also changed. Education Reform Act (no. 53/2003) This law reforms the Italian education system and provides a blueprint for an educational and training system subdivided into scuola dell'infanzia (nursery school - 3 years) starting at 3 years of age, the first school cycle including primary school (5 years) and scuola secondaria di primo grado (lower secondary school - 3 years), and the second school cycle including the five-year liceo system (academic high schools ­ see glossary) as well as the vocational education and training system. Implementation decrees relating to nursery school and the first school cycle were issued in 2004, and the law was first implemented starting from school year 2004/2005. Implementation decrees relating to the second school cycle were issued in October 2005 introducing a dual pathway with general education provision in the 8 licei system and with VET (Vocational Education and Training) and apprenticeship schemes. Parliament is currently discussing (November 2005) whether the non general education pathway should fall completely under the jurisdiction of regional administration. At the end of each cycle the expected learning outcomes are defined within the PECUP (Profilo Educativo, Culturale e Professionale), the educational, cultural and professional profile of the learner. In school year 2004/2005, the new system was implemented in nursery school, primary school and lower secondary school. New rules for upper secondary schools may be enforced starting in 2007/08 school year. 18
SECTION 1 - Factual description The old system and the new system for foreign languages can be compared in the following slides: Slide 1 Foreign languages in the old school system Slide 2 Foreign languages in the new school system 19
SECTION 1 - Factual description
a. Nursery School General Objectives According to the Education Reform Act n. 53/2003, the three-year nursery school contributes to the affective, psychomotor, cognitive, moral, religious and social development of children and promotes their potential for establishing relationships, for autonomy, creativity, learning and to secure equal educational opportunities. It integrates the educational responsibility of parents and aims for educational continuity together with other children's services and with primary education. Attendance at nursery school is guaranteed for all children. Children who reach 3 years of age by 30th April of the current school year can enrol in the nursery school. New teaching roles and organisational models will also be introduced.
Curriculum, Types of Activities, Subjects and Number of Hours The curriculum of the nursery school has been based on the close correlation between educational aims (identity, autonomy, competence), dimensions of development and symbolic-cultural systems. These three elements have given rise to the following fields of experience which are to be understood not as teaching subjects but as areas of experience and action for the child: 1. body and movement; 2. speech and words; 3. space, order, measure; 4. things, time, nature; 5. messages, forms and media; 6. the self and others.
As far as educational planning is concerned, the teachers are responsible for the allocation of the hours necessary to deal with topics related to the specific areas of experience. The total timetable may vary from 875 to 1700 periods of one hour a year, according to the choice made by families.
Statistical Data
Table 1 Schools, Classes, Pupils, Teachers in State Nursery Schools
School Year 2002-2003
Schools 13,546
Classes 41,100
Pupils 960,984
Tenured and non-tenured Teachers 83,626
Table 2 Schools, Classes, Pupils, Teachers in Independent Nursery Schools
School Year 2002-2003
Schools 11,000
Classes 27,300
Pupils 537,418
Teachers 43,600
Table 3 Pupil/Teacher Ratio and Pupil/Class Ratio in State Nursery Schools
School Year 2002-2003
Pupil/Teacher Ratio 11.49
Pupils per Class 23.40
Table 4 School Attendance Rate in State and Independent Nursery Schools School Year 2002-2003
School Attendance Rate 98.7%
20
SECTION 1 - Factual description
b. Primary School General Objectives According to the abovementioned Education Reform Act, primary schools have the task of promoting the development of pupils' personalities with respect to their individual features; it aims furthermore at developing their basic knowledge and skills up to the first forms of logical-critical organisation, letting them learn how to express themselves, including literacy in at least one foreign language of the European Union, to establish the basis for the use of scientific methodologies to study natural sciences, to foster relational abilities and the abilities to orientate themselves in space and time, to teach the main principles for civil life. National indicators appended to the Decree dated 27 May 2005, lay down the basic levels of performance for all primary schools in the national education system in order to guarantee the personal, social and civil right to quality education and training; furthermore they establish specific learning objectives, formative objectives and Piani di Studio Personalizzati (Personalised Study Plans).
Curriculum, Syllabus, Subjects and Number of Hours The subjects established in the Ministerial curricula since 1985 are: Italian language, foreign language, mathematics, sciences, history, geography, social studies, art education, sound and music, physical education, religion (this is the only optional subject and the family decides whether or not to include it in the curriculum). For each of these subjects, the curricula give outline indications of the content, the goals to be achieved as the course progresses, teaching methods and possible links between the various subject areas. No guidelines are given, however, on the number of weekly lessons for each subject. The subjects are grouped by the Collegio dei docenti (Teachers' Council) into three or four related areas. Each teacher of one or more classes is responsible for one of these areas. Instead of determining a rigid weekly timetable specifying the hours to be devoted to each subject, the Ministry of Education has provided minimum thresholds as a reference for the organisation of teaching. The teachers, when working out the educational strategy for the class, determine the distribution and subdivision of the various subjects in the organisation of school time as a whole. As pointed out above, the national indicators of Ministerial Decree no. 61/2003, laid down by the Education Reform Act n. 53, have come into force.
Weekly and Daily Timetable Until school year 2003-2004, the timetable of educational activities in primary schools consisted of 27 hours per week and could be extended up to a maximum of 30 hours for the teaching of the foreign language. It did not include the time necessary for transportation and for meals. There were also schools with a timetable of 40 periods per week (hereafter referred to as `full time') for 5 weekdays, excepting Saturdays, mornings and afternoons. In this case, transport and canteen services were provided by the Municipalities and were calculated within the 40 hours. In school year 2003-2004, full time classes were 21,267, equal to 20.8%, with 572,593 pupils. It is not possible to provide precise information about out-of-school reception of pupils before or after school time because it is a service run by the local council; as a consequence, it depends on the number of requests and on financial and staff resources of local administrations. The reform set the total number of periods at 891 a year, giving families the chance to opt for a further 99 periods.
Statistical Data
Table 1 Schools, Classes, Pupils, Teachers in State Primary Schools
School Year 2002-2003
Schools 16,289
Classes
Pupils
138,011 2,515,219
First Year Pupils 490,668
Teachers 252,266
21
SECTION 1 - Factual description
Table 2 Schools, Classes, Pupils, Teachers in Independent Primary Schools
School Year 2002-2003
Schools 2,345
Classes 13,208
Pupils 239,181
First Year Pupils 40,668
Teachers 19,805
Table 3 Pupils/Teacher (with Tenure) and Pupils/Class Ratio in State Primary Schools
School Year 2002-2003
Pupils per Teacher 9.9
Pupils per Class 18.2
Table 4 School Attendance Rate School Year 2002-2003
School Attendance Rate 99.80%
Table 5 Percentage of Pupils Repeating the First Year in State and Independent Primary Schools
School Year 2002-2003
Percentage of Pupils repeating the First Year 0.20%
Curriculum content offered by RAI: Il Divertinglese or "Fun in English" Following the Reform and aiming to give support and offer a `new' learning system through technology and TV, RAI Educational and the Ministry of Education set up `Il Divertinglese', an English programme for Primary and Lower Secondary schools. It is broadcast every day from Monday to Friday from 9.30 to 12.30 and 2.30 to 4.30 pm. The programmes are aimed at children between 5 and 10 (primary school age) and 11­14 (lower secondary school age) and include funny and engaging characters, like Polpetta (Meatball), a mole, who digs a hole to Tracy's house. Tracy is a young English teacher eager to teach all the characters in the different stories in an entertaining way. The class teacher can help their students by printing scripts and teaching material for each episode from the Internet so that the learning path for the class can be adequately covered. It was launched on a national basis in school year 2003 ­ 2004. Il DivertiPC This programme allowed primary school children to become familiar with new information technologies: it is later to include multimedia games, especially designed for the teaching of Italian, and also interactive activities. Moreover, DivertiPC is also a container to be filled either with materials produced by children or cross curricular education materials. Just like Divertinglese, DivertiPC also addresses its programmes not only to the students but also to the different actors in the children's world, i.e. teachers and families who take part in the programmed activities to help them learn. It was launched on a national basis in the school year 2003 ­ 2004.
22
SECTION 1 - Factual description
c. Lower Secondary School Objectives Law of 28 March 2003, no. 53, for the reform of the whole education and training system came into force in school year 2004-2005. Some basic aims for the new lower secondary school have been confirmed and new formative and cultural objectives have been laid down. The lower secondary school should: promote autonomous study; strengthen attitudes to social interaction; organise knowledge and skills, also through ICT literacy and in-depth knowledge; focus on learning outcomes; relate the knowledge acquired to the cultural tradition and social, cultural and scientific evolution of the contemporary world; develop progressively the ability to choose according to the aptitudes of pupils; provide pupils with adequate means to continue educational and training activities, introduce the study of a second foreign language of the European Union; offer guidance in choosing future education and training.
Learning Pathways, Subjects and Subject-Time Ministerial Decree no. 61/2003 gave the following national indications, for a total of 891 compulsory annual periods and a further optional 198 periods to be chosen by families.
per student subject Italian History Geography Mathematics Sciences and Technology English 2° European Languages Art and Imagery Music Motor and sport sciences Religion *of which 33 devoted to Technology
Total periods per year
minimum
average
(203) 307 (60) (50) (127) 239 (118)* (54) 114 (66) 54 54 54 33
313 245 120 60 60 60 33 891
maximum 319 251 126 66 66 66 33
All subjects mentioned above are compulsory, except for religion. The curricula of each subject for the three years are valid for the whole of Italy. According to the principle of school autonomy, schools are able to implement flexibility in teaching organisation, research autonomy and experimentation, as laid down in the Piano dell'Offerta Formativa (POF), hereafter referred to as the `School Plan'. This plan includes all the educational activities to be performed during the year, including support and supplementary activities, and a schedule for their realisation. The Teachers' Council periodically reviews this document, and discusses educational and organisational issues arising from it. Weekly and Daily Timetable Until school year 2003-2004, in lower secondary schools, the weekly timetable was 30 hours per week; it was however possible to offer `full time' with 6 to 10 extra hours. The extended timetable classes were 23,318, equal to 28.92%, with 493,380 students. As previously stated, the Reform changed the total number and distribution of periods.
23
SECTION 1 - Factual description
The organisation of the extended timetable is the responsibility of the Teachers' Council following a proposal from the Consiglio di istituto (School Council representing all the most important school stakeholders: parents, administrative staff, teachers, school head, and in upper secondary schools, also the learners themselves) and the Consiglio di classe (Class council).
Statistical Data for both Lower and Upper secondary school
Table 1 Schools, Classes, Pupils and Teachers in State Lower Secondary Education
School Year 2002-2003
Schools 7,027
Classes
Pupils
81,187 1,701,449
First Year Pupils 575,217
Teachers with and without Tenure 176,358
Table 2 Schools, Classes, Pupils and Teachers in Independent Lower Secondary Education
School Year 2002-2003
Schools 875
Classes 4.564
Pupils 94,723
First Year Pupils 30,000
Teachers 13,597
Table 3 Student-Teacher ratio (Teachers with or without Tenure) and Student-Class Ratio in State Lower Secondary Education
School Year 2002-2003
Pupils/Teacher 9.64
Pupils/Class 20.95
Table 4 School Attendance Rate at State and Independent Lower Secondary Schools
School Year 2002-2003
School Attendance Rate 104.1%
Table 5 Rate of Enrolment to Upper Secondary School: 99.6. In school year 2002-2003 the first year of upper secondary school was compulsory
Table 6 Schools, Classes, Pupils and Teachers in State Upper Secondary Education
School Year 2002-2003
Schools 4,876
Classes
Pupils
113,950 2,442,575
First Year Pupils 617,309
Teachers 234,905
Table 7 Schools, Classes, Pupils and Teachers in Independent Upper Secondary Education
School Year 2002-2003
Schools 1,700
Classes 11,600
Pupils 184,494
Teachers 39,000
Table 8 Student-Teacher ratio (Teachers with or without Tenure) and Student-Class Ratio in State Upper Secondary Education
School Year 2002-2003
Pupils/Teacher 10.39
Pupils/Class 21.43
24
SECTION 1 - Factual description
Table 9 School Attendance Rate at State and Independent Upper Secondary Schools
School Year 2002-2003
School Attendance Rate 90.9%
Table 10 Number of Holders of Licenza Media (lower secondary school leaving certificate) in State Schools - School Year 2002-2003
Upper Secondary School
97.8%
d. Upper Secondary School General Objectives According to Decree No 226, approved by Government on October 17, 2005, the main aim of secondary education is the intellectual, spiritual and moral preparation of the student, along with the development of a historical conscience with a full awareness of local and European roots. According to the reform, the Upper Secondary school comprises the Liceo system (academic high schools) and the vocational training system (see section 1.5). Here, as for the Lower Secondary school, the right-duty of education and training is maintained. For the first time in the Italian school system the alternation between school and work experience is realized, for all kinds of schools, not only for vocational ones. (Decree No 77 of April 15, 2005). Furthermore, there is increased flexibility in that it is now possible to change within the Liceo system as well as from the vocational system to Liceo and viceversa. The positive attendance of any kind of school in this second cycle leads to the acquisition of certified credits, to be used for the above mentioned changes or in case of a later re-enrolment into the system. Length The Liceo system comprises eight different types of Liceo and lasts 5 years. This cycle is divided into two 2-year-periods and a fifth year which completes the learning path and also perfects the knowledge, skills and competences characteristic of that kind of Liceo, also necessary for further study at University. For this reason schools and universities agree on the specific competences to be acquired during the fifth year of Liceo. The Liceo system includes: Artistic Liceo, Classical Liceo, Economic Liceo, Languages Liceo, Musical Liceo, Scientific Liceo, Technological Liceo and Human Sciences Liceo. The learning paths of the artistic, economic and technological Liceo are further subdivided with various options to meet the different learning needs. In case of non attainment of the learning goals laid down for the compulsory activities and subjects, students are encouraged to use the annual quota of non-compulsory extra periods to attain those goals. Assessment Assessment, within and at the end of the year, of students' learning and behaviour and the certification of the acquired competences are the task of the teachers responsible for the educational activities set out in the individualized learning plans. According to the results, schools prepare special needs and remedial work. Students are required to attend for at least three quarters of the year, for the year to be considered valid. At the end of each of the 2 two-year-periods, teachers assess whether students have achieved all the learning goals of the period, behaviour included. If they have, they pass up to the third or fifth year, otherwise, they are not admitted. Non admission to the second year of the two-year-periods (second and fourth year respectively) may be decided in difficult cases, of a cognitive and/or behavioural nature, with carefully explained motivations.
25
SECTION 1 - Factual description
Implementing the new system Starting from school year 2007/08 the first year of the first 2-year-period of Liceo and the first year of vocational education will be implemented. All teachers in service during school year 2005/06 will be confirmed, until the end of the implementation of the new system, scheduled for school year 2010/2011. Starting from school year 2007/08 and until implementation is complete, the first three years of secondary school will be considered compulsory. Timetables The following timetables are given to show the possible organization of 3 of the 9 identified types of Liceo. LICEO CLASSICO (Classical Liceo)
1.1 Subjects
1st
Italian language and literature
132
Latin language and literature
132
Greek language and literature
132
English language
66
History
66
Geography
66
Philosophy
Mathematics*
99
Physics
Natural sciences**
99
Art
33
P.E.
66
Religion or other
33
Total
924
Compulsory activities and subjects chosen by the students
Second foreign language
Music 99 Law and economics (highlights)
Implementation of compulsory subjects
Implementation and orientation/guidance
General total
1023
Time for non compulsory activities and subjects §
33
2nd 132 132 132 66 66 66 66 66 66 33 66 33 924 99 1023 66
3rd 132 132 99 66 99 99 66 66 66 33 66 33 957 66 1023 66
4th 132 132 99 66 99 99 66 66 66 33 66 33 957 66 1023 66
5th 132 132 99 66 99 99 66 66 66 33 858 99 957 33
* with ICT elements ** Biology, Chemistry, Nature Study § consistent with the educational, cultural and professional profile of a student at a Classical Liceo (PECUP, see page 20). In the fifth year a non linguistic subject will be taught in English (CLIL)
26
SECTION 1 - Factual description
LICEO SCIENTIFICO (Scientific Liceo)
1.2 Subjects
1st
Italian language and literature Latin language and literature English language Second foreign language History Geography
132 99 132 66 66
Philosophy Mathematics* Physics
132 66
Natural sciences**
66
Art
66
P.E.
66
Religion or other
33
Total
924
Compulsory activities and subjects chosen by the students
Music
Law and economics (highlights)
99
Implementation of compulsory subjects
Implementation and orientation/guidance
General total
1023
Time for non compulsory activities and subjects §
33
2nd 132 99 132 66 66 132 66 66 66 66 33 924 99 1023 66
3rd 132 66 132 66 66 132 99 99 66 66 33 957 66 1023 66
4th 132 66 132 66 66 132 99 99 66 66 33 957 66 1023 66
5th 132 132 66 66 99 99 99 66 66 33 858 99 957 33
* with ICT elements ** Biology, Chemistry, Nature Study § consistent with the educational, cultural and professional profile of a student at a Scientific Liceo (PECUP, see page 20). In the fifth year a non linguistic subject will be taught in English (CLIL)
27
SECTION 1 - Factual description
LICEO LINGUISTICO (Languages Liceo)
1.3 Subjects
1st
Italian language and literature Latin language and culture
132 99
English language
99
Second foreign language
132
Third foreign language
99
History - Philosophy
66
Geography
66
Mathematics* - Physics
66
Natural sciences**
66
Art - Music
P.E.
66
Religion or other
33
Total
924
Compulsory activities and subjects chosen by the students
Latin language and culture (3rd ad 4th)
Law and economics (highlights)
99
Implementation of compulsory subjects
Implementation and orientation/guidance
General total
1023
Time for non compulsory activities and subjects §
33
2nd 132 99 99 132 99 66 66 66 66 66 33 924 99 1023 66
3rd 132 99 132 99 132 132 66 66 66 33 957 66 1023 66
4th 132 99 132 99 132 132 66 66 66 33 957 66 1023 66
5th 132 132 132 132 132 66 33 66 33 858 99 957 33
* with ICT elements ** Biology, Chemistry, Nature Study § consistent with the educational, cultural and professional profile of a student at a Languages Liceo (PECUP, see page 20). From the third year up a non linguistic subject of the compulsory timetable or of the compulsory timetable chosen by the students will be taught in English. From the fourth year up a non linguistic subject of the compulsory timetable or of the compulsory timetable chosen by the students will be taught in the second foreign language. (CLIL)
28
SECTION 1 - Factual description
Required competence levels The following expected levels of the Common European Framework of Reference are included in the above mentioned Decree No 226/2005.
Type of school Primary Lower secondary school Upper secondary school Upper secondary school
Total time (hrs) 396 (English) 297 (English) 198 (second foreign language) Non language Liceo 330 (English) 330 (second foreign language) Language Liceo 528 (English) 660 (second foreign language 528 (third foreign language)
Expected competence level A1+ B1 (third year beg.) A1+ B2 B1 B2/C1 B2+ B1+
e. Profiles The Decree No 226 approved on October 17, 2005 also included the expected profiles for foreign languages: English and the second foreign language. End of Primary school (fifth year ­ age 10+): English. Total teaching time: 99h.
Knowledge
Skills
Communicative functions
Comprehension
Communicative functions necessary for reinforcing level A1 Oral and Written comprehension referring to familiar
expressions of everyday life, orally expressed both clearly
Lexis
and slowly
Basic Lexis with reference to real communicative situations
and fixed formulae for social contacts
Interaction
Interaction within situations already dealt with in the class-
Sentence and textual grammar
room, using known expressions relating to everyday life and
Easy forms, necessary for level A1
common stock sentences
Phonetics and phonology Pronunciation of single words and linguistic sequences Sentence intonation
Production Oral production of simple questions and short sentences to give information about themselves, their family and school Written production of easy messages
Culture of the English speaking world
Metalinguistic and metatextual skills
Links to the student age and world with reference to the
cultural aspect of the language
Develop cognitive flexibility
Comparison between one's own culture and that of the Connect words and word groups with easy linkers
English speaking world through adequate situations and tools
29
SECTION 1 - Factual description
End of Lower Secondary school (third year ­ age 13+): English. Total teaching time: 99h.
Knowledge
Skills
Communicative functions
Comprehension
Communicative functions necessary for a Global and detailed comprehension of oral messages in standard lan-
pre-level B1
guage, both face-to-face and through media, on topics of personal interest and related to everyday life, expressed both clearly and slowly.
Lexis Lexis relevant to the known areas
Global and detailed comprehension of short written messages (personal letters, MSS, forum, chat), on topics of personal interest and related to everyday life
Sentence and textual grammar Forms necessary for a pre-level B1 Culture of the English speaking world
Interaction Interaction in short conversations, even on unknown themes relevant to personal and everyday life
Aspects of implicit and explicit culture of a language in a personal situation and every- Production
day life
Oral production of different texts on known topics of personal and social
Relationship (similarities and differences) interest, also with the use of ICT
between one's own world and the English Written production of short texts, of a variety of kinds, on known topics of
speaking world
personal and social interest, also with the use of ICT
Mediation Oral report in Italian of a simple oral/written text in English Written translation, or summary, of different kinds of written texts in English on personal and everyday life topics
Metalinguistic and metatextual skills Recognize the aim and the cohesion/coherence of a text
End of Lower Secondary school (third year ­ age 13+): Second Foreign Language. Total teaching time: 99h.
Knowledge
Skills
Communicative functions
Comprehension
Communicative functions necessary for Global and detailed comprehension of oral messages in standard language,
reinforcing level A1
both face-to-face and through media, on topics of personal interest and relat-
ed to everyday life, expressed both clearly and slowly.
Lexis
Global and detailed comprehension of short written messages (personal letters,
Lexis relevant to the known areas
MSS, forum, chat), on topics of personal interest and related to everyday life
Sentence and textual grammar
Interaction
Forms necessary for reinforcing level A1 Interaction in short conversations, even on unknown themes relevant to
personal and everyday life
Phonetics and phonology
Pronunciation of single words and linguistic Production
sequences
Oral production of different texts on known topics of personal and social
Sentence intonation and accents sequence interest, also with the use of ICT
Written production of short texts, of a variety of kinds, on known topics of
Culture of countries where the second personal and social interest, also with the use of ICT
foreign language is spoken
Aspects of implicit and explicit culture of a Mediation
language in a personal situation and every- Oral report in Italian of a simple oral/written text in English
day life
Transfer to paralinguistic elements (tables, graphics, drawings ...) written
Relationship (similarities and differences) texts in the second foreign language on personal and everyday life topics
between one's own world and that of the
countries where the second foreign lan- Metalinguistic and metatextual skills
guage is spoken
Recognize the aim and the cohesion/coherence of a text
30
SECTION 1 - Factual description f. The `classical languages' at Italian upper secondary school The situation Latin and Greek are present only in the Liceo system. Latin in `Classical Liceo', `Scientific Liceo'', `Languages Liceo' and `Sociopsychopedagogical Liceo' (former `Istituto Magistrale'). Greek is only present in `Classical Liceo'. The actual timetable is as follows: Classical Liceo Greek 4 periods in the first two years; 3 periods in the subsequent three years. Latin 5 periods in the first two years; 4 periods in the subsequent three years. Scientific Liceo Latin 4 periods in the first, third and fourth year. 5 periods in the second year. 3 periods in the fifth year. Sociopsychopedagogical Liceo Latin 4 periods in the first two years. 3 periods in the third and fourth year. 2 periods in the fifth year. Languages Liceo (traditional) Latin 3 periods in the first two years. Languages Liceo (`Brocca' project) Latin 4 periods in the first two years. 3 periods in the third and fifth year. 2 periods in the fourth year. Reasons to study Latin and Greek nowadays Greek-Latin culture represents a moment of the highest importance for the formation of modern Western culture and only knowledge of its languages allows a really critical approach to it. The study of languages which are not spoken anymore can free the student from the immediacy of a `communicative' approach and allows a more thoughtful and conscious analysis: this may lead to the formation of a scientific mental attitude. In particular, Latin, though stemming from Rome, then spread all over the western Mediterranean and Gaul, survived more than 1000 years to the end of the Roman Empire. It represented the language of culture and science in Europe until the end of the 17th C. It has taken on a metahistorical existence and is therefore the common basis of European culture. The above view, although shared by many teachers of Latin and Greek, is in contrast with the structure of the Italian Education system, which is still mainly based on the aristocratic concept of culture, set by the Gentile Reform. The Gentile Reform (1923-1924) conceived the educational system in the following hierarchy: The highest Liceo is the `liceo classico' with Latin, Greek, History and Philosophy. Immediately after comes the `liceo scientifico' with Latin, History and Philosophy, Greek being replaced by Mathematics and Physics. Then comes the `Istituto Magistrale' (school for the preparation of primary teachers), with Latin and Philosophy but pedagogically oriented. Technical Institutes (with neither Latin nor Philosophy). 31
SECTION 1 - Factual description g. Independent Schools Non-state secondary schools are divided into the following categories: 1. Scuole paritarie (fully equivalent schools) are schools that requested and obtained equality according to the conditions set out in Law no. 62 of 10 March 2000. Therefore, they became part of the national education system. The legal treatment of state schools applies also to these schools; therefore they can become examination centres (on condition that they accept a number of external candidates in accordance with their size; external candidates are no longer required to attend for one year the school where they sit the exam). The position of the government commissioner supervising state examinations has been eliminated; boards for upper secondary leaving examinations can be set up with classes from scuole paritarie alone. Most legally recognised schools (scuole legalmente riconosciute) obtained this full equivalence. 2. Purely private schools are schools that did not request or obtained neither equality nor legal recognition (see paragraph 3). Schools of this kind that adopt curricula or teaching contents similar to those adopted in state schools can also use the appropriate designation (for example, `Liceo Classico, Istituto Tecnico', etc.) but the qualification issued has no legal value. 3. Legally recognised schools and scuole pareggiate (provisionally equivalent schools) are schools that did not request or obtain the transformation of legal recognition into full equivalence . They continue to be regulated according to the Consolidation Act of laws on education of 16 April 1994, no. 297, while awaiting the verification foreseen by Law no. 62 of 10 March 2000. Legal recognition is granted on the following conditions: One year's actual operation That the school complies with all requirements relating to hygiene and building standards; that furnishing, scientific and teaching materials, laboratories, gymnasium equipment, etc., are adequate and in keeping with the type of school; That teaching is provided in the school and that the regulations laid down for corresponding state schools are carried out; That pupils have all the legal qualifications necessary for the classes they attend; That the members of the teaching staff possess the required teaching qualification. Use can be made of graduate teachers or state school teachers (for no more than 6 weekly hours) only when no qualified teachers are available and with the permission of the state school headteacher. Equivalence is granted on the above mentioned and on the following additional conditions: That schools are administered by public bodies and by those ecclesiastical bodies set out in article 7 of the Agreement with the Vatican as modified by Law no. 121 of March 5, 1985; The number of permanent school teaching positions and the educational criteria that they are based on are equivalent to those of the corresponding state schools; Members of the teaching staff are appointed following a regular public competitive exam or are appointed from among teachers who passed a competitive exam for state schools of a similar level; Permanent staff must receive an initial salary which must not be below that of state school teachers. Both legally recognised schools and provisionally equivalent schools issue qualifications with the same legal value as those issued by state schools or fully equivalent schools. 32
SECTION 1 - Factual description 1.5.2 University Reform a. Background and purposes of University reform Since the end of the 1980s the Italian university education system has undergone deep changes and great transformations; the two main aspects of such change are: 1. a thorough re-organization of educational policies and curricula; 2. the achievement of autonomous status. This development has been made possible by a complex legislative process of which the following are the most representative measures and acts: Law 168/89 acknowledged financial, administrative and charter autonomy to the university system. Thanks to this law universities were granted the possibility of operating according to their own specific statutes. Law 341/90 specifically regulated the matter of ordinamenti didattici (university education systems and course design), reorganized subject programming and set a new design for university courses with the introduction of a diploma universitario (a shorter length university degree). Law 390/91, on the right to study. Law 537/93 granted universities comprehensive financial autonomy regarding management and resource allocation. This law paved the way for introducing a national university assessment system by establishing an "observatory". Law 549/93 entrusted universities with responsibility for staff recruitment. Further steps were taken in this direction in 1997 to complete the process of transformation of the whole university system; interventions in some specific fields such as restructuring of scientific research, right to study, reorganisation of courses of studies were possible with laws nr. 59/97 and 127/97. These allowed the fulfilment of a major reform project of university education systems in the period 1996-2000: the main results were a new university education pattern based on the introduction of 1st and 2nd level degrees and, on the other hand, the introduction of the credit system. Thus the process of university re-organization and re-qualification has involved both its legal status and course design. It has required great effort and has proved complex and delicate, and it is still under way, since it has marked the change from a university system historically aimed at a very restricted group of people (the ruling йlite of the country) to the concept of `mass-university', but with a high quality content. The challenge has been that of revising teaching and education in order to achieve higher system flexibility, and to adapt the traditional Italian model to a more profession-oriented European education model. Deep analysis and reconsideration of the whole university system has therefore been necessary to achieve a quality transformation to respond to the extremely different skills and inclinations, motivations and needs of its growing and greatly diversifying student population. Vocation-orienting centres, tutoring activities, profession-oriented degrees, increased participation of students in exchange programmes, are just some of the new aspects of a university system trying to align with a more European model: the new objectives of bridging higher education and work have been set, according to the pattern laid down in the European Agreements of Sorbonne (1998) and Bologna (1999). In the Sorbonne Agreement, the Ministers of Education of France, Germany, England and Italy identified a common outline for the higher education courses to be defined within the first decade of 2000 and consisting in a two-tier articulation of the courses. The common model aims at supporting work mobility within the European borders and promoting international degree recognition. The new university courses' `system architecture' was ratified by all European Ministers of Education in Bologna in 1999 and introduced in Italy with law nr. 509. On one hand, law 509/97 aimed at enhancing the `European model' within the Italian higher education system (the two-tier degree courses, university degree recognition among European countries, the system of credits); on the other, it responded to the growing need for greater degree diversification while offering the two options: a shorter, more vocation-oriented course and a longer one, for highly-qualified professions. Law 509/97 also contained the main general criteria of university education system reform and the principles of its didactic autonomy. Thanks to law 370/99 new system assessment criteria have been adopted within universities and integrated with didactics, research, administration and resource check procedures to achieve and control transparency. Law 509/97 has been recently replaced and integrated by law 270/2004 (not yet in force) to improve system architecture and to give it higher flexibility. 33
SECTION 1 - Factual description b. What do the new courses of studies look like? The autonomy reform has thus formulated a new structure for the higher education system now divided into three broad sectors: 1. university education 2. higher education for music and arts (law 509/99) 3. higher technical education (IFTS) (law 144/99) As regards university, below is the new definition of graduation and degree courses: 1. University graduation (1st level degree): length of the courses: 3 years. Access to this graduation course is possible with a high-school diploma. This qualification certifies students as having acquired scientific and cultural as well as professional skills. 2. Post-graduate specialization course (2nd level degree) (redefined by law 270/2004 as `laurea magistrale'): length of the courses: 2 years. Access to this specialization course is possible only after university graduation. This qualification certifies students as having acquired profession-oriented advanced specialization. 3. Diplomi di specializzazione (Higher Post-graduate courses): length of the course: 2 years. Access is possible only after university graduation. The purpose of the course is to prepare experts to work in particular professional areas, such as the teaching or legal professions. 4. Research doctorate (PhD); length of the course: 3 or 4 years. Access is possible only after post-graduate specialization course. It aims at providing the graduate with highly-qualified knowledge and skills to access research and University teaching or highly-qualified professions. 5. Furthermore, universities can start highly specialist `master' courses for specific advanced professional skills, scientific-oriented courses or life-long learning courses. Masters can be of 1st or 2nd level, according to the degree giving access to the course. c. Classification areas for university courses A Government Commission was nominated in 1999 (law 127/99) to ­ among other objectives ­ draw up an outline for the so-called `broad scientific-didactic areas', a sort of field classification for university courses; these areas define the common fundamental learning objectives and the necessary learning activities for the related courses of studies. Thus all the courses activated in a specific classification area will share the same fundamental objectives and learning activities, but thanks to their independent status, universities can now autonomously choose further specific objectives, detailed learning activities and credit share for single examinations, in order to qualify and broaden their offer. There are basically five areas: 1. Engineering and Architecture 2. Medicine 3. Humanities/Languages 4. Scientific/Technical 5. Law, economics, social and political sciences A new educational reform law will probably come into force in the period 2006/2007 and this will bring about a new redefinition of university degree classifications (law 270/2004). d. The system of `credits' The so-called credits (CFU: Crediti Formativi Universitari) have been introduced mainly to level out and control the imbalance between the institutional length of courses and their real duration in terms of years spent by the students to obtain a degree. The system's overall characteristics: Credits are a means to test and "quantify" the students' several learning activities. 1 credit corresponds to 25 hours of study (meaning by `study', attending lectures and/or seminars and/or labs, and individual study at home). The average quantity of work a student is required to carry out over one year has conventionally been fixed in 60 credits. Therefore, the achievement of 180 credits is necessary to complete a course of studies and obtain a university degree. The credits corresponding to each learning activity are formally acquired by students through a successful examination. 34
SECTION 1 - Factual description Universities can partly govern the system of credits assessment either by fixing credit acquisition time limits or by patterns of recurrent credit check (e.g.. exams can be split into several parts, each evaluating a specific share of total credit). Universities can recognize official certifications of students' professional competences or skills as credits. Certifications must comply with current laws and regulations. 1.6 Administration of Education at the Regional Level There are two authorities responsible for State school administration on the regional level: the first, called the Ufficio Scolastico Regionale or USR (hereafter referred to as the Regional Education Authority) is directly responsible to the Ministry of Education and Research Education Department, while the second, the Assessorato all'Istruzione, Formazione e Lavoro (Lombardy Regional Administration Office for Education, Training and Labour) reports directly to the Regional government, which shares responsibility with the State in certain educational matters. (i) The Regional Education Authority is a branch office at general management level of the state administration of education. It has its own administrative responsibility and carries out functions previously assigned to the branch offices of education (Sovrintendenze and Provveditorati agli Studi), neither transferred to schools nor reserved to the central administration nor assigned to the regions and local authorities. The Regional Education Authority is subdivided according to its functions and the characteristics of the territory; the Centri Servizi Amministrativi (Local Education Authorities) are present at the provincial or sub-provincial levels. The Regional Education Authority carries out its functions in connection with the Department of Education. It supervises the implementation of school organisation, the efficiency of educational activities and the implementation of standards; it promotes the individualisation of educational needs and the development of its offer in the region in collaboration with the regional and local authorities; it is responsible for the implementation of national policies for students; it formulates its own proposals for the assignment of financial and Human Resources to the Directorate General and the Department of Education; it sets up the secretary's office of the Consiglio Regionale dell'Istruzione (Regional Education Council) according to article 4 of Law Decree of 30 June 1999, no. 233; it oversees relations with regional administration and local authorities with respect to school autonomy as far as integrated educational offer and adult education are concerned; it supervises schools and non-state educational courses, as well as foreign schools in Lombardy; it offers assistance and support to schools and supervises their functioning with respect to their autonomy; it allocates financial and human resources to schools and is also responsible for relations with the unions which are not relevant for schools or central administration; it ensures the best dissemination of information. The Manager of the Regional Education Authority establishes contracts with teachers and appoints them. He avails himself also of the Istituto Regionale di Ricerca Educativa ­ IRRE (Regional Institute for Educational Research) and supervises it according to article 12 of Presidential Decree of 6 March 2001, no. 190. The collegiate body (Regional Education Council) envisaged in article 75.3 of Law decree 30 July 1999, no. 300, is set up in every Regional Education Authority. The CSAs (Local Education Authorities) provide assistance in the following areas: at the provincial or sub-provincial level, for autonomous schools as regards administrative and accounting procedures; in the management of the list of candidates and proposals to the regional manager concerning the allocation of human resources to individual schools; activities concerning support for schools for planning and innovation of the educational offer and integration with the other local stakeholders; activities concerning the support and development of school networks. CSAs at the provincial level are headed by managers; CSAs at the sub-provincial level can also be headed by non-managerial staff. (ii) The Assessorato all'Istruzione, Formazione e Lavoro dell'Amministrazione Regionale (Lombardy Regional Administration Office for Education, Training and Labour) has responsibility, above all, for assistance to students at all levels of education including University. On this matter, the Education, 35
SECTION 1 - Factual description Training and Labour Office is responsible for the provision of funds and services to students through the Offices for the Right to Study which deal mainly with student housing, canteens, grants, preventive health care, cultural and sports events. Furthermore, the Offices for the Right to Study have responsibility for planning the integrated educational offer which includes general education and vocational training; school network planning, based on provincial plans; school calendar determination; funds destined for non-state schools. It is also responsible for vocational training, except for functions and tasks which have been kept under State responsibility (see articles 142 of Law Decree no. 112 of 31-3-1998) or transferred to the Agency for Vocational Training and Education established by Law Decree no. 300 of 30-71998). From the whole set of regulations, it emerges that the responsibility of the Regions includes interventions aimed at a first placement in the world of work, including higher technical-vocational training, vocational specialisation and re-qualification, in-service training, etc. These interventions relate to all formative activities aimed at obtaining a qualification, a higher diploma or other credit, but they don't lead to an academic qualification, even though they can be certified and used in the attainment of academic qualifications. These are the main responsibilities of the Regions concerning education and vocational training; they can be delegated to Provinces and Local councils on the basis of a trend which assigns the Regions functions of guidance, planning and monitoring and fewer management functions. However, the range of responsibilities may be broadened in the near future if the current discussion in Parliament on Constitutional reform should devolve more power to the regional level. 36
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
2.1 New school curricula and language-learning opportunities in Lombardy
a. Primary school: English in every first and second year Since September 8, 2004 all 1st and 2nd year pupils in primary schools have started English. In the school year 2000-2001 only 22.3% of first year students and 43.1% of the second year studied a foreign language: a constant increase (see tables below) has made it possible to ensure that everybody is taught English. Before the implementation of the Reform, a foreign language was compulsory only from the 3rd year up: only some schools were able to offer this opportunity in the first 2 years. Moreover, in school year 2002-03 4.33% of students in the third, fourth and fifth years studied other languages (French 3.65%, German 0.32%, Spanish 0.27%, see table below): these languages are to be replaced by English, but might be offered as an optional second foreign language.
