Making tourism count for the local economy in the Caribbean: guidelines for good practice

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Content: Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation With assistance from CRSTDP and EU First Choice and TUI April 2006 Caroline Ashley, Harold Goodwin, Douglas McNab, Mareba Scott, Luis Chaves
Preface and Acknowledgements These guidelines were produced as part of a project on stimulating pro-poor linkages in the Caribbean, implemented by the Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and funded by the Travel Foundation (UK).The guidelines are produced by the PPT Partnership (UK) and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation (Barbados), drawing on assistance of Ena Harvey of the IICA Agro-Tourism Linkages Centre (Barbados) and the UK tour operators First Choice and the TUI Group (UK). This publication was co-financed by the European Union within the framework of the Regional Tourism Product Development Project of the Caribbean Tourism Sector Programme. Phase 1 of the project involved a training workshop and guidelines in Dominican Republic (www.propoortourism.org.uk/ DomRepguidelines.pdf) in collaboration with Asonahores (Dominican Republic Hotel Association), and production of an overview report on linkages by Dorothea Meyer (Sheffield Hallam University, UK) (www.propoortourism.org.uk/ caribbean) Copyright information Copyright © 2006 PPT Partnership and the Travel Foundation. We encourage others to share and distribute material from these guidelines for the purpose of promoting pro-poor tourism. Please acknowledge the copyright of PPTPartnership and Travel Foundation and send copies of new materials that use these guidelines to [email protected]
The purpose of these good practice guidelines is to assist tourism companies to contribute more to the local economy. The intended audience is tourism businesses of various sizes and operational types. Other guidelines already describe the `what and why' of more responsible or sustainable tourism. These guidelines focus on practical tips on how to do it. Additional copies of the guidelines can be downloaded from www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean or from www.thetravelfoundation.org.uk or www.onecaribbean.org . Hard copies may be ordered from the Caribbean Tourism Organisation. Tel: (246) 427 5242; Fax: (246) 429 3065. Email: [email protected] The project was achieved in close collaboration with Dilys Roe (IIED). Research, liaison, text revision, administration and editing were done by Oliver Reichardt and Sebastian Brinkmann of ODI, Caroline Warburton (of ICRT) and Richard Hammond (independent). Layout was by John Fleming ([email protected]) and printing by Panagraphix. A great deal of thanks is owed to many individuals and organisations that made these guidelines possible, particularly to those who were interviewed or provided feedback on draft guidelines: Ena Harvey (IICA), Jane Ashton (First Choice), Danielle Chapman (TUI), Peter Bishop (researcher), Gustavo Candelario (Dominican Republic Tourist Board), Chris James (Chair, Travel Foundation Steering Committee, Tobago) Derren Joseph (Thomas Cook Signature), Simon Suarez (hotelier), Lissette Gil (TOI Punta Cana/Bayahibe project), Barbara Polanco (First Choice), Lorraine Radford (MyTravel), Chris Thompson and Angie Hill (Federation of Tour Operators), David Bright (Oxfam UK), Ronald Astaphan (Guiyave Ltd), Sylvester Clauzel (St Lucia Tourism Programme), Loreto Duffy-Meyers (Almond-Casuarina, Barbados), Allart Elise (TUI Netherlands), Charmaine Gouveia (Jolly Beach Resort,Antigua), Prof Lynn Harrison (School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ryerson University, Toronto), Penelope Hynam (George Washington House Project, Barbados), Yashin Dujon, Susy Karammel (GTZ), Olatz Landa (UNESCO), Matthias Mueller (GTZ), Deirdre Shurland (Director, CAST), Luis Simo (Deputy Minister of Tourism, Dominican Republic), Claudia Townsend (Sustainable tourism consultant), Wendy Walker-Drakes (Managing Director, Ecolink Inc, Barbados) and all the participants at Asonahores workshop in July 2005. Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the authors and consultants and do not necessarily reflect those of the Travel Foundation, Caribbean Tourism Organization, the European Union or other partners. Author information Caroline Ashley: Research Associate in Tourism and Poverty, Overseas Development Institute (ODI), UK [email protected] Harold Goodwin: International Centre for Responsible Tourism (ICRT), UK [email protected] Douglas McNab: Tourism Researcher, formerly at the Overseas Development Institute [email protected] Mareba Scott: Sustainable Tourism Product Specialist, Caribbean Tourism Organisation [email protected] Luis Chaves: Sustainable Tourism Policy Advisor, Caribbean Regional Sustainable Tourism Development Programme [email protected] The Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership is a collaboration of Caroline Ashley (ODI), Harold Goodwin (ICRT) and Dilys Roe (International Institute of Environment and Development). See www.propoortourism.org.uk
Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation
Brief 1
Overview: Tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages
Poverty is a fact of life for many in the Caribbean. Although tourism is a major source of employment and a central part of the Caribbean economy, there is potential for tourism to contribute much more to the livelihoods of poor people, particularly in the areas around tourism resorts. In doing so, tourism companies can contribute to national economic goals without compromising their commercial interests.This will help the sector to enhance its own security and operating environment, and gain opportunities to upgrade the product and enhance the quality of tourist experience. There are many different kinds of linkages that
tourism companies can develop with local
people. Hotels can purchase directly from small and
micro-businesses, as well as increase recruitment and
training of local unskilled and semi-skilled staff.Hotels
and tour operators can also enter into neighbourhood
partnerships to make the local social environment a
better place to live,work and visit for all.And they can
support the development of local arts, crafts, cultural
products and tourism services,both by developing new
excursions and by encouraging tourists to spend in the
local economy. Different linkages are outlined in
Figure 1 ­ hotels and tour operators should choose
which linkages are more appropriate in their local
context.

