Links & Resources... 31 International Spotlight

Tags: Foreign Language Teaching, students, The International Journal, International Journal, experimental group, readers, foreign language, TOEFL scores, reading, Stephen Krashen, Second Language Acquisition, Cameroon, Colorado, The Colorado Springs School, Free Voluntary Reading, vocabulary test, Concordia Language Villages, EFL classes, Language Teaching, TOEFL score, Extensive reading, cloze test, International Journal of Foreign Lan, comprehensible input, Discussion Krashen, comparison group, EFL students, college students, reading logs, References Lee, University Level EFL Students, John Stoddard Cancer Center, International, John D. Stoddard, Elizabeth Silance Ballard, Universidad del Sur de California, West Province, David Benson, language curriculum, Descriptive statistics, C. Coakley, TOEFL examination, language programs, listening, Grammar test, post-test
Content: Volume 2, Number 1
IN THIS ISSUE
CURRENT RESEARCH
Winter 2006
Free Voluntary Reading and Autonomy in Second Language Acquisition: Improving TOEFL Scores from Reading Alone by Beniko Mason ................................. 2 A One-Year Study of SSR: University Level EFL Students in Taiwan by Sy-ying Lee..................................... 6 Is First Language Use in the Foreign Language Classroom Good or Bad? It Depends. by Dr. Stephen Krashen ....................... 9 The Amount of Input Matters: Incidental Acquisition of Grammar Through Listening and Reading by Victoria Rodrigo............................ 10
The Art of TPR Storytelling: It's My Story by Blaine Ray......................................15 Language on the Go: Tuning in to Podcasting by Jeff McQuillan, Ph.D. ....................16 Concordia Language Villages Makes Arabic Announcement in Washington D.C. ..................19 El espaсol de California by Jacobo Mir & Carlos Prieto ...........20 Letters to the Editor ............................23
International Spotlight Cameroon, Africa by Karen Rowan......24
Links & Resources...31 Man invented language to satisfy his deep need to complain. Lily Tomlin
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
Free Voluntary Reading and Autonomy in Second Language Acquisition: Improving TOEFL Scores from Reading Alone by Beniko Mason Shitennoji International Buddhist University Osaka, Japan
Showing that just engaging in independent reading improves scores on the TOEFL examination would have strong implications for both theory and practice. On the level of theory, it would confirm that language acquisition is possible from comprehensible input (in this case reading) alone. On the level of practice, it would tell us whether independent study is a viable and practical means of preparing for the TOEFL examination, especially if we can compare students' progress with those who prepare for the TOEFL examination in more traditional ways. Procedure
It is reasonable to propose that a goal of language programs is to make students "autonomous," that is, able to improve their competence in their second language on their own. An obvious way to do this is to introduce students to free voluntary reading, a pleasurable activity that students can certainly do on their own, and that has been shown to have powerful payoffs in increased proficiency in all aspects of literacy (Krashen, 2004). This paper reports an attempt to do this: Students who
Subjects were six university level students of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan. All had taken EFL courses that had emphasized extensive reading of graded readers, books written especially for EFL students. The classes the students took before starting the independent reading program included presentation of the theory underlying extensive reading, some of the actual research supporting extensive reading, and a great deal of reading experience.
had completed classes in which they were involved in free voluntary reading of graded readers were encouraged to continue reading on their own in preparation for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL).
Students were advised to begin with very easy graded readers, and read about 70 to 100 pages per week. Accountability was minimal: No book report or summary was required and students were only asked to keep a record of the books they had read.
All reading in the EFL classes was selected by the students, who had access to a library of about 4000 graded readers (about 700 different titles). Students were advised to begin with very easy graded readers, and read about 70
Previous research strong- Students were encouraged to read those ly suggests that reading
to 100 pages per week. Accountability was
would be good prepara- books that were interesting to them, and
minimal: No book report
tion for the TOEFL. One
or summary was required
case study (Constantino, were not required to finish every book they and students were only
1995) and two multivariate correlational studies
started.
asked to keep a record of the books they had read.
(Gradman and Hanania,
Students were encour-
1991; Constantino, SY
aged to read those books
Lee, KS Cho, and Krashen, 1997) have shown that the that were interesting to them, and were not required to
amount of recreational reading students do is a strong finish every book they started. Class-time also includ-
predictor of TOEFL performance.
ed listening to stories.
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All subjects volunteered to continue reading on their The instrument used was the ITP (Institutional Test-
own, three during their summer vacation, two during ing Program) TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign
the spring break, and one during the academic year (an Language). This test was constructed from previously
Arabic major who was taking no English
administered TOEFL tests, and is avail-
classes at the time). The readers
able from the Educational Testing
were entirely on their own during this time; they did not
All subjects volun-
Service for local use for institutions for placement, awarding credit, as a
meet with the researcher to discuss progress, problems,
teered to continue reading on
final exam, etc. It consists of three parts, Listening Comprehension,
book selection, etc. All were their own, three during their
Structure and Written Expression,
highly motivated to improve on the TOEFL and were told summer vacation, two dur-
and Reading. test administration takes about two hours, and multiple
that reading was an excellent ing the spring break, and one forms are available. Reliability of the
way to do so.
TOEFL is very high (for the ITP-
during the academic year (an
TOEFL, total reliability = .95;
The procedure was simple. Students were given ac-
Arabic major who was taking no
listening comprehension = .90; structure = .87, read-
cess to the library of graded readers that
English classes at the time).
ing = .88; TOEFL, 2005). (Note: A TOEFL score
had been available
of 550 is thought to represent
to them during their
enough English competence to study in an
classes. In contrast to
American University.)
reading done as part of the classes they took, readers
were not asked to keep any records of how much or
what they read, although some did so.
Table one: Gains on the TOEFL
Name Test date Listen Grammar Reading *Total Gain
Noriko 01/17/01 51
44
41
453
04/06/01 51
52
47
500
47
Sumiyo 01/22/03 46
44
42
440
04/05/03 50
49
44
477
37
Yoko
07/12/03 44
45
48
457
08/06/03 46
49
50
477
20
U
07/12/03 46
51
47
480
10/25/03 49
50
55
513
33
Yu
07/12/03 44
42
46
440
10/25/03 46
44
51
470
30
Kenji
03/31/05 n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
467
06/10/05 n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
500
33
Weeks **Pts/Wk 11 wks 4.2 10 wks 3.7 3.5 wks 5.7 15 wks 2.2 15 wks 2 10 wks 3.3
*Total TOEFL scores are arrived at by calculating the mean of the three components and multiplying by ten: e.g., 51 + 44 + 41 = 136/3 = 45.3 *10 = 453. **The calculation of points per week may over-estimate the amount of reading done per week because the time period included, in four cases of out six, the final two weeks of the semester during which final examinations were administered. n.a. = not available
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Results Table 1 presents gains made by each subject for each component of the TOEFL, as well as weeks spent reading and the average gain per week. The average gain per student was 3.5 points per week.
We can get some idea of the efficiency of free reading by comparing these results to the progress made by students in a study-abroad, TOEFL preparation program. Swinton (1983) studied the improvements made by international students in a traditionally taught intensive Academic English program at a university
Table 2: Average Pre-and Posttest scores by IEP students in the US
Pretest range Pretest Mean Posttest Mean Gain
251-300 301-350 351-400 401-450 451-500 501-550 551-600 601-650
293.5 327.8 379.5 426.2 469.5 523.5 557
613
385
384
441.1 478.5 511.6 570
603
583
91.5 56.2 61.6 52.3 42.1 46.5 46
-30
From Table 4 in Swinton (1983), p. 10
*Total TOEFL scores are arrived at by calculating the in the United States. Students were in class four hours
mean of the three components and multiplying by ten: per day for five days a week and had two to three
e.g., 51 + 44 + 41 = 136/3 = 45.3 *10 = 453.
hours of homework per day, or about 30 hours per
**The calculation of points per week may over-esti- week of study, which amounts to about 390 hours over
mate the amount of reading done per week because the 13 week program. In addition, they had access to
the time period included, in four cases of out six, the additional English input in the US in their everyday
final two weeks of the semester during
life.
which final examinations were administered.