Table 1 Students at primary school studying a foreign language in Lombardy
School Year 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004
Students
Students with a foreign language
358,350 250,146 364,519 286,263 367,493 297,834 365,720 355,433
% of students with a foreign language
Students 1st year
69.8 78.5 81.0 97.2
70,368 71,903 74,349 75,918
Students 1st year with foreign lang. 15,659 31,225 37,728 72,634
% Students 1st year with foreign lang.
Students 2nd year
Students 2nd year with foreign lang.
22.3 71,246 30,676
43.4 71,828 43,587
50.7 72,345 47,116
95.7 73,472 70,942
% Students 2nd year with foreign lang. 43.1 60.7 65.1 96.6
Table 2 Spread of primary students studying a foreign language
School Year 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004
Students 358,350 364,519 367,493 365,720
English 230,367 268,499 284,043 346,252
% English 64.3 73.7 77.3 94.7
French 17,221 15,614 11,881 8,109
% French 4.8 4.3 3.2 2.2
German 1,639 1,252 1,045 485
% German 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.1
Spanish 919 898 865 587
% Spanish 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
b. Lower Secondary school: 2 foreign languages for all the first year students Law No. 53 28/3/2003 and the Law Decree No. 59 19/2/2004 ensure that the teaching of 2 foreign languages (English and a second European language) is compulsory, starting from school year 2004-05, thus acknowledging what is envisaged both in the European Commission White Paper in 1995 Ch. 4 and in the Council of Europe's Guide for the Development of Language Education Policies in Europe, Draft 1, 2004. A policy in favour of a second European language had existed for some years, but percentages did not reach beyond 12.5%, see the following table:
Table 3 Classes with 2 foreign languages
School Year 2000-2001 2002-2003
Year 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 1st year 2nd year 3rd year
No of clases 3,582 3,538 3,538 3,603 3,589 3,538
Classes with two foreign languages 430 422 428 441 431 431
% bilingual classes 12.0 11.9 12.1 12.2 12.0 12.0
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SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
2003-2004
1st year 2nd year 3rd year
3,613 3,608 3,589
450 445 428
12.5 12.3 11.9
Starting in school year 2004/2005, the teaching of English became compulsory in all first year classes and the second European language had to be identified among those most widespread, taking into consideration the demands of families, the professional resources available in each school or different needs arising from the region. In school year 2004/2005, the first after the Reform, schools met some difficulties in the new language offer and further adjustments may be necessary in the future. c. Upper Secondary schools There is a steady increase in classes offering the study of 2 or 3 foreign languages, see the following table.
Table 4 Classes with 2 or 3 foreign languages
No of classes with:
Province
1st language
2nd language
Bergamo Brescia Como Cremona Lecco Lodi Mantova Milano Pavia Sondrio Varese Total Lombardy Total Italy
1,727 1,881 787 625 515 364 527 5,944 780 348 1,559 15,057 109,857
636 697 244 182 204 92 186 2,297 252 170 614 5,564 40,975
3rd language 69 107 43 30 33 12 20 352 43 18 116 843 4,931
Total 2,432 2,685 1,074 837 752 468 733 8,593 1,075 536 2,289 21,474 155,763
The last three school years have seen an increase in the study of Spanish with a corresponding decrease of French, German and Russian. The spread of the curricular foreign languages (how many students study the available languages) is also interesting, see the table below:
Table 5 Spread in percentage of students studying a foreign language in the Upper secondary school ­ Year 2002/03
1
English
70.37%
2
French
18.48%
3
German
8.71%
4
Spanish
2.28%
5
Others
0.16%
The actual implementation had to take into consideration the following difficulties: choice of the `second' language (usually French, German, Spanish); reduced number of lessons for English; lack of teachers. In school year 2004/2005, the first after the Reform, some of these difficulties were overcome but further adjustments will probably be necessary. 38
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 2.2 Further language-learning opportunities at school a. Community languages There is currently a Department at Lombardy Regional Education Authority dedicated to the work with foreign communities (particularly the Roma community) and to the organisation of seminars and events, the latest being: Information on the presence of students with non Italian citizenship (17/1/2005) Islam at school: problems and perspectives (27/1/2005) Other initiatives are organised by Milan Provincial Government, on a more local level Per `Fare' Educazione Interculturale (Intercultural Education) Office giving support to local councils and schools in collaboration with the Cooperative Farsi Prossimo. b. Diversity in language teaching When speaking of diversity in language teaching it is important to keep in mind the three principles enunciated in the Common European Framework of Reference : 1. The first considers the overall objective of promoting plurilingualism and linguistic diversity; 2. The second considers the cost efficiency of the system to be implemented; 3. The third considers language education as a whole, `where linguistic knowledge and skills, along with the ability to learn, play not only a specific role in a given language but also a transversal or transferable role across languages'. In Lombardy the above premises have been transformed into what is called: Plurilinguistic offer Linguistic transition As to the first, the first attempts had already started prior to the Reform Law, both in primary and lower secondary schools, although the percentages varied enormously (1% at the primary level and 10.6% at the lower secondary level). Another point of interest is apparent in upper secondary schools, where the linguistic offer may include a third language as well (4% of schools). Linguistic transition is a direct consequence of the plurilinguistic offer, to be noted at the upper secondary level. There English is taken by 70% of students which could be both the result of the combination of a second foreign language or the transition from English to another foreign language. In fact, `learning barriers' to a second foreign language are minor, once those to the first language have been overcome.
2.3 Provision for language learning at university in Lombardy
Lombardy is a leading region in Italy as regards its several universities, their position and the variety of courses offered. Universities are located in six out of twelve major Lombardy cities, with Milan offering the greatest concentration of both State and non-State universities. Each university relies on its guidance services to help students choose the most suitable learning pathways leading up to first-level or second-level degrees.
State universities City of Bergamo: Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo City of Brescia: Universitа degli Studi di Brescia City of Milan: Universitа degli Studi di Milano Universitа degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca Politecnico di Milano
Non-state universities City of Brescia: Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore City of Milan: Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Universitа Commerciale Luigi Bocconi Universitа Vita-Salute San Raffaele (UHSR) Libera Universitа di Lingue e Comunicazione IULM
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SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
City of Pavia: Universitа degli Studi di Pavia City of Varese-Como: Universitа degli Studi dell'Insubria
Town of Castellanza: Libera Universitа Carlo Cattaneo LIUC
a. Teaching offer of STATE universities Universities offer learning pathways leading up to 1st level as well as 2nd level degrees in the following subject areas:
State universities City of Bergamo: Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo City of Brescia: Universitа degli Studi di Brescia City of Milan: Universitа degli Studi di Milano Universitа degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca Politecnico di Milano City of Pavia: Universitа degli Studi di Pavia City of Varese-Como: Universitа degli Studi dell'Insubria
Teaching areas Engineering, architecture, humanities, languages, law, economics, political science, social sciences Law, economics, engineering, architecture, medicine. Law, economics, political science, social sciences, medicine, technical-scientific, humanities, languages Technical-scientific, law, economics, political science, social sciences Engineering/architecture Law, economics, political science, social sciences, humanities, languages, medicine Law, economics, technical-scientific, medicine
b. Teaching offer of NON-STATE universities
NON-State universities City of Brescia: Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore City of Milan: Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Universitа Commerciale Luigi Bocconi
Teaching areas Humanities, languages, technical-scientific, political science, social sciences Law, economics, political science, social sciences, medicine, technical-scientific, humanities, languages Law, economics, political science, social sciences, technical
Universitа Vita-Salute San Raffaele (UHSR)
Humanities, medicine
Libera Universitа di Lingue e Comunicazione Law, economics, languages IULM
Town of Castellanza: Libera Universitа Carlo Cattaneo LIUC
Law, economics, political science, social sciences, engineering
For a quantitative comparison of the various universities in Lombardy, see Appendix 6 and the tables detailing the numbers of graduates in each university for language faculties for the year 2003. Please note that the year 2003 was chosen not only because its data are the latest available on the Ministry of Education and Research website, but also because 2003 was a pivotal year between the new 3+2 system (the very first 3-year course students graduated then) and the old 4 or 5 year courses and `old style' graduates. In order to evaluate the above data on a more general basis, see Appendix 6 and the table detailing the numbers of university students in Italy for the academic year 2003-2004, and the table giving the provenance of 1st year university students in the academic year 2003-2004.
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SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching c. Universities offering language courses The offer of language courses in Lombard universities shows a wide range of diversified professional profiles and several learning tracks. The purpose of this section is to present the full range on offer of the two most representative universities in our region: Universitа degli Studi di Milano and Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Milan and Brescia. The language teaching offers of other universities (Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo, Universitа degli Studi di Pavia, Libera Universitа di Lingue e Comunicazione IULM) follow in an outline form in appendix 5. Universitа degli Studi di MILANO Area: Humanities/Languages: Facoltа di Lettere e Filosofia Teaching offer includes following languages French, English, German, Spanish, Latin American Spanish, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Scandinavian languages, Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese.
1st level courses Lingue e letterature straniere Mediazione linguistica e culturale Lingua e cultura italiana per stranieri
2nd level courses Lingue e letterature europee ed extraeuropee Lingue, culture e comunicazione internazionale
1st level course description: LINGUE E LETTERATURE STRANIERE (Foreign Languages and Literatures) Objectives The course includes: a. Two foreign languages (one shall be a European Community language) plus a third language. Aim of the course is to provide students with complete fluency, both written and oral, in the two languages chosen, and with an acceptable level in the third. At the beginning of the 3-year course students must make their choice among the following languages and decide which language they will specialize in: French, English, German, Spanish, Latin American Spanish, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Scandinavian languages. b. Teaching of literature (history of literature) and language science subjects, such as theory of linguistics, of theoretical-practical linguistics applied to the specific language learnt, history of the language. c. The course also aims at providing students with a wide cultural education in the fields of history, geography, philosophy, arts. Structure of the course The course offers the choice of two curricula after the first year: 1. Linguistic curriculum 2. Literary curriculum Teaching-learning activities Learning activities comprise lectures, practice activities, laboratories (language labs, ICT, Italian language), workshops and seminars, as well as work training and (unpaid) working experience. Examinations are both written and oral. Final graduation exam: `discussion' on a written dissertation (a 30 to 50 page essay) produced by the student on a subject relating to the course of studies.
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SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 1st level course description: MEDIAZIONE LINGUISTICA E CULTURALE (Linguistic and Cultural Mediation) Objectives Aim of the course is to provide students with complete fluency, both written and oral, in two foreign languages as well as to give them a wide-ranging cultural preparation. To this must be added a good level of knowledge in economic, legal and social subjects. Graduates from this course will be employed in institutional public administration bodies (local authorities, courts, schools etc) and in companies working at international level, as well as in the field of international-cooperation. Students must make their choice of languages at the beginning of the 3-year course, among the following language choice: Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, French, Japanese, Hindi, English, Russian, Spanish, German. Students will have to attend `Cultural studies courses' relevant to each chosen language. Structure of the course The course offers the choice between two curricula after the first year course: 1. Economic, legal-social curriculum for multicultural international activities. 2. Language curriculum for intercultural language activities. Teaching-learning activities Learning activities comprise lectures, practice activities, laboratories (language labs, ICT, Italian language), workshops and seminars, as well as work training and (unpaid) working experience. Examinations are both written and oral. Final graduation exam: `discussion' on a written dissertation (a 30 to 50 page essay) produced by the student on a subject relating to the course of studies. 1st level course description: LINGUA E CULTURA ITALIANA PER STRANIERI CORSO ON-LINE (Italian Language and Culture for Foreigners. On-line course) Objectives This course of Italian language and culture has been designed for foreigners living abroad. Its strong methodological-historical approach aims at giving students a good level of knowledge in language studies. Four curricula have been activated to provide foreigners with fundamental knowledge of Italian cultural heritage ranging from the origins to medieval, to the modern and contemporary age. Structure of the course The course is organized as on-line teaching-learning and accessible only to students a. residing abroad who must not be attending other Italian universities b. having a high school degree giving access to university c. with good knowledge of Italian and familiarity with information technologies It is structured in four curricula: 1. Didactic-linguistic (focus on language knowledge; aims at forming teachers for Italian L2) 2. Historical-cultural 3. Literary 4. Arts and music These curricula show a wide-ranging cultural approach. Job opportunities for graduates from this course may be in the professional fields of institutional relationships with Italy, in trade and economic activities with Italy, or in the publishing sector. 42
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 2nd level course description: LINGUE E LETTERATURE EUROPEE ED EXTRAEUROPEE (European and Non­European languages and literatures) Objectives Aim of the course is to provide students with advanced expert knowledge as regards languages and literatures of European and non-European cultures. Complete fluency in at least one of the languages of this course of studies is required, as well as a deep knowledge of at least one of the relevant great European or non-European cultures. Structure of the course Access to this 2nd level course of studies is possible for graduates from the 1st level course of Lingue e Letterature Straniere. Different curricula are offered: 1. literature curriculum 2. comparative literature curriculum 3. language studies curriculum 4. translation studies curriculum 5. philology curriculum Teaching-learning activities Learning activities are structured in practice activities, laboratories, language labs, workshops and seminars with expert professionals, as well as work training and (unpaid) work experience, both in Italy and abroad. Final graduation exam: `discussion' on a written dissertation (a book-length monograph) produced by the student on a subject linked to the course of studies. 2nd level course graduates' essays require great autonomy and originality of approach. 2nd level course description: LINGUE, CULTURE E COMUNICAZIONE INTERNAZIONALE (Languages, Cultures and International Communications) Objectives Aim of the course is to train experts in international communications, therefore to strengthen and complete preparation of graduates from the point of view of language fluency and of cultural knowledge, as well as a broad knowledge of economic, political-legal and social subjects. Structure of the course Access to this 2nd level course of studies is possible to graduates from the 1st level course of Mediazione Linguistica e Culturale. Two curricula are offered: 1. Languages, cultures and communication for business, institutions and international organisations 2. Languages, cultures and communication for tourism and the media. Teaching-learning activities Language learning activities are focused on legal, political and economic subjects. Practice activities, laboratories, language labs, workshops and seminars with expert professionals are envisaged. Final graduation exam: `discussion' on an written dissertation (a book-length monograph) produced by the student on a subject linked to the course of studies. 2nd level course graduates' essays require great autonomy and originality of approach. 43
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Dottorati di ricerca (PhDs): English studies French studies (in cooperation with the University of Verona) Spanish studies (in cooperation with the University of Bologna) Scuole di specializzazione (post-graduate higher courses) SILSIS: specialization courses for PGCEs (i.e. Post-Graduate Certificate in Education). SILSIS (an acronym for Scuola Interuniversitaria Lombarda di Specializzazione per l'Insegnamento Secondario) is a postgraduate School for prospective teachers. Founded in the academic year 1999/2000, it is divided into three sections, one in Milan, one in Pavia, and one in Bergamo and Brescia. The Milanese section at the State University of Milan is the biggest one, totalling over 1700 students each year, divided into 8 disciplinary branches. The foreign languages branch offers two-years courses for prospective teachers of English (50 students each year), French (20 students each year) and Spanish (20 students each year). Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore: MILAN, BRESCIA Humanistic-linguistic area: Facoltа di Scienze Linguistiche e Letterature Straniere Teaching offer includes following languages English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Albanian
1st level courses Lingue e letterature straniere Scienze linguistiche per la comunicazione e l'impresa
2nd level courses Lingue e letterature straniere Scienze linguistiche per la comunicazione e l'impresa
1st level course description: LINGUE E LETTERATURE STRANIERE (Foreign Languages and Literatures) Objectives The course envisages: a. Two foreign languages (one shall be a European Community language). Aim of the course is to pro- vide students with complete fluency, both written and oral, in the two languages chosen. Students must make their choice of languages at the beginning of the 3-year course. b. Teaching of literature (history of literature) and language science subjects, such as theory of linguistics, of theoretical-practical linguistics applied to the specific languages learnt, history of the language. Structure of the course The course offers the choice of two curricula after the first year course: 1. Linguistic curriculum This curriculum involves choosing a third language and relevant history of literature 2. Literary curriculum Teaching-learning activities Learning activities comprise lectures, practice activities, laboratories (language labs, ICT, Italian), workshops and seminars, as well as work training and (unpaid) working experience. Examinations are both written and oral. Final graduation exam: `discussion' on a written dissertation (a 30 to 50 page essay) produced by the student on a subject relating tothe course of studies.