BENEFITS to hotels and tour operators from investing in local linkages1
Market advantage: Improved product: License to operate: Minimise risk: Staff morale: Sustainability:
Hotels and tour operators can build reputation, adapt to customer trends that seek more interactive holidays, and secure repeat business from enhanced customer experience. Improved complementary product for guests: competitive advantage is gained from product differentiation and non-price competition. Linkages build good relationships with the local community and demonstrate a company's commitment to the local economy. Companies are already minimising health and safety risks. Local linkages help address risks associated with reputation and public image. When staff see their company investing in the local economy, it can boost recruitment and retention; and thus customer service. Sustainability:working with the communities will increase awareness and skills to promote and preserve the local natural and cultural heritage,so contributing to the sustainability of the tourism product.
Building linkages with the local economy is also known as Pro-Poor Tourism (www.propoortourism.org.uk), which is about doing business differently.
Philanthropic donations to local
causes can be very useful for the
community, but they do not make
the best use of the assets of the
tourism sector. Rather, there is a
strong business case ­ or more
precisely, a number of business
cases ­ for the tourism sector to
invest in local linkages. Tourism is
not flush with cash, but it has
enormous purchasing power,
requirements for inputs and staffing, business expertise, and influence over a large numbers of
Figure 1: Different kinds of linkages between tourism businesses and the local economy
tourists (especially with regard to their spending One of the benefits of tourism development is that it
power and interest in the destination).
brings improved infrastructure: potable water,
Tourism operators require secure,attractive and hospitable local neighbourhoods, as well as the support of local people.They also need to innovate and develop their product. So linkages with local entrepreneurs can contribute to upgrading the tourism experience.
improved roads, waste management, electricity and telecommunications.Wherever possible, the industry should encourage local authorities to extend access to these facilities to local communities. Such improvements to infrastructure are very significant in extending the benefits of the tourism economy to local people.
About the Briefs . . . The eight Briefs in this series provide practical tips on how to develop different types of local linkages, drawing on experience in several different countries in the Caribbean For other Briefs in the series and further information see www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Brief 1: Overview: tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages Brief 2: Bringing local producers into the supply chain Brief 3: Building links with local farmers Brief 4: Employing local staff Brief 5: Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions Brief 6: Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy Brief 7: Building neighbourhood partnerships Brief 8: Managing internal change for developing local linkages.
The Appendix provides more details, further examples, sources, and a useful list of contacts. The Briefs outline some of the benefits and challenges of local linkages, and then focus on what to do. They provide tips on good practice mainly for hoteliers, but also for other private, governmental and nongovernmental operators in tourism.
Endnote: 1. For more on the business benefits of tourism linkages internationally seeTourism and Local Economic Development International Business Leaders Forum and International Tourism Partnership 2004, www.propoortourism.org.uk/Publications%20by%20partnership/Tourism%20and%20Local%20Development.pdf
Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation For other Briefs in the series and further information see www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Brief Bringing local producers into 2 the supply chain
The Issue: How can hotels and other tourism product providers buy more locally-produced products and services? What is the potential to buy more soft furnishings (e.g. arts, crafts, table mats, candles), operational supplies (e.g. uniforms, bed linen), guest amenities (e.g. recycled paper, handmade soaps), services (e.g. floristry, entertainment) or food items from the local economy?