The results of this study confirm, however, Table 2,
n.a. = not available
that it is possible to improve in a second
from Swin-
It was not possible to calculate the
language from input/reading alone, and
ton's table 4, presents
amount gained per page for all subjects, that the benefits of reading extend to as only three subjects provided infor-
average pre and post-
mation necessary for this calculation.
vocabulary and grammar.
test scores
Yoko reported reading 300 pages, and
on the
gained 20 points, a gain of about 1 point for each 15 TOEFL test for students in his program. Those with
pages read, and U read 1300 pages, gaining 33 points, beginning TOEFL scores of 401 to 450 gained 52.3
a gain of about 1 point for each 40 pages read. Kenji points, or 4 points per week. Those with beginning
reported that he focused exclusively on the work of TOEFL scores of 501-550 gained 42.1 or 3.2 points
Sidney Sheldon and read up to 200 pages per day.
per week. The readers in the extensive reading study
described here gained 3.51 points per week, results
Using U's report as an example, the results are encour- that are nearly identical to those of Swinton's students,
aging. If 40 pages results in a one point gain, a student spending, most likely, far less time, and certainly less
can expect a gain of 100 points by reading 4000 pages, money.
about 40 books.
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Discussion and conclusions
References
The subjects in this study were well-educated, experienced language students, were highly motivated, and volunteered to engage in the reading program. It is thus inappropriate to generalize these results to all language students. The results of this study confirm, however, that it is possible to improve in a second language from input/reading alone, and that the benefits of reading extend to vocabulary and grammar. The results also suggest that at least some students can prepare quite well for the TOEFL in their own country. Finally, the results suggest that the courses these students took succeeded in making them autonomous language acquirers. To confirm that this is so, we need to investigate whether these students turn to reading on their own in the future to further improve their English. Back to top
Constantino, R. 1995. The effect of pleasure reading: Passing the TOEFL test doesn't have to hurt. Mosaic 3(1):15-17. Constantino, R., Lee, S.Y., Cho, K.S., and Krashen, S. 1997. Free voluntary reading as a predictor of TOEFL scores. Applied Language Learning 8: 111-118. Gradman, H., and E. Hanania. 1991. Language learning background factors and ESL proficiency. Modern Language Journal 75: 39-51. TOEFL, 2005. Institutional Testing Program, Japan Edition. Educational Testing Service Why Study Arabic? Arabic is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. It is the official language of 22 countries and the native language of more than 300 million people. Yet, as of 1998, only 5,500 American college students were studying Arabic, and only a small number of them became advanced enough to use the language professionally. Proficiency in any foreign language, especially Arabic, can advance your career and make you more competitive in the job market. Many Washington, DC-based corporations, organizations, and government institutions (e.g., World Bank, State Department) list proficiency in Arabic as a required or desirable skill for many exciting careers.
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© Winter 2006
A One-Year Study of SSR: University Level EFL Students in Taiwan
taking a required course in English as a foreign language, and they were not taking other English courses at the time of the study. Comparison group
Sy-ying Lee National Taipei University Taiwan has been a productive laboratory for the study of free voluntary reading in school, or "sustained silent reading" (SSR). A series of studies involving university level students in English as a foreign language classes (EFL) studied the impact of time set aside especially for self-selected reading of graded readers, books written especially for students of English (Sims, 1996, Yuan and Nash, 1992, Lee, 1998, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c; Hsu and Lee, 2005). Except for Yuan and Nash (1992), students participating in these studies have been non-English majors, not taking other classes using English as a medium of instruction, and having little exposure to English outside of school.
To account for at least some individual variation in instruction, three different classes, taught with different instructors, were used as comparison groups. Classes had 40, 45, and 54 students. The comparison classes were randomly selected from 26 freshman English classes at National Taipei University. The comparison groups had traditional instruction, reading, analyzing and discussing texts, student presentations based on issues related to the assigned readings, and direct instruction in language "skills." There were frequent quizzes and examinations. A MANOVA revealed no significant difference among the three comparison classes on pre-tests, so scores for the comparison classes were therefore combined. The same comparison groups were used in a previous study (Lee, 2005c). Experimental group
Thus far, the results have consistently shown that
Students in the experimental group (n = 41) did self-
students in EFL classes that include SSR make similar selected reading of graded readers. Students chose
or better gains on
from about 1,200 titles varying
tests of reading
in difficulty from 300 headwords
and vocabulary
Thus far, the results have consistently
to 3300 headwords. Students
as comparison students in classes who do
shown that students in EFL classes that include SSR make similar or better gains
devoted half of the once weekly three hour class to reading, 20 minutes to checking in and out
not include SSR, on tests of reading and vocabulary as
books, and the rest of the class
results that are
comparison students in classes who do
to shared reading, giving short
consistent with published studies done elsewhere
not include SSR, results that are consistent with published studies done
presentations or interacting with group members. Students were required to record what they read
(Krashen, 2004). elsewhere (Krashen, 2004).
(titles, pages, time spent on read-
In this study, the duration was a full academic year. This is still not the optimal length (studies longer than one year have produced the best results; Krashen, 2004), but one year was all that was possible due to practical constraints.
ing) and write short reflections on what they read in either English or Chinese. These reading logs were handed in each week. Grades were based on participation and students' logs (time spent reading, pages read, and reflections on reading).
The subjects in both experimental and comparison groups were freshman non-English majors who were
Measures The tests used for both groups included (1) a 100 item
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cloze test measuring reading ability, developed by Mason (2003), which was used as both a pre and post test; (2) vocabulary tests developed by Schmidt (2000) that test the 2000 level words, 3000, 5000, 10,0000 and academic vocabulary levels, with 30 items at each level, also used as both pre and post-tests. Tests were given at the beginning of the academic year and at the end of the year.
Results The effect of the in-class SSR treatment was determined by examining differences between gain scores (table 1). At each level of the vocabulary test, the experimental group made better gains, and the experimental group also made superior gains on the cloze test.
Table 1: Vocabulary Test Results
COMP PRE
EXP PRE
means (sd)
means (sd)
2000
27 (3.3)
26.4 (3.8)
3000
22.1 (5.7)
20.6 (5.7)
5000
17.5 (6.0)
17.3 (5.6)
10000
4.6 (4.1)
3.8 (3.2)
ACADEMIC 20.6 (5.5)
19.7 (6.2)
TOTAL
91.7 (20.3)
87.8 (20)
2000 3000 5000 10000 ACADEMIC TOTAL
COMP POST means (sd) 27.6 (2.4) 23.5 (4.9) 19.4 (5.6) 6.0 (4.6) 22.4 (5.5) 99 (18.7)
EXP POST means (sd) 27.8 (2.3) 24.8(4.3) 21.6 (4.7) 8.1 (3.1) 22.6(4.1) 104.8 (14.7)
2000 3000 5000 10000 ACADEMIC TOTAL *: p < .008 (see text)
DIFF pre/pst COMP 0.66 1.47 2.0 1.37 1.76 7.23
EXP 1.32 4.22 4.35 4.27 2.85a 17.02
t -1.39 -3.74 -3.26 -4.46 -1.31 -4.90
p 0.08 0.00013* 0.0007* 0.0000083*** 0.10 0.0000018*
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Table 2: Cloze Test Results
PRE
POST
comp
46.9 (10.1) 51.8 (9.8)
exp
44.4 (8.2)
58.9 (7.9)
DIFF 4.9 14.5
N of comparison group = 139
N of experimental group = 41
t -7.92
p 0.00000
Because multiple t-tests were used, the alpha level, the level of significance necessary to achieve statistical significance, was adjusted using the Bonferroni procedure (Rosenthal and Rosnow, 1984). Using the adjusted alpha of .008 (.05/6), the experimental group significantly outperformed the comparison group on the combined vocabulary test, on the cloze test, and on three levels of the vocabulary test. Discussion
Krashen, S. 2004. The Power of Reading. Portsmouth: Heinemann. Second Edition. Lee, S. Y. 1998. Effects of introducing free reading and language acquisition theory on students' attitudes toward the English class. Studies in English Language and Literature 4, 21-28. Lee, S. Y. 2005a. How robust is in-class sustained si lent reading? Studies in English Language and Literature, Vol. 15, p. 65-76.