44
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 1st level course description: SCIENZE LINGUISTICHE PER LA COMUNICAZIONE E L'IMPRESA (Language Studies for Communication and Business) Objectives Aim of the course is to provide students with complete fluency, both written and oral, in two foreign languages as well as to give them a wide-ranging cultural preparation. The graduate profile requires good general knowledge level in the humanistic, economic, legal subjects. The different curricula offered provide students with most specific field preparation in business management, communication, information technology. Students must make their choice of 2 languages at the beginning of the 3-year course. Structure of the course The course offers the choice among five curricula after the first year course: 1. Language expert for the enterprise. (Focus on economic-legal subjects, it aims at providing the necessary competence for international relations management) 2. Language expert for enterprise management and tourism. (Focus on economic-legal subjects related to tourism management). 3. Language and techniques for communication (Focus on theory and practice of communication-related sciences and media language) 4. Information technology (Focus on information technologies applied to language communication techniques). 5. Intercultural communications expert (Focus on techniques and competence for international cooperation, on sociological subjects) Teaching-learning activities Learning activities comprise lectures, practice activities, laboratories (language labs, ICT, Italian), workshops and seminars, as well as work training and (unpaid) working experience. Examinations are both written and oral. Final graduation exam: `discussion' on a written dissertation (a 30 to 50 page essay) produced by the student on a subject relating to the course of studies. 2nd level course description: LINGUE E LETTERATURE STRANIERE (Foreign Languages and Literatures) This course aims at specialising in linguistics applied to the languages learnt; it is very markedly practice-based with a learning pattern focused on language practice and translation techniques. Structure of the course Access to this 2nd level course of studies is possible to graduates from the 1st level course of Lingue e Letterature Straniere. Teaching-learning activities Practice activities, laboratories, language labs, workshops and seminars are envisaged. Final graduation exam: `discussion' on a written dissertation (a book-length monograph) produced by the student on a subject linked to the course of studies. 2nd level course graduates' essays require great autonomy and originality of approach. 45
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 2nd level course description: SCIENZE LINGUISTICHE PER LA COMUNICAZIONE E L'IMPRESA (Language Studies for Communication and Business) The course aims at completing the profession-oriented objectives of the corresponding 1st level course Scienze Linguistiche per la Comunicazione e l'Impresa, according to the different specialization pattern here below: 1. International management (focus on marketing and information technologies) 2. Tourism organisations management (focus on business management and accounting and internatio- nal regulations) 3. Audio-visual communication sciences (focus on theory and practice of mass and media communication) 4. Intercultural communication expert (focus on socio-linguistic subjects, anthropology, language and culture of non-EU countries (Albania). Structure of the course Access to this 2nd level course of studies is possible for graduates from the 1st level course of Scienze Linguistiche per la Comunicazione e l'Impresa. Teaching-learning activities Practice activities, laboratories, language labs, workshops and seminars are envisaged. Final graduation exam: `discussion' on a written dissertation (a book-length monograph) produced by the student on a subject linked to the course of studies. 2nd level course graduates' essays require great autonomy and originality of approach. Masters: 1st level master course in Essay and Literary Translation Dottorati di ricerca (PhDs): Applied linguistics and communication language Linguistic, philological and literary sciences French linguistics Scuole di specializzazione (post-graduation higher courses) - Milan and Brescia SSIS : specialization courses for language teaching professions. For details of the other Lombard universities please see Appendix 5. d. Literacy levels attained by Italian learners in their mother tongue Universitа degli Studi di Milano ­ Facoltа di Lettere e Filosofia After a testing period, workshops and courses for literacy levels of competence attainment in Italian writing were activated some years ago in Universitа degli Studi di Milano ­ Facoltа di Lettere e Filosofia, Scienze Politiche (areas: languages/humanities, law/political science) and are nowadays part of the learning process envisaged in the 1st level courses of studies. 3 credits are given for attendance at workshops for Italian writing (in all 15 units for a total 30-hour course) and positive result in the final exam. Workshop lesson typology: both teacher-fronted and on-line lessons. Following is the course offer for year 2004-2005: 1. Teacher-fronted lessons (LABS): 20 labs activated within the ESF university projects (workshops for training of written language experts ­ written Italian for professional competences). 2. Tutor-assisted on-line laboratories with final test in class (LABSOL project) 3. Self-learning on-line laboratories with final test in class (AUTOLABS project) 46
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Objectives of these courses are both acquisition of higher-level language competence and development of specific skills in text composition. Courses involve much practice and frequent testing activity to assess satisfactory attainment levels. As for student profile for language and text competence, students must: acquire adequate, high-level competence in Italian language and language registers pertaining to university teaching objectives understand and be able to produce different text typologies, up to relatively advanced levels organise content, divide and arrange structure of highly complex texts master the Italian language in its lexical, morphosyntactic and pragmatic levels master rules of spelling, punctuation and other formal functions of the language. Further competences involved: Communicative competence competence in language and text difference detection among several communication channels production competence in different communication registers; argumentative text production skills. Logical-conceptual competence handling information in a logical way use of cohesion and coherence elements in a text: producing a text respecting rules of cohesion and coherence. Pragmatic competence identifying purposes and recipients of a text, writing texts according to these characteristics. Text typology competence identifying main text typologies and main text genres (report, argumentative texts, essay, written exam, etc.) producing a text according to the same characteristics. e. Italian as a second language a. Approccio Lingua Italiana Allievi Stranieri (A.L.I.A.S.) Started in school year 1998 ­ 1999 by Ca' Foscari University of Venice, with the following aims: Research on Italian as L2 Teacher training for teachers with foreign students (both on line and face to face) Production of materials and tools for training and methodology. b. COME A Centre supported by a cooperation between Lombardy Regional Education Authority, Caritas Ambrosiana and Coop Farsi Prossimo. It offers support and on line consultancy as regards: Information concerning seminars, courses on teaching Italian as L2, intercultural education etc. Bibliography School laws and regulations as regards foreign students Materials Methodology and project models Teachers forum For further statistics on the University population in Lombardy, their participation in Socrates/Erasmus projects and an analysis of University teaching staff please see appendices 6-7-8. 47
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 2.4 Promoting a language learning society: implementation of Council of Europe and European Union initiatives and programmes at regional level The following list and account of events provides an indication of the ways in which efforts have been made to promote the concept and experience of a language learning society in recent years. a. National events [email protected] Europe 2004 [email protected] Europe 2004 was sponsored by the European Commission and aims at the use of new media in education and culture, offering participants the opportunity to develop specific competence in the acquisition and exchange of information on a variety of themes. The week [email protected] Europe 2004 took place in November with the 10 new EU members. This involved the necessity of a mutual and deeper knowledge among citizens from different cultures: to this end the project `Arianna's thread: Art seen as cultural identity' was conceived by the Ministry of Education in Italy. ` Arianna's thread: Art seen as cultural identity' Since both the Catholic Church and the Council of Europe have seen art as a vehicle of cultural identity in Europe, the association ICS International Communicating Society has promoted the research project 2004-2006 `Arianna's thread: Art as cultural identity'. The title suggests the guidelines for the research: rebuild, through the labyrinths of memory, the past of our country, from the origins to the present day, letting its works of art, its symbols, its history, its literature speak of its identity as a value and culture. Eventual links and comparisons to other European countries will be a bonus. The project could be carried on as an excursus on a particular theme (house architecture, city architecture, theatre, means of transport, of communication, shoes and/or fashion etc) or by highlighting new phenomena or by focusing on a particular period (origins, Roman period, Middle Ages, Renaissance, etc) in Italy. All European students of state and private secondary schools and Universities could take part in the project using new technologies for their products (Cd Rom, Internet, Video), along with a paper summary. European Day of Languages: 26 September In accordance with the European Day of Languages declared by the Council of Europe, the Italian Ministry of Education issued a competition for the year 2002­2003 based on the theme set by the Council of Europe: `Lifelong education'. The Ministry was partnered by the Goethe Institut, British Council, Bureau de Coopйration Linguistique et Artistique, Consejerнa de Educaciуn y Ciencia and the regional offices. The competition was addressed to all Italian schools, adult courses and foreign schools in Italy. Participation Participation was open to classes or groups of students with the exception of adult courses where individuals could also take part. The final product could be a poster or a multimedia product (audio or video cassette max 5 minutes, DVD, CDRom for films 5 minutes, for documents 5MB) in one or more languages (foreign language, mother tongue and minority language.)6 The product themes referred to: Languages and music Languages and theatre Languages and cinema Languages and sciences The products had to be completed September 2002 - February 2003. After this first national competition the European Day of Languages is still celebrated, but according to each school or school network or regional policies. 6. In Italy the official minority languages are: Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Croatian, Slovene, French, French-Provenзal, Friulan, Ladin, Occitan and Sardinian (Law No 482 - art. 2 15/12/1999), none of them is present in Lombardy. 48
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching The European Year of Languages 2001 was declared The European Year of Languages by the Council of Europe and the European Union. There were five main objectives: 1. make people aware of the richness in language diversity within the European Union and of the cul- tural value represented by this diversity; 2. promote multilanguage acquisition; 3. promote the language acquisition among people as a key element of personal and professional deve- lopment, of intercultural understanding, of full value recognition of the rights granted by European citizenship and economic empowerment; 4. encourage lifelong learning without reference to age or social conditions; 5. gather and disseminate the information on language teaching and acquisition and on the competences, methods and tools used to favour teaching and learning. The Italian Ministry of Education allowed funding for the following: all the schools; local and regional institutions and associations; cultural organisations; research centres; firms, professional and trade organizations and Chambers of Commerce and Industry. Possible Areas The projects funded were to promote the aims of the European Year, for instance: sensitising citizens to linguistic and cultural diversity in Europe; promoting language learning and/or the use of languages as a pleasant activity, able to enrich the individual; sensitising the professionals to the economic advantages in learning languages, in particular through the involvement of companies; underlining the benefits and importance of lifelong language learning and/or making the access to this learning easier; through the dissemination of innovative methods for language learning and/or through a wider access to such kind of learning; through the organisation of prizes and competitions; through surveys at local, regional, national or transnational level on language learning and in particular: on language diversity, on minority languages, on motivation, methodology and students' perspectives. All the projects had to be developed within the European Year, from autumn 2000 to the end of 2001. National meeting ` Migration and Literature: the word as a meeting place' This was organized by ISMU on May 7, 2004 in Milan. It examined how literature could help and influence positively the creation of both a national and multicultural identity. 3rd European Day of Parents and School On Monday October 12, 2004 representatives of parents associations and the institutional world met on the topic of cooperation between schools and families with the aim of enriching student education. The seminar took place at the Ministry of Education in Rome, in the presence of the Minister Mrs Letizia Moratti. During the seminar some European experiences and Italian projects were presented. European Label ­ Year 2004 This is a public certification, valid one year and repeated each year. In 2004 it was attributed to those projects which favour language teaching through innovation and efficient didactics, favouring the recognition of the European language heritage and promoting multilanguage acquisition in lifelong learning, according to the fourth objective in the White Paper of the European Commission. 49
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching The projects had to: Refer to activities in progress or, at least, at the final stage of planning Produce both qualitative and quantitative improvement to language teaching/learning Have a European dimension Be easy to transfer Be innovative and creative in planning, in the use of resources and in methodology Correspond to the language needs of the students Contain stimulating and motivating elements for language acquisition The projects (in the usual formats) had to be sent directly to the Ministry of Education in Rome by 15 May 2004. An example of a project awarded a prize `Il йtait une fois .... le chat bottй', created by 24 children of the 5th year in a primary school near Bergamo and their two teachers (Music and French), in the period September 2002 ­ May 2003. This is a multimedia exploration of the old fable by Perrault `Puss-in-Boots'. The final product is a CD which includes role-plays, music of Perrault's period, drawings made by the children, related to Versailles royal palace. The skills included (obviously related to French) are: Listening / Reading / Oral and Written production. A summary of Lombardy award winning projects From 1999 to 2004 a total of 11 `Label' flags were given to projects designed and carried out in Lombardy. A brief reference to the 3 winning projects in 2002: IC Mediglia (Mi) with `English for very young students' was prized for a project meant for the early teaching of English in the infant school. It is based on playful and expressive activities in workshops and includes also interesting activities as links to primary and lower secondary schools. Vocational Centre `A. Morino' Edolo ­ branch of Cividate Camuno (Brescia) created original paths for adults with the project `La Palestra' (Gymnasium), to help adults maintain their competences in a foreign language. The relevant activities are characterized by flexibility and individualization and therefore allow students to organize their linguistic training. `Inside Italian ­ Web learning environment' by Didael ­ Mi focuses on the increasing demand for Italian as a foreign language both in Italy and abroad and gives students worldwide access to a website. In this area knowledge, exchange, communication and getting to know each other offer many intertwined ways to learn Italian as a foreign language. b. Regional events European Festival ­ 7 May 2004 This was a competition directed by the Region, the Regional Education Authority, the Representation of the European Parliament and Commission towards all students of secondary schools (both lower and upper) in Lombardy. It aimed to heighten awareness of European citizenship among young people. The final meeting was held in Milan, on May 7 2004. Both the competition and the meeting were organized by Ceses (Centro Europa per la Scuola Educazione e Societа) (non profit organization) The main theme regarded world peace, which can only be saved with a creative effort, which should be of the same force as the dangers which menace peace. An organized and dynamic Europe can make a valuable contribution to this effort, so that peaceful relationships can be maintained. The event was about a competition on the theme: ` Integration and Democracy in the enlarged Europe'. 50
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching All the students in the third year of lower secondary schools, all those of upper secondary schools and in the vocational education centres could take part in the competition. The theme had to be developed by completing a product: A web site A theatrical performance An essay in prose or verse A song A film (commercial, videoclip or short film) Or anything which could be considered a work of art. Regional seminar `Europe: a challenge for the new generations' 26 April ­ 4 May 2004: two meetings on culture and institutions in Europe On the occasion of the enlargement of the European Union to new countries and the issue of a Constitutional Charter for Europe, the Regional Education Authority, in cooperation with INSMLI and under the patronage of the European Parliament organized two meetings for the students of upper secondary schools of Lombardy, with the aim of spreading awareness of a common European identity and to sensitise them to the current problems. This in order to promote a deeper and wider reflection at school, from the point of view of the different subjects, so that both students and teachers have a frame of reference. The first day focused mainly on the humanistic and artistic area, considering and valuing both the similarities and the differences present in European culture. Raising awareness in this way gives impetus to the common recognition of the function of knowledge and artistic expression. The second day centred on the historical, legal and economic areas and could be used also to promote the choice of a University faculty. Regional meeting `Multilingual Europe': communication and learning This was organized by the Department of Linguistics and Foreign Literature of Universitа Cattolica in Milan, on November 4 and 5, 2004. The seminar was addressed to teachers of foreign languages, to those of Italian as second language, to those responsible for cultural projects and for foreign students in primary and secondary schools. c. European Projects SOCRATES Socrates comprises eight separate actions: Comenius: school education Erasmus: higher education Grundtvig: adult education and other education pathways Lingua: learning European languages Minerva: information and communication technologies (ICT) in education Observation and innovation of education systems and policies Joint actions with other European programmes Supplementary measures. The objectives of Socrates Socrates is the European Union's education programme and involves around 30 European countries. Its main objective is precisely to build up a Europe of knowledge and thus provide a better response to the major challenges of this new century: to promote lifelong learning, encourage access to education for everybody, and help people acquire recognised qualifications and skills. In more specific terms, Socrates seeks to promote language learning, and to encourage mobility and innovation. Within Socrates, Comenius's overall objectives are to enhance the quality and reinforce the European dimension of school education, in particular by encouraging transnational cooperation between schools, contributing to the improved professional development of staff directly involved in the school education sector, and promoting the learning of languages and intercultural awareness. 51
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
LOMBARDY AND EUROPEAN UNION PROJECTS Lombardy has a long experience in European Projects, in particular the Socrates ones, which Lombard schools take part in, at all levels as the following table and graphs show (all of them related to projects which ended in 2002): Tables 1 Subdivision according to type of school and projects
Subdivision according to types of school
Infant
3
Primary
22
Lower Secondary
10
Upper Secondary
53
Comprensivi7
10
Total
98
Subdivision according to projects
Comenius
80
Leonardo
3
Youth
1
Exchange
10
Other
4
Total
98
7. Comprensivi = they include infant, primary and lower secondary schools in the same building with the same head. 52
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 2.5 Language-learning opportunities in Lombardy outside formal education a. UNI 3 ­ University of the third age Modern society tends to set aside people when they leave the production cycle, at whatever age it happens. Therefore, the first Italian University of the Third Age was founded in Turin in 1975, its acronym becoming Unitre since it was opened to three ages. Following the initial success other cities in Piedmont and subsequently other regions asked to be part of the National Association which has 215 branches covering the whole country. The main common aims are: Favouring the cultural development of its members through courses and workshops on specific matters; Favouring the members' participation in University life through the preparation and realization of practical activities; Comparing and bridging the culture of the previous generations and the present one to give impulse to the `Being beyond Knowledge'. Unitre works with other associations of the region and with public institutions, always within the limits of their responsibilities. It tries to encourage older people to take responsibility for their own lives, so that by taking part in the project they can take on new roles and use their leisure time. Furthermore Unitre believes that each person's experience should be passed on to the next generations. This is why it has been collaborating for 10 years with Association 50 & PIU' FENACOM on a research programme on collective memory. At the moment Unitre is present in Lombardy in the following provinces: Lodi (one branch) Milan (four branches) Pavia (six branches) Sondrio (two branches) Varese (two branches) The total number of students amounts to 4310 for the current year (2004-2005). b. City Council courses and foreign language schools Most city councils in Lombardy provide courses in foreign languages. They are usually managed directly by the bigger cities (i.e. Milan) or through private firms in smaller towns. English is the top choice for most students, then the most usual are: French, German, Spanish followed by Russian and Portuguese. In smaller towns the choice is limited to English and, sometimes, French or German. In most areas these courses have flourished mainly recently, but Milan is an exception with most of the courses dating back to 1935. The diversification of Universities and the different approach of political institutions have brought changes in the management of these courses and, usually, a grouping in the central areas of the city. The main aims of Milan courses are: Lifelong and plurilingual education Promotion of languages as intercultural understanding and as a resource for the integration of foreigners Increase in the use of ICT in education Establishment of relationships with educational and cultural associations in the area At the final examination of the basic courses a Language Certificate is issued. Some statistics: More than 70 years' experience in the teaching of languages More than 10,000 young and adult students each year 53
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 15 languages taught: among them European languages, Asian languages, Italian for foreigners and Italian Sign Language 10 years' experience in teaching for international certifications Special courses for 16 international certifications 13 teaching centres 1 Linguistic Liceo `A. Manzoni' ­ with 2 tracks 1 Technical Institute for Trade and Foreign Language Correspondence `PACLE A. Manzoni' On the other hand, another well-established institution, Milan School for Interpreters and Translators, founded in 1980, has been transformed into the Language Department of the Council Schools of Milan, through the development of a Fondazione di Partecipazione Scuole civiche di Milano, on July 24, 2000. Between this institution and the City Council there is a 30-year-contract for the management of the schools and the setting of standards of the same. The 2 language departments included, for cultural mediators and interpreters and translators, follow the same rules and regulations which now apply to University. c. Cultural Agencies Lombard towns - and Milan in particular - offer a wide variety of language schools and cultural agencies. The latter are often active in specific fields of cultural activities (Associazioni Culturali) and do not envisage language teaching in their course offer. Language schools in Milan ­ not to mention other towns ­ number more than 20; the field of enquiry being too extensive, we have therefore concentrated our analysis on a restricted but extremely representative number of agencies: Centro Filologico Milanese, Inlingua, EF Education. Each of these examples has been analysed because of its specific approach and field of action, aims, student target and service offer, and each represents a case of its own. CIRCOLO FILOLOGICO MILANESE Circolo Filologico is a particular reality within the wide and rich scenario of language school and cultural agencies in Milan. It is a non-profit institution founded in 1872 with the aim of "...promoting and spreading culture and in particular the study of foreign languages and cultures". We have chosen to describe its activity as the action of the Circolo Filologico on languages goes beyond the practical study of contemporary languages: it is a real cultural centre with courses ranging over all the communicative and philological aspects of foreign languages, both modern and classical. Circolo Filologico represents a great tradition in Milanese cultural history; in 1995 it was awarded the title of Regional Cultural Institution. Lately it has been mentioned by the Chamber of Commerce of Milan for its great contribution to programmes of vocational training and cultural education in the business world and in the Lombard enterprise network. So it offers language courses as well as courses of music, archaeology, painting; courses offering an insight into Milanese culture and dialect, history of art, oriental cultures, ancient history, literature, poetry, computer science and many others. It organises seminars, exhibitions, concerts and lectures on the most varied subjects. Language courses: the majority of their teachers are native speakers, the learning process relies on audiovisual and up-to-date technology. Their structure is also flexible enough to adjust to specific learning needs. Modern Languages taught: English, French, Spanish, German, Russian, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Modern Greek, Albanian, Italian for foreigners. Classical languages taught: Sanskrit, Hebrew, Classical Greek, Latin. Course characteristics: for all contemporary languages there is an offer of 1-year courses of 81 lessons. Intensive courses: they offer courses of 40 or 60 hours for beginner and elementary levels; courses of 20, 30, or 40 hours for intermediate and advanced levels. Courses of language for travellers: these are short-term courses with an introduction to the cultural world of the language taught (10 to 20-hour courses) Business language, conversation, cultural courses with a focus on culture and history of the specific country. They also offer individual or restricted group courses. Special courses: on demand they organise communicative language courses. 54
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching There is a valuable, well-stocked library (over 100,000 volumes, among them many ancient books) founded in 1875 and renovated in 1950. The library is continually being renewed and it offers publications in several foreign languages which are relevant to all language sciences. At present a project of complete renovation and the opening of a multimedia centre is in progress. Worthy of mention is a course entitled History of writing given by a philology expert and centred on the historical development of different systems of writing (logographic, syllabic, alphabetic) with a focus on the systems' adaptability to various idioms. The course is a great help in the study of Baltic and Slavic languages, where adaptations of Latin and Cyrillic alphabets are in use. INLINGUA SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES Inlingua is one of the leading school of languages in Lombardy and in Italy, where they have 55 centres as a whole; but Inlingua is clearly a world-wide leader in language teaching, as students can choose to take Inlingua courses in one of their 300 locations in 29 different countries. The language offer is extremely wide: in the Milan branch 14 languages are offered, all of them taught in different levels from Beginner to Advanced and beyond with specialization courses: Italian for foreigners, Spanish, German, French, Portuguese, English, Russian, Dutch, Japanese, Chinese, Arabic, Greek, Swedish, Croatian. Yet individual courses or personalized programmes can be designed for languages not included in this list. Courses are both individual or group courses. Italian for Foreigners: here Inlingua offers the same formula applied to individual or group courses and the same range and course length mentioned above. Inlingua applies the same method to practically all languages they teach. They call it "the Inlingua method" and the following are the main elements and teaching supports provided: courses are held by qualified native language trainers, Inlingua books and proprietary material are used (Video Responder System; personalized exercises on CD-Rom, pre-recorded cassettes or CD's, on-line programmes). See appendix 2 for detailed information. EF EDUCATION EF, too, can be considered among the most important language schools in Italy. In particular, it has become a leader agency in the field of cultural exchange programmes and school-vacations abroad. EF has an important branch in Milan and is therefore extremely active on our territory. Its educational offer addresses a wide age range ­ adults included ­ but is specifically focussed on children and teens, and is highly structured in a remarkable variety of opportunities. See appendix 2 for detailed information. d. Certification Agencies Milan can be considered the centre of Certification Agencies. In fact the four major Certification Agencies for ENGLISH ­ British Council; FRENCH ­ Centre Culturel Francais de Milan; SPANISH ­ Instituto Cervantes Milan; GERMAN ­ Goethe Institut Mailand are hosted here. These institutions are all non-profit and they respond to a primary cultural objective of spreading the language and customs of their country of origin. All of them hold general language courses, with native speaker teachers, and Certification Attainment language courses. An interesting fact is that all of them include business language courses in their offer also in the form of in-house training. In this sector their specific offer is extremely flexible and adjusted to cover the most varied requirements. BRITISH COUNCIL - MILAN The British Council is the British international institution responsible for promoting cultural relationships among countries; based in more than 200 countries all over the world, this institution has created a network of branches offering both English teaching at the highest levels and several other cultural and teacher training services. Italian branches exist in Bologna, Milan, Naples and Rome. The teaching offer of their Milan branch is detailed in Appendix 2. CENTRE CULTUREL FRANCAIS DE MILAN The Centre Culturel Francais de Milan is the authorized official institution for International Certifications 55
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
in the French language, their course offer pattern includes standard, specialization, children, and intensive courses; in addition they offer business French for companies and institutions. Standard courses: these courses are organised in two sessions (October-January and February-May), each consisting of 42 hours; students can choose between courses of one lesson or two lessons a week. One-lesson courses of 3 hours each: held on Fridays or Saturdays. Two-lesson courses: each lesson 1,30 h. (Monday-Wednesday or Tuesday-Thursday). The teaching offer of their Milan branch is detailed in appendix 2. INSTITUTO CERVANTES - MILAN Instituto Cervantes is the authorized official institution for International Certifications in the Spanish language; their course offer pattern is divided into General Courses and Specialisation courses and is detailed in appendix 2. GOETHE INSTITUT - MILAN Goethe Institut is the authorized agency for language certifications in the German language. Their Lombard branch is in Milan and they have a number of courses on offer, detailed in appendix 2. e. Professional Associations and Chamber of Commerce Compared to some other Italian regions, Lombardy has well-structured and strong industrial sectors and service industry: with its high economy growth rates it represents a model at both a domestic and an international level. Professional associations reflect this reality and are present in large numbers in Lombardy. The present survey takes one of the main associations into consideration: Assolombarda ­ the association for craft and industry. Assolombarda focuses on many issues relevant to the industrial and craft activities: it offers several services to companies (for ex. translation and interpreting in many European languages) and largely provides for vocational training. Within this field of activity language training is also offered for the companies requiring it. Language courses can be offered within a plan of vocational training, or can be designed according to the needs and requirements of companies. Assolombarda has provided data for the year 2003-2004. Over this period 50 language courses were activated and the overall language course offer covered 10% of Assolombarda's total training activity. 99% of the courses were for English and only 1% for French. Companies requiring this service are usually medium-small: their total employees never exceed 50. Average age of participants: 10% of the participants are in the age range 20-30 years, 60% of the participants are in the age range 30-40 years, 30% of the participants are over 40. Table 1 Level of language knowledge of participants per age range.
Elementary Intermediate Advanced
20-30 yrs 33% 20% 15%
30-40 yrs 33% 60% 75%
Over 40 33% 20% 10%
It can be fairly said that language training for company personnel is mostly a prerogative of specialized agencies such as schools of languages. Smaller professional associations do not provide for this service. Chambers of Commerce of Lombardy ­ though not all of them ­ are fairly active in this area. Some have started language courses in recent years, or are designing new ones for the future. Their language course offer has usually two addressees: staff of the Chamber of Commerce itself, and companies from the area where they are located. In Lombardy Chambers of Commerce are in all major cities - 11 in all. Out of the total, the chambers of Milan, Brescia, Crema, Sondrio, Pavia and Como do not organize any lan-
56
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
guage training courses. Chambers of Commerce rely on special institutions called "Aziende Speciali per la Formazione" ­ Formas or PromoImpresa ­ committed to vocational training and to management training activities. These institutions organize specific training for companies and language training is often envisaged. A fundamental role is played also by the financial backing for training policies by the "European Social Fund (ESF)": Aziende Speciali per la Formazione, and Chambers of Commerce themselves, organize language courses and other training activities for companies with the financial support of ESF. Following is the information provided by Chambers of Commerce of Bergamo, Varese, Mantova, Lecco, Lodi about their involvement in the training sector.
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF BERGAMO: courses organised by Azienda Speciale per la Formazione; language course offer was particularly rich in Bergamo in the years 2003 and 2004/05, if compared to other Chambers. We have tried to summarize it as follows:
City of Bergamo Language courses English Beginners
Total hours/year course 255
2003 X
2004-05 X
Unemployed 25
Employed and entrepreneurs 53
English Elementary
255
X
X
76
English pre-Intermediate
255
X
X
84
English Intermediate
255
X
X
89
English upper-Intermediate
200
X
X
22
English Advanced
300
X
X
37
English Conversation
100
X
X
29
Spanish
170
X
X
10
13
German Beginners
255
X
X
6
22
German Elementary
170
X
X
15
Language course for Chamber of Commerce staff
171
X
17
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF VARESE: language courses organised by Formas (Azienda Speciale) and promoted by ESF and Regione Lombardia.
City of Varese Language courses
Total hours/year course
English Beginners English Intermediate English for Trade German Beginners German for Trade English course for Chamber of Commerce staff: conversation ESF: course for expert manager of tourism: English module
420 144 126 120 42 32 120
2003 X X X X X X X
Participans 86 29 33 18 12 17 16
City of Varese Language courses English Beginners English Elementary
Total hours/year course 255 166
2004 X X
Participans: Public administration employees 41 38
Participans: Entrepreneurs 10 10
57
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF LECCO: this institution organised one English course for its employees in 2000. It was graded in headstart, elementary, pre-intermediate and intermediate levels, each level offered 80 hours teaching. Total participation: 34 people. This Chamber of Commerce has never organised language courses for companies. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF LODI: in the period September-December 2004 a course for ten employees was held in the local "British Institutes" of Lodi. A new language project is presently under evaluation for 2005. CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF MANTOVA: in 2004 the following projects were activated and supported by ESF. Courses for public administration employees: English language 18 courses of 20 hours each, graded in Beginners and Elementary ­ total participants: 179 people 8 courses of 20 hours each, Advanced ­ total participants: 77 people. Courses for those employed in companies and industries, project for life-long learning and development of human resources: English language 2 courses of 40 hours each, Beginners/Elementary ­ total participants: 30 people 2 courses of 40 hours each, Advanced ­ total participants: 30 people. For 2005 they have presented a new ESF language training project presently under evaluation. The project envisages two English courses (Elementary and Advanced) of 30 hours each. They are also cooperating with a local upper secondary school to organise a training course for "Expert in tourism and cultural events" of 120 hours overall, including a 10-hour English course. f. Language learning and the media in Lombardy Since getting to know one or more foreign languages ­ or, better, being proficient in them ­ is very often seen as a desirable skill for large sectors of Italian society (in particular, students and employees), it is no surprise that the media have been trying to meet such a need. And since many national newspapers and magazines are Milan-based, it will be easy to show the ways they contribute to the learning of foreign languages in Lombardy (as well as elsewhere in Italy). Before listing some pertinent examples, a few general, introductory comments must be made: 1. when dailies and weeklies give or sell their readers books, dictionaries, cassettes and/or CDROMs to study languages with, these initiatives have only profit, commercial growth and the widening of readership behind them; this is obviously so, but it does nonetheless demonstrate that there is a widespread interest in languages and language learning; 2. such foreign language learning material is not specially prepared for the newspapers' special promotions or sales, but it usually consists of material previously brought out by publishing houses specialized in foreign language teaching; 3. though the sale of such language learning material is duly and opportunely advertised in the dailies and weeklies themselves, columns related to the use and abuse of language are still the exception, not the rule in Italian newspapers and magazines: Famiglia Cristiana, the best-selling Italian weekly, has long had a column entitled "Parlare e scrivere", consisting of comments and recommendation on the use of the Italian language; Corriere della Sera, the first Italian daily, and its weekly Corriere della Sera Magazine have an "Esame di giornalismo" column, where columnist Giulio Nascimbeni deals with Italian language problems or downright blunders in current newspapers and magazines. Though both dailies and weeklies have regular columns on a wide range of subjects (fashion, internet, cooking, poetry, horoscope, cars etc.), none of them have one on foreign languages, not even English, the only exception being the meritorious case of Il Sole 24 Ore (to be discussed below). Only for a few months between 2003 and 2004, the Corriere della Sera TV magazine, TV Sette, had a column called "TeleEnglish", where English loanwords into Italian having to do with the media world were briefly explained and wittily commented on; 4. while the above refers to `general interest' newspapers and magazines, there are some Milan- or Lombardy-based magazines or serial publications whose aim is to promote the knowledge of foreign languages, especially English: these are to be discussed below. 58
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Examples of foreign language learning material given or sold by the most important Milan-based Italian dailies and weeklies include the following: in 1993 Corriere della Sera sold a Corso pratico di francese e inglese, a language course made of books and audiocassettes to learn French and English (originally published by Mondadori); in the late 1990's Corriere della Sera gave a Visual Dictionary of English (originally published by Zanichelli, Bologna) in weekly instalments; in 2001 the weeklies Oggi and Sette, both of them part of the RCS group, sold Easy English, a language course on CDROM; in early 2005 Il Mondo, an economic weekly published by RCS, sold a Guide to Business English, a Dictionary of Marketing terminology, and a Dictionary of Media and Communication terminology; in the early 2000s Panorama, a widely read weekly newsmagazine, sold Microsoft Encarta Interactive English Learning, a course in 5 CDROMs to learn American English; in late 2004 Panorama sold a Corso di lingue interattivo, made of 5 CDROMs to study English, French, German and Spanish; in 2002 Famiglia Cristiana, the best-seller of Italian weeklies published by Periodici San Paolo, sold Family English, a language course with different lessons for adults and children consisting of 6 CDROMs (originally published by DeAgostini Multimedia); this was followed by two dictionaries and a grammar book (also originally published by DeAgostini); between November 2004 and January 2005 Il Giornalino, a weekly for young boys and girls published by Periodici San Paolo, sold Willy Wiz Primary English, an English language course (originally published by Edizioni Lang ­ Paravia Bruno Mondadori) consisting of 7 CDROMs, and Willy Wiz Illustrated Dictionary, in three small volumes comprising an English-Italian dictionary, an Italian-English one, and two workbooks (originally published by Paravia as DAI ­ Dizionario di apprendimento dell'inglese).8 Very different in motivation and scope are the following four initiatives. Milan-based Il Sole 24 Ore is the most important financial and economic daily in Italy, backed by the Confindustria, or Confederation of Italian Industry. For 20 years now the Monday issue of Il Sole 24 Ore has given one page to articles in foreign languages: until 1998, the page reproduced one long article in either English, French or German in rotation, with a translation of the most difficult passages, language notes and comments. From 1992 to 1998 the Monday issue used to have an additional page where exercises and activities on a particular subject (e.g. the stock exchange, farm holidays, archaeology) were given for the three languages. Since 1998 the language page has had its present format: at the top of the page, an article in English is published every Monday; at the bottom of the page, an article in French or German is alternatively published. A full translation is provided. More information on the subject ­ either cultural, socio-political or linguistic is provided. Articles are taken from the Financial Times, the Landesblatt or Les Echo. An interest in the English language is also to be appreciated in the independent radio channel of Il Sole 24 ore, called Radio 24. Since 2000 a programme entitled "English 24" is broadcast every Saturday between 6.00 and 7.00 pm. It includes comments on grammar, listening comprehension exercises, a soap opera on an Italian girl in London, and the Italian translation of popular British and American songs. The programme target is made of adults and young adults that need brushing up their English. What is broadcast every week is later made available on the radio website at www.radio24.it. Speak Up, which is rightly advertised as "the first monthly for your English", was launched by the Istituto Geografico De Agostini in 1985, when its combination of written articles and recorded interviews was an immediate success. In 1990 Speak Up became part of the new De Agostini Rizzoli Periodici publishing company. It also launched a totally original editorial idea: videos of famous British and American films with sub-titles in the original language. The magazine itself was to include a special printed glossary that would explain the dialogues' most difficult words and phrases. 8. In order to demonstrate that this kind of material is also sold by newspapers and magazines published elsewhere in Italy, two recent example may suffice: in the last few months, the Bologna-based newspaper QN - Quotidiano Nazionale sold Tell me More, an English-language course (originally published by Auralog) consisting of 12 CDROMs; and Rome-based magazine L'Espresso sold My Teacher and I, advertised as an innovative English-language course consisting of 15 DVDs and as many books, totalling 64 lessons from beginner to upper intermediate level. 59