Consider the opportunities For hotels, buying from local producers creates opportunities through: · Utilising more distinctive products that differentiate the hotel environment and enhance the brand. · Increasing the range of local activities increases motivation to stay and contributes to extended length of stay · Enabling cost-savings, if local goods or services are less expensive. · Building networks of local collaboration For small and micro businesses, selling products to hotels can provide an invaluable market and the opportunities to expand and improve their product quality, range and business. The draft Preferred Code of the UK Federation of Tour Operators recommends local purchasing by hotels ­ from within the island, and from local farmers rather than wholesalers or conglomerates.
Understand the challenges
Opportunities to purchase goods and services locally are often not exploited because: · Local people produce goods that could be used in hotels, but the quality, quantity and reliability of supply are often inadequate. · Local producers are not sufficiently aware of hotel requirements, health and safety regulations, and how to match tourist preferences to the required quality. · Local producers often cannot access credit to invest in upgrading production for the tourism sector unless they have secure contracts to show banks. · Skills are lost as cheap imports devalue local craftsmanship. · Hotel managers and purchasing officers have grown used to securing products from longstanding existing suppliers, and rarely consider new local options.
· Hotels pay for goods received typically after 30 or 90 days. Local producers cannot operate to this timetable, as they lack working capital, and therefore cannot afford to sell to hotels. · Local producers can supply goods and hotels want to buy goods, but there is no operating `market' between them that would put them in touch with each other, share information and negotiate contracts and delivery. · The seasonality of local goods often does not coincide with the tourist season. · In some countries, changes in government policy are required to encourage farmers to facilitate the development of local economic linkages and to maximise national revenues from tourism.
What can you do? Good practice approaches HOTELS need to: Change the payment period: micro businesses must be paid cash on delivery or within 15 days or they cannot operate. Think laterally rather than repeat past procurement: if new uniforms are needed, could local sewing and local design be used? If new buildings are being added, what local carvings and arts could be used for decoration? Change contract specifications: consider letting a number of smaller contracts on a scale that local producers can handle; this spreads benefits and risks. Appoint a champion/facilitator to work on identifying and mentoring new suppliers: over time ensure they are integrated into daily operations and the normal supply chain. Prioritise which local products to introduce into the supply chain according to company strategy and Market Segment: consider also feasibility, cost, potential for quick wins, etc.
SUPPORT AGENCIES can help hotels to source locally: Research local skills and products, and how they can be adapted to suit hotel requirements. Stimulate communication between hoteliers, local entrepreneurs, and market intermediaries. Create an environment that encourages sharing of information and experiences. Increase opportunities for mentoring relationships through establishing mechanisms such as monthly newsletters, meetings, radio programmes, websites, etc. Support small businesses in product development, business planning, and quality standards (e.g. purchaser expectations,health and safety or other legal requirements, tourist preferences, seasonality of demand, etc). Business advice may also include simple items such as how to invoice or do stock control. Support credit systems that enable micro-entrepreneurs to invest in their business against the surety of a hotel contract. Encourage financial institutions to innovate to support investment by rural business people. Promote agro-processing and light manufacturing by the local community to supply hotels and visitors through gifts or souvenir items. Encourage creative collateral assessments made by financing agencies to encourage investment by locals, particularly in rural communities.
Sourcing products locally: working examples
In Dominica, Dominica Coconut Products began supplying coconut soap to cruise ships after a personal conversation between its proprietor and a top cruise line official. Stimulate communication: it sparks ideas and opens doors. In Barbados, Earth Mother Botanicals produces and sells beauty products made with locally grown herbs and other island produce to the Sandy Lane Hotel and Spa. Think laterally: products from local suppliers could benefit your hotel. In St Lucia, the big hotels were using local floristry services for flowers and flower arranging. However, the companies found that hotels did not pay quickly enough which caused problems with cash-flow and put a major brake on developing linkages. Change payment procedures so that small suppliers are paid quickly.
In Antigua, Curtain Bluff Hotel maintains a list of suppliers of local produce. Before placing orders with larger suppliers who import food produce, the company first approaches the local suppliers to see whether they can fulfil the orders.Although this can be time consuming it has enhanced the local character of the hotel. Give local suppliers a first option to compete when you need supplies. In St Kitts, Ocean Terrace Inn has a Food and Beverage Manager and world-renowned chef who understand the value of utilising local produce and producing first class appetizers and entrйes.This has made the Inn a popular choice for dining out and supports the purchase of local produce from small farmers. Local goods can be used for first class products.