In this study, readers easily outperformed comparison students. A factor that may have contributed to the success of the study was the fact that students had access to a substantial amount of reading material, approximately 1000 different titles (compared to 570 titles in Lee, 2005b, and 700 total books in Sims, 1996). In addition, the study lasted one academic year; as noted above, this is not the optimal length but in this case it was clearly long enough to produce a positive result. What is clear from the entire group of studies from Taiwan is that free reading works. In addition to its value in increasing test scores, reading results in increased knowledge of the world and subject matter knowledge, and is regarded by students as more pleasant than traditional instruction (Krashen, 2004). References
Lee, S. Y. 2005b. The robustness of extensive reaing: Evidence from two studies. International Jour nal of Foreign Language Teaching 1(3): 13-19. Lee, S.Y. 2005c. Sustained silent reading using as signed reading: Is comprehensible input enough? International Journal of Foreign Lan guage Teaching 1 (4): 10-12 Rosenthal, R. & Rosnow, R. 1984. Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill. Schmitt, N. 2000. Vocabulary in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sims, J. 1996. A new perspective: Extensive reading for pleasure. The Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on English Teaching, pp. 137-144. Taipei: Crane.
Hsu, Y. Y. & Lee, S. Y. 2005. Does Extensive reading also benefit junior college students in vocabu lary acquisition and reading ability? The Pro ceedings of the 22nd International Conference in English Teaching and Learning, pp.116-127. National Taiwan Normal University, June 4, 2005.
Yuan, Y. P., & Nash, T. 1992. Reading subskills and quantity reading. Selected papers from The Eighth Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China, pp. 291-304. Taipei: Crane. Back to top
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Is First Language Use in the Foreign Language Classroom Good or Bad? It Depends. Dr. Stephen Krashen Contrary to semi-popular opinion, the Comprehension Hypothesis does not forbid the use of the first language in the second language classroom. It does, however, provide guidelines. It predicts that the use of the first language will help second Language Development if it results in more comprehensible input, and will hurt second language development when it results in less comprehensible input. Providing Background Knowledge The first language helps when it provides background knowledge that functions to make second language input more comprehensible. This can happen in several ways: It happens when the first language is used to provide background knowledge through discussion or reading. When teachers know that a topic needs to be discussed in class that is unusually complex or unfamiliar, a short presentation or set of readings in the first language can be of great help. A few minutes or a page or two on relevant aspects of the history of Mexico, for example, can transform a discussion of Cortez from one that is opaque to one that is transparent. This kind of background is, of course, most useful when teachers know that all or nearly all students will require it.
The first language can also help when it is used during a lesson as a quick explanation. Comprehension difficulties can arise in unpredictable places and students differ in their need for background knowledge. The first language can be used as needed for quick explanations in the middle of discussions when some students are having trouble, and when it is not easy to paraphrase and use other means of providing context. There is also nothing wrong with providing a quick translation for a problematic word that is central to a discussion. Providing the translation may or may not contribute very much to the acquisition of the meaning of the translated word, but it can help make the entire discussion more comprehensible. The first language is misused when teachers provide so much information that there is no reason to continue the discussion in the second language. It is also misused when teachers provide so many brief explanations and translations that it is difficult to keep track of the message. If this intervention is considered to be necessary, the topic may not be right. It has been hypothesized that the acquirer needs to be so interested in the message (or "lost in the book") that he or she temporarily "forgets" that the message is in another language. When translations are excessive, the spell is broken. Dr. Krashen is professor emeritus, University of Southern California and a published author and speaker on second language acquisition, reading and bilingual education. www.sdkrashen.com.
Bilingual education relies on the same principle: In bilingual programs, students are given background knowledge in the first language in order to make subsequent instruction delivered in the second language more comprehensible (Krashen, 1996).
Back to top
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The amount of input matters: Incidental acquisition of grammar through listening and reading Victoria Rodrigo, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Spanish in the Department of Modern and classical languages at Georgia State University Several studies in second and foreign language, whether implementing intensive, extensive, and/or self-selected reading, provide evidence for the claim that grammar can be acquired incidentally through reading (e.g. Lee, Krashen & Gribbons (1995), Stokes, Krashen, and Kratchner (1998), Lee (2002),
exposed to has an effect on the acquisition of grammar when there is no focus on form. THE STUDY Participants The data were collected from ten intact fifth semester classes of Spanish during five consecutive semesters. The study had a sample of 183 subjects from which 53 were excluded due to students a) missing either the pre or post-test, b) attending classes irregularly, and c) taking a grammar class at the same time as the study was being conducted. Thus, only 130 students were included: 78 in the experimental group and 52 in the control group. As shown in Table 1, the control and the experimental groups were very similar demographically. Most of
[Table 1]
Gender Age
Control
Fem. Masc 18-2526-up
N=52
76% 24% 76% 24%
Experiment.
N=78
69% 31% 82% 18%
Major Spanish 65% 44%
Years Spanish Traveled Other Under 22.-4 4.1-up No Yes 35% 13% 37% 50% 45% 55% 56% 13% 30% 57% 49% 51%
Table 1. Descriptive statistics. Percentage of students by gender, age, major, years of study, and traveled abroad. Control: n=52, experimental: n=78.
Rodrigo, Krashen, and Gribbons (2004)). In addition, both foreign language and second language students perceive reading as more pleasurable and beneficial than grammar instruction (Dupuy (1995) McQuillan (1994). A number of studies confirm that methods that focus on providing aural comprehensible input produce superior results when compared to traditional methods (e.g. Asher, 1977, Krashen, 2003), and Rodrigo (2004) has demonstrated that "narrow listening" results in superior development of listening ability. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a combination of narrow listening and extensive reading on grammatical competence for intermediate students of Spanish as a foreign language at the university level. The central hypothesis tested here was whether the amount of written and aural input the students are
the subjects in the two groups were female students, between 18 and 25 years of age, with more than four years of instruction in Spanish, and had spent some time in a Spanish-speaking country, especially in a study abroad program. For unknown reasons, there were more Spanish majors or double majors (Spanish and Business) in the control group than in the experimental group. Procedure Both the experimental group and the control group followed a content-based-approach, i.e. focusing exclusively on meaning and information. The students were expected to do assigned reading, listen to their teacher and classmates, participate in Class Discussions, and write about specific topics. No explicit instruction on grammar was provided for either group.
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As shown in table 2, students in the experimental
to an extra seven hours and 20 minutes of meaningful
group were asked to do narrow listening (NL)
and comprehensible aural input.
activities and extensive reading. Narrow listening
was first used as individual self-instruction material The experimental group was also required to read two
(Krashen 1996) and then adapted to be used as part of novels by Miguel Muсoz (2000) ---Viajes Fantбsticos
an FL curriculum in Spanish (Rodrigo 2005). Since and Ladrуn de la mente-, and discuss them in class.
NL is a relatively new concept, a brief explanation of The reading of the novels was done following
its rationale seems to be appropriate here.
an extensive reading modality, that is, students
NL is based on the concept of extensive listening
read to enjoy the reading, for content and general
and the principles of re-listening --students listen to understanding.
the same passage as many times as they consider it
necessary--, topic familiarity --students select topics The extra exposure to listening and reading by the
of their own interest--, authenticity --students listen experimental group was done outside class and done
to unrehearsed and unscripted messages--, and focus as an assignment. The control group, however, did not
on content --students react and discuss the speakers' have these extra assignments as part of the curriculum.
points of
Unfortunately, no
view or
information was
experiences-
[Table 2]
recorded for either
- (for a full
group about the
account of this approach
Control group
Experimental group
students' exposure to Spanish outside
see Rodrigo,
Listening Teacher and student input Teacher and student input the classroom (e.g.