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching In this way Speak Up has, for the last 20 years, helped students and teachers discover the more contemporary, amusing and meaningful aspects of the English language, thanks to its selection of articles that cover current affairs, life-style, cultural life and travel. Thanks to recent initiatives, Speak Up has, however, managed to broaden its readership, becoming a point of reference for those needing to improve their English for professional reasons, whether it be in a managerial or a creative capacity. The magazine is also read by numerous mother-tongue British, American and Australian readers in Italy. New initiatives include an "easy listening" section in basic English for beginners, a monthly insert for teachers (exercises at B1/B2 levels), the replacement of film videos with DVD, and the creation of a special website, www.speakuponline.it, which enables readers to consult past articles online, listen to features, take out a subscription, contact the editorial staff and download worksheets (level A2) that can be printed and taken to school, thereby enabling teachers to organise a lesson around Speak Up material. The present section on language learning and the media would not be truly representative without mentioning what is being done by De Agostini Editore, not so much as a traditional publishing house that sells books and school books through bookshops, but as the leading publisher for serialized language courses to be sold in newspaper kiosks. In fact, the "Corsi di lingue De Agostini" have enjoyed an enduring appeal for quite a few years: the language course "L'inglese per te" was published serially quite a few times, and is still on sale in newspaper kiosks; comparably successful have been the corresponding courses for the French, German and Spanish languages. The most recent production is an English language course, especially designed for autonomous learning: it is called "L'Inglese" and is currently being sold (the serial publication will end in October 2005); its material, from elementary to intermediate level, comprises: 12 DVDs with sitcoms, reportages, and language learning activities; 4 edutainment DVDs on London, Edinburgh, New York and Los Angeles; 60 booklets with texts and grammar study and practice; 20 audio CDs for listening activity connected with the booklets; and 4 CDROMs for interactive learning activities. De Agostini is also a leading publisher in the area of foreign language learning for its SpeakClub.com website, advertised in its home page as "the first online language school based on De Agostini experience". 2.6 Publishing houses for language materials in Lombardy Publishing houses are among the most important stakeholders in the process of language acquisition in general: historically they have proved extremely influential and decisive in translating and adapting new approaches and language teaching methods to school and, consequently, to the most varied needs of language courses. Publishing houses are nowadays particularly active in the language area, thus responding to the European Community's major focus on the language teaching-learning process, both as a means of individual growth and of development of a collective awareness and understanding of our European common cultural heritage. In our survey we highlight the main language production of Lombardy-based publishing houses for SCHOOL TEXTS primary school, lower secondary school), upper secondary school, and university. (see Appendix 3) The main publishers in Lombardy can be considered as falling into two `publishing groups', i.e. "RCS Rizzoli Mediagroup" and "Gruppo Mondadori ­ Edumond" located in Milan and representing a concentration of several Italian and foreign publishers, along with other two publishers: "Ghisetti e Corvi" (Milan) and "Editrice La Scuola" (Brescia). As for "Editrice La Scuola", we unfortunately have no data for school publications available, whilst the publisher gave data on their university publishing activity. When we refer to school language texts (so-called "corso base") we usually mean graded language texts for school, that is, under the same title different text levels are being published: usually beginners/elementary with a division into 3 volumes in lower-secondary school, and from beginners to advanced in uppersecondary school, where graded texts are adopted depending upon the pupils' language level. In addition 60
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching to this main element of language texts, there is a large production of texts for specific language sectors generally adopted in vocational upper-secondary schools or in the final years of upper-secondary school (liceo). English texts for primary school: with school reform being introduced in 2004-2005, the primary school nowadays adopts 3 English texts as a whole, throughout its five-year school cycle: one text in the first year, one in the second, one text for the following three years (third, fourth and fifth years). RCS ­ Rizzoli Mediagroup: RCS EDUCATION This group includes the following publishers of the education area: Bompiani, Calderini, Cetim, Edagricole, Etas, Fabbri, La Nuova Italia, La Tribuna, Markes, Oxford University Press, Quadrifoglio, Sansoni, Tramontana. Some of them publish language texts for schools, some only for specific languages (Calderini, Edagricole). RCS assesses its LANGUAGE publishing activity for schools as covering over 20% of overall school text production (all subjects). RCS school texts are adopted over the whole national territory, both in primary and secondary school. Their widest offer is in the English language: in this sector RCS has undertaken a joint-venture with the British publisher Oxford University Press, so the RCS English texts total publishing data bear the name of Oxford University Press. Apart from language texts for school courses, RCS publishes a rich series of graded readers (Oxford Bookworm) ranging from fiction to literature works adapted for children aged 11-18 and graded per level of difficulty with listening cassettes (over 120 publications). Language readers, support texts and extra-activity texts are almost 60% of their total language publications. A great novelty introduced by RCS-Oxford in 2003 was "The European Language Portfolio", followed in 2005 by "The European Language Portfolio for Vocational Purposes", adaptable to all vocational schools. RCS has no specialization texts for university, yet RCS-Oxford texts are widely present among the language texts adopted for university language teaching courses. Gruppo MONDADORI ­ EDUMOND Edumond too is a major publishing group today bringing together a large number of school texts publishers. Edumond publishes school texts under its own name as well as under the following publishers' names: English language texts: MacMillan, Burlington. French: LeMonnier, Minerva Italica, Juvenilia. German: Poseidonia and a distributor like Max Hueber Verlag. Spanish: Minerva Italica and Juvenilia. Other publishers included in Edumond's network are Signorelli (they publish mainly language texts on specific subject, for ex.: English literature for upper-secondary school); Einaudi Scuola (French for specific purposes); Mursia Editore (German), and Hatier Didier (French). Edumond considers its French language school text sector as the strongest in their overall language activity for school. In particular MacMillan and Burlington texts are adopted in university language courses. Language school text production also relies on support materials like remedial texts for grammar or summer readings and grammar practice books. Edumond assesses its language text publications as making up 10-15% of their overall school text publishing activity. Publisher GHISETTI E CORVI Ghisetti e Corvi is a "minor" publisher if we compare it to the great concentration of publishers described above for RCS and Edumond. Nevertheless this company has acquired its specific market quota in particular with some very successful texts for English in the lower-secondary school. Ghisetti e Corvi attributes the reason for this successful texts to several factors: teachers have reported texts to be very rich in material offered (readings and situation practice; the texts offer a video as well as an interactive CD-rom and a listening cassette) and are well balanced with grammar sections. Publisher EDITRICE LA SCUOLA Apart from its specific university sector, we unfortunately have no data available for this publisher. Unlike the above mentioned publishers, Editrice La Scuola has a specific sector for university texts and specialised publications in linguistics and language sciences, as well as a series of "classics" in French and English. In 2005 this sector had three series of monograph studies and specialised production of approximately. 60 texts as a whole. These texts are adopted in humanities/language studies in universities. 61
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching 2.7 Language Resource Centres a. Language Resource Centres in Lombardy: Schools Resource Centres for languages operate in schools, are coordinated by the regional and local education authorities and are organized as a network to plan activities for: Information, i.e. norms, circulars, seminars and meetings. Consultancy, i.e. pedagogical/didactic advice, administrative assistance for the activation of Progetto Lingue courses, and international certification. Documentation, i.e. texts, multimedia and paper materials, web sites for teaching, documents about experiences. Training, i.e. basic and second level courses for teachers of infant, primary and secondary schools, on-line training courses. There are thirty centres in Lombardy, at least one centre in each province (Milan has four) and each one provides a `tailor-made' offer. See www.progettolingue.net for information. b. Language Resource Centres in Lombardy: Universities Language Resource Centres represent a remarkable advantage for University students of all faculties, who can have free access to this valuable learning aid. University LRCs are associated under A.I.C.L.U. (Associazione Italiana Centri Linguistici Universitari) and are all linked by a basic common teaching experience. In Lombardy Resource Centres can be found in the following Universities: Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo, Universitа degli Studi di Brescia, Universitа degli Studi di Pavia, Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan and Brescia). See relevant data in Appendix 4. At present the role of language resource centres is still to be fully understood. After an initial period of enthusiasm, they often rely on the willingness of teachers to spend some of their time there. This probably derives from a lack of funding that changed the role of the person in charge: from a teacher who worked (and was paid) for being in charge of a language resource centre to the ambiguous role mentioned above (unpaid work for the language resource centre). Therefore language resource centres lack visibility (above all in bigger cities) and cannot propose many activities or offer the consultancy services they are supposed to. 2.8 Testing language competences: examinations, external certifications a. Certification of language competences in Lombardy Lombardy is at the top in Italy and Europe in the field of the certification of knowledge of European languages issued by the organizations recognized at international level. The competences are certified following a level scale, as defined by the Council of Europe in the Common European Framework of Referene.9 The certification represents, for students, a credit which can be used either at their school ­ for the State exam in their final year ­ or for changing school or in a job and / or a study situation in Italy or abroad. This certification can be taken at every school level (primary, lower and upper secondary). Thanks to an agreement between the Ministry of Education and the international certifying Boards for English, French, German and Spanish, the interested schools can let their students take part in the exams at a reduced rate. A model experience, in Italy and Europe With 23% of all University of Cambridge-ESOL exams in Italy, Lombardy represents a model trend in certification, both national and European. Six tendencies can be observed from research and data: The use of external certification is increasing at a steady pace; The enrolment from schools (both state and private) represents the majority of Cambridge certifications in Italy; PET (Preliminary English Test ­ level B1) is the most widespread exam, but the figure for FCE (First Certificate in English ­ level B2) is also increasing; 9. Levels A1/A2/B1/B2/C1/C2. 62
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching The effort sustained by Italy to conform to the principles of the Common European Framework of Reference, is confirmed by Lombardy with its highest enrolment in Cambridge certifications when compared to the other 3 leading European regions, also referred to as the "4 motors" driving economic progress in Europe: Baden-Wuerttemberg, Rhone-Alpes, Catalunya and Lombardy; The students' success in the certification highlights the positive effect of certification on the school programme; The choice of level B1 as the final one for upper secondary schools is realistic and for the future there is hope to achieve a higher level. Cambridge Enrolment in Lombardy: 1999 ­ 2003 Over the years Lombardy has followed a trend very similar to the Italian average. The only exception was in 2002 / 2003 with an increase of 22% in the number of enrolled students, compared to 14% for the Italian average. This shows how the increase is a steady one, if compared to other regions with fewer candidates at the beginning or an increase only in the latest years. Exam levels Graph No. 1 shows how the most widespread exam still remains PET (Preliminary English Test ­ level B1). Table No. 1 shows how in 2002 / 2003 FCE (First Certificate in English ­ level B2) has overtaken PET, even if YLE (Young learners English ­ level A1) exams for students aged 7 to 13, have the highest absolute percentage increase. It is remarkable how three Universities in Milan already ask for FCE (First Certificate in English ­ level B2) as a competence level. The average pass rate lies between 76% and 84% for PET (Preliminary English Test ­ level B1), 78% and 84% for KET (Key English Test ­ Level A2), the other higher levels show even better performances, but with a limited number of candidates. A further analysis of the results positions Lombardy at the top worldwide, for PET reading skill and FCE use of English skill (see graphs No. 2 and 3). Graph 1 Exams in Lombardy according to levels of Universtiy of Cambridge-ESOL - 1999-2003
Table 1 Exams in Lombardy according to University of Cambridge-ESOL levels and increase (%) with reference to the previous year - 1999-2003
Exam YLE KET PET FCE CAE CPE BEC CELS Totale
1999/00 514 274 659 271 1.718
2000/01 974 1.451 2.225 1.438 19 3 76 6.186
% Increase 89% 430% 238% 431% 260%
2001/02 1.319 2.531 3.725 2.089 61 1 102 9.828
% Increase 35% 74% 67% 45% 221% -67% 34% 59%
2002/03 2.054 2.929 4.334 2.479 46 5 97 41 11.985
% Increase 56% 16% 16% 19% -25% 400% -5% 22%
63
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Graph 2 Success in Reading in PET exams ­ Lombardy/Rest of the world ­ June 2003 Graph 3 Success in Use of English in FCE exams ­ Lombardy/Rest of the world - June 2003 64
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Another positive experience: Trinity Exams Graph 1 Total candidates in figures, subdivided per province ­ 1998 - 2003 The graph highlights that: Most candidates come from the provinces of Milan and Brescia, the most inhabited areas. The provinces of Como, Lecco and Verbania have the lowest number of candidates. The number of candidates is constantly increasing for the provinces of Milan and Varese, has remained stable for Brescia, Pavia and Verbania, whereas it has diminished in Lecco and Como. Graph 2 Total results in figures ­ 1998 ­ 2003 The graph shows: A slight increase for the result: merit instead of distinction, therefore with better performances. A minimum quota of candidates cannot pass the exam (fail). 65
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Alliance Franзaise exams Graph 1 Alliance Franзaise: number of exams in each province in Italy - 2003 NB Rome data include the boarding school San Luigi dei Francesi. The graph shows how the number of enrolments for certification exams is concentrated above all in the biggest cities. The spread between Northern and Southern Italy is also interesting. Graph 2 Alliance Franзaise: levels in Italy ­ 2003 66
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Graph 3 Alliance Franзaise: levels in Lombardy ­ 2003
A comparison between the two graphs immediately shows that the Delf scolaire levels represent more than half of Italian exams, which stresses the importance of the agreement between the Italian Ministry of Education and the different Boards. In Lombardy Delf scolaire levels represent a considerable portion, comparable to the relevant one in Italy, above all at A2 level. Goethe Institut exams Table 1 Number and percentage for PL 2000 exams in every region10
Abruzzo Calabria Campania Emilia Romagna Friuli Venezia Giulia Lazio Liguria Lombardia Marche Piemonte Puglia Sardegna Sicilia Trentino Alto Adige Toscana Umbria Veneto ITALIA
PL 2000 no. Candidates 2002
% PL 2000 of total in Italy 2002
2 21 657 904 339 887 160 1200 449 777 711 97 383 1256 829 148 2049 10869
0,02 0,19 6,04 8,32 3,12 8,16 1,47 11,04 4,13 7,15 6,54 0,89 3,52 11,56 7,63 1,36 18,85
PL 2000 no. Candidates 2003 29 90 835 879 401 871 188 1874 447 846 706 158 384 1812 1133 136 179 12583
% PL 2000 of Increase total in Italy 2003
1450,0 428,6 127,1 97,2 118,3 98,2 117,5 156,2 99,6 108,9 99,3 162,9 100,3 144,3 136,7 91,9 87,6
0,23 0,72 6,64 6,99 3,19 6,92 1,49 14,89 3,55 6,72 5,61 1,26 3,05 14,40 9,00 1,08 14,26
10. Progetto Lingue 2000 was an Italian project initiated in 1999 which funded schools to include a second foreign language in lower secondary school and favour certifications. It stopped in 2002 - 2003. 67
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching The first place of Lombardy over other regions where German is traditionally strong, both historically and culturally (e.g. Trentino Alto Adige and Veneto), shows the positive influence of Progetto Lingue 2000. Graph 1 Levels of Goethe exams of PL 2000 in Lombardy The graph trend mirrors the situation of the spread of German in Lombardy: steady increase, even at the most complex levels. Cervantes exams Graph 1 Total candidates in figures in different provinces ­ years 2001 ­ 2003 The graph analysis shows most exams taking place in northern Italy, with a general increase of certifications in the second year. 68
Graph 2 Exams per provinces ­ year 2001
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
The graph analysis shows how in every province, except Bolzano, Progetto Lingue 2000 gave support and motivation to the certification in Spanish. It is also interesting to notice that the most frequently taken exam is D.B.E. which corresponds to level B2, therefore intermediate and not beginner. Graph 3 Exams per province ­ year 2002
Year 2001 analysis is to be confirmed. 69
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching University of Bergamo Russian exams Graph 1 Total candidates in figures at Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo ­ year 2001 The limited number of enrolments allows us only to consider how the first candidates took exams of intermediate/high level (B1 ­ B2 and C1). All the candidates passed. Graph 3 Total candidates in figures at Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo ­ year 2002 An increase in enrolments and a wider spread in levels can be noticed, even if the basic level has not been used yet. All the candidates passed, except two in level TRKI2, with a partially passed exam. Graph 2 ­ Total candidates in figures at Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo ­ year 2003 There is a steady increase which shows how certifications are self motivating. Level 1 has also been completed this year. All the candidates passed, except one in level TRKI1. Two candidates in level TRKI2 and one candidate in level TRKI3 passed only partially. 70
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching b. End of year exams ­ Lower Secondary Schools Year 2003/2004 Results ­ Lombardy General Data 832 institutions answered a questionnaire out of a total of 851 (both state and private), i.e. 97.8%. Only 2.82% of students were not allowed to sit exams, whereas those who failed the exam were a mere 0.37%. Therefore students who did not get a certificate represent 3.2% of total students. 14.5% of students who repeat a year do not succeed in getting the school leaving certificate. Graph 1 Results end of year exams ­ Lower Secondary school in Lombardy 2003/04
96,82%
General considerations on the results A high percentage (40%) only get the minimum pass mark These students probably lack the basic competences and skills. 14.5% of students who repeat a year or more do not get the certificate: this is significant since these students will probably leave school definitively. Graph 2 Results of passing students school year 2003/04
27,4% 38,9%
19,6% 14,0%
Written Tests More than a third of schools prepare different maths tests in the classes. The same happens for the foreign languages (23%) and Italian (only 13%). This is generally justified by a differently taught syllabus. 71
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Results of written tests 9% of students for Italian, 26% for Mathematics and 17% for foreign languages fail the written tests. 35% of students for Italian, 24% for Mathematics and 31% for foreign languages only get the minimum pass mark. Almost 50% of students only reach a very limited competence. Graph 3 Results of written test in Italian ­ school year 2003/04 29%
35%
18%
9%
9%
Graph 4 Results of written test in a Foreign Language ­ school year 2003/04
31%
25%
17%
18% 9%
Graph 5 Results of written test in Mathematics ­ school year 2003/04
24% 26%
19%
16%
15%
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A consideration The results of the written tests differ from those of the international investigation OECD ­ PISA. According to that investigation Lombardy students get good results in Mathematics. (See following point e.) Choices for the written tests 54% of students choose a composition on real experiences or imaginary situations. 59% of students choose the type `questions & answers'. Considerations on the oral interviews Only small number of students cannot reach the minimum to pass the interviews. This probably happens because teachers succeed in putting the students at ease. The total percentage of students who only get the minimum pass mark is always high, 40%. Graph 6 Results of the oral interview ­ school year 2003/04 27% 18%
37%
13%
5%
Methodology: interview In 75% of schools foreign languages are always or often used. This means that lower secondary schools pay great attention to foreign languages. Chosen topics or agreed upon questions: 59% of schools say: always or frequently. Reference to crosscurricular projects done by students: 60% of schools answered positively. Analysis of written tests: 59% of schools answered always or frequently. 22% of the people chairing the teachers' exam panel state that written test analysis is never done or only seldom done. The interview is a sort of simple juxtaposition of questions relating to the single subjects: in 31% of schools this method is always or frequently used, in 25% frequently. There's a strong impression that the interview doesn't usually have any crosscurricular value. The final evaluation The following aspects are considered: Written test results, 80% always, 13% frequently. Oral interview results, as above. School results (3 years), 61% always, 27% frequently. Evaluation before the exam, 67% always, 25% frequently. 73
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching Some observations How can the written test results influence the final assessment so much; if that is the case more students should fail. Less discrepancy between the oral interview results and the final assessment. Only 13 of the people chairing the teachers' panel state that they never (or seldom) consider the evaluation before the exam. These data are consistent with the following: 80% of pre-examination assessments are confirmed in the final results. Two remarks: it is highly commendable to consider the complete school experience of students, but there is the risk that pre-exam assessment plays too important a role. Final considerations High number of students who merely pass. A high percentage cannot reach the minimum in the written tests, particularly mathematics and foreign languages. The percentage who can achieve only the minimum always exceeds 40% and, for the written tests of Mathematics and foreign languages, almost reach 50%. The percentage of `repeating' students who cannot get the certificate is also cause for concern All these data are mainly consistent with those of the previous years. c. Upper secondary school final exams The school leaving certificate for the upper secondary school has a legal value. After the last changes (Law No 425 of 10/12/1997 and Ministry Decree of 20/11/2000) it consists of: A first written paper (the same for all schools) in Italian: the candidates may choose among a text analysis, a short essay (with materials provided by the Ministry), a newspaper article or a composition on a given topic. Time limit: 6 hours A second written paper. This varies according to the type of school: it may be a Latin or Greek translation (Classical Liceo), Mathematics problems and questions (Scientific Liceo) or different kinds of foreign language papers (Languages Liceo, Vocational schools or Technical schools) Time limit: it varies between 4 and 8 hours, according to the type of school. A third written paper. This includes 4 or 5 subjects studied during the 5th year and may have the following formats: a) two or three open questions on a given topic (the number depends on the total subjects, if 4 subjects there are 3 questions b) a short written composition on a given topic c) a questionnaire with 4 possible answers. Each format is replicated for each subject. Time limit: usually 2 or 3 hours. The first and second written papers are issued directly by the Ministry. The third is prepared by each teachers' exam panel. The time limit is stated by the Ministry for the first two papers and by the teachers' panel for the third. The oral exam starts from an individual project written (or just some links prepared) by the candidate and refers to all the subjects of the fifth year. The total mark is expressed in 100/100 of which: 20/100 represent the school curriculum 15/100 represent each written paper (45) 35/100 represent the oral exam The teacher panels can give further 5 marks (always up to the total of 100), for outstanding performance in the exams, after the oral exams. For some examples of second written papers, year 2001/2002, see Appendix 9. 74
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
d. Testing competences in Italian Italian is the national mother tongue and, as such, it is widely studied at each school level. There are official minority languages but they are dealt with at regional level. Lombardy has no official minority language, because no minority groups are present in the region.11 Although there is an official syllabus at a national level12, the language may be taught with as varied a methodology as possible. This is one of the reasons why an extensive and voluntary assessment of the state of the art was carried out, ending officially on October 12, 2004. In keeping with the PISA-study sort of rationale aiming at assessing pupil competencies in literacy, numeracy and the sciences, the Education Reform Law has mandated assessment in these areas at different stages of schooling. In order to prepare the ground for the compulsory administration and taking of these tests, in the 2001-2004 period INVALSI (ISTITUTO NAZIONALE PER LA VALUTAZIONE DEL SISTEMA EDUCATIVO DI ISTRUZIONE E FORMAZIONE) set up a series of 3 Pilot Projects. The third pilot, called "PP3", tested students in the second and the fourth year of the primary school, the first year of the lower secondary school and the first and the third year of the upper secondary school. The tests included Italian, mathematics and sciences. As for Italian they tested both reading and writing skills, according to the different levels: for both the primary and the lower secondary, the reading focussed mainly on understanding narrative structure and information given through it. For the upper secondary there was an attempt to introduce both literary and scientific passages, to be understood at structural and content level. The writing test centred mainly on vocabulary, syntax and meaning, with an effort to verify the linguistic/logical competences above all in the upper secondary school. The following tables offer a comparative overview.
Table 1 Scores made comparable for Lombardy and Italy
italian task II primary IV primary I lower secondary I upper secondary III upper secondary
Lombardy Italy Lombardy Italy Lombardy Italy Lombardy Italy Lombardy Italy
Mean
Standard Deviation
Minimum
71,24 (1,28)
20,73 (0,57)
8,33
73,08 (0,99)
20,82 (0,36)
0,00
71,61 (1,12)
16,15 (0,44)
14,29
73,21 (0,67)
17,94 (0,38)
0,00
52,91 (0,67)
10,14 (0,23)
3,45
52,70 (0,65)
11,79 (0,26)
0,00
51,76 (1,12)
10,11 (0,26)
0,00
49,46 (0,55)
9,94 (0,17)
0,00
60,24 (0,91)
8,76 (0,29)
0,00
56,03 (0,64)
9,54 (0,19)
0,00
Maximum 100,00 100,00 100,00 100,00 93,10 100,00 100,00 96,67 97,36 97,37
Mode % stud. In Mode 83,33 - 14,33% 91,70 - 15,58% 78,57 - 9,74% 78,57 - 9,46% 51,72 - 10,10% 59,26 - 6,78% 53,33 - 7,10% 40,74 - 6,67% 65,78 - 7,30% 52,63 - 6,26%
Median 73,41 73,56 73,98 74,87 (0,91) 52,33 (0,64) 50,58 50,63 (0,73) 48,03 59,72 (1,11) 55,06 (0,56)
11. In Italy the official minority languages are: Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Croatian, Slovene, French, French-Provenзal, Friulan, Ladin, Occitan and Sardinian (Law No 482 - art. 2 15/12/1999), none of them is present in Lombardy. 12. Actually, the syllabuses have all been revised due to the new Law No. 53/2003.
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Score obtained by students who took part in the task divided by the marks available ( in PP3 tasks this coincides with the number of questions of the task itself since the mark given is 1 if the answer is correct and 0 if the answer is wrong). To simplify reading the score has been multiplied by 100, thus giving numbers in percentage form (%). The regional statistics were calculated over the total number of the students taking part in the tasks and don't represent a statistical datum. The national numbers were calculated on a `weighted' sample and represent a statistical datum. The numbers in brackets refer to the standard error.
Table 2 Average scores in the different levels for Lombardy and Italy
Italian task II primary IV primary I lower secondary I upper secondary III upper secondary
Lombardy Italy Lombardy Italy Lombardy Italy Lombardy Italy Lombardy Italy
Average score Average score in the
in the low level
medium-low level
50,43 (0,58)
67,89 (0,18)
47,39 (0,49)
70,06 (0,16)
57,51 (0,92)
91,22 (0,61)
57,61 (0,61)
91,60 (0,31)
34,13 (0,30)
48,45 (0,16)
30,30 (0,30)
46,82 (0,13)
29,53 (0,37)
45,02 (0,18)
26,49 (0,30)
41,98 (0,13)
41,01 (0,71)
56,61 (0,12)
31,96 (0,23)
47,88 (0,11)
Average score in the medium-high level 78,56 (0,14) 81,80 (0,12) 61,25 - 58,41 (0,17) 58,50 (0,12) 58,05 (0,17) 54,91 (0,15) 66,98 (0,15) 60,36 (0,12)
Average score 90,77 (0,77) 93,45 (0,35) 38,75 - 71,78 73,33 74,91 (0,54) 71,46 (0,35) 79,70 (0,37) 75,89 (0,36)
Table 3 Scores per item type in Lombardy and Italy.
Italian task IV primary
Lombardy Italy
Global understanding 80,86 (1,04) 82,14 (0,70)
Specific understanding 82,14 (0,77) 81,69 (0,59)
Knowledge 61,44 (1,92) 61,93 (1,33)
Italian task I lower secondary
Lombardy Italy
Global understanding 65,90 (0,66) 64,43 (0,76)
Specific Morpho-syntactic and understanding semantic knowledge
60,15 (0,70)
42,36 (1,02)
58,38 (0,65)
43,37 (0,87)
Lexical knowledge 37,32 (1,01) 40,41 (0,89)
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Italian task
Global
Lexical
Specific Logic-semantic Morpho-syntactic
understanding knowledge understanding
knowledge
knowledge
Lombardy
I
upper secondary
Italy
51,12 (0,82) 47,91 (0,62)
44,39 (0,96) 43,40 (0,62)
59,98 (1,12) 56,17 (0,57)
58,11 (1,37) 55,64 (0,93)
48,94 (1,58) 47,18 (0,79)
Lombardy
III
upper secondary
Italy
70,67 (0,90) 65,14 (0,71)
69,11 (0,90) 66,93 (0,84)
62,36 (0,97) 57,91 (0,76)
57,07 (1,12) 51,75 (0,72)
46,73 (1,28) 43,96 (0,90)
Analysis of results Primary school: The second year children were able to answer all the questions without any particular problem. The results were lower at the morpho-syntactic level than in the understanding of meaning of the texts. Lower secondary school: The results for the first year are adequate and they mirror the passage from one level of education to the other. A significant difference can be observed between boys and girls. The worst results are to be seen in vocabulary and, again, at the morpho-syntactic level, as in the primary school. Upper secondary school: The results in classical education are the best in all the tests. The same difference between boys and girls is to be observed (higher results for girls). Participation The above table shows how Lombardy's school participation amounted to approx. 16% of the total number, giving a working proof of their interest.
Table 4 Number of schools/institutions taking part in PP3
Level Primary Lower sec. Upper sec. Total
Italy 3780 3095 2194 9069
Italy Institutions 6898
Lombardy schools Lombardy Institutions
1412
245 159 705 1109
77
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
e. Comparing Competences on an international level: the PISA results in Lombardy The OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests the knowledge and skills of 15year-olds in dozens of countries. The tables below highlight how Lombard students compare with others in their competences in literacy (reading skills), mathematics and science.
In all three subject areas not only are they well above the OECD average emerging from a comparison of the scores achieved by participants in all the countries involved, but they do even a lot better than most of their Italian counterparts.
In the 2003 PISA test results, Lombard students would rank seventh on the whole in their reading skills, if compared to the test scores attained by young people in the countries taking part in this survey. On a national level, their scores rank third in all three knowledge areas, just after those of the Autonomous Provinces of Bolzano and Trento, which historically have special status in the degree of devolved selfmanagement and administration they are able to enjoy, even in matters relating to education. When compared to other major European regions, Lombardy tops them all.
Table 1 Average score of student performance13 Comparison Lombardy ­ OECD countries
Mathematics Pos
Finland Korea Netherlands Japan Canada Belgium Switzerland Australia New Zealand LOMBARDY Czech Republic Iceland Denmark France Sweden Austria Germany Ireland OECD average Slovak Republic Norway
544 1 542 2 538 3 534 4 532 5 529 6 527 7 524 8 523 9 519 516 10 515 11 514 12 511 13 509 14 506 15 503 16 503 17 500 498 18 495 19
Finland Japan LOMBARDY Korea Australia Netherlands Czech Republic New Zealand Canada Switzerland France Belgium Sweden Ireland Hungary Germany OECD average Poland Iceland Slovak Republic Austria
Science Pos 548 1 548 2 540 538 3 525 4 524 5 523 6 521 7 519 8 513 9 511 10 509 11 506 12 505 13 503 14 502 15 500 498 16 495 17 495 18 491 19
Reading skills Pos
Finland Korea Canada Australia New Zealand Ireland
543 1 534 2 528 3 525 4 522 5 515 6
LOMBARDY Sweden Netherlands Belgium Norway Switzerland Japan Poland France United States OECD average Denmark Iceland Austria Germany
515 514 7 513 8 507 9 500 10 499 11 498 12 497 13 496 14 495 15 494 492 16 492 17 491 18 491 19
13. From Learning for Tomorrow's World. First Results from PISA 2003, OECD ­ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, 2004. 78
Luxembourg Poland Hungary Spain United States Italy Portugal Greece Turkey Mexico
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching
493 20 490 21 490 22 485 23 483 24 466 25 466 26 445 27 423 28 385 29
United States Spain Italy Norway Luxembourg Greece Denmark Portugal Turkey Mexico
491 20 487 21 486 22 484 23 483 24 481 25 475 26 468 27 434 28 405 29
Czech Republic Hungary Spain Luxembourg Portugal Italy Greece Slovak Republic Turkey Mexico
489 20 482 21 481 22 479 23 478 24 476 25 472 26 469 27 441 28 400 29
Table 2 Average score of student performance13 Italian regions and autonomous provinces compared to Italy and OECD average
Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano Provincia Autonoma di Trento Regione Lombardia Regione Veneto Regione Piemonte Regione Toscana Italy OECD average
Mathematics 536 547 519 511 494 492 466 500
Science 533 566 540 533 522 513 486 500
Reading skills 544 542 515 514 501 492 476 494
Table 3 Average score of student performance13 Lombardy compared to other major European Regions
Lombardy Catalonia Basque Country Castile and Leon Scotland Northern Ireland Wales Belgium ­ Flemish community Belgium ­ French community Belgium ­ German speaking community
Mathematics 519 494 502 503 524 515 498 533 498 515
Science 540 502 484 502 514 524 511 529 483 492
Reading skills 515 483 497 499 516 517 496 530 477 499
79
SECTION 2 - Provision for language learning/teaching f. A note on testing language competences at University Testing language competences at University has become compulsory: all students attending a 1st level university course in Italy ­ whatever the study branch chosen ­ must take a test in one or two foreign languages in order to show that they can master that language or those languages at a certain level at least (usually B1 level of the CEFR). According to the different 1st level university courses (and leaving aside university courses in foreign languages and literatures, in linguistic and cultural mediation, and courses for translators and interpreters), an Italian university student may be required by his or her curriculum to: a. take a test assessing his or her knowledge of a foreign language, usually at the B1 level of the CEFR; if the test is successful, the student gets a pass mark and 3 credits; b. take a test assessing his or her knowledge of a second foreign language, usually at the B1 level of the CEFR; c. attend a language laboratory, which means attending a course (usually, between 20 and 30 hours) taught by a language tutor; if the language laboratory is regularly and proficiently attended, the student gets a pass mark and 3 credits (no official exam no test at the end of the laboratory work); d. attend a foreign language course (usually, 40 hours) taught by a university professor or by a `professore a contratto' (see appendix 8), followed by an exam; if the exam is successful, the student gets a mark (according to the Italian system, positive marks range from the minimum of 18 to the maximum of 30) and 6 credits; e. attend a foreign literature course (usually, 40 or 60 hours) taught by a university professor or by a `professore a contratto', followed by an exam; the literature course has a language component in it (sometimes implying some teaching from a native speaker language expert); if the exam is successful, the students gets a mark and 6 or 9 credits. Of course, the situation varies a lot according to the different university courses: students taking courses in the technical-scientific area usually have to take the A and/or C option above (with English practically being the only language required); students taking courses in the technical-scientific and humanities areas (e.g. Medicine, Political Science and Media Studies) often have to take the D option above, sometimes with a A or B option for a second language; the E option is practically limited to students of the humanities areas. It can be safely said that nowadays teaching and testing foreign languages in Italian universities is usually planned and carried out with reference to the CEFR, B1 in a foreign language or two being the level required for most university courses. For students attending a foreign language or literature course, a higher level is often expected at the end of the course, but generally speaking for the so called `passive' abilities of reading and listening comprehension. As far as external certifications are concerned, these are very easily accepted as a substitute for options A and B above; most universities and faculties have a list of accepted certifications and students can get their credits if their own is included in the list. The situation is very different when it comes to including external certifications in the curriculum of the various degree courses, for practical and academic reasons. For example, exams for external certifications can only be taken at certain periods in the year, which do not necessarily coincide with the timing of the academic year and can often cause problems. More serious than that, however, the real problem concerns exams. External certifications can be a valid, very often a better, substitute for a test (options A and B above) or a language laboratory (options C above), but they can not, and will never, take the place of an official university exam (options D and E), which is to be set by a qualified university teacher. In some faculties of the technical-scientific area, external certification (and even language teaching outsourcing) is made use of, but this is because in those faculties language exams are not considered as official exams in the curriculum and have been downgraded to language teaching and testing that will give students credits but not a mark. 80
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language learning/teaching
3.1 Policies for `new' world languages: Arabic, Chinese, Japanese
Regions are not independent as regards policies and can only implement national decisions. Nevertheless there are some chances to implement innovation and experimental projects. The job market has developed new needs: new languages are being offered. The presence of many immigrants has also given rise to special projects for both young and adult students. For example new foreign languages (Arabic, Chinese and Japanese) have been offered as extracurricular courses. On May 20, 2003 a seminar titled `Speaking Arabic, Chinese, and Japanese in Europe, to meet other cultures' was held in Milan. Its purpose was to give an overview of the cultures related to those languages. It also checked the possible interest of upper secondary schools in Lombardy in the offer of courses. (see paragraph 1.1.3.c) As a result, some courses were organized and started in 2003/2004. Each basic course lasted 36 hours, subdivided in weekly lessons of 1 hour and a half, with wherever possible, mother tongue teachers and 3 culture lessons, held by experts, of 2 hours each. The courses are considered a broadening of the teaching offer of the schools, and, with the approval of Teachers' Council, can be part of the credits for the students and included in the School Plan. Attendance is regarded by teachers as part and parcel of the learning path of the students and will be evaluated as such. At the end of the course an attendance certificate is issued. All the courses were monitored and followed by the headteachers, pedagogical coordinators and the planning team of Lombardy Regional Education Authority.