Endnote: Many international guidelines on responsible/sustainable tourism mention the need to source products locally. For access to recent international guidelines for the tourism industry, see www.thetravelfoundation.org.uk/tools_training__guidelines.asp
Much of the Caribbean work on supply chains has focused on linkages specifically with agriculture (see Brief 3). A guide has been written for hotels explicitly on how to increase local procurement of goods and services, though is aimed at South African hoteliers: `How to...? Brief 1: Boosting Procurement from Local Businesses.' See www.odi.org.uk/rpeg/research/pro-poor_tourism/publications/ tools&tips/procurement.pdf
Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation
Brief 3 Building links with local farmers
The Issue: Tourism and farming are major sectors across the Caribbean. Tourism can boost incomes of farmers in many ways.If food is sourced locally and rural products are integrated into the tourism product, the rural economy benefits. The extent to which hotels' food and beverage supplies are sourced locally varies considerably among the Caribbean islands, depending on quality, quantity and accessibility of local supplies, the availability of affordable quality imports, and preferences of hoteliers and chefs. In Dominican Republic, the vast majority of hotels' food and beverage supplies are produced within the island, although there is little help for farmers to develop their production further specifically to exploit the tourism market. In St Lucia, one food and beverage manager of a major all-inclusive resort estimates that local farmers provide only 10-15 per cent of his hotel's fruit and vegetable needs.Yet he believes that St Lucia is capable of providing a full 50 per cent of requirements1.
Reducing imports, improving the Caribbean economy "After `Accommodation', `Food and Beverage' represents the second highest area of expenditure in the tourism sector. With a reported leakage of 60 to 80 cents of every tourism dollar spent in some Caribbean countries, some analysts estimate that an effective linkage between agriculture and tourism would dramatically reduce the Caribbean's import bill by hundreds of millions of dollars, while giving agriculture a greater economic stake at a time when the banana and sugar industries seem to be on their last legs." Agro-Tourism Linkages Centre, Barbados2
Consider the opportunities For hotels, building links with local farmers creates opportunities because: Locally distinctive food and recipes add to the customer experience: · Local purchases can provide fresher food and lower transport costs. · Local foods can be used to develop theme nights, culinary tourism, agro-heritage tourism, and a range of consumables for tourists based on herbs, medicines or processed foods. · Health and wellness tourism are niche areas with strong linkages to agro-tourism.
For local farmers, the tourism market is critical: · Sales to hotels represent opportunities for market expansion, product development and increased income. · Local food items introduced to tourists may then become `suitcase exports' to be taken home by tourists.This stimulates demand even further. · Globalisation increasingly requires farmers in small island developing states to adapt their production standards to the international market if they are to sell beyond their local community. Those who adapt their production processes for the local tourism sector will also be upgrading to sell into the global market. 1
Understand the challenges
Opportunities to build links with local farmers are often not exploited because of the following: · Supply problems, including inadequate quality, quantity, reliability, product range, seasonality, packaging, transport, health and safety requirements, etc. For example, local fish, meat and dairy products may not be transported under refrigeration. Hotels have to check the temperature on delivery (as required by the UK Federation of Tour Operators preferred code on Health and Safety), and return products that are not sufficiently cold. · Weak market links: if local products are not marketed through a wholesaler or farmers' association, procurement from a number of smaller suppliers is a hassle for the hotel or restaurant.
· Product range: some goods required by tourists are simply not produced locally. Some market segments are resistant to eating local food, preferring food which they are familiar with. · Perceptions and preferences of chefs and food and beverage managers: they may perceive local products as inferior, find imported/wholesale goods more convenient, or be hesitant to change existing supplier relationships. · Local currency revaluation reduces the cost advantage of local supplies. · Lack of focus on how to diversify the tourism experience away from `beach and adventure excursions' to instead featuring culinary, agro-herbal, or farm-based tourism.
What can you do? Good practice approaches Hotels need to: Encourage chefs and farmers to talk to each other: visiting the kitchens and fields helps them understand each other's business. Help farmers improve their production and delivery standards by providing advice on quality, packaging, health and safety, etc. Encourage chefs and food and beverage managers to try local food and adapt their procurement practices and recipes. Reap the benefits through added value: profile local food, provide interpretation and information to guests, incorporate food and farm-based activities into excursions and develop the brand. Plan for the seasonality of produce, and offer seasonal recipes in hotels and restaurants. Encourage the local bureau of standards to develop systems that are both workable for farmers and acceptable to the industry. Encourage local producers to create new recipes and processed food products. Collaborate with tour operators and farming communities to develop new farm-based excursions and services appropriate for the guests.