2003). In doing NL activities, students
Reading Intensive reading
Narrow listening Intensive reading Extensive reading
contact with friends who spoke Spanish, or TV viewing or radio listening in the
listen for information
Table 2. Input component in each group.
target language).
about topics
The grammar
of their
test used was
interest. These topics are collected in an audio-library a grammaticality judgment test for Spanish
containing 24 topics. Each topic is discussed by three (Ortega 2000) that requires students to judge the
native speakers elaborating on their points of view
grammaticality of 100 statements involving ten
or experience about the specific
different grammatical
subject. At the end of the semester each student in the experimental group had listened to 16 topics (48 listening passages). Although students were encouraged to listen to the topics as many times as they considered it necessary,
This study supports the claim that extensive reading and extensive listening, through the practice of narrow listening, are effective means to helping students develop a `feeling' of the language and a sense of accuracy.
structures. For each structure, four grammatical and four ungrammatical statements were included together with two distractors. Students had to indicate whether the statements appeared to them as grammatical or ungrammatical and how
they listened to each passage
confident they felt about their
an average of three times per
assessment on a 1-4 scale,
speaker. Since each topic had three speakers and the where 1 = definitely ungrammatical, 2 = probably
duration of each passage had an average length of two ungrammatical, 3 = probably grammatical and 4 =
minutes, students in the experimental group listened definitely grammatical. The reliability of the test was
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Groups Control
[Table 3]
N
Mean Sd Gain
52 Pre 315.03 24.73 5.05
Post 320.09 24.35
listening, are effective means to helping students develop a `feeling' of the language and a sense of accuracy. It does not, however, tell us which of the two was more potent. It is, however, unlikely that all the gains were due to reading two modest-length books.
Experimental 78 Pre 303.20 24.20 12.44
The pedagogical implications of this study are clear. If grammar can be
Post 315.65 25.63
acquired incidentally through listening and reading, it is the practitioner's
responsibility to provide and implement
Table 3. Descriptive statistics for the pre and post Grammar test. a rich written and aural input
Experimental and control group. Mean, Sd= Standard deviation; The maximum score for the test was 396.
component in the language curriculum. Thus, the process of acquisition of
the target language can be made more
high, .829 (Cronchach's alpha). The same test was used as a pre- and post-test.
expeditious. Finally, since students can be trained to build up their reading and listening abilities (Rodrigo, 2004a, 2004b; Wolvin, A. & C.
Coakley, 1982), language programs should give them
RESULTS
the tools they need to accelerate their acquisition
As shown in Table 3, both groups improved their
process by providing them with interesting reading
scores at the end of the semester, but the experimental and listening material, and by making it part of the
group improved more. A one-way within-subjects
language curriculum.
(repeated-measures) ANOVA revealed a significant
interaction between the pre-test, the post-test, and
Acknowledgments
treatment (i.e. amount of input): F (1,128) =4.292,
I would like to express my thanks to Don Segal from
p. <.05., confirming that the extra comprehensible
the Educational Research Bureau at Georgia State
input had a positive effect on the students' grammar University for his advice in the statistical analysis of
performance. The effect size, calculated from the F the data. The author is responsible for any inaccuracy.
ratio, was d = .30, a modest effect.
Notes
CONCLUSION and DISCUSSION
1. Originally the test had 100 items but, due
This study confirms that grammar can be acquired
to a typographical mistake, a distracter was
incidentally at the intermediate level through extensive
discarded. Only 99 items were finally used in
exposure to listening and reading, when language
the analysis.
acquirers do not focus on form. The experimental
group, which did extra listening and reading, obtained Victoria Rodrigo, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor of
far better scores. These results are consistent with
Spanish in the Department of Modern and Classical
the input or "comprehension" hypothesis, which
Languages at Georgia State University.
claims that a language can be acquired through
comprehensible input and that the more exposure to
the target language the more opportunities for the
learner to acquire it (Krashen 2003).
This study supports the claim that extensive reading and extensive listening, through the practice of narrow
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Reference Asher, J. (1977). Learning another language through actions: The complete teacher's guidebook. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks. Dupuy, B. (1995). Voices from the classroom: Intermediate-level French students favor extensive reading over grammar and give their reasons. Applied Language Learning, 8(2), 285-293. Krashen, S. (2003). Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Lee, J. (2002). The incidental acquisition of Spanish. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 55-80. Lee, Y. O., Krashen, S., & Gribbons, B. (1995). The effect of reading on the acquisition of English relative clauses. I.T.L: Review of Applied Linguistics, 113-114, 263-273. McQuillan, J. (1994). Reading versus grammar: What students think is pleasurable for language acquisition. Applied Language Learning, 5(2), 95-100. Muсoz, M. (2000). Viajes Fantбsticos. McGraw-Hill ___. (2000). Ladrуn de la Mente. McGraw-Hill Ortega, L. (2000). Understanding syntactic complexity: The measurement of change in the syntax of instructed L2 Spanish learners. Doctoral dissertation; University of Hawaii. Rodrigo, V., Krashen, S., & Gribbons, B. (2004). The effectiveness of two comprehensible-input approaches to foreign language instruction at the intermediate level. System, 32, 53-60. Rodrigo, V. (2005). Biblioteca auditiva. Narrow Listening Library to Accompany `Opiniones' . New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ___. (2004a). Assessing the impact of narrow listening: Students' perceptions and performance. In Cherry, M., and Bradley, L., (Eds). Assessment practices in foreign language education: DIMENSION, Southern Conference on Language Teaching, 53-65. ___. (2004b). Aproximaciуn teуrica y respuestas pedagуgicas al desarrollo de la audiciуn en espaсol intermedio. Hispania, 87(2), 311323.
www.SusanOhanian.org
____. (2003). Narrow listening and audio-library: The transitional stage in the process of developing listening comprehension in a foreign language. Mextesol Journal, 27(1), 9-25 Stokes, J., Krashen, S., & Kartchner, J. (1998). Factors in the acquisition of present subjunctive in Spanish: The role of reading and study. I.T.L: Review of Applied Linguistics 121-122, 1925. Wolvin, A. & Coakley, C. (1982). Listening. Dubuque, IA: Brown. ". . .for English class I was assigned to Miss Ruth Stevenson who closed the classroom door and said, `Ladies, let's have ourselves a hell of a good time!' "And we did, reading Austen, Dickinson, Eliot, Woolf, until we understood we'd come to train--not tame--the wild girls into the women who would run the world." --Julia Alvarez, from Abbot Academy www.SusanOhanian.org Back to top
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research paper SUBMISSION GUIDELINES The IJFLT invites short papers and replications. We think we can better serve the profession this way. Short papers serve both the reader and the writer. When a paper is long and rich in detail, it is difficult to keep the salient findings in mind. When a paper is simply long without important information, it is a waste of the reader's time. Short papers also stimulate intellectual development: writers can spend their time creating new knowledge, rather than reviewing the history of the profession for readers who already know it, or speculating in excessive detail about possible implications of a finding or endlessly repeating and summarizing within the same paper. We recommend papers of five pages or less, and remind readers that Watson and Crick's paper that announced the discovery of DNA and won a Nobel Prize was only one page long (Watson and Crick, 1953). We also see a need to encourage the publications of replications of important results. It has been established that many journals discourage replications, feeling that they aren't newsworthy. This results in publication bias, with only significant results being submitted and published. This runs the danger of giving an inaccurate picture of research. Replication also influences statistical significance. If two studies are published, an origianal and a replication, and each reports a significance level short of accepted levels of significance, the combined significance level may easily exceed accepted levels (Rosenthal, 1990). We also urge authors of papers with statistical analysis to include measures of effect size as well as statistical significance. Papers should be submitted to [email protected] by March 1, June 1, September 1 and December 1 for review. R. Rosenthal, 1990. Replication in behavioral research, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 5: 1-30. Also published in: Neuliep, J. (Ed.) 1991. Replication Research in the Social Sciences. Newbury Park: Sage 1991. Watson, J. and Crick, F. 1953. Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids. Nature 171, 737-738
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The Art of TPR Storytelling: It's My Story by Blaine Ray......................................15 Language on the Go: Tuning in to Podcasting by Jeff McQuillan, Ph.D .....................16 Concordia Language Villages Makes Arabic Announcement in Washington D.C .....19 El espaсol de California by Jacobo Mir and Carlos Prieto.........20 Letters to the Editor .................................23
The Art of TPR Storytelling: It's My Story by Blaine Ray One skill of TPRS that is essential is the idea that it is the teacher's story. Without this idea firmly entrenched in the mind of the teacher, much of the magic of TPRS can't happen. The TPRS fantasy is hard to pull off without the explanation that it is "my story." (emphasis on my). Since it is my story, I can include any detail whether it is believable or not. The students have to believe because, after all, it is the teacher's story. Since it is a story, whether the detail is fact or fiction doesn't matter because anything is possible in a story. That is what stories are all about. No one questions a pig building a house of bricks because it is the author's story so we must believe.