The first year gave the following results (as per the table below): 82 courses, with 79 of them positively concluded (41 Japanese, 24 Arabic and 14 Chinese); 1027 students attained the attendance certificate; 66 courses were funded by the Regional Education Authority, 16 by the schools themselves.
Table 1 Course and student distribution
Province
Total involved school
Total activates courses
Arabic courses
Chinese courses
Japanese courses
Total students
Arabic
Chinese Japanese
Milano
15
19
6
2
11
438 154
32
252
Varese
8
16
3
4
9
455
71
108
276
Brescia
7
15
5
4
6
392 117
96
179
Pavia
2
8
3
1
4
200
69
38
93
Bergamo
3
7
1
2
4
157
22
50
85
Lecco
2
4
2
1
1
101
39
35
27
Cremona
2
3
1
1
1
90
27
29
34
Lodi
2
3
0
0
3
73
0
0
73
Como
2
3
2
0
1
72
52
0
20
Sondrio
1
3
2
0
1
69
43
0
26
Mantova
1
1
0
0
1
20
0
0
20
Total
45
82
25
15
42
2067 594
388
1085
81
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning The mother tongue teachers also worked on an attempt to relate Japanese, Arabic and Chinese to the Common European Framework of Reference. In school year 2004/2005 the activity was re-planned, aiming at a three year course model, with a total time of 180 hours to achieve A2 competence. Within this limit, schools are free to decide whether to offer: a. basic courses (30 hours) b. follow-up courses (30 hours ­ second level) c. three-year-courses to reach level A2 (60 hours a year, for a total of 180 hours) Each school can place the course within or outside the usual timetable, using the 15% quota of the yearly time allocation allowed by the School Autonomy Decree (no. 275/1999). The interested schools have to involve their Teachers' Council so that the project is included in the School Plan and the course model is chosen. Any school which already took part in the project in 2003/2004 was to verify and sustain the students' interest, so that they feel motivated to attend the second level, which could be offered with a minimum number of 15. If this number is not reached, students of different schools could be grouped together. Schools which wanted to participate in the project for the first time or open a basic course again were to act to publicise the initiative, the minimum number was 25 students. 3.2 Regional policies for adult education in Lombardy The organisation and the implementation of the teaching offer for adults has been the object of specific government policy to promote adult literacy since the end of the 1960s. The Ministry of Education is the governmental body in charge of this sector, but the analysis and identification of specific needs, the planning of the teaching offer and interventions for the adult population in specific regional areas has naturally devolved from the central Ministry to the Centri Territoriali Permanenti (Area Authorities for Adult Education). A reform of these centres took place in 1997 with Ministry Order n. 455/1997 and reorganised adult education in a new perspective of life-long education policies. Decentralisation and monitoring of education actions were two fundamental steps of the reform. In 2001 a further specialisation of the Area Authorities came into force: they were invited to revise their teaching and training offer in full consideration of the single, specific area of operation as well as of its social and employment requirements. Further to this, Lombardy regional government introduced a devolution of executive powers, entrusting Provinces with the organisation of vocational courses for adults (after school graduation). But beyond the need for administration and decentralisation, Lombardy has long been very active in this field of education and has strongly promoted an increasing attention to foreign languages; language teaching is a highlight within the Region's own offer of vocational training courses. In fact, even before the above mentioned reform shifted the organisation of vocational courses to the Provinces, all such courses included at least one European Community language as a necessary part of their curricula. As a consequence, language teaching is widespread in our region not only as a result of specific education policies on language learning (foreign language courses) but also as a fundamental part of wider-ranging adult education policies (vocational courses including language education as an essential requisite). Language education presents therefore high data complexity. Our survey tries therefore to simplify this complex adult education scenario in Lombardy for the readers and to offer a look at the sample year 2003-2004. Overall results are presented in the table provided by the REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION OFFICE FOR EDUCATION of Regione Lombardia (RL TABLE 1-2-3). A more detailed analysis of those language courses activated by Area Authorities for Adult Education, follows in TABLE IRRE 1. The latter table presents an exhaustive view of the whole Lombardy area with province of activity, language offered and participants. The situation of Italian courses for foreigners is also presented. It refers, once again, to the courses offered by Area Authorities; and this explains the difference in data shown in the two different tables. 82
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning
The following tables refer to 2003-2004: the first table (RL Table 1) shows the totality of financed education projects. The second one (RL Table 2) shows the totality of language education projects. The third one (RL Table 3) is restricted to language education projects for adults. The percentage of courses offered does not include vocational training courses having a language module as part of their curricula.
In all three tables: ESF = European social fund financed courses; AS = vocational training courses after school graduation
DATA DEFINITION CRITERIA: FINANCING SOURCES FOR EDUCATION
ALL PROJECTS
RL Table 1
Projects
Participants
Women
Allocated funds
ESF
21.785
937.084
509.914
1.348.381.510,44
AS
6.581
223.484
91.938
382.005.601,17
RL Table 2 ESF AS
LANGUAGE PROJECTS
Projects Participants Women
Allocated funds
Projects %
Funds %
Participants %
21.785 6.581
937.084 509.914 1.348.381.510,44 223.484 91.938 382.005.601,17
5,24% 1,64%
0,58% 0,14%
0,60% 0,85%
RL Table 3 ESF AS
LANGUAGE PROJECTS - ONLY ADULTS
Projects Participants Women
Allocated funds
Projects %
Funds %
Participants %
273 9
3.832 220
1.874 109
5.253.394,10 295.013,40
1,25% 0,14%
0,39% 0,08%
0,41% 0,10%
Regional policies on adult education rely on two financing sources: European Community funds ­ policies for life-long learning education. Regional fund sources Following are some data collected by ISFOL and relevant to `Regional economic policies'; they include data on Lombardy policy in language education in 2000-2001.
Regional education offer: financing from European Community Fund14 European Community funded actions started by Lombardy in 2000-2001: life-long learning programmes for the working population and for unemployed adults over 25; system qualification: training programmes for workers from different sectors. This action brought about: 729 life-long learning integrated programmes; 69 projects for system qualification. 31,8% of the projects focussed on acquisition of computer science skills. 30% focussed on acquisition of professional or vocational skills; 15% centred on foreign language learning and upon Italian language learning for foreigners.
14. ISFOL data 2000/2001
83
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning
Regional education offer: funds allocated by Lombardy Regional Government15 Given data are relevant to adult education offered by State schools organising evening classes and by Area Authorities for Adult Education which also organise courses in State schools. Lombardy can count on 145 (school branches and Area Authorities) as a whole to foster its adult education programme. Provinces with highest number of branches activating adult education offer: Milano (34,5%) Brescia (14,5%) Varese (12,4%) Bergamo (8,8%)
Their activities are mostly concentrated on Literacy (language and culture) lower secondary school courses for attainment of qualification (Lower secondary school leaving certificate)
Beyond these major generic fields of action, almost all branches offer: foreign language courses, computer science and multimedia techniques (96,5% branches) Italian language for foreigners (35,1%)
YEAR 2003-2004: Courses held by Area Authorities for Adult Education A more detailed analysis of language courses offered instead by Area Authorities for Adult Education in Lombardy follows in the following Table 1. It shows how many foreign languages were taught in Centri Territoriali Permanenti courses in each Lombard province, their grade levels, nr. of participants, data on Italian for foreigners and certifications attained.
Table 1 Irre Lombardia
No of language courses/level
BG BS CO CR LC
English language I English language II English language III French language I French language II
75 30 18 10 10
48 18
21 13
3
1
German language I
6
2
3
1
German language II
2
1
Spanish language I
27
1
5
7
1
Spanish language II
12
1
1
Spanish language III Italian for foreigners Total courses
1 100
104
5 27 36
No of enrolments English language I English language II English language III
BG BS CO CR LC
842 181 325 203 71
581 94
371 123
53
LO MI MN PV SO VA Lombardy
5 178 11 17
6 112 11 14
4
6
1
9
1
1
3
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
11 12
2
4
4
1
2
5 267 34 56
2 20 376
3 18 146
1
15
1
13
2
7
2 10
30
4
10
1
3
73
2
23
1
1 28 663 1,357
LO MI MN PV SO VA Lombardy
42 1361 166 336 174 448 4143
67 616 200 287 234 326 2899
48 38 15
19
143
15. ISFOL data 2000/2001
84
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning
French language I French language II German language I German language II Spanish language I Spanish language II Spanish language III Italian for foreigners Total enrolments No of Certificates attained English language I English language II English language III French language I French language II German language I German language II Spanish language I Spanish language II Spanish language III Italian for foreigners Total Cert. attained Total No of FOREIGNERS ENROLLED*
10
112
6 13
29
26
107 28 32 26
41 16 57
12 14
24 23
389 20 96 87 24 11 143 48 115
115 14
17
53 12 36
18
1205 1762 1478 908 337 200 4632 511 913
15 156
39
94
74 189 570
51 124
32 44 1009
25 272
18
74 1020
12220 21,648
BG 522 325 39
BS CO 83 310 73
CR LC 90 60 95 117 4
66 14 32 20
0 14
215
0 96 49 21
92
0
13
16
573 892 101 145 261
LO MI MN PV SO VA Lombardy
35 881 151 206 85 402 2825
56 378 193 192 152 255 1836
26 21 15
101
76
3
2
6
91
24
18
36
68
31 15 38 13 145 351
2 21
36
83
105 44 80 30 23 663
37
7 12
21 182
16
74 2543 214 229 27 899 5718
11,934
BG BS CO CR LC LO MI MN PV SO VA Lombardy
2868 3918 1420 1245 733 343 5668 1167 1208 343 1576 20,489
* Enrolled in ALL courses offered by Area authorities and not only language courses.
3.3 Conditions promoting a language learning society: implementation of Council of Europe and European Union policies and tools a. Relating foreign language tests to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR) A pilot experiment began on June 24, 2004 with a registration sent to the Council of Europe, Language Policy Division aimed at experimentation of the Manual and the first results given by the Dutch CEF Construct Project. What follows is the final draft of the Lombardy project. Aims To prepare tests in French and English for students in the third year of the lower secondary school. The tests will relate to A2 Level of CEF, for the listening skill, according to the grid No. 4 of the `Dutch CEF Construct Project'. To try out the tests in at least 10 third year classes (5 for English and 5 for French) of lower secondary school To review the tests according to the remarks suggested by the testing teachers. 85
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning Content Chapters No 8 and 9 of the CEF. Appendix 1 of the Dutch CEF Construct Project. Different kinds of tests necessary to verify listening skills. Methods of tests submission and evaluation. Actions Creation of a working group (1 University professor, 1 inspector, 3 teacher trainers, 2 teachers) . Reading of the reference documents and issues of common protocols for the two languages. Preparation of tests for French and English. Choice of the testing teachers. Meeting with the testing teachers to define timing and material to be used. Training of the testing teachers (6 hours at the beginning and 3 hours at the end as a feedback). Comparison among the results obtained in the different classes tested. Timing Preparation of the tests by January 2005. Choice of the testing teachers by January 2005. Meeting with the testing teachers by February 2005. Use of the tests in schools by April 2005. Data collection by May 2005. Eventual changes to tests by June 2005. Testing teachers' profile ELP model of Lombardy testers. Attendance to the ELP training courses, 1° and 2° level, organized by Regional Education Authority for Lombardy Working knowledge of CEF. b. The European Language Portfolio (ELP) A working group of teachers, trainers, experts and inspectors of Lombardy Regional Education Authority - Progetto Lingue Lombardia has been working on a European Language Portfolio project since 2000. Target group: learners aged 11 to 15. In school year 2001-02 a pilot version was implemented in 12 schools with 500 students. The Council of Europe validated the model (n. 30/2002) that was printed and published by RCS Scuola - La Nuova Italia ­ Oxford University Press. The Lombardy ELP has a very user­friendly purpose: illustrations and simplicity are its main characteristics. It aims at creating a "bridge" among different school levels. Students attending the last year of Elementary School, students of Lower Secondary School, students of the first year of Secondary School can use it. This model is organized in three parts in a ring binder with mobile sheets that can be photocopied for recording competences in different languages, thus facilitating plurilingual and pluricultural learning environments. A special section deals with learning strategies: students are invited to identify strategies according to their styles and to fill in grids where they can record their progress and changes. Teachers are given suggestions in the Teacher's Guide, a separate booklet aiming at emphasizing the pedagogical value and offering suggestions in organizing students' work. Discussion, reflection, selfassessment and self-responsibility imply the choice of methods which aim at developing pupils' selfawareness and involvement in their learning process. A set of worksheets offers practical materials to be used in the classrooms. Implementation of the ELP Lombardy model on a large scale began in 2002/03: 7.500 copies were freely distributed free to students in our region; 7.500 were distributed and marketed by the publishers in other Italian regions. A teachers' professional development programme of 15 hours and using 28 trainers reached 425 teachers in school year 2002/03 and was reinforced by a forum online and seminars. The trial was extended beyond Lombardy to include Piedmont and Sicily according to the following figures: 86
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning
Lombardy: Piedmont: Sicily:
schools 206 - classes 211 - teachers 318 - students 4737 ; schools 11 - classes 25 - teachers 25 - students 589; schools 8 - classes 9 - teachers 9 - students 252.
In the following years training courses have been organized within Lombardy and in many other Italian regions. Teams of trainers from Lombardy, Piedmont and Sicily have been working together. A complex system of monitoring has been set up with a dedicated website. Evaluation by questionnaires has been conducted with teachers (220), parents (3400) and students (3791). Since March 2004 a ELP Online Teacher Training course, supported by a publishing house, is offering a three-month web-based course to teachers from different Italian regions. It is to be noted that another Portfolio for students older than 16 was piloted with 400 students in school year 2003/04. This portfolio was prepared by a state technical school (ITC `P. Levi' ­ Seregno ­ Mi) along with the University of Sofia ­ Bulgaria. It deals with the professional skills required by the end of school and was validated by the Council of Europe with n. 48 in 2003. After validation it was published in autumn 2004 and is being used in secondary schools. All the data gathered can be used to analyse and valorise all the elements which can be part of a good language education and which may make the young generations more competitive in the world.
c. TIE-CLIL (Translanguage in Europe ­ Content and Language Integrated Learning) The European project TIE-CLIL was born in 1998-1999 and ended in 2002 (financed through Socrates ­ Lingua A) and included 10 partners from 7 different countries. It had as its main aim the production of materials for the initial professional development and the in service professional development of teachers both of foreign languages and other subjects. The introduction of the European project in Lombardy was the basis for the ALI-CLIL project. (Apprendimento Linguistico Integrato-Content and Language Integrated Learning) which has involved schools at every level and teachers of different subjects. The training of trainers started in 1999 and, since 2000, training courses have been organized for teachers both of foreign languages and other subjects, both classroom based and on-line (ALI-CLIL on line). CLIL refers to the teaching of any non-linguistic subject through a second language or foreign language (L2). The non-linguistic subject matter is acquired through L2 and L2 develops through the non-linguistic subject matter.
d. E-learning in connection with Portfolio and CLIL ELP ON LINE This is a teacher training course organized in cooperation with Garamond Publishing House, based on 4 modules, subdivided into units, which are available on-line and off-line. Each module is linked to an exercise, which has the aim of checking learning, through interaction with the class tutor. It is addressed to all language teachers in primary and secondary schools, both lower and upper. The course has the aim of spreading knowledge of the European Language Portfolio and promotes its use by students with the idea of: Starting lifelong language learning. Favouring the acquisition of communicative competence by students of all school levels. Encouraging plurilingualism and language and cultural diversity. Registering the levels of competence attained, by using the Common European Framework descriptors. Developing the ability of self-evaluation.
The first course started in March 2004. The third edition is currently in progress. At the end of the course, according to the activities carried out online and the exercises completed, a certificate will be issued with formal value recognised by the Ministry of Education.
ALI-CLIL ON LINE Since 2000, teacher training courses have been organized for teachers both of foreign languages and other subjects. After experiencing face-to-face courses, in 2001 the Regional Education authority for 87
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning Lombardy opted for organizing a web-based in-service training course, ALI-CLILonline (Apprendimento Linguistico Integrato-CLIL), for both language teachers and subject teachers. A team of experts and trainers was organized and a precise programme was designed. The purpose of the learning platform was to accustom course participants to use data communication services autonomously, and to enable teachers to create CLIL teaching modules as a team, encouraging them to work in small on-line groups. The main course objectives were to focus on the preparation of modules for use by teachers in their classes, use of the Internet in locating material useful for creating CLIL modules, and preparation of a wide range of CLIL modules for all school levels, to be tried out in class. At the end of this first year teachers had studied theoretical materials, carried out tasks, looked for materials on line, prepared a teaching module, and received feedback from Italian experts. The experience proved so positive that the same teachers requested a second level course, ALICLILonline Level 2. This aimed at use of the teaching modules in classes, looking for new materials online in order to prepare new modules, and deepening of theoretical knowledge. The objectives here were to create productive dynamics in class for the development of language and subject learning, and to transmit/teach cooperative and collaborative learning techniques in class. The next step was ALI-CLILonline Level 3, which was mainly geared towards promoting the European dimension in CLIL teaching, creating an on-line virtual Resource Centre, and improving the teaching in CLIL classes. The objectives were to open the virtual community to experts from other countries, as well as testing the ALI-CLIL modules with subject teachers, to compare materials and curricula with foreign teachers, and to create a database of CLIL materials and documents. At the end of this third year teachers had received feedback from foreign experts, tested modules with teachers from other countries, and analysed materials and curricula trans-nationally. These three level courses have been operating from 2001 to 2005 for about 250 teachers, who have become CLIL practitioners. 3.4 Teacher training: initial and in-service professional development a. Nursery and primary school teachers' education and training for teaching Until 1998 teachers of primary school (for children aged 6 to 11) and nursery school (for children aged 3 to 6) received their training during their own school career, either through attending the 4-year course at `Istituto magistrale' or through the 3-year course at `Scuola magistrale'(upper secondary schools for vocational teachers). Both school courses started at the age of 14, after the lower secondary school. In order to become a professional teacher a state exam was necessary after the upper secondary school. Both school courses gave a strong humanistic education with some in-depth study into main teaching methods and pedagogy, but offered very limited teaching practice. Since the 1970s, in-service teaching practice has been greatly encouraged by the State and Local Authorities as a necessary way to balance the lack of initial training in schools and to promote quality. Although non-compulsory, nursery school in Lombardy is attended by 95% of children of that age. Nursery schools are mainly run by the local council (in Milan 85% of the total, while the remaining 15% consist of religious or autonomous self-governng schools) with traditionally strong in-service training in accordance with national guidelines in this area Indicazioni e Raccomandazioni per la Scuola dell'Infanzia. Primary schools also lay great importance on investing in in-service teaching practice and Lombardy is characterized by a large number of state schools with a good representation of experimental or `onemethod-based' schools. Since 1998 a new national law on teachers' education and training has introduced a 4-year university course for prospective nursery and primary school teachers: universities are now entrusted with teacher education and training. In Lombardy both accredited universities are in Milan: Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (non-State university) and Universitа degli Studi di Milano Bicocca (State university). The achievement of 240 credits is necessary to complete the 4-year course of studies and is acquired in equal measure through theory examinations, workshop activities on teaching methods, and school 88
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning teaching practice. After the initial 2 years, students must choose their final 2-year course either for nursery or for primary school. Prospective primary school teachers have to choose some subjects to specialize in (choosing from the linguistic-humanistic area, the maths and science area, or the history and geography area). The final exam is also valid as a state exam and qualifies the successful candidate as a professional nursery or primary school teacher (law 53/2003). During the last 2- year course and beyond, a further non-compulsory 400 hours of training activities can be employed with children with handicaps or who show major school integration problems (MURST decree 26.05.1998). Every year the Ministry of Education allocates a maximum of places to each university (in Lombardy 600 places to the Catholic University of Milan, 400 places to the Universitа di Milano Bicocca); admission to the course is possible only through a successful entrance test. A supervising professional teacher is appointed as tutor for a maximum of 25 students, while other tutoring and training organizing activities are held by a pool of professional teachers. This overall education and training programme has proved greatly innovative, specifically because it has been introduced on a national level and made effective by a strong cooperation between university and school. The school context and social issues in Lombardy and in Milan particularly are quite different from other areas: our region is strongly characterized by a growing school population of non-European students (2530% in nursery schools; 20% in primary schools). As a result, universities here try to establish a strong partnership with schools involved in training programmes in order to discuss relevant issues and feedback on training activities. Furthermore, every year universities offer cultural refresher courses to schools hosting training programmes all over the region (approx. 160 hours a year). Science and theory of education, workshop activities on teaching methods, and school teaching practice are strongly interrelated: workshop activities are compulsory and directed to didactic practice and to test acquisition of teaching methodology. Didactics and research are greatly focussed on key topics such as intercultural education, acquisition of fundamental teaching methods, team-work and coupling of research and action. Teaching practice in schools is divided into three main phases consisting in observation, collaboration with the hosting teacher and, finally, direct experience in class. Both workshop activities and teaching practice are reported and assessed. Although the experience described here has been positive and has enriched and innovated teaching theory and practice in nursery and primary school education, a new education reform law will probably come into force in the year 2006/2007. Consequently courses of studies for prospective teachers are going to be extended to 5 years, and a 1st level degree (3 years) will have to be followed by a 2nd level degree (2-year course). Teaching training and workshops will be concentrated in the 2-years course and consequently a further 1-year training practice will be necessary to complete the education course. This course will be the same for prospective teachers of all school levels. From the very beginning a strong interrelation between theory and practice is necessary: in the present education and training structure, in fact, prospective teachers come into contact with school practice from the 1st year of the course. Even the teacher recruitment system is going to change, although it is still unclear what share of responsibility and autonomy single school institutions will have in teacher selection. b. Secondary school teacher education and training for teaching Until 2000 prospective secondary school teachers had to take a national exam and successful candidates got a teaching qualification or and, if available, a teaching post. No formal specific education was required for teaching apart from ­ of course ­ a university degree in the subject/s one wanted to become a teacher of. Sometimes university student with an interest in teaching as a job were able to take a few relevant courses during their university career, e.g. foreign language university students who took a course in "Foreign language teaching" or "Didactics of English / French / Spanish". Teacher training was therefore meant to be initial and in-service: during their first year of service, novice teachers had to perform some study and training activities under the supervision of experienced colleagues and/or carry out online work on a Ministry of Education site. In-service, non compulsory training was and still is dependent on the formative opportunities provided by the school themselves, by the Regional Education Authorities, or by cultural agencies chosen by them. 89
SECTION 3 - Policies and responsibility for language teaching/learning The situation changed a few years ago, when post-graduate courses for prospective teachers started being run by universities in the academic year 1999/2000. Each region in Italy has one SSIS or Scuola di Specializzazione per l'Insegnamento Secondario (Specialization School for Secondary School Teaching), whereas Lombardy ­ given its large student population and number of universities ­ has two: a SSIS run by the Universitа Cattolica of Milan, and a SILSIS or Scuola Interuniversitaria Lombarda di Specializzazione per l'Insegnamento Secondario (Lombardy Interuniversity Specialization School for Secondary School Teaching), which gathers together different universities in Lombardy, and is divided into three branches, one in Milan, one in Pavia, and one in Bergamo and Brescia. In compliance with the national law that instituted the SISS: a. the course of study lasts 2 years, with no less than 1000 and no more than 1200 study hours in four semesters, divided as follows: (i) at least 200 hours for the Science of Education subjects; (ii) at least 250 hours for the various relevant methodological subjects (e.g., teaching how to teach English, history, biology, etc); (iii) at least 250 hours of teaching workshops, where what is learnt is practically put to test and critically analyzed (e.g., how to use a monolingual English dictionary in a class of lower secondary school students, how to teach the French Revolution to 4th year upper secondary school students, how to teach the cardiovascular system to lower secondary school students, etc); (iv) at least 300 hours of teacher training, part as active training in schools, part as a preparation of and reflection on active training; b. the 2-year course of study corresponds to 120 credits; c. admission is regulated by an entrance test, whose format is the same all over Italy, although the contents are decided locally and are different for each teaching/learning branch; d. in order to take the admission test, candidates must have the pertinent degree for the particular branch they want to compete for, either an old-style 4-year degree or a new 5-year (3+2) degree; e. attendance is compulsory; attending less than 75% of each activity will mean it is impossible to take the relevant exam; f. at the end of each semester, students have to take exams for the courses attended during the semester; g. in order to get their teaching qualification diploma, students have to take a final exam, which consists of: (i) a written exam, in which students are asked to sketch out a teaching sequence or a teaching plan; and (ii) an oral exam, in which students are asked to discuss the teaching sequence or plan sketched out during the written exam and to report and critically discuss their own supervised school teaching practice. The examining board is made up of university professors and a corresponding number of school teachers that acted as students' supervisors during the 2-year course; a member sent from the Regional Educational Authority must also be included; h. the final exam is valid as a state exam and constitutes qualification as a professional secondary school teacher; it gives successful candidates the possibility to enter their names in the provincial lists for would-be teachers of the different subjects. It can be safely said that what has been and is being carried out on the basis of the above regulations can be considered highly successful and positive, as it has enriched and innovated teaching theory and practice in secondary school education; in most cases, it has also stimulated a fruitful cooperation between university and school teachers. c. In-service professional development The School Reform Law (N. 53/2003) and, above all, the important innovations regarding the widespread teaching of English and other foreign languages have required a major effort in the training of teachers. The different teams present at Local and Regional Education Authorities have organized a huge number of courses ­ on-line and face-to-face ­ meetings, seminars for more than 4000 language teachers from the different levels of schools in school year 2003/2004. The massive introduction of ICT in primary schools has also required a remarkable effort by the Regional Education Authority. 90
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs SECTION 4 - Languages for leaners with specific learning needs 4.1 Introduction This section includes different categories of learners with specific learning needs, with a different impact on Lombard schools. It is fundamental to notice, however, how the Art. 12 in Law n. 104 of 5/2/1992 provided a complete integration into mainstream education for all students with learning `disabilities', with the help of a special needs teacher and said a final word on the right to education for all children with disabilities. It is also true that `language learning is for everybody. Only a very small minority of people has physical, mental or other characteristics that make language learning impossible. Provision for learners with special needs of one kind or another is increasingly being made within mainstream schools and training institutions'.16 Some of the disabilities are also taken care of by private associations which sometimes represent the expression of the old philanthropic ideals of the 19th century.