Support agencies can: Support market development: encourage producers' associations, commercial intermediary services and physical markets. Work out market mechanisms for packaging, transport, insurance, and negotiation of contracts, prices and volumes. Find ways of pooling and sharing risk. Ensure a coherent approach: initiatives that address food supply but not demand, or boost supply and demand but not the market linkage between farms and hotels, do not work. Advise and provide training workshops on the issues, particularly regarding required standards (for cuts of meats, preferred sizing of fruit, etc). Collaborate across sectors: combine tourism, agriculture, business support, and marketing expertise. Bring in other hotels/restaurants and marketing channels to achieve economies of scale. Build strategic alliances. Discuss with farmers how to develop further agricultural-based products or attractions and new ways of adding value. Support livelihoods through tourist consumption of local produce, but do not create dependency. Encourage farmers to develop tourism as an additional market, rather than as the sole source of income. Promote the development of small scale local cooperatives to provide the necessary volume and consistency of supply.The formation of co-operatives can also assist in developing investment in infrastructure such as refrigeration, packaging and transportation. Work with tour operators, farmers and local representatives to develop new rural excursions and services that build on the local farming economy.
2
Agro-tourism linkages: working examples
Building market linkages between farmers and hotels In St Lucia, an Oxfam initiative to help small farmers found that lack of access to the markets of the hotel sector was a key constraint for farmers. So while helping farmers boost production, the project is also supporting four farmers' cooperatives to improve their marketing and act as intermediaries between the farmers and hotels. Historically, farmers have handled marketing directly and distrust intermediaries. But through the coops they can pool the resources needed to supply volumes of crops to the hotel sector. Trading intermediaries are needed to make the market work. See if farmers' associations may be able to play this role. In Tobago, an `adopt a farmer' approach is being piloted with The Hilton Tobago and Mt St Georges Farmers'Association. Once the farmers had consistent demand from hotels, they were able to sharply increase production. In the first year, seven farmers have been supplying over TT$80,000 worth of local produce. Don't dismiss local produce because the volume of supply is too low. Once hotel demand is assured, much greater volumes may be possible.
Pushing volumes up: mainstreaming local purchasing In Jamaica, The Sandals Resort Farmers Programme, initiated and supported by the Sandals Group, began in 1996 with ten farmers supplying two hotels. By 2004, there were 80 farmers supplying hotels across the island. As a result of the programme, farmers' sales increased over 55 times in three years, from US$60,000 to $3.3 million. Benefits to hotels include a wider variety of good quality local produce and cost savings. In St Lucia, Sandals* own three hotels amounting to 780 rooms in total.A local produce purchasing policy has been in place since November 2002, with more than 50 local farmers and suppliers involved in supplying a weekly order, of whom 75% are women. The approach has included training for purchasing clerks and receivers, regular visits to farms by chefs and kitchen staff, and discussions with farmers/suppliers on issues of traceability. Mainstreaming local purchasing means adjusting purchasing policy and training your own hotel staff in procedures. Establishing communication between farmers and the tourism sector In the Windward and Leeward Islands, ECTAD (Eastern Caribbean Trading Agriculture and Development Agency Company Ltd) brought together tourism and food sector business leaders with farmers to discuss product specifications, standards and the timing of production to meet market needs. The workshops agreed on a number of innovations and formed Village Interim Committees to carry them through. The key recommendations were to: · experiment with `exotic' crops to meet market demand · process and preserve local produce when supply exceeded demand · develop integrated production and marketing networks · expand organic production · develop organisational capacities of small producers to meet market needs Encourage food, farming and tourism sectors to talk to each other and establish shared priorities More examples 3
Reaping the benefit of fresh and distinctive local food In St Vincent, and the Grenadines, a group of women produce and bottle fruit juices.Their product is extremely popular with the hotels because it is far fresher and sweeter than the imported equivalent. In the Adopt-a-Farmer scheme in Tobago, hotels are benefiting from higher quality vegetables because those shipped from elsewhere arrive in poorer condition due to the heat and humidity. In Jamaica,AuntVita's Orange Peel Tea, Ma Cel's Cinnamon Tea, Mama's Mint Tea Delight and Mama's Garlic Tea amongst other products are being marketed as `A Taste of Jamaica'. Local products can help you provide higher quality and more interesting produce to guests