"It's my story" also easily allows the use of the past tense in the questioning process. For example, "There was a girl. Was there a girl? Was there a boy?" All of these past tense questions don't seem quite as natural unless of course it is my story. Since it is my story and of course since I know all of the details of my story, asking these questions in the past tense is quite natural and also believable.
The whole art of teaching is only the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds for the purpose of satisfying it afterwards. Anatole France
"It's my story" allows the teacher to maintain control of the story and of the class. The teacher is best qualified to determine the number of necessary repetitions and the pace of the story. The teacher can decide how repetitive to make the story. S/he can decide whether to be very repetitive if that is what the class needs by adding details to the story.
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The teacher is also best qualified to determine the content of the story. Giving students the power to decide what goes into the story can make it very difficult in the end to continue with TPRS. If students can control the story, they can take it anywhere they desire. They can put in offensive content that would never be acceptable in a school situation. They can also say hurtful things about other students. With time, as students see more and more the teacher's firmness on the story, they will not even try to interject details that don't match the goals of the class. "It's my story" allows the teacher to say positive things about the students. The teacher can say a student is the best looking in the entire universe or the smartest in the world and it is very believable since it is the teacher's story. With the concept of "it's my story" firmly established from day one, the year will go better, stories will be more interesting and the teacher will have the control needed to make the class stay the course with TPRS. Blaine Ray is the inventor of TPR Storytelling, Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling.
Language on the Go: Tuning in to Podcasting by Jeff McQuillan, Ph.D. Senior Research Associate Center for Educational Development Phillipe is improving his English, but he doesn't go to school or study with a textbook. Instead, he just hops on the Paris Metro and flips on his iPod. Ear buds firmly in place, he selects an audio program that he's subscribed to via the Internet and that gets delivered to his computer every morning. He listens, follows along with the script that appears on his iPod screen, and by the time he's arrived at his station, he's got 15 more minutes of English under his belt. And the best part is: It's all free. Welcome to the world of podcasting, the latest technological innovation to hit language teaching and learning. Podcasting (and its cousin, video podcasting) is a technology that is fast replacing blogs as the next Big Thing in Internet communication. In the view of some, it promises to reshape how (and when) students acquire languages.
What is podcasting? A podcast is like a syndicated radio program, only it's distributed over the Internet. It consists of an audio file (usually an MP3) that you can download on your computer and listen to on an iPod (hence the name, podcast) or any other MP3 player. But what makes podcasting so different is that you can subscribe to a program just like you might a newspaper or a magazine, with the help of some simple, free software. Once subscribed, you get the podcast programs (that is, the audio files) automatically delivered to your computer each day or week a new episode appears. A "vidcast" works on similar principles, only with video.
Although not even two years old, the number of these free audio and video programs has exploded. The most popular software available to download podcasts, Apple's iTunes (available for both Mac and Windows), started syndicating podcasts in the summer of 2005.
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At the date of this writing, there are close to 20,000 podcast programs in the iTunes catalog. Where are all these programs coming from? While some of the major media outlets (BBC, CNN) have their own podcasts, the vast majority of podcasts are "consumer generated content"--that is, they come from a techie sitting in her basement with a microphone, recording her thoughts and sending them out to the rest of the world. Like blogging before it, podcasting has been a bottom-up phenomenon. Average users are recording, producing, and uploading their files to the Internet for all to hear. Anyone who downloads the free iTunes software and clicks on the Podcast category can browse and subscribe to a program. It wasn't long before the potential of these freely distributed, home-generated audio files began to get the attention of some tech-savvy Language Teachers. Teachers such as Graham Stanley and his EFL Blog (www.pod-efl.com) pioneered and started to publicize the use of English language learning podcasts, and others soon followed suit. There are now a few dozen "Englishcasts" or free podcasts for learners of English, and the list grows daily. Several podcasts are now available for French, Spanish, Chinese, and several other languages. Most podcasts for language learners are produced by teachers for their own and other students, although there are a few commercial enterprises that have begun podcasting. What Can I do with a Podcast? The most obvious use of podcasting is to give students additional listening material outside of class. The first step is letting your students know that these podcasts exist, and are available for download. Suggest that they download the free iTunes software (www.iTunes. com), and look for the Podcast link. There are also a variety of other free programs they can download, such as Ipodder (www.ipodder.org). There they can search under the language of their choice and find the podcasts that are available in the catalog (some are listed under the "Education" section, some under the "International" section).
teachers, the real fun of podcasting comes from being able to exploit its portability. Students can now listen to their second language anywhere, and the results can only be beneficial. Of course, the use of podcasting is only as good as the podcast. Many (if not most) language podcasts have essentially taken the traditional language laboratory, with its discrete point focus and skill building activities, and exported it onto an iPod. But other podcasts have broken free of the traditional route to p rovide students with comprehensible, interesting material that can be listened to for its own interest. One website, Englishcaster.com, lists several popular podcasts that students can subscribe to and listen to, mostly at the intermediate and advanced levels. Getting into Podcasting Although I'm not what you might call a true techie, I got interested in podcasting in the spring of 2005, when I read an article on the web about it. Of course, I immediately went to Google and found a half a dozen tutorials on how to put one together. I started off recording some files with just my little computer mic and the recording software that came with my Mac (Garageband). Within a few weeks, "English as a Second Language Podcast" was born (www.eslpod. com). But there were certainly some growing pains in the process. While recording a podcast is relatively painless, getting the podcast "on the air" is another matter. There are still some daunting technological challenges to be met, and although new software to help you create a podcast is now available, it's not quite ready for the average user to start podcasting. (Some websites, such as www.Podcast411.com, provide detailed tutorials on the process.) Fortunately, teachers do not have to produce a podcast themselves to take advantage of the podcasts out there already. In fact, I would recommend to any teacher interested to go to the iTunes directory and look at the current offerings. Chances are they will find something that suits their needs.
Teachers can use podcasts just like any other sort of listening materials, including as a jumping off point for further discussion. But while these more "traditional" uses of podcasting will suit some
The format I follow for my "shows" is very straightforward. I begin with a short dialog or discussion three to five minutes long and read somewhat slowly so as to be more comprehensible.