4.2 Sign language users Sign Language is a complex visual-spatial language that is used by the deaf community. It is a linguistically complete, natural language. It is the first language of many deaf men and women, as well as some hearing children born into deaf families. Some people have described sign languages as "gestural" languages. This is not absolutely correct because hand gestures are only one component of the sign language. Facial features such as eyebrow motion and lip-mouth movements are also significant, as they form a crucial part of the grammatical system. In addition, sign language makes use of the space surrounding the signer to describe places and persons that are not present. Sign languages develop specific to their communities and are not universal. In Italy sign language had been opposed since 1880 when the Conference of Milan maintained that the oral method was the best suited for deaf children's education. Only in 1995 the first national conference on Sign Languages was held in Trieste, organized by ENS (National Organization for the Deaf and Dumb) and the Institute of Psychology of C.N.R. (National Council for Research). Rules and regulations in Italy and Europe providing support for the deaf: Notary Law dt 16/2/1913 Art. 56 Use of an interpreter for the deaf in public notary acts. Law No 308 dt 1958, art. 7 Consultancy of an `expert', authorized by ENS, during oral exams in the different careers in public administration. D.P.R dt 22/2/1988, Art. 119, No 447 Interpreter for the deaf in courtrooms Law No 508/88 art. 4 Monthly `Communication allowance as a recognition of deafness' for the deaf. Law No 104 dt 5/2/1992 Interpreter for deaf university students
16. European Commission Action plan 2004-2007
91
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs In Italy there is no law which officially recognizes sign language at the moment. Efforts are being made to promote such a law, but on 17/6/1988 the European Parliament voted a resolution on Sign Language with the aim of promoting the right of deaf people to use their language. To apply this Resolution at a national level the European Parliament granted some funding in 1995 for a wide project on the status of Sign Languages in the European Union. The European Union of the Deaf (EUD), thanks to these funds, realized the `Sign Language Project 199697'. Its most important aim consisted in the creation of National Committees to investigate the situation of Sign Language. Experiences in Lombardy a. State Primary School, via Russo - Milan Once upon a time ... A deaf child was present in a class of the State Primary School in Via Russo, Milan. Because of her auditory deficit, her possibilities of relationships within the school were seriously compromised, so her teachers decided to use the Italian Sign Language (LIS) to communicate with each other. In the school year 1996/97, an assistant teacher for this language began to interact between the deaf pupil and her school-friends. "LIS" was introduced to the other pupils in an informal way as one among many communicative means in the class. All the children were very interested in this language and also a lot of pupils of the other classes voluntarily learnt Italian Sign Language. The "LIS" utilization was positive and after a few time "LIS" became a project: the "FabuLIS" project. At the end of this work, a multimedia CD was produced and distributed among the schools of the Milan province. To give better coverage to the project, FabuLIS is now also a Web site. b. Courses in Italian Sign Language Courses for beginners, intermediate and advanced students are held at one City Council centre in Milan. 4.3 Roma / Sinti a. Roma / Sinti in Lombardy Law No. 77 of December 12, 1985 deterrmines both the settlement and schooling for the Roma population. As to settlement, city councils can apply to the national government in order to receive funding for the preparation of sanitary equipment and all the relevant appliances for a Roma camp. Some cities have applied, among them Milan, Bergamo and Pavia. As to schooling there is a clash between the Roma view of education (which is above all traditionally linked to the social customs of the different Rom populations) and the less flexible view of the Italian school system. This is visible above all in the lower secondary schools which have a more rigid timetable and where the cost of books is higher than in primary schools. The situation is better in the primary schools where cultural mediators are present. Infant schools are traditionally disregarded by Rom families who tend to favour close contact with younger children within the family. However the attendance of infant schools would be an important experience for both the Roma and Italian community, also because of the language competneces of children (usually, at least bilingual, Romany and Italian). Following the European Commission Resolution of 1985, many member states have understood the importance of school attendance for the development of personal and professional autonomy and for the cultural, social and economic future of both nomadic and sedentary Roma communities. To this purpose the training of Roma mediators has been encouraged, so that they can play the key role of liaison between their communities and the school system. 92
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs b. Specific projects for Roma / Sinti in the Milan area Three main projects were started in the Milan area: one will be completed by 2005 and the other two the year after. They are mainly concerned with the necessity to consolidate the provincial school network to include Roma and Sinti students and favour their school success. A further aim is to make the medical and socio-educational needs of Roma and Sinti families known, so that they can access relevant services easily and also to improve the spread of information among Roma and Sinti parents, generally at Roma camps, regarding the education and training system and how to use regularly and continuously the services available in the area. The three projects include the intervention of linguistic mediators of Roma or Sinti origin and of school and local administrator operators to facilitate cooperation among them. 4.4 Immigrants 4.4.1 Emigration and Immigration a. Emigration from Italy At the end of 1960s there were millions of people around the world with an Italian passport. Of these, more than 2 million lived in Europe: 900,000 in France, 700,000 in Switzerland, 400,000 in Germany, 250,000 in Benelux and 150,000 in Great Britain. This situation had its roots almost one century before. In fact the first documented data date back to 1869 ­ 1875, with an average of 135,000 emigrants each year. The numbers increased after 1887 when a higher offer of jobs on the American market brought an increase in translatlantic emigration, to an average of 269,000 people each year for the period around 1900. As regards destination, France was the most common within Europe and Argentina for the American continent. In 1876 most emigrants came from the Northern part of Italy (86.7%), while the Central and Southern parts participated at the rate of only 6.7 and 6.6% respectively. Things changed at the turn of the century: with a decrease to 49.9% and an increase to 10% and 40.1% respectively. The trend was maintained throughout the period before World War 1 with a further drop to 41% in Northern Italy and an increase to 58.2% for Southern Italy. The average emigration figure for that period reached 626,000 emigrants each year. Switzerland became the most sought after place in Europe, and the USA in America. One last thing about the whole period: the first emigrants from Southern Italy tended to see the new country as a permanent settling place, whereas later they tried to keep their ties with the mother country, thus contributing to its wealth through their remittances to their families. The situation described should clarify why the Laws and Decrees which have dealt with immigration to Italy have always tended to have more than one facet. b. Immigration to Italy National Definitions and Legislative Sources The Bossi-Fini Law (Law No. 189 of 30 July 2002) amends the provisions on immigration set out in Decree Law No. 286 of 25 July 1998 (Turco-Napolitano Law) as well as the implementing Presidential Decree No. 394 of 31 August 1999. The Bossi-Fini law alters the conditions under which non-EU immigrants may enter and reside in Italy. It restricts the possibility for immigrants to be joined in Italy by their parents and children, modifies the mechanisms by which residence status may be regularised, and increases sanctions with respect to irregular immigration. All non-EU migrant workers are now subject to the same treatment with respect to entry and residence in the country. There is no specific legislation nor any special treatment for refugees. The Italian education system considers all children who do not hold Italian citizenship and who are resident in Italy as foreign minors. 93
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs Summary data The latest data at the end of 2003 showed: 2,395,000 immigrants (5% approximation because it is difficult to establish the figure for minors). Immigrants represent 4.2% of the total of population (5.2% average in Europe). An increase of 152,533 (+11%) with reference to 2002 (half of which relates to late registrations of people who were already in Italy). The areas which mostly draw immigrants are the North-West, among which Piedmont and Lombardy guarantee a certain social stability and more cultural homogeneity, with good job opportunities. Lazio represents mostly a region of initial destination prior to further distribution and the South, with the sole exception of Abruzzo, remains unaffected. Tuscany and Marche represent the 2 other areas preferred by immigrants. In short, Lombardy, Veneto and, generally the regions of North and Central Italy, are considered the best places to live in by immigrants. c. Immigration to Lombardy The `Regional Observatory for Integration and Multiethnicity' published a Report in 2004 which gives 502,610 (equal to 22.9% of the total immigrants in Italy) as the non-EU immigrants present in the region. The distribution is as follows: 84% of immigrants live in the provinces of Milan, Brescia, Bergamo, Varese and Mantova. 9% in the provinces of Pavia, Lodi and Cremona. 7% in the remaining ones, Como, Lecco and Sondrio. On the whole, immigrants represent about 5 - 6% of population, ranging from 12 ­ 14% in the city of Milan (3% in the other towns of the same area) to 6 ­ 7% in the Brescia area, 4 ­ 5% in the provinces of Bergamo, Cremona and Mantova, 3% in the provinces of Pavia, Como and Varese, to the lowest percentage of Sondrio (1.3%). Asia and North Africa (above all Morocco and Egypt) share the top figures of immigration in Lombardy with 110 ­ 130,000 people. Eastern Europe is not very far behind, whereas Africans and LatinAmericans are around 55 ­ 65,000. 4.4.2 Schooling for immigrant children in Italy a. Schooling for immigrant children in Italy When assigning an immigrant pupil to a particular class (at the beginning of a school year), the pupil is placed in the class immediately above that which he or she has successfully completed in their country of origin or, if there is some difficulty in comparing the two education systems, to the one closest to his or her age. When possible, foreign pupils are assigned to classes in which there are other foreign pupils who speak the same language. However, no more than five foreign pupils may be assigned to any one class. Interpreting, reception and guidance for foreign pupils are provided by teachers at the school (special needs staff, language assistants). Integration into School Learning Presidential Decree No. 394 of 31 August 1999 (already mentioned above) (Article 45, school enrolment) sets out the procedure for integrating foreign pupils into the Italian school system and cites the basic criteria and guidelines. Individual teachers have responsibility for deciding how the teaching programme should be adapted depending on the ability of individual immigrant pupils. Foreign pupils develop their knowledge of and proficiency in Italian through intensive language courses based on specific projects, and through extra activities designed to expand the education on offer. Special individual or group exercises are used to help the pupils learn the Italian language, wherever possible using the school's professional resources. This includes recourse to assistant teachers. 94
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs Up to school year 2003-2004, schools also used classroom assistants to provide support to immigrant children. These assistants are generally provided by the school in partnership with local bodies and associations. Their main functions are to act as `link persons' and as interpreters or translators. Their work thus focuses on providing assistance with respect to language issues. There are, however, no specific national guidelines on the position of these mediators, nor is there any standard training, professional register or a national profile for mediators. Financial resources are provided at national level for the purpose of supporting immigrant pupils and training teachers. Unfortunately financial restrictions have drastically cut the numbers of mediators. Only some big cities (e.g. Milan) with particular situations have been allowed a certain number of mediators, however less than beforehand. b. Some data on schooling for immigrant children in Italy It is vital to build a space where Italian children and the children of immigrants can meet as equals. They are spoken of as `immigrants', even though two thirds of them did not come to Italy but were born here. While the immigrant population has doubled during the last 10 years, for minors this has happened in just 4 years. Their numbers increased from 126,000 at the end of 1996 to 278,000 at the end of 2000. Including new births (more than 25,000) and those entering through family reunion, their number already exceeds 300,000, a fifth of the immigrant population. The term `bambino straniero' (foreign child) is also incorrect, because some of these are children born in Italy, who talk like Italians and have the same tastes. They were just a little more than 30,000 in the school year 1992/1993. Their number reached 100,000 in 1999 (1,47% of the school population), grew to 147,000 during the school year 2000-2001 and 182,000 in 2002/03. Six out of ten are enrolled at primary or nursery schools. They were now less than 2% of the resident population; in 2017, according to a government estimate, this could rise to 529,000, or 6.5% of the school population. An investigation of schools throughout Italy by the Ministry of Education in 2001, found that in only 7% of schools there are no foreign pupils, in 64% foreign children make up more than 3% of the school population, and in 28% more than 5%. In the school year 2003-2004 there were 282,683 foreign students, representing 3.5% of the total school population. The increase is remarkable even if compared to one year before: an increase of more than 100,000 people. Immigrant children come from Albania, Morocco, former-Yugoslavia, with a noticeable increase for Romania and Ecuador. 90.5% of foreign children go to state schools, while the remaining 9.5% attend private schools. The ratio mirrors that of the total school population in Italy. Summary data: 1. The highest percentage of foreign students is in primary schools (40%). 2. The area with the highest density is still the North-East with 6.1% as an average and 8.5% as the high- est figure in the first year of primary school. 3. The region with the highest percentage is still Emilia Romagna with 7% 4. Milan has the highest percentage (10.2%) among the biggest cities. 5. There are 191 countries of origin for the foreign students 6. There are 5,669 foreign students from countries which joined the E.U. in May 2004. The presence of foreign students is very varied with the highest concentration in Northern areas: NorthEast (6.1%), followed by North-West (5.7%), Centre (4.8%), South (0.9%) and Islands (0.7%). Even the Northern provinces show the biggest share: Mantova (9.3%), Prato (9.1%), Reggio Emilia (8.7%), Piacenza (8.3%) and Modena (8.1%), the small province of Mantova has the highest percentage in Italy. Therefore we can see the development of a polycentric, widespread model, where the poles are not only the big cities but also the smallest ones and even villages. Another characteristic is that the change has been really rapid. 95
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs c. Schooling for immigrant children in Lombardy In Lombardy foreign students were 71,114 in 2003/04 and for the current school year there is an estimate of more than 10,000 newcomers (MIUR data). The increasing interest in this area is shown by the Office for the Integration of Foreign Children, a newly established office which has the aim not only to cope with the different `problems' created by the increase of foreign students but also to find `good practices' to handle this situation. Lombardy is the region most involved in the migratory phenomenon in general, i.e. the most multicultural region of Italy: the number of non-Italian pupils in the schools of Lombardy represent 24.5% of the entire presence of non-Italian pupils in Italy, with a concentration of almost 50% in Milan and the surrounding area. Foreign students speak Arabic (26.18%), Slavic (19.47%), Spanish (11.30%), Chinese (6.95%), Romanian (5.36%), Filipino (5.32%) and other languages (25.42%). Their presence has given rise to projects which tackle meeting and integration problems and various projects on intercultural education, an example of which is the project `Through my eyes', see appendix 1. Another project `Speaking Chinese, Japanese, Arabic in Europe to meet new cultures' has collected a significant number of enrolments. 2,067 students studied those languages (1,085 Japanese, 388 Chinese and 594 Arabic) in the school year 2003-2004: a precise signal of their interest in communication even beyond Europe. In 2004-05 the total number of students attending these courses is 1,603 (628 Chinese, 653 Japanese and 323 Arabic). The general scheme for projects is the following: Education projects In schools In centres Through the participation in seminars organized by other institutions Support for the implementation of projects created by schools and institutions and collection of the materials produced. Consultancy Experimenting / research of education models in other realities. Areas of intervention Meeting projects Laboratories of Italian as L2 for children and adults Projects about language and cultural mediation Projects and consultancy for the start of documentary centres for the schools and territory Projects and monitoring of projects, paths which lead to a better understanding of the cultural differences Implementing of network projects (school ­ schools ­ territory) Integration themes addressed to Italian and foreign families Research, analysis and consultancy for the didactic use of video in education Theme: Migration and literature Theme: Countries and cultures in the Balkans. d. Immigrant students in Lombardy and the intervention of the Regional Education Authority The Regional Education Authority for Lombardy has set down some guidelines and priorities for its intervention towards integration and success at school of the foreign students. The process of integration and acceptance has started since the 90s and has brought about a widespread culture of acceptance, made possible by many projects, which vary from province to province and from school to school, in their aims, addressees, the size, the involvement within and outside the schools, the promoters and funding. The relevant documentation is available to schools at the 'Data bank for intercultural education projects in Lombardy'. The available data point out some problems linked to the results in education, the discrepancy between age and class, attendance and school results. 96
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs
A survey made in Lombardy in 2003/04 and published in the book `Together at school 3' (Insieme a scuola 317), shows that 30% of foreign students attend a lower year than their age would correspond to; this percentage increases to 65% in the upper secondary schools. The Ministry of Education data, always referring to the school year 2003/04 show that the repetition of a class is already present in the primary school, it concerns more than 10% of foreign students in the lower secondary school and more than 30% of the upper secondary school.
The comparison with Italian students is as follows:
Successful students in % examined Primary Lower secondary school Upper secondary school
Foreign 97.15 89.92 68.23
Source: Infosystem MIUR ­ school year 2003/04
Italian 99.59 96.77 84.33
Difference ­ 2.44 ­ 6.85 ­ 16.10
If these signals are to be considered, the main priority becomes the success at school of foreign students, by systematically working at improving their learning levels. Within this aim, it is possible to state some general priorities which represent common guidelines in Lombardy schools: Know and understand the local situation Know the foreign students and their school paths Special needs teacher training Spread the knowledge of languages and cultures The main projects promoted by the Regional Education Authority are kept within these guidelines. Know and understand the local situation: taking stock of the foreign students in Lombardy The data on the characteristics of the local school population are an important tool for the activity in schools: they show the kind of student groups present in the area, determine trends, fixed elements or changes in progress, peculiar features or dynamics common to the region. To give schools access to detailed data at a local level, the Regional Education Authority has started in 2005, together with ISMU, a further analysis of every student with non-Italian citizenship (besides the survey usually taken every year by the Ministry). This regional analysis gathers data regarding age, gender and origin, but also data referring to the migratory and educational context: year of arrival in Italy and year of entry into the Italian school system, school mobility, coherence between age and class attended, attendance and class repetitions. All these data should help towards a real understanding of the phenomenon.17 Know the foreign students: the project `tutti uguali, tutti diversi' (Everyone equal, everyone different) A real knowledge of foreign students is fundamental, also to avoid sterotypes about their needs and get first hand information. In this way also the students' motivation and potential can be considered. Therefore each student's history is important, from two main points of view: 1. Competences, their previous learning path in another country, if any, and their language skills. This last aspect is ambivalent: immigrant children are usually considered to be weak linguistically, whereas they have more than one competence and their acquisition of Italian is usually added to one or two known languages.
17. The survey is published in the book E. Besozzi, M.T. Tiana (eds), Insieme a scuola 3. La terza indagine regionale, Osservatorio Regionale per l'integrazione e la multietnicitа, Fondazione ISMU Milano 2005. 97
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs 2. Language and learning needs: it is necessary to identify the greatest difficulties, for subject and nationality, and later to monitor and evaluate knowledge and progress. It is important to collect, update, compare data and reflect on them. A great contribution as support material was the release of the CD-Rom `Tutti uguali, tutti diversi' by the Lombard Region ­ Department for Family and Social Solidarity with the Regional Education Authority. The CD is in 11 languages to inform families about the Italian school system, above all about assessment, to be able to evaluate the newcomers' competences in language and Mathematics and to enable the families to follow their children's school progress and results. Communication with families is made easier by the production and circulation in schools of plurilingual material, e.g. school-family cards, translated in 8 languages, to favour the knowledge of `rules' the Italian school foresee for enrolment, attendance and medical aspects linked to vaccinations (in Milan town council). Special teacher training: the national project: `Italiano L2: lingua di contatto, lingua di culture' (Italian L2: contact language, cultural language). Because of the continuous increase of non-EU students in Italian schools and the arrival of grown-up children thanks to family reunions, it is vital for teachers to increase their competence inteaching Italian as a foreign language. Therefore Lombardy takes part in the Ministry of Education project `Italiano L2: lingua di contattto, lingua di culture'. After some years of regional experimenting together with universities, this project has the aim to prepare a learning path for teachers for teaching Italian as L2, both on-line and face-to-face to reach the majority of teachers, with the involvement of 1000 teachers. The above indications are related to the acquisition of Italian as L2. The following activities have been devised: Literacy centres for Italian as a second language for the newly arrived non-EU students. The teachers who work in these centres receive students from the different schools in the area and start a first training to enable students to express their needs and tell their story. In Milan there are 8 Centres for Italian as a second language training a first level of 800 students each year. Courses of Italian as a second language in schools, funded by the Ministry of Education and Research with money for High Risk Immigration Areas. These courses are held by teachers of a school as additional periods to their usual timetable. There are also courses provided by local institutions who give the schools in their territory the chance of using council teachers and /or linguistic or cultural mediators or fund directly courses given by schools. In some areas, like Milan, there are summer courses organised by the local council or volunteer associations. Italian courses for non-EU citizens offered by Local institutions, Councils and Provinces, answer the needs, even in summer, not only of students but also of adults. For ex. in Milan 60 packages of 60 hours each for schools will be offered. Courses in State Lifelong Education Centres (Area Authorities) or Council Lifelong Education Centres. Here there are courses of Italian as L2 for adults and young immigrants who may attend secondary schools, but still need a specific linguistic training. Spread the knowledge of languages and cultures: the project `Speaking Arabic, Chinese, Japanese in Europe to meet other cultures'. See section 3.1. From different experiences and surveys the two following priorities come out clearly for foreign students to have satisfactory results in the Italian school system: a. schools must have a global project, so that non-EU students are followed by all the school teachers and not only by those officially designated. As a consequence the school head has a crucial role in order to use all the resources available. Therefore each school should be able to work in a network, optimizing funds and resources. b. the school staff (including Italian students) should ensure a positive learning environment and style of relationships. 98
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs Some issues concerning non-EU students, with reference to language teaching: Bilingualism and plurilingualism may represent a source of cognitive advantages: there is work to be done on teachers' attitudes. The praise of the linguistic and cultural heritage of the non-EU children: tools and competence for the evaluation of the newcomers acknowledgement of previous schooling involvement of their families in school life. Orientation/guidance of non-EU children in the transfer from lower to upper secondary school, with little knowledge of Italian: how to recognize and value aptitudes and knowledge? Maintaining and improving their mother tongue: how is it possible to have teaching staff in schools who belong to the same community as the foreign students? The evaluation system of Italian as L2. Which tools and which reference grids? The support during learning paths and the improvement of Italian for foreign children: resources and didactic and organisational models. Foreign languages taught in schools: the possibility to consider the foreign children's mother tongue as second or third foreign language the certifications for mother tongues of national minorities. A final comment Current political debate does not appear to acknowledge the importance of immigration, its growing weight in society and its likely growth. The immigrant population in Italy has doubled each decade since the 1970s. At the end of 1991, there were 648,935 legally resident immigrants in Italy; by the end of 2001 these numbers had grown to 1,362,930. Moreover, if we include minors, the number reaches 1,600,000, or 2.8% of the population (one in every 38). There is a higher level of immigration in many other countries: an average of one in 20 in Europe, one in ten in the USA (as in Germany, Austria, and Belgium), one in 6 in Canada and one in five in Switzerland and Australia. Bearing in mind that many married people have left children in their country of origin, that others will form families, and that each year the demand for labour increases, it is easy to predict that the immigrant population will rise even further. Our future will include more immigration but this should not be seen in negative terms. This has been the reality for years in countries like the United States, Canada or Switzerland which we take as our models, all of which have higher rates of immigration. This should help us to conquer the fears and uncertainty surrounding immigration. The fear of losing one's cultural and religious heritage depends not so much on being confronted by other traditions, but rather on a superficial meeting between different cultures. Immigration, which we need, can be an opportunity for us to rediscover who we are at a deeper level. We must develop ways of living together, promoting diversity within the context of secure and guaranteed rights and duties which protect us as well as newcomers. This is the basis on which we can have hope not only for our own society but for immigrants' countries of origin. 99
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs 4.5 Language learning for leaners with special needs a. Dyslexia Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge. Adopted by the LDA Board, November 2002 and by the National Institutes of Health, 2002. The Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA) defines dyslexia as a learning disability in the area of reading. While reading is the primary problem, some definitions of dyslexia also include difficulties with: Writing Spelling Listening Speaking Maths A person with dyslexia is someone whose problem in reading is not the result of emotional problems, lack of motivation, poor teaching, mental retardation, or vision or hearing deficits. Dyslexia is a persistent, lifelong condition. There's no cure for it, but there are ways to approach learning and be successful. Although children with dyslexia have language processing and learning difficulties in common, the symptoms and severity can be quite different. Children learn some academic skills at a level lower than others their same age and intellectual peers, but they can do other things quite well. They may be talented in the arts, skilled in technology, or adept with spatial relationships. These strengths and talents need to be encouraged and reinforced Recommendations issued by CSA Lombardy (November 2004), as regards students with dyslexia or Specific Learning Problems (DSA): a. Use of compensation tools 1. Months table, alphabet table and font table 2. Multiplication table 3. Measure table and formula table 4. Calculating machine 5. Tape recorder 6. Special maps, memory tables 7. Computers equipped with word-processing programs along with spell-check and voice dictation software 8. Recorded audio cassettes with spoken text of coursebooks in use with other culturally relevant books (phono library) 9. Computer dictionaries, computer translators 10. CD-roms and audio cassettes from publishers b. Exemption from certain performances 1. Reading aloud, dictations, following oral requests, dictionary use, memorization of multiplication tables 2. Study of foreign languages in their written form, and the difference between oral and written form. Students with dyslexia can learn a foreign language, but it is important to focus on the better methodology for them, taking into consideration their strengths and weaknesses 100
SECTION 4 - Languages for learners with specific learning needs 3. Longer time for written tests and studying, thanks to a better organization of rooms and an agreement among teachers 4. Establishing fixed times for oral interviews 5. Less homework 6. Use of reduced texts (not as to content but as to number of pages). b. Training session for teachers `Dislessia e disturbi specifici di apprendimento' (Dyslexia and Specific Learning Problems) Between February and March 2005 a first training day was organized in Lombardy by the Regional Education Authority and AID (Italian Dyslexia Association) for teachers who will later become responsible for the students with this disability in their school. Only one teacher for each school was chosen and usually not a special needs teacher. A second session will follow later in the year. b. Blind students Milan Institute for the Blind was opened in 1840. In 1864 it started using the `Braille' alphabet which was going to have the greatest importance for the education of the blind. On October 12 1892 the Institute moved to what remained its definitive building. The institution has the aim of taking care of blind children and looking after their education, from nursery school on. In 1925 the Institute hosted the boarding house `Casa Famiglia' (for blind adults with no means and for blind workers at the institute) and in 1926 it was declared a school and put under the control of the Ministry of Education. In 1933 the primary school was recognized by the state. In 1939 a vocational school for the blind was established: it includes the workshop for wicker manufacturing, the joinery and knitting manufacture. After World War II the institute opened again in 1946 and has carried on its usual activities up to the present time. Activities of the Institute in Milan ECDL Consultancy on typhlopedagogy ICT Consultancy Teaching material centre Braille and large font centre Typhlopedagogical seminars for teachers Courses for switchboard operators Courses for sight impaired students Nursing home (former Casa Famiglia) The following centres are active in Lombardy: Library for the blind at Monza (Mi) Provincial centre support for sight impaired people at Como Rehabilitation centre `Nostra Famiglia' at Bosisio Parini (Lc) National Centre for Typhlotechnique (CNT) run by Unione Ciechi (private association) at Milan Centre for school integration of the blind at Brescia c. Students with Down syndrome AGPD, the Association of Parents and Persons with Down syndrome, was established in Milan in 1981, mainly through the impulse of some parents with Down syndrome children. The purpose of the association is to develop all the potential qualities and skills of the Down syndrome person, in this way helping the person and their family to reach the highest levels of autonomy and social integration. Among the many activities, there are those related to the support on birth, courses for teachers, computer courses, centres for information and consultancy, centres for information and training, education towards autonomy and the provision for Down people and their future. The ultimate goal for this association is their closing down because there is no further need of their activities. 101
SECTION 5 - Issues for discussion / Regional concerns SECTION 5 - Issues for discussion / Regional concerns 5.1 Defining targets and optimizing foreign languages teaching time The basic assumption is that the majority of students in the region should finish their secondary schools having attained the same level of foreign language competence: this could be both a national and a regional target. The major questions are therefore: Different levels for the different languages? If not, which level for the first language (English)? If not, which level for the second and eventually third language? The answers to the above questions may well have consequences also for teaching time whereas at the moment the teaching time is established centrally and, in different ways, negotiated locally (regionally or even for each school). 5.2 Students' learning opportunities As already pointed out in the section on the local characteristics of school in Lombardy (see section 1.4), there are 30 mountain communities which experience some transport problems in particular periods of the year because of weather conditions. In some cases these problems have been addressed by concentrating all the pupils in a central school, in others the solution of more scattered schools has been preferred, above all in the past. In the mountain areas of 7 Lombard provinces we can find 193 state school institutions that represent 14.7% of the total. This seemingly administrative concern transforms into a concern about the quality of education. It is evident that finding and keeping teachers in weather beaten localities in a country like Italy is not such a simple issue. Therefore schools in mountain areas usually experience a yearly turnover of teachers who very often come only to become tenured and leave as soon as possible. Moreover, these teachers may come from any region in Italy and may have communication problems where local dialect is still widespread. What could be an asset in language learning (the ability to switch from a code ­ dialect ­ to another code, Italian or English) might become a difficulty, if the communication is impeded by a lack of understanding and confidence. 5.3 Personal / regional identity in transition due to immigration The slow transformation of Italy from a land of emigrants (as described in section a) of paragraph 4.4) to a land of immigration came to an abrupt climax at the beginning of the 1990s. At that time the massive immigration of, above all, Albanians caused immediate problems, both from a political and a social point of view. The first settlements of immigrants were concentrated either in the proximity of their landing (Puglia) or with families of relatives (Calabria). These were also the two regions which were the origin of vast mass movements of emigrants at the beginning of the 20th century to other countries and later to other northern regions. Later the immigrants moved to the North where they could find jobs more easily. The impact of the transfer movement was perceived (also by the press) as menacing, raising fears and political resistance. 103
SECTION 5 - Issues for discussion / Regional concerns Historically some regions of the North (notably Piedmont and Lombardy) had seen the mass transfer of Italians coming from the South to work in the flourishing industries of the North in the 1960s. The recurrence of the phenomenon with people coming from other countries (see Section 1 on immigration) worried the politicians of some areas so much that a political movement (Lega Nord ­ headquarters in Milan) developed and prospered on the basis of such concerns. The final word on such worries has been said, for the moment, by the Bossi-Fini Law No. 189 of 30 July 2002, see paragraph 4.4. 5.4 Secondary school leavers' foreign language competence The Lombard Association of craft and industry (Assolombarda) reports some worries of firms regarding the average level of language competences, displayed by candidates during job interviews. (April 2005) The most sought after language competence refers to English, and the level is usually inadequate, in particular as far as communication in English in working teams is concerned or with reference to telephone calls or conference calls. Written competences are significantly better, also thanks to e-mail exchanges, whose distinctive feature is a conciseness of language, which is operational and easier to acquire. However, the average level is different if graduates rather than students with upper secondary school diplomas (mostly weaker) are taken into consideration. As a matter of fact, school education is still largely focused on the written language and its grammar rules, and candidates who distinguish themselves by a higher level of language competence, have very often improved through private courses which are mostly followed by courses abroad, or work experience in foreign countries. Firms still invest in language training, even if the use of e-learning has reduced the amount of money invested. How to evaluate competences: Self-assessment by the candidate. Entry tests which are normally present in e-learning programmes and are normally used to assess the level at the beginning of an e-course. This system may allow multinationals to standardize the entry requisites in the different countries, for the same job profiles. E-learning platforms and training programmes are often used worldwide or, at least, in Europe. A direct interview in English, above all where a particular language competence is required, e.g. in the commercial field or for a higher profile. In this way also the communicative skills of the candidate may be evaluated in a situation of a higher complexity linked to the use of a foreign language and the probable tension caused by the interview. 5.5 The role of English and strategies for diversity and plurilingualism With the Reform, English has achieved the status of compulsory foreign language from primary to upper secondary school. Other languages remain far behind in the quantity of teaching and learning and it is still too early to see the results of the introduction of a second language in the lower secondary school. Another aspect to be considered is how starting English at the beginning of primary school will affect the future development of students' English learning. 104
SECTION 5 - Issues for discussion / Regional concerns Currently, the present work on a Language Education Policy Profile, in co-operation with the Council of Europe, has to be seen as a political signal of willingness to improve the present situation for foreign languages and to enhance plurilingualism in Lombardy (and as a consequence in Italy). Since the status of foreign languages in compulsory education has been reconsidered with the Reform, consequences for the range of languages offered within the framework of a general teaching / learning school system should be taken into consideration as well. In this way, `plurilingual education clearly has a role to play in safeguarding, enhancing the value of and enriching linguistic diversity in a particular place.' 18 Furthermore, following the immigration already established we must develop cultural and education strategies along with ways of living together, promoting diversity within the context of secure and guaranteed rights and duties which protect us as well as newcomers. 18. Guide for the development of language education policies in Europe ­ from linguistic diversity to plurilingual education. 105
APPENDICES APPENDICES List of appendices 1. PROJECT `THROUGH MY EYES' - A PROJECT BY ISMU AND LEVI-STRAUSS FOUNDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 2. CULTURAL AND CERTIFICATION AGENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 3. PUBLISHING FIGURES FOR SCHOOL LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 4. UNIVERSITY RESOURCE CENTRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 5. STATISTICS ON THE UNIVERSITY POPULATION IN LOMBARDY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 6. OUTLINE OF UNIVERSITY TEACHING OFFER IN SOME LOMBARD UNIVERSITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 7. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND SOCRATES-ERASMUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 8. NOTE ON UNIVERSITY TEACHING STAFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 9. EXAMPLES OF SECOND WRITTEN PAPERS FROM UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL LEAVING EXAM . . . . . . . 136 107
APPENDICES 1. PROJECT `THROUGH MY EYES' - A PROJECT BY ISMU FOUNDATION AND LЙVI-STRAUSS FOUNDATION What A project by ISMU Foundation of Milan and Lйvi-Strauss Foundation of London, addressing Italian and foreign young people, aged 16 to 19, living in Milan. The purpose of the project is training in media-education, with focus on the production of videotapes (3 minutes maximum) on the topic of cultural diversity. The videotapes produced were presented in Milan, in May 2005, in a seminar open to the public and also sent to YEFF (Young European Film Forum), coordinated by R.A.A. (Regionale Arbeitsstellen fuer Auslдnderfragen) of Berlin. Why The main purposes are: To enable young people to give voice to their experiences, providing them with theoretical and technical instruments so that they can express their views on the new multicultural reality of the city in which they live. To let youth from different social and cultural backgrounds meet and work on a common project. To offer young people the opportunity of working with young artists and experts of visual communication. Who A group of young people (about 20), aged between 16 and 19, coming from different social and cultural environments, such as youth centres and secondary schools. Participants were required: To be strongly motivated to carry out the project. To assure continuous participation at all stages of the project. To have no previous experience in videotape making. A team of experts and professional filmmakers. A young expert in media-education coached the group during the entire process ­ through the different stages of work: developing and producing the videos, post-production. Some professional filmmakers (screenplay writer, visual communication teacher, producer, director, editing technician). How Each workshop included: Presentation of purposes and subjects, short theoretical introduction. Technical-practical activities (interiors/exteriors shooting). Analysis of activities carried out in the day, discussion of results, impressions, technical problems etc. When October ­ January 2004 12 workshops (10 of 3 hours each, 2 of 6 hours each). The workshops took place at the CeDoc of ISMU Foundation and at Multimedia ITSOS `Albe Steiner', Milan. January ­ March 2005 English subtitling of the videos. 108
APPENDICES May 2005 A Public Seminar presenting the videos of `Through my eyes' project and other videos selected within the European project YEFF (Young European Film Forum) of Germany, Italy, Spain, Belgium and Holland. Where In Milan Workshops took place at the CeDdoc (Documentation Centre) of ISMU Foundation and at Multimedia Upper Secondary School ITSOS `Albe Steiner', Milan. Editing was carried out at the laboratories of the Multimedia Upper Secondary School ITSOS `Albe Steiner', Milan. Participants were equipped with video-cameras, tapes and all the material needed for the shooting and production of the videos.
2. CULTURAL AND CERTIFICATION AGENCIES 2.1 The British Council - Milan
English courses of several levels are offered, and their teaching is structured as follows: English for beginners, General English (1 year-courses or shorter) for adults and young adults, Communication English, "Express Courses" (intensive teaching), Business English, Legal English, Translation and Literature. The Business Training Service offers courses tailored to specific needs of companies, schools, public administration and institutions, universities, legal offices. Courses are divided in levels corresponding to the CEFR, which is fully adopted by the British Council, and are held all week through, Saturday included. Courses for children: the children's programme is divided per age segment, course length 45 lessons of an average of 53,33 min. each.