Integrating food festivals into the tourism product In Trinidad and Tobago, the Annual Culinary Program aims to strengthen rural communities, attract festival-goers, and blend community-based, export driven use of local produce with local creativity. Since the program began, links with local communities have improved and employment rates have increased, as have opportunities for entrepreneurship, revenue generation and capacity building. In Barbados, the Oistins Fish Fry boosts the income of fishermen, fish sellers, farmers and local chefs every week through the selling of local vegetables, fish, beverages and prepared meals to thousands of tourists and locals.This yearround event is now self-sustaining
and has expanded to offer opportunities for many local craftspeople who also sell to the hundreds that descend on the town every weekend. In Jamaica, Hedonism III, a SuperClub resort, used local food as part of the branding of a unique resort product ­ `Hedo III Jerk Food Fest 2005'.The festival included local expert `jerkers' demonstrating their cooking skills; chefs offering cooking classes and providing tips on how to add Caribbean flavour using local products; night-time beachfront fish fries; a marketplace featuring local artisans as well as the opportunity for local food companies that produce spices, sauces, drinks, etc. to sell to the hotels. Make food an event and tourist attraction through food festivals
Footnotes 1. Quoted from Clissold,G G (2001):Can theWindward Islands survive globalisation? Caribbean briefing paper no. 4. Georgetown University,Washington, D.C. 2. Quoted from Inter-American Institute for Co-operation on Agriculture, Agro-tourism Linkages Centre. The Centre's mission is to maximise the linkages between agriculture and the tourism industry by facilitating trade in indigenous fresh and processed foods and non-food agro-industrial products with hotel, gift, restaurant and food service sectors, and promoting the development of agro-tourism and eco-tourism initiatives. www.onecaribbean.org/information/documentview.php?rowid=3252
About the Briefs . . . The eight Briefs in this series provide practical tips on how to develop different types of local linkages, drawing on experience in several different countries in the Caribbean For other Briefs in the series and further information see www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Brief 1: Overview: tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages Brief 2: Bringing local producers into the supply chain Brief 3: Building links with local farmers Brief 4: Employing local staff Brief 5: Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions Brief 6: Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy Brief 7: Building neighbourhood partnerships Brief 8: Managing internal change for developing local linkages.
The Appendix provides more details, further examples, sources, and a useful list of contacts. The Briefs outline some of the benefits and challenges of local linkages, and then focus on what to do. They provide tips on good practice mainly for hoteliers, but also for other private, governmental and nongovernmental operators in tourism.
4
Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation
Brief 4 Employing local staff
The Issue: The main cash injection into the local economy from tourism is from the wages of local staff.This linkage is already very significant, but ways to increase it should be encouraged. It is important for employers to recognise the impact of HIV/AIDS in the region. After sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean is the region most affected by HIV/ AIDS. HIV/AIDS is most prevalent amongst people of a working age and recent estimates from Jamaica suggest that a quarter of workplaces have at least one HIVpositive employee.Employers must understand the issues involved and take action responsibly.
What can you do? Good practice approaches
Consider the opportunities
The following key approaches can significantly improve the wages and conditions of employment of low paid workers: Reassess your recruitment: What jobs are available to skilled and unskilled local people? Are there opportunities for local people to be employed as new entrants to the industry with secure employment? Are locals employed just as seasonal casuals or part-time workers with no security of employment? Pay a living wage to `low-paid' staff and include health and welfare benefits. Ensure un-skilled and semi-skilled people can progress through promotion to more skilled and better paid jobs.
There is a need to invest in new local linkages, but the importance of local employment and wages should not be ignored.Tourism wage rates generally exceed agricultural wages and there is often high local recruitment in the Caribbean.But there is more to do on training and career progression for lessskilled staff so that local staff can occupy more senior posts. On some Caribbean islands, inward migration is an issue. Strong local employment linkages build a sense of place in the community which encourage people to stay in the area. The more local people earn, the more cash benefit flows into the local community from tourism.
Invest in training: It can transform the employment prospects of poor people, contribute significantly to local economic development, reduce poverty and enhance workforce performance.Training is required for progression at all levels not just management training for graduates.
Develop and implement a policy which encourages openness and lack of stigma towards HIV. Educate managers as well as staff about HIV/AIDS, safety in the workplace and working with HIV+ colleagues.