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This is followed by a detailed explanation of and
directly to students and teachers. But as with all
expansion upon the phrases and ideas included in the technology, there are also some potential pitfalls.
initial dialog. The podcast concludes by repeating
Perhaps the greatest of these is what we might call the
the dialog or story, only this time at a native speaker "old wine into new skins" problem. The temptation
rate. The whole "show" runs no more than 15 to 20 will be to replicate the often dull, largely unsuccessful
minutes--enough for a short commute or morning jog. listening material that predominates the current
I provide listeners with a script of the short dialog
market in the podcasting venue.
or discussion on my website, and for those with
iPods, on the screen of their MP3 player. They can I see podcasting as the key to helping second language
then follow the script as they listen, if they choose.
students who have reached an intermediate level of
There are no activities or quizzes, just interesting,
fluency through taking a few courses in school, but
comprehensible English
whose progress
aimed at intermediate
has stalled well
and advanced students. Other Englishcasters have taken to providing more extensive
The promise of podcasting is that it will provide individuals outside the publishing industry
short of proficiency. This problem, well documented in foreign language
teaching support for their programs, such as Breaking English News Podcast (www.
with a chance to deliver alternative Types of listening content directly to students and teachers. But as
programs by Beatrice Dupuy at the University of Arizona, exists in
breakingenglishnews.
with all technology, there are also
large part due to a
com). After I submitted the show for syndication
some potential pitfalls. Perhaps the greatest of these is what we might call the "old wine into new skins"
dearth of materials (and subsequent instruction) that are interesting and
on iTunes in late July, 2005, I waited to see if anyone would listen. To my great
problem. The temptation will be to replicate the often dull, largely unsuccessful listening material that
comprehensible to intermediate students. Students come out of their
surprise and delight,
predominates the current market in years of formal study
the number of listeners steadily grew, and at
the podcasting venue.
with some basic communication
this writing it is one of
skills, but often with
the top ranked podcasts in several European countries insufficient proficiency to access native-speaker texts
and Japan. More recently, I've launched the TOEFL and materials. By providing lots of easy, intermediate
Podcast (www.TOEFLPod.com), where students can listening material that students enjoy, podcasting
listen to short conversations and lectures similar to
can take those students to a more advanced level.
the ones they'll encounter on the Test of English as a What's more, it can provide input in a large variety
Foreign Language.
of specialized ways. Interested in computers? Golf?
Music? Podcasting can fill any niche imaginable.
The Future of Podcasting:
Bridging the Intermediate Gap
Of course, once students are at the advanced level,
Podcasting provides teachers with a potentially
sources of native speaker listening material are readily
unlimited amount of second language listening
available (CNN has its own podcast, for example).
material delivered directly to their computer.
Podcasting is a bridge to those higher levels of
The promise of podcasting is that it will provide
proficiency.
individuals outside the publishing industry with a
chance to deliver alternative types of listening content
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Concordia Language Villages Makes Arabic Announcement in Washington D.C. Hal tatakallam al-'Arabiyya? Do you speak Arabic? Arabic is the fifth most spoken language in the world. More than 300 million people around the world speak Arabic. Countries, in which Arabic is the official language, stretch from Morocco in the west to Oman in the east.
man said. "Over the years, Concordia has exposed countless children to strategic languages ranging from Russian to Chinese to Korean and Spanish, and languages like Swedish and Norwegian that are strategic for Minnesotans. What better way for Concordia to continue this wonderful tradition than by giving children exposure to the next strategic language ­ Arabic." Starting in July 2006, students at the Arabic Language Village, Al-Wдha (The Oasis,) will immerse themselves in the study of the language and culture through a variety of activities, including singing, dancing, arts and meals. www.ConcordiaLanguageVillages.org
Sen. Norm Coleman, on behalf of Concordia Language Villages, announced the addition of Arabic, the Villages' 14th language, Oct. 6 in Washington, D.C. Coleman was joined by Ambassador Hussein Hassouna of the League of Arab Nations, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Academic Programs Thomas Farrell, Concordia College President Pamela Jolicoeur and Concordia Language Villages Executive Director and CEO Christine Schulze. "Concordia Language Villages uses the magic of Minnesota's north woods as a perfect setting for immersing children in a foreign language," Cole-
Image by Kaveh Sardari. Sen. Norm Coleman speaks about the benefits of teaching children second languages, while Concordia College President Pamela Jolicoeur and Concordia Language Villages Executive Director Christine Schulze look on during Thursday's Arabic Language Village announcement in Washington, D.C. Back to top
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El espaсol en California por Jacobo Mir y Carlos Prieto Centro Espaсol de Recursos de la Oficina de Educaciуn del Consulado de Espaсa en Los Angeles, Universidad del Sur de California 1. Primera obviedad: el espaсol de Espaсa y el de Amйrica son diferentes. 2. Segunda obviedad: existe tambiйn una gran variedad lingьнstica entre los paнses de Amйrica. 3. Tercera obviedad: todas esas variantes lingьнsticas son "correctas". 4. Cuarta obviedad: en las zonas fronterizas en las que coexisten dos idiomas hay siempre un riesgo mayor de contaminaciуn lingьнstica. 5. Quinta obviedad: el espaсol de Mйxico (una de esas correctas variantes lingьнsticas) hablado en California constituye un claro ejemplo de lengua fronteriza.
En este pequeсo artнculo pretendemos abordar el tema del espaсol en California para: 1. Reflexionar sobre las diferencias existentes entre el espaсol de la Penнnsula y el de Mйxico1. 2. Reflexionar sobre cuбl debiera ser la actitud--y el mйtodo-- del docente (procedente de Espaсa) a la hora de enseсar en espaсol a unos niсos/as en su mayorнa de origen mexicano y residentes en California. 3. Analizar la situaciуn del espaсol hablado en California, lengua en permanente contacto con el inglйs, y motivo de preocupaciуn entre muchos estudiosos de la lengua2. 4. Presentar una lista incompleta, a modo de glosario, de algunos de los tйrminos mбs alejados de nuestra acepciуn espaсola, bien por ser de origen mexicano, bien por ser calcos y/o adaptaciones del inglйs.
Algunos tйrminos lingьнsticos: 1. No resulta sencillo definir lengua y dialecto*. En la actualidad, los lingьistas tienden a buscar un concepto de lengua que englobe aspectos polнticos y sociolingьнsticos. Desde esta perspectiva, se puede definir lengua como el conjunto formado por una variante estбndar y todos sus heterуnimos (dependientes de esa variante). La clave estб en el concepto de estбndar, que es la variante dialectal que se selecciona como referencia para la elaboraciуn de la norma. En el caso del espaсol, la RAE incorpora a la norma elementos de las diferentes variantes latinoamericanas a travйs de las distintas academias de cada paнs. їPodrнa entenderse entonces el concepto de lengua espaсola como un concepto unificador de las distintas variantes dialectales, cada una con su propio estбndar? 2. Dialecto se define entonces como la variante lingьнstica asociada a un grupo social determinado (ya sea un grupo de edad, sexo, clase social, religiуn o una determinada zona geogrбfica). Esta definiciуn englobarнa, por lo tanto, los conceptos tradicionales de variante geogrбfica y sociolecto. No incluirнa ni la variante individual (idiolecto) ni el concepto registro, variantes de un mismo individuo en situaciones comunicativas distintas. 3. Diglosia: coexistencia de dos lenguas en un espacio comъn. 4. Isoglosa: lнnea imaginaria que en un atlas pasa por todos los puntos en que se manifiesta un mismo fenуmeno lingьнstico. 5. Lingua franca: lengua hнbrida, o mezcla de lenguas, utilizada en una amplia extensiуn territorial como lengua de comunicaciуn o de comercio entre hablantes de distintas lenguas. *Agradecemos las aportaciones de Sergi Balari (Universitat Autтnoma de Barcelona) y Margarita Ravera (Centro Espaсol de Recursos, Los Angeles) para tratar de definir lengua y dialecto.
1 Quizбs serнa este el momento de reflexionar sobre el papel y la legitimidad de la Real Academia de la Lengua Espaсola, que en su intento por velar por el espaсol en el mundo es muchas veces atacada por no recoger en toda su extensiуn la variedad lingьнstica de los paнses de Amйrica Latina (a pesar de que todos ellos tienen un miembro que los representa). 2 En noviembre de 1973 se estableciу en Nueva York la Academia Norteamericana, correspondiente de la espaсola, responsable de velar por el espaсol hablado en los Estados Unidos.