Primary (7-8 yrs) Junior (9-11)
children are further divided according to their English knowledge levels in groups called Pr1, Pr2, Pr3 further division in groups per English levels in Jr1, Jr2, Jr3.
Secondary (12-15) Level division from beginners to advanced. Courses can last from 45 to max 90 hrs.
The British Council reckons an average course attendance to be around 4,000 individuals every year. The British Council centres benefit from their own high technology Resource Centres, which are constantly up-dated for the users who can rely on over 2,000 videos and Dvds, TV programmes, BBC works, books, magazines. In the computer-equipped multimedia support area students can practice with a personal use of study material and examination papers. The British Council is the authorized official institution for Cambridge ESOL International Certifications, as described in the table here below. So they hold language courses specifically aimed at certification attainments for First Certificate English, Certificate in Advanced English, Certificate of Proficiency English, BEC Business English. In 2003-2004 the total number of candidates taking certification exams at the British Council were around 15,000.
109
APPENDICES
Table 1 CEFR LEVELS CORRESPONDING TO ENGLISH LANGUAGE CERTIFICATIONS
Cambridge ESOL General English
Cambridge ESOL Business English
Cambridge ESOL CELS
A1
IELTS* 2.5 - 3.5
A2
KET - Key English Test
3.5 - 4.5
B1
PET - Preliminary English Test
BEC Preliminary
CELS Preliminary
4.5 - 5.5
B2
FCE - First Certificate in English
BEC Vantage
CELS Vantage
5.5 - 6.5
C1
CAE - Certificate in Advanced English
BEC Higher
CELS Higher
6.5 - 7.5
C2
CPE - Certificate in Proficiency in English
7.5 - 9
* IELTS Certification gives a score range from 1 to 9. The correspondence to CEFR levels has been freely interpreted by the British Council and is not recognised by official Institutions such as schools or universities. The British Council's work includes several other fields of activity: they organise training courses and seminars for teachers; they promote cultural events linked to the British culture and art by hosting exhibitions and holding lectures on various subjects (literature, philosophy). Just to mention some examples, they have organised an art exhibition to be held on the occasion of the Salone del Mobile (Furniture Fair) of Milan; they have supervised the mounting of the British Pavilion exhibition at the Biennial Expo of Visual Arts and Architecture in Venice. The centre also offers an information office dealing with study opportunities in Great Britain.
2.2 Centre Culturel Franзais - Milan
Specialization courses and Training courses for teachers: language refresher courses for teachers, usually one-lesson of 2 hours or 1,30 h. each, French for commerce, literature, conversation, written and oral translation, history of France and of the French. Children's courses (age 4-15) and Intensive courses are offered.
Table 2 Overview of the level definition of the courses mentioned with the number of participants in the years 2002-03, 2003-04, 2004-05.
CEFR levels
Course level
Standard courses Specialization Children Intensive Total
A1 A2 B1 B2 C1/C2
Elementary 1 and 2 Intermediate 3 and 4 Upper-interm. 5 and 6 Advanced Specialisation (age 4-15) Elementary 1
1. For 2004-05 only relevant to first session courses.
2002-2003 participants 409 214 139 61 201 106 219 1,349
2003-2004 participants 400 187 170 79 191 118 215 1,360
2004-2005 1 partcipants 236 139 75 27 117 62 100 756 1
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APPENDICES
Business French: Centre Culturel tailors courses of business or technical French to companies' specific needs consisting of 100- 200 hours of lessons. Lesson timetables are very flexible to meet the customers' requirements. Students are tested in advance to assess level of language knowledge and groups of max. 5 people of the same level are formed. Table 3 shows the number of contracts Centre Culturel signed for business French teaching in 2002, 2003, 2004, with the total teaching hours and participants. Centre Culturel is the authorized official institution for International Certifications in the French Language. They hold courses for attainment of DELF Certification (A2 + B1 levels, data are contained in the figures relevant to Standard and Children's courses ­ see Table 2 above) and of DALF Certification (C1 + C2 levels, data contained in figures for Specialization courses ­ see Table 2 above). Students attending Centre Culturel's Standard courses are mainly aged 25-50; they include students but most are employees and professionals who need to learn French for occupational reasons. Centre Culturel relies on its own Resource Centre and Library (students can use and borrow books, magazines, CDroms, Dvds, they can access the Internet; they can use study material, cassettes and videos as teaching supports). Students of the Centre have free entrance to all cultural events promoted by this institution and to films in French shown on Thursday evenings and Saturday afternoon in the Central Office. Centre Culturel lays great importance on teacher training and language updating: they organise events and lectures with French linguistics and didactics experts, as well as periods of job training for teachers in France. All teachers are French native speaker and have attained a specialisation certificate for teaching French as L2.
Table 3 Business French
Business French
No of hours
2004
7,599.50
2003
6,441.50
2002
7,189
No of contracts 113 140 152
No of participants 446 489 467
2.3 Instituto Cervanes - Milan
General Courses: Cervantes' General courses curriculum (Plan Curricular) is structured in four levels: beginners (A), intermediate (B), advanced (C), superior (D).
Table 4 CEFR level correspondence
Level
Courses
Beginners
A1 A A2
Certification Beginners
Level A1 A2
Intermediate
B
Advanced
C
B1 Intermediate B2
Superior
D
C1 Superior C2
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APPENDICES
These four levels underpin the following range of courses: One-year courses (101-110 hours): they consist either of one 3-hour lesson or of two 2-hour lessons each. Levels activated A,B,C,D. Two-month or four-month courses (56 hours). Levels offered A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, D2. Intensive courses of 30 hrs (2 hrs a day for 3 weeks), level correspondence as above point 2. On-line courses offered on the Internet and relying on a tutor. They are also called multimedial courses and Cervantes also offers a `mixed form' providing both in-class and on-line teaching. Cervantes' Curricular Plan is presently under revision to achieve a more definite correspondence to CEFR levels. Special or Specialisation Courses Within their large offer of Specialisation courses we highlight the Courses for Attainment of D.E.L.E. for CEFR levels B1, B2, C2. These courses are designed for language progress, practice and exam techniques, usually 30 days courses of 6 hours a week. Other Specialisation courses: A short course of Intensive Spanish for Travellers is provided (2-week course with daily attendance). Course Quijote: Commented guidance to the reading of "Don Quijote", fifteen lessons on fixed dates. 20TH century Spanish ­ flexible courses on several aspects of culture and history: module on culture (music, cinema, visual arts, literature); module on architecture with attention to the cultural diversity of Spain (Andalusia, Galicia, Basque Province); module on literature (reading and analysis of extracts from most significant Spanish works). Reinforcement and Conversation courses for students of intermediate-advanced level. Conversation course `over 50': course designed for students over 50 with a good level of Spanish ­ refreshment and conversation + module on Spanish-American culture. Spanish-American Meetings: modules on life, history, society in Spanish-American countries. Workshop for creative writing - Theatre: development of theatrical creative speaking and writing abilities. Workshops: 1. writing 2. translation 3. grammar; focus on the various language aspects. Other languages spoken in Spain: courses for cultural and language diversity: Galician, Catalan, Basque. Business Spanish for companies ­ tailored to needs and number of participants. Cervantes relies on its own multimedial support centre for practice with recorded material and its own library. Students can borrow material and books from the Centre. As for statistical information, Instituto Cervantes has experienced a steady growth in students attending their courses since 1999-2000 (see Table 5). Further statistical information on Cervantes certification attainments and students' age segments follow. Table 5 Students attending istituto Cervantes
Course year No of students
99-00 649
00-01 840
01-02 732
02-03 826
03-04 1018
112
NЪMERO DE ALUMNOS 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 2 38 56 46 194
APPENDICES Graph 1 Number of students distributed per course level in 2004-2005 (provisional data)
A00
A01
A02 A1/1 A2/1 B00
B01
B02 C00
C01 D00
E1
E2
Graph 2 Students age segments attending Spanish language courses at Cervantes (2004-2005, provisional data)
NЪMERO DE ALUMNOS
-16
17 -25
26 -45
46 -65
66 -
113
APPENDICES Graph 3 Sex distribution of students attending Spanish language courses at Cervantes (2004-2005, provisional data) 2.4 Goethe Institut - Milan General courses: levels offered A1 to C2. They are held all year long, they last 6 months (each lesson lasts 90 or 180 min). Intensive courses: levels offered A1 to B1. Courses with different length: A1 courses of 3 weeks restricted to 6 students; A1, A2, B1 level courses with max of 10 students. Within this grouping Goethe Institut offers specific sector language courses, such as German for professions, legal German, courses of German culture, language and geography, conversation, literature, focus on grammar. Superintensive courses: this is a specifically summer course of 2 weeks (in June and July) with a max of 10 students accepted and levels offered are A1, A2, B1. Courses for students aged 13-15: levels offered A1,A2, B1; length of 25 weeks with a max of 16 students. Further Goethe Institut also offers individual (1-2 students) or restricted group lessons (35); these courses show the advantage of greater flexibility to respond to students' needs and requirements. Business German: courses for companies tailored to specific needs and language sector; these courses are held at Goethe Institut and if required they can be held as in-house training courses. Courses for German language Certification attainment: preparation for certification is included in language courses for level A1, A2, B1, C1, C2. Beyond these levels Goethe offers a supplementary course (called "short way") specific for attainment of "Zertifikat Deutsch" (B1). They also offer preparation courses beyond the above mentioned levels, for example a course for GDS "Grosses Deutsches Sprachdiplom" (beyond C2). 114
APPENDICES
Table 6 Levels attainable in German with the European CEFR correspondence and relevant level International Certifications
Goethe Institut levels Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8
CEFR levels A1 A2 B1 B2 C1 C2
Certifications Start Deutsch 1 Fit in Deutsch 1 (Jugendliche) Start Deutsch 2 Fit in Deutsch 2 (Jugendliche) Zertifikat Deutsch Zertifikat Deutsch fьr den Beruf Zentrale Mittelstufenprьfung Prьfung Wirtschaftsdeutsch Zentrale Oberstufenprьfung Kleines Deutsches Sprachdiplom GroЯes Deutsches Sprachdiplom
Table 7 Number of courses offered for certifications in the last few years
Courses for exams START 1+2 ZD ZMP KDS/GDS/PWD/ZOP
2002-2003 18 14 12 8
2003-2004 18 14 12 8
2004-2005 16 10 10 8
Table 8 Data on participants in Goethe Institut German language courses and activated levels
Level Level Level Special courses
A1 - B1 B2 - C1.1 C1.2 - C2
2002-2003 partecipants 904 318 84 206
2003-2004 partecipants 902 218 60 208
2004-2005 partecipants 870 224 104 248
Table 9 Number of enrolments for International Certification exams: Goethe students and external candidates
Courses for exams START 1+2
2002-2003 partecipants ­
2003-2004 partecipants 61
2004-2005 partecipants 112
ZD
372
1507
1554
ZMP
92
33
46
KDS/GDS/PWD/ZOP/DfdB 21
28
19
Like all Cultural Agencies, Goethe is responsible for promoting cultural events and spreading a sensibility towards the German culture in general. They organise seminars and meetings with language experts as well as with representatives of arts and literature. They also hold lectures on various subjects, from literature, to philosophy, music and arts in general.
115
APPENDICES
3. PUBLISHING FIGURES FOR SCHOOL LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS
In order to give a picture of publishing activity in the school text sector, this survey presents a comparative situation of the total number of titles of language texts for schools published in the years 2003, 2004, 2005 by each of the publishers examined in section 2. These figures are inclusive of language course books, grammar books, vocational language books, texts for language certifications and school readers for lower secondary school. We have made a distinction by school level and language, with the number of new publications per year. New publications are defined as a new title appearing or a full revision of an existing text, or a full revision of one single graded text in a series.
Primary school Table 1 English
RCS
EDUMOND
GHISETTI & CORVI
2003:13 texts published, 0 novelties 2004:13 texts published, 1 new 2005:13 texts published, 1 new
2003: 15 published, new data not available 2004: 10 published, new data not available 2005: 12 published, new data not available
No publications for Primary school
Lower secondary school
Table 2 English
RCS
EDUMOND
2003: 11 texts published, 0 novelties 2003: 31 published, 1 new
2004: 12 texts published, 2 new
2004: 31 published, 2 new
2005: 17 texts published, 3 new
2005: 34 published, 1 new
Table 3 French RCS 2003: 0 texts published 2004: 1 texts published, new 2005: 1 texts published
EDUMOND 2003: 29 published, 2 new 2004: 26 published, 1 new 2005: 30 published, 4 new
Table 4 Spanish RCS 2003: 0 texts published 2004: 0 texts published 2005: 0 texts published
EDUMOND 2003: 0 published 2004: 0 published 2005: 2 published, 2 new
Table 5 German RCS 2003: 0 texts published 2004: 0 texts published 2005: 0 texts published
EDUMOND 2003: 10 published, 3 new 2004: 13 published, 0 new 2005: 14 published, 0 new
GHISETTI & CORVI 2003: 4 published, 0 new 2004: 6 published, 2 new 2005: 6 published, 0 new GHISETTI & CORVI 2003: 2 published, 0 new 2004: 2 published, 0 new 2005: 3 published, 1 new GHISETTI & CORVI 2003: 0 published 2004: 0 published 2005: 0 published GHISETTI & CORVI 2003: 1 published 2004: 1 published 2005: 1 published
Upper secondary school Table 6 English RCS 2003: 40 texts published, 2 new 2004: 47 texts published, 7 new 2005: 50 texts published, 7 new
EDUMOND 2003: 91 published, 3 new 2004: 94 published, 5 new 2005: 102 published, 9 new
GHISETTI & CORVI 2003: 1 published, 0 new 2004: 2 published, 1 new 2005: 2 published, 0 new
116
APPENDICES
Table 7 French RCS 2003: 4 texts published, 2 new 2004: 5 texts published, 0 new 2005: 6 texts published, 1 new
EDUMOND 2003: 64 published, 5 new 2004: 65 published, 2 new 2005: 69 published, 4 new
GHISETTI & CORVI 2003: 1 published, 1 new 2004: 2 published, 1 new 2005: 3 published, 1 new
Table 8 Spanish RCS 2003: 0 texts published 2004: 0 texts published 2005: 0 texts published
EDUMOND 2003: 2 published 2004: 0 published 2005: 0 published
GHISETTI & CORVI 2003: 0 published 2004: 0 published 2005: 0 published
Table 9 German RCS 2003: 3 texts published, 1 new 2004: 3 texts published, 1 new 2005: 3 texts published, 0 new
EDUMOND 2003: 42 published, 3 new 2004: 50 published, 2 new 2005: 53 published, 3 new
GHISETTI & CORVI 2003: 1 published, 0 new 2004: 1 published, 0 new 2005: 1 published, 0 new
Language school texts adopted in Italy: figures per school classes This section presents language texts adopted in Italy. The total figures represent the total national adoptions expressed in number of classes in years 2003/2004 and 2004/2005, comparing the three publishers' activity and presence on this market: data given for each of them shows how many of their language texts were adopted in years 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 over the total national figures.
Primary school Table 10 English School year 2003-2004 (before school reform) Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola
Primary school - 1st and 2nd yr 13996 1847 581 0 n.a.
Primary school - 3rd, 4th, 5th yrs 26650 8391 1404 0 n.a.
Table 11 English School year 2004-2005 (school reform introduced) Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola
Primary school - 1st yr
Primary school - 2nd yr
Primary school 3rd, 4th, 5th yrs
27264
24864
26727
5300 1153 0 n.a.
5701 980 0 n.a.
8151 837 0 n.a.
117
APPENDICES Lower secondary school Table 12 ENGLISH Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola Table 13 FRENCH Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola Table 14 GERMAN Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola Table 15 SPANISH Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola
2003-2004 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 25284 8105 2734 1742 n.a. 2003-2004 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 10968 209 3303 1037 n.a. 2003-2004 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 958 0 174 35 n.a. 2003-2004 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 117 0 0 0 n.a.
2004-2005 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 26890 9170 3185 1258 n.a. 2004-2005 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 17875 431 4961 971 n.a. 2004-2005 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 1546 0 219 50 n.a. 2004-2005 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 1379 0 0 0 n.a.
118
APPENDICES
Upper secondary school Language teaching in the upper secondary school in Italy is further divided into two sections: a two-year cycle and a three-year cycle. This section presents a survey of course book data for the first two-year section and refers to the so-called "language course-book": this aims at the general purpose of teaching communication language, language structures and functions, but is graded and adapted to the language and ability level of the specific age group. Therefore, course books are usually graded to range from a beginners' level to higher competence levels. The data relevant to the second three-year section don't allow a coherent reading of publishers' activity and share, due to the adoption of more specific language area texts or vocation-oriented language texts.
Table 16 ENGLISH Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola
2003-2004 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 28931 10160 4008 65 n.a.
2004-2005 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 30144 11235 4300 31 n.a.
Table 17 FRENCH Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola
2003-2004 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 11589 0 2213 0 n.a.
2004-2005 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 11731 0 2357 0 n.a.
Table 18 GERMAN Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola
2003-2004 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 3607 0 657 0 n.a.
2004-2005 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 3412 0 584 0 n.a.
Table 19 SPANISH Total title adoptions in Italian school classes RCS-Oxford Edumond Ghisetti & Corvi Editrice La Scuola
2003-2004 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 1116 0 2 0 n.a. 119
2004-2005 Lower Secondary school 1st, 2nd, 3rd years 1551 0 0 0 n.a.
APPENDICES 4. UNIVERSITY RESOURCE CENTRES RESOURCE CENTRE - UNIVERSITА DEGLI STUDI DI PAVIA The Centre promotes foreign language learning as well as Italian as a foreign language, by means of selflearning aids, face to face teaching methods and is strongly based upon the use of computer technologies. The Centre also coordinates contributions by CELs, native speaker language experts, and deals with the maintenance and correct use of computer technologies and software on site. Furthermore, it is a centre for Certification examinations both for the English language (University of Cambridge Certifications: the centre can organise the following examinations: PET, FCE, CAE, CPE) and for the Certification of Italian as a Foreign Language (CILS ­ four levels envisaged). For data see tables below. Presently, the Centre at the University of Pavia relies on 34 language experts: these experts support the work of university professors of foreign languages and deal with practice activities. The centre also offers students the opportunity to use computer equipment for self-learning activities (7 classrooms equipped with computers and similar equipment). Students have self-access to multimedia facilities that are available for 95 hours a week. The Centre has a video and tape library with material in 50 languages and over 1,500 paper volumes, plus 490 films in foreign languages. Twice a year (September and February) the Centre organises courses of Italian for students on a Socrates or Erasmus project or for students on a university grant. Courses are on three levels (beginner, elementary, intermediate), each course consisting of 50 one-hour lessons with a native speaker teacher. At the end of the course the Resource Centre issues a certificate of attendance to students having attended 80% of the lessons. For detailed statistical data see end of this section Foreign language courses: the courses held by the Resource Centre ­ financed by the European Programme for Languages (FSE) - are free and are organised for students from all the faculties of the Universitа di Pavia (see table at end of this section). These courses are levelled according to CEFR for languages. At present, courses are activated for following languages: English, French, Spanish, German, Arabic, Modern Greek, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian and Hungarian. To these, individual courses for Scandinavian Languages, Eastern European Languages and Eastern Languages must also be added. Some faculties assign credits for FSE language courses, others take the course certificate of attendance into consideration for the language examination. At present the centre personnel are working to design on-line courses based on the use of the newly acquired software programme `open source Moodle'. For detailed statistical data see end of this section.
RESOURCE CENTRE - UNIVERSITА DEGLI STUDI DI BERGAMO The centre relies on three language laboratories and two computer-equipped classrooms (42 PCs with Internet connection) for its teaching activities. Multimedia facilities for self-learning are also available with support material, multimedia language courses, practice material and specimen examinations, CDROMs, videos, documentaries and films in foreign languages. At present two on-line courses are being offered and tested.
Table 1 Language courses organised by the Resource Centre for the faculties of the Universitа di Bergamo:
Faculty Lingue e letterature straniere Area: languages
Language English French Spanish German Russian Arabic Chinese Japanese Polish Portuguese
Levels From A2 to C2 (+ literacy A1*) From A2 to C2 (+ literacy A1*) From A2 to C2 (+ literacy A1*) From A2 to C2 (+ literacy A1*) From A2 to C2 (+ corsi di alfabetizzazione A1*) From A1 to B1 A1 - A2 A1 - A2 A1 - A2 da A1 a B1
120
Faculty Economia e commercio Area: economics/political science Lettere Area: humanities Ingegneria Area: engineering Giurisprudenza Area: law
Language English French Spanish German Portuguese English French Spanish German English English French Spanish German
APPENDICES Levels B1 - B2 (A2*) - B1 A2 - B1 A2 - B1 From A1 to B1 A2 - B1 A2 - B1 A2 - B1 A2 - B1 B1 B1 B1 plus B1 B1 From A1 to B1
RESOURCE CENTRE - UNIVERSITА DEGLI STUDI DI BRESCIA The Resource Centre of the Universitа di Brescia has provided us with the following data on their language course activities from 2002 to 2005 (see table below). They also offer a course of Italian for foreigners, which is open to students from all the university faculties; its duration is 50 hrs (35 for beginners; 15 hrs for intermediate level). The centre relies on a computer-equipped multimedia laboratory but they do not offer any on-line course. Students have self-access to the laboratory, where they can work on self-learning and language practice materials after their courses. Learning material is mainly online. Courses are given 5 credits and a total of 30 credits in the language course activities is necessary for students who intend to leave on an Erasmus project.
Table 2 Course data provided by Resource Centre of Universitа degli Studi di Brescia
Faculty + activation year 2002-2003 Economia e commercio Area: economics/political science 2003-2004 Economia e commercio Area: economics/political science 2004-2005 Economia e commercio Area: economics/political science 2004-2005 Ingegneria Area: engineering 2004-2005 Giurisprudenza Area: law 2004-2005 Medicina Area: medicine
Language English French Spanish German English French Spanish German English French Spanish German English English English
Levels A1 A1 A1 A1 B1 A2 A2 A2 C1 A2 + superior A2 + superior A2 + superior B1
Course duration 30 hrs + 20 hrs lab 30 hrs 30 hrs 30 hrs 30 hrs + 20 hrs lab 30 hrs 30 hrs 30 hrs 30 hrs + 20 hrs lab 30 hrs 30 hrs 30 hrs 30 hrs + PET exam
B1
60 hrs
B1
60 hrs
121
APPENDICES
RESOURCE CENTRE: UNIVERSITA' CATTOLICA DEL SACRO CUORE - MILAN, BRESCIA This Resource Centre is called SELdA (Servizio Linguistico d'Ateneo); both branches of Milan and Brescia have activated this faculty service. Milan: the Centre was established in 2000 with the aim of promoting foreign language learning for all students of 1st and 2nd level courses of studies (except language students), PhDs, masters. The Centre is accessible also to university personnel. This Centre became an A.I.C.L.U. member in 2002. Since 20032004 SELdA has been activating language courses from beginner-elementary to advanced levels. Advanced level courses are structured according to regulations of courses of studies of single faculties: a final test is compulsory and is evaluated as a University exam. Level B1 courses with a final test are organised for the following foreign languages: French, English, Spanish, German, Russian; these courses have a max. duration of 100 hours (80 hrs in class with teacher + 20 hrs tutor-assisted self-access in a multimedia laboratory), and are sub-divided according to group abilities and competences. Courses are not compulsory if students have International Language Certifications assessing equal or higher language level. Courses of Italian for foreigners: activated both in Milan and Brescia. In 2004-2005 two 40-hour courses were scheduled in SELdA-Milan. Self-access laboratory: this facility for self-learning is a support to multimedia language laboratories. Students are to access it for self-learning and practice purposes; language experts for the following languages are available: French, English, Spanish, German; their help is fundamental to define learning objectives and personalise students' study plans.
STATISTICAL DATA PROVIDED BY THE RESOURCE CENTRE OF UNIVERSITA' DEGLI STUDI DI PAVIA
Table 1 Courses in Italian for foreigners: data on attendance in 2004
No of levels Partecipants level 1
January/February 3 (Beginner/Elementary/Intermediate) 5
September/October 4 (Beginner/Elementary/Intermed. 1 e 2) 18
Partecipants level 2
8
18
Partecipants level 3
6
23
Partecipants level 4
0
21
Total
19
80
Table 2 Candidates for CILS International Certification: Italian as foreign language (2004)
2004 Level 1
June -
December 3
Level 2
13
3
Level 3
5
-
Level 4
2
1
Total
20
7
Total 3 16 5 3 27
The table below shows data for foreign language courses held by the Resource Centre of Universitа di Pavia and financed by the European Programme for Languages (European Social Fund): language courses activated are Arabic, French, Modern Greek, Dutch, Portuguese, Russian, English, Spanish, German, Hungarian. Table shows nr. courses per language with levels and length of each course, plus total teaching hours.
122
APPENDICES
Table 3 European Social Fund - Languages 2004/2005
Action 243038 243052 Total Arabic 243058 243068 243076 Total French 243084 Total Greek 243087 Total Dutch 243089 Total Portuguese 243091 Total Russian 243093 243098 243101 243104 243107 243110 243159 243160 243162 243166 243171 Total English 243178 243183 243193 Total Spanish 243199 243206 243213 243218 243234 Total German 243245 Total Hungarian Total
Language/level Arabic A1/A2 Arabic B1
Course duration in hours 16 30
French B1
30
French B2
30
French B1 Simulation Delf 1
15
Greek
30
Dutch
30
Portuguese
30
Russian
30
English A2/B1
30
English B1
30
English B1/B2
20
English e-learning
12
English B2
30
English B2/C1
30
English C1
30
English B1 Pet
16
English B2 Simulation FCE
15
English B2 Simulation TOEFL,
15
IELTS, BEC
English C1
22
Simulation CAE
Spanish B1
30
Spanish B2
30
Spanish B1
15
Simulation DELE
Nivel Inicial
German A2/B1
30
German B1
30
German B2
30
German B1
16
Simulation ZD
German cultural and com.
18
Hungarian B1
30
No of courses 2 2 4 4 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 7 10 6 5 6 5 25 10 10 1 91 5 2 1 8 1 3 2 1 2 9 1 1 123
Teaching hours total 32 60 92 120 30 15 165 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 180 210 200 72 150 180 150 400 150 150 22 1864 150 60 15 225 30 90 60 16 36 232 30 30 2728
123
APPENDICES
Table 4 Candidates for International Certifications given by year and certification type
Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 TOTAL
PET 28 38 147 105 442 496 425 1681
FCE - 10 20 15 20 71 61 197
CAE 7 11 7 7 32
TOTAL 28 48 167 127 473 574 493 1910
124
APPENDICES
5. STATISTICS ON THE UNIVERSITY POPULATION IN LOMBARDY
This section describes some data on the university population in Lombardy, aiming to illustrate the gen-
eral trend of student choice of courses; it shows comparative figures as regards the major Universities in
Lombardy where students have the widest choice of teaching areas; we have highlighted preference per-
centages for humanities/languages teaching areas of the following universities:
Universitа degli Studi di Milano
(State University)
Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo
(State University)
Universitа degli Studi di Pavia
(State University)
Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan and Brescia) (non-State University)
5.1 Student choice
Below is the illustration of trends in student choice distributed over the years 2000-2001, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2004-2005.
HUMANITIES/LANGUAGES STUDENT PERCENTAGES OVER THE TOTAL ENROLMENT DATA
Table 1 UNIVERSITА DEGLI STUDI DI MILANO (State university)
2000/01
2001/02
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
Students Languages/ Humanities Other teaching areas Total
no 2799
perc 4,50%
no 4153
perc 6,70%
no 5576
perc 8,60%
no 5991
perc 9,20
no
perc
6087 9,50%
58845 95,50% 58015 93,30% 59097 91,40% 59082 90,80% 58148 90,50%
61644 100% 62168 100% 64673 100% 65073 100% 64235 100%
Table 2 UNIVERSITА DEGLI STUDI DI BERGAMO (State university)
Students Languages Humanities Other teaching areas Total
2000/01
2001/02
no perc
no
perc
3019 31,81%
2002/03
2003/04
2004/05
no
perc
3416 31,27%
no
perc
3651 29,77%
no
perc
3518 27,27%
6473 68,19% 7509 68,73% 8515 70,23% 93,84 72,73%
9492 100% 10925 100% 12266 100% 12902 100%
Table 3 UNIVERSITА DEGLI STUDI DI PAVIA (State university)
Students Languages/ Humanities Other teaching areas Total
2000/01
no 743
perc 4%
2001/02
no 740
perc 3%
2002/03
no 755
perc 3%
2003/04
no 756
perc 3%
2004/05
no 700
perc 3%
19864 96% 21076 97% 21589 97% 21634
97% 20834 97%
20607 100% 21816 100% 22344 100% 22390 100% 21534 100%
125
APPENDICES
Table 4 UNIVERSITА CATTOLICA DEL SACRO CUORE - MILANO AND BRESCIA (Non-State university)
Students Languages/ Humanities Other teaching areas Total
2000/01 no perc
2001/02
no
perc
2002/03
no
perc
2003/04
no
perc
2004/05
no
perc
4995 13,84% 4995 14,09% 4720 13,72% 4051 13,34%
31105 84,16% 30450 85,91% 29692 86,28% 26321 86,66%
36100 100% 35445 100% 34412 100% 30372 100%
The above figures make it clear that students' enrolment in the languages/humanities area has been improving in Milan State University, from 4.5% in 2000 to 9.5% in 2004. This depends on new and particularly successful university courses, such as the one in Communication and Media Studies and the one in Linguistic and Cultural Mediation, the latter being a revision of the more traditional course in Foreign Languages and Literatures, where Literature as a subject has been substituted by Cultural Studies and basic subjects such as Modern History, Geography, Art History etc. have been substituted by introductory courses in Economics, Political Science, Law etc. It is also to be noted that the languages/humanities area in Milan State University has been improving in percentage (9.5% in 2004), although the total figure for the same year (64235 in 2004) is slightly inferior to the preceding ones. These figures refer to the academic year 2000/01 onwards, i.e. when the university reform started with the new 3-year 1st level courses. Only at the end of the current academic year will the first 2nd level course students get their degree, after which they will have the possibility to gain access to a PGCE course, if they want to become teachers.
Table 5 below shows further details provided by Universitа degli Studi di Milano on total students in the languages/humanities area choosing courses of studies of the vecchio ordinamento (one-cycle course of studies before the university reform) followed by details of students choosing 1st level courses of studies starting from 2001/02 and 2nd level courses of studies from 2003/2004.
Table 5
Academic year description
2000/01 no perc
2001/02 no perc
2002/03 no perc
2003/04 no perc
2004/05 no perc
One-cycle course of studies before reform
Lingue e letterature 2361 84% 1799 straniere
Lingue e letterature 438 16% 336 straniere moderne
Total
2799 100% 2135
1st level courses of studies
Lingue e letterature straniere Mediazione linguistica e culturale Total
806 1212 2018
2nd level courses of studies
Culture e linguaggi per la comunicazione Lettere moderne
43% 1491 8% 284 51% 1775 19% 1125 29% 2676 49% 3801
27% 1030 5% 241 32% 1271 20% 1675 48% 2983 68% 4658 24 8
17% 634 4% 194 21% 828 28% 1864 50% 3112 78% 4976 0% 134 0% 62
10% 3% 14% 31% 51% 82% 2% 1%
(literature, philology, linguistics)
30 1% 87 1%
Lingue e letterature europee ed extraeuropee
62 1% 283 5%
Total
2799 100% 4153 100% 5576 100% 5991 100% 6087 100%
126
APPENDICES 5.2 Student Enrolments Finally, it may be interesting to consider the following data ­ taken from the MIUR website ­ concerning the university students enrolled in the various linguistic courses in the academic year 2004-2005. The first table summarizes the data for all Italian universities offering linguistic courses (the old 4-year courses and/or the new 3+2 courses); then follow tables for the universities in Lombardy offering linguistic courses, i.e. Bergamo University, Milan State University, Milan IULM University, Milan Catholic University, and Pavia University.