Investing in local training and employment: working examples
Training apprentices and unskilled staff In Jamaica, the Sandals Montego Bay START programme offers training positions to young people from the nearby community of Flanker.These posts provide training on every aspect of running the resort, from catering to scuba instruction. On completion of their training,apprentices are employed by Sandals or given certificates and recommendations to work in other hotels in the area (with which Sandals management have developed links in order to place trainees). Create training posts and follow-up work opportunities for locals A study of all-inclusive resorts found that at Sandals' resorts, employees who are recruited completely untrained can achieve salaries of between US$450 and US$900 per month through career progression. All line staff receive at least 120 hours of training each year valued at US$85/year. Furthermore, the company contributes to training centres and higher education for its staff. Ensure unskilled staff are included in training
Investing in local training for top and middle management In Antigua, at the Curtain Bluff Resort, top and middle managerial positions are occupied by Antiguans. Some have come through Tertiary Education facilities and some are locals that have a firm grasp of business and have risen through the company via local training programmes. This training and promotion process has been assisted by the Old Road Fund, which was established 20 years ago in recognition of the benefits of investing in the surrounding community of Old Road.The fund supports a number of community programmes,including support to students from Old Road pursuing degree programmes. In St Lucia,TheVillage Inn & Spa (locally owned) has invested in local staff who have gone on to pursue training opportunities that have benefited the property. The skills gained have been used to enhance the operation of the property or enhance its marketing potential. Think long-term: support tertiary education as well as short-term training
Tackling HIV/AIDS In Jamaica, Sandals Montego Bay has implemented workplace HIV/ AIDS programmes that include regular staff training by peers, confidential advice and support for HIV-positive employees and support for staff in the face of sexual intimidation or harassment by guests. Don't ignore HIV. Develop workplace policies and practice The Appendix provides more details, further examples, sources and useful contacts.
About the Briefs . . . Brief 1: Overview: tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages Brief 2: Bringing local producers into the supply chain Brief 3: Building links with local farmers Brief 4: Employing local staff Brief 5: Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions Brief 6: Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy Brief 7: Building neighbourhood partnerships Brief 8: Managing internal change for developing local linkages. The eight Briefs in this series provide practical tips on how to develop different types of local linkages, drawing on experience in several different countries in the Caribbean. All the Briefs and further information are available on www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation
Brief Involving local people and products in 5 tours, packages and excursions
The Issue
The Caribbean has more to offer holidaymakers than sun,sand and sea.Tours,packages and excursions need to be available to offer a range of cultural, natural heritage and `meet the people' opportunities. Such excursions are a key way of enhancing the product and customer experience, and spreading the benefits of tourism wider into the local economy.
Some Caribbean islands offer excursions based on people's culture, such as dance groups performing for tour groups, visits to villages for local food and/or music, and visits to cultural heritage sites. But most excursions are based on enjoying the beach or outdoors with little interaction with local people.
Developing new excursions requires a thorough and careful approach. A variety of components are involved, such as the provision of transportation, guiding and a range of activities, experiences and admissions.These also raise issues of quality and health and safety.
Consider the opportunities · Holidaymakers from the UK and other European originating markets are seeking more fulfilling experiences in the destination, and opportunities to venture beyond the confines of their hotel or resort. · Most tourism brochures currently focus exclusively on sun, sand and sea. Excursions that introduce tourists to sugar cane plantations, farms, villages, culinary techniques, dancing traditions, and the legacies of indigenous and colonial history are marginal in the current product offering in most countries. · Excursions provide memorable experiences and `stories to tell', particularly when based on direct interaction with local people. They can also encourage repeat visits by introducing tourists to other parts of the country and showing that there is more to be seen. · Excursions can spread the benefits of tourism, particularly in all-inclusive resorts, and enable tourists to buy directly from craft producers or to contribute through entrance fees to the maintenance of natural and cultural heritage. The country captures more tourist expenditure without increasing the `cover price'. · Excursions can make good use of different destinations' unique rich culture. 1
Understand the challenges
Developing excursions requires careful planning. The challenge is to develop tours that engage with local people, meet market needs, are of appropriate quality and meet the health and safety requirements of the international operators and national regulation. Key issues relate to the EU Package Travel Directive, which places a duty of care on European tour operators, and the role of domestic tour operators and ground handlers in developing excursion programmes. Standards, risk and legal liability Although interpretations vary in different jurisdictions, tour operators are responsible for the quality and health and safety of anything that they offer in brochures, sell in resorts or recommend. As a result, tour operators and their staff are careful only to recommend excursions that they have inspected and audited for quality and health and safety. New excursions must fit these standards if they are to be sold to international tourists through tour operators. Important factors are:
· The security of the area, which may require particular attention for evening excursions:if community members are direct beneficiaries and are included as partners, then this may significantly reduce the risk of any incidents. · The responsibilities of tourists. It is important that visitors do not carry disease on to farms, nor take away plant or animal material that is indigenous to the site. Disincentives affecting tour operators and hoteliers There is less economic pressure on ground handlers to innovate if what they have already developed sells.Creating new quality products requires auditing by overseas tour operators for resale and takes time for them. They need to recognise the long-term advantages. Hoteliers sometimes seek to discourage their guests from becoming involved in community-based activities outside of the hotel because of a loss of revenue for hotel-organized events and meals.Yet hotels need good local relations in their immediate neighbourhood.If there is a rich excursion programme visitors may stay longer.