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1. EL ESPAСOL DE LA PENНNSULA Y EL DE AMЙRICA: CUESTIONES PREVIAS "La gran comunidad de hispanohablantes es un gran бrbol, en el que cada persona es una hoja". Octavio Paz 3 · Ser de Espaсa y hablar espaсol en California supone una elecciуn y una renuncia permanentes: de nada sirve imponer nuestra variante dialectal sobre la de aquн. Aquн vivimos y aquн debemos ser entendidos. · Ser maestro de Espaсa en California y enseсar en espaсol a alumnos mexicanos supone un constante esfuerzo de adaptaciуn y de asimilaciуn a su realidad lingьнstica: es su modelo del que debemos partir, para mejorarlo, porque йsa es la labor de cualquier docente. Pero no mejorarlo comparбndolo y asimilбndolo al nuestro, sino tratando de acercarnos a la variante mбs culta del espaсol de Mйxico. · Ser maestro, en cualquier paнs y de cualquier disciplina, consiste en participar activamente del proceso de aprendizaje de los alumnos, tratando de generar en ellos la suficiente confianza y entusiasmo para que ese proceso culmine con йxito. Para ello valoraremos siempre positivamente lo que ellos aporten porque sуlo asн, partiendo de su valoraciуn personal, conseguiremos que compartan nuestro entusiasmo. · La lengua es nuestro principal rasgo de identidad. Pretender modificarla constituye un atentado contra esa manifestaciуn esencial del gйnero humano. · Enseсar a leer y a hablar correctamente, en cualquier lengua, constituye un permanente proceso de nivelaciуn: partimos de la realidad lingьнstica de nuestros alumnos y tratamos de mejorar su expresiуn, su pronunciaciуn, su escritura. No para cambiar su engua: la que ellos nos aportan es vбlida, sуlo pretendemos pulirla, engrandecerla, dotarla de sus mбximos recursos. · No comparemos dos modelos lingьнsticos distintos (el de aquн y el de allн). Si verdaderamente queremos contribuir al proceso de formaciуn de nuestros alumnos, tratemos de aproximarnos a su realidad --con respeto, con interйs-- para que nosotros (formadores y pedagogos al fin y al cabo) guiemos a estos niсos y niсas en el aprendizaje de su lengua. Para eso sн estamos preparados: para sistematizar, para dotar de estructura a la realizaciуn imperfecta de una lengua. No olvidemos que, en torno a los cinco aсos, el niсo posee ya y conoce su sistema lingьнstico: es la escuela quien le ayuda a reflexionar sobre esa realidad que ya conoce. Pretender modificarla de raнz ("eso no se pronuncia asн"; "eso no existe en espaсol (Ў!)"; "esto estб mal") es otra cosa. La conquista ya pasу. Es la hora del respeto y del reconocimiento. Al estudiar la realidad lingьнstica de Amйrica, no podemos olvidar ni los rasgos procedentes de las lenguas indнgenas, ni el hecho de que durante siglos haya sido una lengua impuesta el vehнculo de comunicaciуn entre varios millones de hablantes. A modo de recordatorio, йstas son las principales lenguas indнgenas, la mayorнa de las cuales todavнa perviven: 1. Arahuaco, en las Antillas. 2. Nбhuatl, en las altiplanicies mexicanas. 3. Maya, en la Penнnsula del Yucatбn. 4. Quechua, en Perъ y norte de Chile. 5. Aimara, en Bolivia. 6. Guaranн, en Paraguay y Paranб. 7. Mapuche, en el sur de Chile. ______________________ 3 "Nuestra lengua", artнculo publicado en La Jornada, Mйxico, el 8 de abril de 1997
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"Idiomas bajo acoso", artнculo de Carlos Montemayor Zacatecas, publicado en La Jornada el 9 de abril de 1997. Recojo a continuaciуn algunas de las ideas publicadas en el citado artнculo: 1. En el nuevo siglo, Mйxico serб probablemente la mayor naciуn hispana del mundo, y probablemente Estados Unidos serб la segunda naciуn hispanoparlante del planeta. 2. La castellanizaciуn de Amйrica, vista como una forma agresiva de destrucciуn cultural. La lengua espaсola como lengua impuesta, de cultura, de trabajo y de prestigio social. 3. Paralelismo entre el espaсol y las lenguas indнgenas, y el inglйs y el espaсol en Estados Unidos. Muchas familias no quieren que los hijos aprendan la lengua indнgena; quieren que hablen espaсol porque asн estarбn mejor preparados para sobrevivir. Muchas familias de hispanohablantes en Estados Unidos, por la misma razуn, no quieren que sus hijos hablen espaсol. 4. Rechazo a la idea de que el espaсol que se habla en Castilla es la norma del espaсol que se habla en el mundo. "Hoy es imposible entender nuestra lengua espaсola a partir de lo que sуlo ocurre con los escritores, lingьistas o hablantes de Espaсa". Si bien algunas de las ideas aquн vertidas pueden resultar algo sorprendentes para algunos, ofrecen un punto de vista interesante, que invita a la reflexiуn.
1.1. Rasgos del espaсol de Amйrica:
La lengua espaсola que se habla actualmente en Amйrica ha evolucionado mucho con respecto a la que se implantу con el descubrimiento. Sin embargo, comparбndola con la peninsular actual, y pese a las diferencias, sigue sorprendiendo por su unidad y uniformidad con respecto a la lengua hablada en Espaсa. Las diferencias son mбs evidentes en el nivel lйxico que en el morfosintбctico o fonйtico. Es decir, la lengua culta hablada en Amйrica presenta una gran homogeneidad con respecto a la de Espaсa; las variantes lingьнsticas aparecen en otros niveles de lengua: en el familiar, en el popular o en el coloquial.
De todos es conocido que muchos de los rasgos de la pronunciaciуn del espaсol de Amйrica son rasgos propios
de las regiones meridionales de Espaсa. Muchos de estos rasgos estбn ya atestiguados a finales del siglo XV
en el sur de la penнnsula; asimismo, se sabe tambiйn que la mayorнa de los emigrantes espaсoles que pasaron a
Amйrica procedнan de la actual Andalucнa, y los que no procedнan de esa zona, probablemente pasaron mucho
tiempo allн antes de poder embarcar para el largo viaje que habнa de llevarles a las Indias, asimilando asн rasgos
propios de la regiуn. Eso explica muchos de los rasgos que a continuaciуn vamos a presentar. Aparecen con (*)
los rasgos mбs caracterнsticos de Mйxico. Back to top
Click here to download this 45-page document in its entirety from el Centro Espaсol de Recursos de la Oficina de Educaciуn del Consulado de Espaсa en Los Angeles, Universidad del Sur de California
Re-printed with permission, courtesy of Jacobo Mir., Asesor Tйcnico / Education Advisor, Embajada de Espaсa / Embassy of Spain, Chicago Public Schools.
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© Winter 2006
Letters to the Editor
fiction by Elizabeth Silance Ballard at: http://urbanlegends.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http:// www.pattishomepage.com/read/teddy.htm
In regard to The Teddy Story, printed in the Winter, 2005 edition, published in December.
On a personal note, the disillusionment that this revelation represents is tragically disappointing.
As you may be aware by now, this story is a work of fiction (which should be credited to the appropriate person) that has turned into an urban legend. Please see these references for confirmation:
Thank you for bringing this to our attention and for helping us to give appropriate credit to the author. *****
http://www.post-gazette.com/columnists/ 20010929roddy0929p5.asp http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/bl_teddy_stoddard.htm http://www.truthorfiction.com/rumors/t/teddy.htm "The story was written by Elizabeth Silance Ballard and published in Home Life magazine in 1976. It was not represented as being a true story but rather as a piece of fiction. It was later republished in the magazine in 1976 with the notation that it was one of the most requested stories in the magazine's history."
Thank-you for the look into the journal. I just wanted to comment about your article "Please Rock the Babies". My parents used to live in Bucerias and they often go to Vallarta...I don't think they know about the orphanage but now that this has been brought to my attention they might be able to lend a helping hand as well as make some donations....I will too when I decide to go to Vallarta again. Thank-you, Nadina Dodd LSI Marketing Vancouver, Canada
"For the record, the only Stoddard connected with Iowa Methodist Hospital in Des Moines was John D. Stoddard, an engineer and cancer victim, after whom the John Stoddard cancer center was named. He died in 1998."