Table 6 STUDENT ENROLMENTS: All Universities Academic Year 2004-2005 Data on January 31, 2005
Classe di Corsi di studio - - Corsi del vecchio ordinamento 03 - Scienze della mediazione linguistica 11 - Lingue e culture moderne 104/S - Traduzione letteraria e in traduzione tecnico-scientifica 39/S - Interpretariato di conferenza 41/S - Lingue e letterature afroasiatiche 42/S - Lingue e letterature moderne euroamericane 43/S - Lingue straniere per la comunicazione internazionale 44/S - Linguistica
Totale
Totale 24838
di cui Donne 21469
27214 22733
39845 32601
335
302
80 106 624
69 76 544
805
711
305
262
di cui In corso
Totale di cui Donne
236
203
di cui al 1° anno di cui immatricolati al
In corso
1° anno per la 1° volta
Totale di cui Donne
Totale
di cui Donne
1
1
0
0
22367 18653 8630 7051
7879
6489
31893 25974 13318 10526
309
280
226
200
12296 0
9790 0
80
69
60
51
0
0
99
72
76
54
0
0
605
52
432
373
0
0
792
701
627
557
0
0
285
247
203
180
0
0
Totale
94152 78767 56666 46725 23573 18993
20175
16279
Table 7 STUDENT ENROLMENTS: Bergamo - Universitа degli Studi Academic Year 2004-2005 Data on January 31, 2005
Classe di Corsi di studio - - Corsi del vecchio ordinamento 11 - Lingue e culture moderne 43/S - Lingue straniere per la comunicazione internazionale Totale
Totale
Totale 562
di cui Donne 489
di cui In corso
Totale di cui Donne
0
0
di cui al 1° anno di cui immatricolati al
In corso
1° anno per la 1° volta
Totale di cui Donne
Totale
di cui Donne
0
0
0
0
1088
916
889
749
361
288
348
279
55
51
55
51
29
26
0
0
1705 1456
944
800
390
314
348
279
127
APPENDICES
Table 8 STUDENT ENROLMENTS: Milano - Universitа degli Studi Academic Year 2004-2005 Data on January 31, 2005
Classe di Corsi di studio - - Corsi del vecchio ordinamento 03 - Scienze della mediazione linguistica 11 - Lingue e culture moderne 42/S - Lingue e letterature moderne euroamericane 43/S - Lingue straniere per la comunicazione internazionale Totale
Totale
Totale 822
di cui Donne 709
di cui In corso
Totale di cui Donne
0
0
di cui al 1° anno di cui immatricolati al
In corso
1° anno per la 1° volta
Totale di cui Donne
Totale
di cui Donne
0
0
0
0
3084 2637 2583 2202
758
652
661
577
1821 1490 1448 1179
81
73
81
73
671 54
542 49
607 0
490 0
171
155
171
155
171
155
0
0
5979 5064 4283 3609 1654 1398
1268
1067
Table 9 STUDENT ENROLMENTS: Milano - Libera Universitа di Lingue e Comunicazione (IULM) Academic Year 2004-2005 Data on January 31, 2005
Classe di Corsi di studio - - Corsi del vecchio ordinamento 03 - Scienze della mediazione linguistica Totale
Totale
Totale 255
di cui Donne 237
di cui In corso
Totale di cui Donne
0
0
di cui al 1° anno di cui immatricolati al
In corso
1° anno per la 1° volta
Totale di cui Donne
Totale
di cui Donne
0
0
0
0
480
425
410
361
155
133
147
126
735
662
410
361
155
133
147
126
Table 10 STUDENT ENROLMENTS: Milano - Universitа Cattolica del "Sacro Cuore" Academic Year 2004-2005 Data on January 31, 2005
Classe di Corsi di studio - - Corsi del vecchio ordinamento
Totale
Totale 762
di cui Donne 698
di cui In corso
Totale di cui Donne
0
0
di cui al 1° anno di cui immatricolati al
In corso
1° anno per la 1° volta
Totale di cui Donne
Totale
di cui Donne
0
0
0
0
03 - Scienze della mediazione linguistica 11 - Lingue e culture moderne
2840 2449 2256 1952
873
744
341
308
284
258
109
97
857 104
737 92
42/S - Lingue e letterature moderne euroamericane 43/S - Lingue straniere per la comunicazione internazionale Totale
22
19
22
19
7
94
82
94
82
71
4059 3556 2656 2311 1060
7 63 911
0 0 961
0 0 829
128
APPENDICES
Table 11 STUDENT ENROLMENTS: Pavia - Universitа degli Studi Academic Year 2004-2005 Data on January 31, 2005
Classe di Corsi di studio - - Corsi del vecchio ordinamento 11 - Lingue e culture moderne 42/S - Lingue e letterature moderne euroamericane 44/S - Linguistica
Totale
Totale 170
di cui Donne 144
di cui In corso
Totale di cui Donne
0
0
di cui al 1° anno di cui immatricolati al
In corso
1° anno per la 1° volta
Totale di cui Donne
Totale
di cui Donne
0
0
0
0
509
431
395
328
149
119
129
103
10
8
10
8
8
6
0
0
21
17
21
17
10
9
0
0
Totale
710
600
426
353
167
134
129
103
5.3 Graduates and student provenance
NUMBER OF GRADUATES IN LOMBARDY UNIVERSITIES IN THE PERIOD JANUARY 1 ­ DECEMBER 31, 2003 LANGUAGE FACULTIES (Data taken from the MIUR website ­ Ufficio Statistica)
Table 12 University of
Faculty
2001 00 99 98 97 96 95 94 93
already
/
////////
having
02
01 00 99 98 97 96 95 94
a
or
and
degree
later
before
Total
Total in Bergamo
Total in Italy
Males Females
Bergamo
Lingue e letterature straniere CDL
Bergamo
Lingue e letterature straniere L
0 0 0 78 96 70 29 16
25
0 11 9 7 2 0 3 0
0
0 28 268
314 3842
0
1 31
32 617
Table 13 University of Milano Cattolica Milano Cattolica Milano Cattolica
Faculty
2001 00 99 98 97 96 95 94 93
already
/
/// / / ///
having
02
01 00 99 98 97 96 95 94
a
or
and
degree
later
before
Lingue
0 0 1 152 176 125 66 34 47
0
e letterature
straniere
CDL
Lingue
0 0 26 17 8 8 12 0
2
0
e letterature
straniere
CDU
Lingue
0 17 58 8 16 10 1 1
2
9
e letterature
straniere
L
Males Females
Total
Total in Milano Cattolica
Total in Italy
44 557
601 3842
12 61
73 157
16 106
122 617
129
APPENDICES
Table 14 University of Milano IULM Milano IULM Milano IULM
Faculty
2001 00 99 98 97 96 95 94 93
/
////////
02
01 00 99 98 97 96 95 94
or
and
later
before
already having a degree
Lingue,
0 0 4 82 67 29 23 20
58
56
letterature
e culture
moderne
CDL
Lingue,
0 38 2 1 0 0 0 0
0
6
letterature
e culture
moderne
L
Lingue,
00000000
6
0
letterature
e culture
moderne
SDFS
Males Females
Total
Total in IULM
Total in Italy
31 308
339
6 41
47
1
5
6
NUMBERS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2003-2004
Table 15 1st year student 2nd year students onwards `fuori corso' students 1st year foreign students 2nd year foreign students onwards
Total number
Of which, female students
Total number in state universities
Among them, female students in state universities
Total number in non-state universities
Among them, female students in non-state universities
338,036
185,278
317,469
172.424
20,567
12,854
1,814,048
1,012,725
1,702,183
942,163
111,865
70,562
656,662 8,191
363,630 4,782
35,299
20,247
TYPE OF HIGH SCHOOL PROVENANCE FOR UNIVERSITY FRESHMEN IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2003-2004
Table 16 Type of high school Classical Liceo Scientific Liceo Languages Liceo Vocational high school Technical high school Pedagogical high school Other high schools Foreign high school diploma
Percentage % 12,6 % 30,1 % 5,1 % 6,4 % 31,1 % 5,7 % 7,0 % 2,1 %
Italian denomination Licei classici Licei scientifici Licei linguistici Istituti professionali Istituti tecnici Istituti magistrali Altre scuole secondarie Titolo straniero
130
APPENDICES
6. OUTLINE OF UNIVERSITY LANGUAGE TEACHING OFFER IN LOMBARD UNIVERSITIES Universitа degli Studi di PAVIA Humanities-languages area: Facoltа di Lettere e Filosofia Teaching offer envisages following languages: French, English, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Hungarian.
1st level courses Lingue e culture moderne (Modern languages and cultures) Lingua e cultura italiana per stranieri (Icon on-line course of studies for foreigners)
2nd level courses Lingue e culture europee ed americane (European and American languages and cultures) Linguistica teorica ed applicata (Theory of linguistics and applied linguistics)
Scuole di specializzazione (post-graduate higher courses): SILSIS: specialization courses for language teaching professions.
Universitа degli Studi di BERGAMO Humanities/languages area: Facoltа di Lingue e Letterature Straniere
Teaching offer envisages following languages: French, English, German, Spanish, Spanish-American, Portuguese, Russian, Arabic, Chinese, Polish.
1st level courses
2nd level courses
Lingue e letterature straniere (Foreign languages and literatures) Comunicazione di massa pubblica ed istituzionale (Science of mass and institution language communication) Comunicazione interculturale per la cooperazione e l'impresa (Intercultural communication for enterprise and cooperation projects
Lingue straniere per la comunicazione internazionale (Foreign languages for international communication) Progettazione e gestione sistemi turistici (Tourism organisations management) Comunicazione ed editoria multimediale (Communication and multimedia publishing)
Corso di perfezionamento (specialization course): Course for multicultural activities and tourism management.
Dottorati di ricerca (PhDs): Euro-American literatures.
Erasmus Mundus Masters: This European Erasmus Mundus Master degree involves 2 years' high quality postgraduate study, which enables students from around the world to study at European universities. It involves a minimum of three higher education institutions from three different Member States and implements a study programme which involves a period of study in at least two of the three institutions.
Language courses and level certifications: CIS, Italian for Foreigners. TRKI-TORFL, international seminars and workshops for Russian language and culture (22.08-3.09.2005).
Libera universitа di Lingue e Comunicazione IULM - MILANO Humanities/languages area: Facoltа di Lingue e Letterature Moderne
Teaching offer envisages following languages: French, English, German, Spanish, Russian.
131
APPENDICES 1st level courses Interpretariato e comunicazione (Course of studies for interpreters and communication experts) Comunicazione e gestione nei mercati dell'arte e della cultura (Communication and management in arts trade sector) Lingua e cultura italiana per stranieri (Icon on-line course of studies for foreigners) Masters: 1st level master courses in Language and communication techniques for enterprises operating in China Techniques for literary and scientific-technical translation Tourism management. Language courses: Icon on-line courses organises: Italian language courses for foreigners Courses on written Italian for the professions (sectorial language for banks, enterprise, public administration). Please note that 1st level university courses neither permit access to the teaching profession nor to a PGCE course (called SILSIS in Lombardy or SSIS elsewhere in Italy); since very few students have finished their 2nd level university courses so far, at present PGCE course can only be attended by graduates who have been awarded the old-style 4-year degree ("vecchio ordinamento"). 132
APPENDICES
7. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS AND SOCRATES/ERASMUS
Below are the details of the number of students leaving on Erasmus projects. Data have been collected from:
Universitа degli Studi di Milano
(State University)
Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo
(State University)
Universitа degli Studi di Pavia
(State University)
Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milan and Brescia) (non-State University)
and describe the total number of university students leaving on Erasmus projects, with a detail of stu-
dent share from humanities/language areas.
Table 1 Universitа degli Studi di Milano Tot. no of students leaving on Erasmus projects Nr. of students from linguistic area
2001/2002 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005
372
393
460
52
67
105
Table 2 Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo Tot. no of students leaving on Erasmus projects Nr. of students from linguistic area
2001/2002 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005
146
162
166
86
93
101
Table 3 Universitа degli Studi di Pavia Tot. no of students leaving on Erasmus projects Nr. of students from linguistic area
2001/2002 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005
222
243
201
243
27
18
27
28
Table 4 Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Milano, Brescia) Tot. no of students leaving on Erasmus projects Nr. of students from linguistic area
2001/2002 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005
387 121
382 116
388 92
The figures make clear that most Erasmus students from Bergamo University and a substantial proportion from Milan University come from the linguistic area, whereas this is not so for the Catholic University students and above all for Pavia students. In any case, the total numbers are quite low, which may depend on various factors; since as students from the linguistic/literary/cultural area of studies, most students take English as their first or second foreign language and it is not very easy to find Erasmus partners in Britain, nor do students seem ready to go and study English at a non-English speaking partner university (despite the fact, to give one single example, that the University of Milan has a very satisfactory partnership with a Hungarian university). Another reason for the low number of Erasmus exchanges is that many university professors feel it is very difficult and time-consuming to establish and carry on new partnerships because of the heavy load of office work involved.
133
APPENDICES
8. NOTE ON UNIVERSITY TEACHING STAFF
Data given here are relevant to the same universities mentioned above (data on students). We asked these institutions to present total figures as per number of language teaching staff working in their faculties with the teaching staff proportion in the humanities/languages area, and, within that, nr. of native speaker language experts active in the specific university and area. This last figure is rather difficult to show due to the administrative structure of universities: very often native speakers are active on specific contracts or their position is governed by Resource Centres. Therefore each university has responded to our questions in different ways:
Universitа degli Studi di Milano Data relevant to Humanities/languages area: total number language professors and researchers: 84. Number of native speaker language experts: 51.
Universitа degli Studi di Bergamo Data relevant to Humanities/languages area: total number of language professors and researchers: 87. Native speakers: 6. Total number of native speaker language experts: 20.
Universitа degli Studi di Pavia Data relevant to all faculties of this university: total number of language professors and researchers: 40. Total number of native speaker language experts: 34.
Universitа Cattolica del Sacro Cuore ­ Milan, Brescia Data relevant to all faculties: total number of teachers working in this university:193 (all areas). Total number of language teachers: 102.
The above data should be read in the light of more general data concerning teaching staff in Italian universities. First of all, it should be remembered that the Italian university system is organized ­ as far as teaching staff is concerned ­ as a three-tier system: professori ordinari, or full professors; professori associati, or associate professors; and ricercatori (researchers), or assistant professors. While most universities and teaching areas make use of `professori a contratto', i.e. experts hired on a yearly basis to take the place of professors when these are not available, it is typical of language courses to have native speaker language experts to help with the more practical side of foreign language teaching. Both categories are not included in official statistics such as the one here below.
Table 1 Numbers of university official teaching staff in the last few years
Anno
Ordinario
Associato
Ricercatore
1997
13402
15618
20167
1998
13402
15619
20186
1999
12913
18032
19556
2000
15026
17259
19668
2001
16891
17875
20090
2002
18131
18502
20900
2003
17958
18096
20426
Totale 49187 49207 50501 51953 54856 57533 56480
134
APPENDICES
In the second place, as far as language courses are concerned, it is to be noted that university teaching staff for foreign languages ­ independently of their position in the academic hierarchy, and with the exception of the less studied foreign languages at Italian University ­ are divided between professors and researchers of foreign language and professors and researchers of foreign literatures. This distinction is certainly debatable but, since it was enforced a few years ago, it has promoted a more specialized view of language studies as a legitimate field for research and teaching at a high level (whereas the previous view tended to consider language simply as an ancillary subject for the study of foreign literatures). In the light of the above observations, please consider the tables below detailing numbers of teaching staff in Italy for the most studied foreign languages:
Table 2 English French German Spanish
Full professors of... language 51 27 16 16
Full professors of... literature 117 79 62 51
Table 3 Language and literature together
Full professors
English
168
French
106
German
78
Spanish
67
Associate professor Researchers
297 146 92 110
339 240 170 121
Total 636 386 262 231
135
APPENDICES 9. EXAMPLES OF SECOND WRITTEN PAPERS FROM UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL LEAVING EXAM 9.1 Vocational school: technician of restaurant services Foreign language: English Anatomy of an Ingredient - Crиme fraоche. Crиme de la crиme. Delia Smith visits the cream capital of France and discovers crиme fraоche ­ the taste that is synonymous with Normandy. Have you ever stopped to wonder what life in the kitchen was like before the days of refrigeration? A nightmare, you might be thinking, and I suspect for the most part you'd be right. And yet there was one particular ingredient, important in so many areas of cooking, that owed its highly prized virtues to that very lack of refrigeration. That ingredient was matured cream: fresh cream from the dairy that was allowed to sour naturally. It made the lightest scones and fluffiest pancakes, and gave just the right balance of acidity and creaminess to countless sauces. In former days, cream, unless eaten straight away, was allowed to sour naturally and become thicker, richer and slightly acid. Ironically, pasteurisation ­ that great French invention ­ literally killed off matured cream; the high temperature that cream is subjected to halts any natural maturing process so that without refrigeration it simply goes off, not sour but bad! Normandy is not only a region where eating, drinking and cooking are cardinal occupations, it is the cream capital of France. Here, something as precious as matured cream could not be sacrificed to mere pasteurisation. So they set about putting it right, and produced a taste-alike, look-alike ingredient and called it crиme fraоche. It is ivory coloured, velvet textured and in taste captures all the glory of Normandy. To discover its secret I went to the Cherbourg Peninsula, to a small town called Isigny-sur-Mer, built round an inlet from the sea. How is this important ingredient made? My host Daniel Delahaye, the largest producer of crиme fraоche in the region, explains that today's story is not so very different from the original. After pasteurisation the cream is stored, not in small earthenware bowls, but in huge stainless steel containers. Then a small amount of ferment is reintroduced and the cream is left for a period of time to develop its texture and flavour just as before. As always, the prime contribution is human skill. The technique of the cream-maker in analysing the quality of the cream from every batch of milk and balancing the correct amount of protein and fat that's crucial to the final flavour, texture and creaminess. The final element that guarantees the quality of crиme fraоche from Isigny is the strict law of the AOC (appelation d'origine contrфlйe). The milk can only come from the determined area. The cows must be fed on not less than 80 per cent of grass from that area (including hay in the winter months). Regular controls and inspections are carried out on every level on the farms, in the factories and in the finished product. Freely taken from Internet 1. How was matured cream made, in former days? 2. List three types of food it was used for. 3. What marked the end of matured cream? 4. What happens to pasteurised cream if not refrigerated and why? 5. Which French region is the cream capital? 6. What is crиme fraоche like? 7. Which two processes differentiate the making of crиme fraоche in comparison with matured cream? 8. Indicate the two elements which guarantee the quality of crиme fraоche. Prova di produzione scritta La societа di catering presso la quale stai attualmente lavorando in Gran Bretagna deve organizzare una cena di compleanno. Vieni incaricato di preparare un piatto di carne utilizzando la crиme fraоche come ingrediente essenziale. 136
Elabora in lingua inglese la ricetta di questo piatto indicando: per quante persone; gli ingredienti; il tempo di esecuzione; la metodologia di preparazione. Time limit: 4 hours The use of monolingual or bilingual dictionaries is allowed. It's forbidden to leave the school before three hours from the dictation.
APPENDICES
9.2 Technical school for tourism Foreign language composition Il candidato svolga, in lingua straniera, uno dei seguenti temi: Tema 1: Analisi delle tipologie di turismo Il turismo si distingue in funzione dei luoghi che implica, cioи del raggio di azione-transizione dei turisti con l'ambiente (turismo di transito, turismo residenziale con le sue diverse diversificazioni interne caratterizzate dalla scelta di tipo alberghiero, di villaggio, turismo nazionale, turismo internazionale); in funzione del tempo impiegato (turismo settimanale, turismo da week-end, turismo svolto nell'arco giornata); in funzione della sua caratterizzazione sociale (turismo individuale, di famiglia, di gruppo); in funzione delle sue motivazioni sociali: turismo puro (dettato da motivazione esplorativa), turismo sociale, di studio, turismo culturale, turismo d'arte, turismo congressuale, turismo religioso, turismo sportivo. Il candidato tratti l'argomento sulla base delle classificazioni sopra descritte oppure scegliendo, fra quelle indicate, la tipologia di turismo che meglio conosce di cui dovrа approfondire aspetti e connotazione. Tema 2: Proposta imprenditoriale Il candidato immagini di aver ricevuto da parte di un'agenzia della sua regione l'incarico di approntare una attivitа imprenditoriale che debba propagandare, attraverso la presentazione in uno stand fieristico, un itinerario di viaggio per valorizzare le bellezze ambientali, le risorse culturali e i prodotti eno-gastronomici, tipici del territorio di appartenenza. Il progetto contenga: analisi del territorio servizi di ricezione servizi di trasporto strategie di marketing Time limit: 8 hours The use of monolingual or bilingual dictionaries is allowed. It's forbidden to leave the school before three hours from the dictation.
9.2 Liceo linguistico Foreign language composition: German Die runde Sprache des Reisens Im zerstцrten Nachkriegseuropa bot sich Italien als eines der ersten wieder mцglichen Reiselдnder an. Es war geradezu wagemutig, Ende der 40er-Jahre bis in den Sьden zu fahren. In Neapel lernte ich Restaurants kennen, wo man ьber einem Querbalken Teig auslaufen lieЯ, ein Stьck davon abriss, und 137
APPENDICES es mit Kapern, Tomaten, Sardellen garnierte, das nannte man Pizza. Als ich vor meiner Rьckkehr in die Schweiz in Mailand noch einmal Pizza essen wollte, sagte man mir: Am besten nehmen Sie die StraЯenbahn, steigen an der Porta Veneto um, drei vier Stationen weiter finden ein Lokal, das Spezialitдten dieser Sьdlдnder serviert. Die Pizza als exotische Spezialitдt ­ zu einer Zeit, als Espresso in Europa noch ein unbekanntes Kaffeewort war und niemand begriffen hдtte, was ein Spaghetteria bietet. Das sollte sich in den Fьnfziger Jahren дndern. Zudem: Die Pizza machte ihren Siegeszug nicht von Italien, sondern von den USA aus; sie Ьberquerte noch einmal den Atlantik, diesmal Richtung Alte Welt. Aber andererseits waren ja die USA auch nicht auf direktem Weg zu ihren Kartoffeln gekommen; die hatten von Sьdamerika einen Umweg ьber Europa gemacht, wo sie zunдchst in Botanischen Gдrten gezogen wurden, bis sie mit Iren in die Neue Welt auswanderten. Ja, Pflanzen wie auch Biere reisen ­ vieles, was wir als einheimische Natur lieben, ist das Ergebnis von Zuwanderung und Migration. Solange ist es nicht her, dass ich auf einem Markt in einem Amazonashafen nach dem Namen von Frьchten frage und mich erkundigte, wie man sie isst. Frьchte, die jetzt im nдchsten Supermarkt zu haben sind. Und dass ein Vogel Strauss in einer Farm am Zьrcher See seine sьdafrikanische Heimat vergisst, ist auch neu. Doch das Exotische lockt nach wie vor. Ein Reisen, das einem Thema nachgeht, kann in gleichem Masse Bereicherung bedeuten, wie es einen bescheiden machen kann. Fьr eine mehrmonatige Reise nach Asien, die erste in diesen Kontinent, hatte ich mir als Leitplanke das ,portugiesische Erbe in Asien' gewдhlt. Die Route fьhrte demnach von Goa nach Sri Lanka, von dort nach Malakka, danach wдre Ost Timor auf der Agende gestanden, aber dieses war eben von Indonesien besetzt worden und somit abgeriegelt. Macau hingegen war offen, zudem bot sich die Mцglichkeit, dem Pendant zum portugiesischen Erbe nachzugehen, nдmlich dem spanischen in den Philippinen. Es war eine Reise von Religion zu Religion, von einer Lдnder-Historie zur anderen, von einer Sprachkultur zur nдchsten. Die Bilanz fiel eindeutig aus: Mir wurde klar, dass es unmцglich war, in jedem Falle mehr als ein recht vorlдufiges Wissen zu erlangen. Mir wurde auf dieser privaten Globalisierungsreise ebenfalls bewusst, wie groЯ mein Nichtwissen von Welt ist, dass, was immer ich nachhole, nichts anderes sein kann, als die Lцcher meines Nichtwissen genauer zu bestimmen. Hugo Lцtscher, Essay ­ in , Der Deutsch UNTERRICHT', Nr. 4, 2002 TEXTVERSTAENDNIS 1. Dieser Text hat das Reisen zum Thema. Welche Reisen unternimmt der Autor? 2. Von welchen anderen Reisen ist noch die Rede? 3. Beschreiben Sie den Siegeszug der Pizza innerhalb und auЯerhalb Italiens. 4. Gibt es sozusagen auch eine Globalisierung bei Speisen und Getrдnken? Ist auch in diesem Zusammenhang der Titel zu verstehen? 5. Man kann beim Reisen auch einem Thema nachgehen. Welche Beispiele fьhrt der Autor an? 6. Welche tiefste Erkenntnis gewinnt der Autor auf seinen Reisen? 7. Beim vorliegenden Text handelt es sich um einen Essay: Welche sprachlichen Merkmale zeichnen diese Textsorte aus? TEXTKUERZUNG Fassen Sie den Text in wenigen Sдtzen zusammen. TEXTERSTELLUNG Muss man immer selbst auf Reisen gehen, oder kцnnen Reiseberichte aus Bьchern oder Medien unsere Neugierde stillen? Nehmen Sie dazu Stellung. Welche interessanten Erfahrungen haben Sie auf Ihren Reisen gemacht? Welche wichtigen Erkenntnisse dabei gewonnen? Time limit: 6 hours The use of monolingual or bilingual dictionaries is allowed. It's forbidden to leave the school before three hours from the dictation. 138
INFORMATION SOURCES INFORMATION SOURCES 1 Bibliography Bйacco J.C., Byram M., Guide for the development of language education policies in Europe. From linguistic diversity to plurilingual education, Council of Europe, Language Policy Division, Strasbourg, 2003. Besozzi E. (ed.), I progetti di educazione interculturale in Lombardia. Dal monitoraggio alle buone pratiche, Osservatorio Regionale per l'integrazione e la multietnicitа, Milano, 2005. Besozzi E., Tiana M.T. (eds), Insieme a scuola 3. La terza indagine regionale, Osservatorio Regionale per l'integrazione e la multietnicitа, Milano, 2005. M.I.U.R., Ufficio Scolastico Regionale per la Lombardia, Progetto Lingue, La certificazione delle competenze linguistiche nelle scuole della Lombardia, Ghisetti & Corvi Editori, Milano, 2002. M.I.U.R., Ufficio Scolastico Regionale per la Lombardia, Progetto Lingue, Competenze linguistiche in Lombardia. Secondo rapporto sulle certificazioni degli studenti e sulle attivitа per le lingue, Ghisetti & Corvi Editori, Milano, 2005. M.I.U.R., Ufficio Scolastico Regionale per la Lombardia, Progetto Lingue, Portfolio Europeo delle Lingue, Validazione del Consiglio d'Europa No 30/2002, La Nuova Italia ­ Oxford University Press, Milano, 2002. M.I.U.R., Ufficio Scolastico Regionale per la Lombardia, Progetto Lingue, Sviluppo professionale per le lingue. Esperienze di formazione e monitoraggio del Progetto Lingue Lombardia, Ghisetti & Corvi Editori, Milano, 2005. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Learning for Tomorrow's World. First Results from PISA 2003, OECD, Paris, 2004. 2 Sitography INSTITUTIONS Ministry of Education, University, Research: www.istruzione.it Ministry of Education, University, Research ­ General Directorate of International Relations: www.istruzione.it/buongiorno_europa/lingue Ministry of Education, University, Research ­ Regional Education Authority for Lombardy: www.istruzione.lombardia.it Ministry of Education, University, Research ­ Regional Education Authority for Lombardy ­ Progetto Lingue: www.progettolingue.net Regione Lombardia: www.regione.lombardia.it IRRE Lombardia (Istituto Regionale di Ricerca Educativa): www.irre.lombardia.it Regione Lombardia: www.regione.lombardia.it Regione Lombardia ­ Istruzione, Formazione e Lavoro: www.borsalavorolombardia.net LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL CERTIFICATION AGENCIES British Council of Milan: www.britishcouncil.it Centre Culturel Franзais de Milan: www.lecentreculturelfrancaisdemilan.it Circolo Filologico Milanese: www.filologico.it Goethe Institut Mailand: www.goethe.de/ins/it/mai/deindex Instituto Cervantes Milano: www.cervantes.es Russian Certifications TRKI-TORFL: www.unibg.it/russo LANGUAGE PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS ANILS ­ Associazione Nazionale Insegnanti di Lingue Straniere: www.anils.it GISCEL ­ Gruppo di Intervento e Studio nel Campo dell'Educazione Linguistica: www.giscel.org ISMU ­ Iniziative e studi sulla multietnicitа: www.ismu.org LEND ­ Lingue e Nuova Didattica: www.lend.it TESOL ­ Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages: www.tesol.org 139
INFORMATION SOURCES LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTRES Associazione Italiana Centri Linguistici Universitari: www.aiclu.it Centro per l'orientamento allo studio ed alle professioni ­ State University of Milan: www.cosp.unimi.it Centro SELdA ­ Servizio Linguistico di Ateneo ­ Catholic University of Milan: www.3unicatt.it School Language Resource Centres: www.progettolingue.net/crt LANGUAGE SCHOOLS City Council of Milan: www.lingueincomune.it EF Education ­ Corsi di lingue: www.ef.com In Lingua School of Languages, www.inlingua.it PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE Assolombarda (Lombardy Entrpreneurial Association): www.assolombarda.it Assolombarda ­ Societа di Servizi alle Imprese: www.assoservizi.it Camera Commercio di Bergamo: www.bg.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Brescia: www.bs.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Como: www.co.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Crema: www.cr.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Lodi: www.lo.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Lecco: www.lc.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Milano: www.mi.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Mantova: www.mn.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Pavia: www.pv.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Sondrio: www.so.camcom.it Camera Commercio di Varese: www.va.camcom.it PUBLISHING HOUSES Didael, Via Lamarmora, 3, Milano, www.didael.it Editrice LA SCUOLA, via Cadorna 11, Brescia: www.lascuola.it EDUMOND LE MONNIER, via Durazzo 4, Milano: www.edumondlemonnier.it GHISETTI & CORVI Editori, C.so Concordia 7, Milano: www.ghisettiecorvi.it RCS MediaGroup S.P.A., via A.Rizzoli 2/4, Milano: www.rcsmediagroup.it UNIVERSITIES Catholic University of Milan and Brescia: www.unicatt.it Non-state University Bocconi of Milan: www.uni-bocconi.it Non-state University C. Cattaneo of Castellanza: www.liuc.it Non-state Scientific University S. Raffaele of Milan: www.unihsr.it Non-state University Institute of Modern Languages of Milan: www.iulm.it State University of Bergamo: www.unibg.it State University of Brescia: www.unibs.it State University of Milan: www.unimi.it State University of Milan ­ Bicocca: www.unimib.it State Politecnico of Milan: www.polimi.it University of the Third Age: www.unitre.net 140

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