It is certainly a heartwarming story, and as such deserved inclusion in the Online Journal in its original and correctly credited form.
Katie Carter
*****
The Teddy Story has been widely circulated among teachers, and not checking its urban legend status was an error we regret. We found the original work of
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
International Spotlight
Cameroon, Africa
by Karen Rowan There is a used clothing market in Cameroon, Africa that is informally referred to by residents as "The Dead White Man's Market" where, often, clothing that was donated in the United States to second hand stores is re-sold. The Dead White Man's Market earned its nickname because the purchasers can't believe that clothing in such good condition could possibly have been given away by people who are still living.
Benson had been living in Cameroon since 1992 and began teaching with the School for International Training in 1996. After five bouts of malaria, David is now living the the United States in Colorado teaching history at The Colorado Springs School. He is also the Dean of the French Voyageur Camp, part of Concordia Language Villages, in Bemidji, MN and returns each summer to direct that program. "Christmas-time in Cameroon is family time," Benson says. "I wanted to return to spend time with the families who had `adopted' me." Collecting
Cameroon is slightly larger than the State of California and is located in Western Africa. The population is 16,380,005, a number which explicitly takes into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
The Chief and his first wife in Keleng, West Province, Cameroon, pictured with David Benson (center).
David Benson (center of photo), former resident of Cameroon, returned in December for a visit, which covered 6 villages in 5 provinces. He was photographed here in traditional dress with the Chief of Keleng and his first wife (he has twelve). While in Cameroon, he distributed clothing and toys he had collected in Colorado Springs, Colorado, US to children in three of those villages. In spite of the generally warm climate, winters can be as cold as 40 or 50 degrees. Jackets and warm clothes are badly needed.
The children of the Chief of Keleng in Foto, West Province, Cameroon wearing new clothes from Colorado.
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
(July 2005 est.). http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/ factbook/geos/cm.html Nearly 7% in Cameroon suffer from AIDS. By contrast, .6% of residents of the US suffer from the same disease. Many of the photographs below are labeled by region. There is a 30% unemployment rate in Cameroon and 48% of all residents live at or below the poverty line. Benson has built a home in the village of Keleng and plans on finding a way to split his time between Colorado and Cameroon in the future.
Yemele children before and after receiving their Christmas clothes. Dschang, West Province, Cameroon.
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
Clearing the road on the way to Campo-Ma'an National Park, South Province, Cameroon. The National Park is located near Kribi on the map.
Playing Dreidel with the Tsamo children in Dschang, West Province, Cameroon. Western Cameroon is located near Bafoussam on the map. It is the capital of the West Province.
Typical roads in the rainforest region. Progress is made at the rate of about 10K per hour.
Nnane children in Dschang, West Province, Cameroon on Christmas. Sabga, Northwest Province, Cameroon. They are semi-nomadic, cattle herding people (Fulani). Sabga is located near Bamenda (see map) and is the capital of the Northwest Province.
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
Tsamo children playing with their Christmas presents, sponge toys that grow in water.
Teenagers of Fongo Tongo with Christmas clothes from Colorado. Collins "Kuete" (middle) is the second in command to the Chief of the same village.
This hours-old newborn baby lies on a bed in a hospital in Dschang next to her mother.
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
Fongo Tongo. Tsamo children on one of the Bamboutos mountains.
Children at the Chief's palace pose with their plastic cell phone Christmas presents.
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Pictures may not be used without express permission of the photographer. Please contact [email protected] edu. For information about Concordia Language Villages, see article, page 19. For information about The School for International Training, please go to www.sit.edu/. For information about The Colorado Springs School, please go to www.css.org.
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
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9 Are you in your last year of university or a recent graduate? 9 Do you have an intermediate to advanced level of Spanish and would like to learn more about the language and culture of Spain? 9 Would you like to have a language teaching experience in Spain? If so, you can apply for one of the ca. 482 grants offered by the Ministry of Education and Science in collaboration with several Regional Governments of Spain. This Language and Culture Assistant Program offers you the possibility of working in an elementary or secondary school from October 2006 to June 2007. This Language and Culture Assistant Program is open to last-year university students or recent graduates, with an intermediate to advanced level of Spanish and interested in acquiring experience as language teachers abroad. Assistants work for 12 hours a week helping English language teachers with conversation and cultural activities. Assistants receive 631 euros/month + teacher training, medical insurance and a certificate of participation in the program among other benefits. For more information, please visit the website of the Education Office of the Embassy of Spain http://www.sgci.mec.es/usa/AC/indexing.shtml e-mail: [email protected] Tel: 202 728 2335 Fax: 202 728 2313 Application deadline: April 16, 2006
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
When teachers die.....
Links & Resources
What happens when teachers die?
A teacher dies and goes to Heaven. When she gets there she meets St. Peter at the pearly white gates. St. Peter says to her, "Welcome to Heaven. Let me give you an orientation first." So, St. Peter takes her to some beautiful mansions. The teacher asks, "Who lives here in these beautiful houses?" "These are for doctors. They did a lot of good on Earth so they get a nice mansion," replied St. Peter. St. Peter takes the teacher to some more mansions. These were more magnificent than the first. "Wow, who lives here?"
Subscribe to IJFLT To subscribe to The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, a free, on-line quarterly journal, go to: www.ijflt.com 1st quarter, Winter, 2004 2nd quarter, Spring, 2005 3rd quarter, Summer, 2005 4th quarter, Fall, 2005
"These mansions are for social workers. They did a lot of good on Earth but didn't make a lot of money so they get a better house." St. Peter took the teacher to some more mansions. These were the most gorgeous homes she had ever seen. They had huge columns, well manicured lawns, beautiful stained glass windows, the works! "These are the most beautiful homes I have ever seen," exclaimed the teacher "who lives here?!" "Teachers live here," said St. Peter, "they did much good on Earth and received very little money so they get the best houses in all of Heaven." "But where are all of the teachers?" inquired the teacher. St. Peter answered, "Oh, they'll be back soon. They're all in Hell at an in-service." (Forwarded by email. Unknown origin.) Back to top
To submit articles for review, send them by attachment to [email protected] FORMATTING CHANGES: Please be advised that the second year of IJFLT, volume 2, begins with Winter 2006 and was published in the first quarter of 2006. Spring, Summer and Fall issues will follow quarterly Found a helpful link or interesting web site that should be shared with other teachers? Have an idea for an article or something that works in your classroom? Want to let teachers know about upcoming state language conferences, workshops or trainings? Send us an email, [email protected]
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The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching
© Winter 2006
ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines http://www.gwu.edu/~slavic/actfl.htm National Standards (U.S.) http://www.cas.usf.edu/languages/whystudy/standard.htm National Association of Bilingual Educators (U.S.) http://www.NABE.org Download Free Question Word Posters in: French-http://www.tprstories.com/Quest ion%20Words%20French1.doc German-http://www.tprstories.com/Que stion%20Words%20German.doc Spanish-http://www.tprstories.com/ Question%20Words%20Spanish.doc or English-http://www.tprstories.com/ Question%20Words%20English.doc Fluency Fast Language Classes Learn beginning Spanish, French, Russian, German, Mandarin or Arabic in 4 days through TPRS Summer 2006
Editor: Karen Rowan Editorial Board: Kyung Sook Cho, PhD Busan National University of Education, Busan, Korea Miriam Eisenstein Ebsworth, Ph.D. New York University New York, USA Timothy John Ebsworth, Ph.D Education, College of New Rochelle, NY Stephen Krashen, PhD University of Southern California (Emeritus) Los Angeles, CA Sy-ying Lee, PhD National Taipei University Taipei, Taiwan Beniko Mason, PhD International Buddhist University, Osaka, Japan Steven R. Sternfeld, PhD University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Back to top
www.FluencyFast.com
Subscribe to The International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching at www.ijflt.com. IJFLT is a free, quarterly, on-line journal.
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© Winter 2006

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