· The provision of food and drinks outside the controlled environment of a hotel or resort. International standards include the use of different coloured chopping boards, aluminium work surfaces and date stamping of food. Lunch stops also have to be audited for health and safety.
Community organisation and behaviour Begging and hassling undermine the quality of the tourism experience and keep tourists away.Controlling this involves a high degree of community organisation and leadership.
Developing local excursions: working examples
Turning the cocoa bean into a full day out
In Dominican Republic,`Ruta del Cacao' is run by Monbayasa, the Association of Tourism Microentrepreneurs in Monte Plata.A tour has been developed to an organic cocoa farm and cooperative where guests can see cocoa and tropical fruits growing as well as the living conditions, production and processing techniques, and social projects. Guests can also taste the unprocessed seeds and fruits in the field, buy locally manufactured arts, watch and participate in
folkloric dancing, enjoy a traditional lunch, and of course taste and buy organic cocoa products, such as cocoa wine. The tour emphasizes the socioeconomic and ecological relevance of organic cocoa production in the region. There is a similar attraction in Grenada at Belmont Estate. The original farmhouse has been recreated as a museum,`dancing' of cocoa beans is performed to live drumming and singing, and there is a tour of cocoa processing and
machinery. There is also a gift shop where cocoa products and other artisanal products from the area are sold. The restaurant offers a Grenadian buffet which utilises produce from the 400-acre farm, and each guest is provided with a bar of locally made chocolate. Remember, what is common in your area may be new and fascinating to tourists More working examples on page 4
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What can you do? Good practice approaches for hotels and tour operators1
Go exploring: find out about local talents, traditions and sites. Think laterally about what could become an innovative quality product.
materials. In Belize, some destinations no longer offer self-guided brochures, but only maps to ensure that tourists use local guides.
Excursions and activities contribute most to the local economy where they build on existing livelihoods and cultural activities ­ the `living culture'. Create partnerships between local and overseas operators to ensure that quality and health and safety issues are managed properly. Work with all stakeholders to ensure guest security and reduce hassle for tourists. This requires close collaboration between tourism operators and local community leaders, organisations, Local Government and police. The community needs exposure to what makes tourism work ­ or not work.And they need tangible benefits from making their area welcoming for tourists.Words of wisdom from others are insufficient incentive. Integrate local interaction and local shopping into existing excursions. Visiting local craft markets or workshops can enhance tourists' experience and expenditure.
Train entrepreneurs. Training for local suppliers of crafts, tours, and other services is essential ­ in customer relations, business management, health and safety. Tourism businesses can provide much of this, particularly `experiential training' where local entrepreneurs experience tourism first hand. Assess and manage social impacts of tourism. For example, encourage tourists to cover up, particularly when entering churches, and discourage them from giving away sweets in the street or from the windows of vehicles. Begging is often generated by the behaviour of tourists. Assess and manage environmental impacts. Cruise boats can pose particular problems because of the large numbers of people in small areas. Tourists need to be able to dispose of litter responsibly. Wear and tear at heritage sites or disturbance of wildlife needs to be monitored and managed. Coaches should cut their engines to reduce noise and air pollution.
In developing excursions that fit with tourists' perceptions and expectations, draw on advice from local representatives of international tour operators, client feedback, and international guide books. Jointly develop codes of practice on commissions and incentives2. Guides and drivers need to work for a bigger cake, not a bigger share of a small cake. Ensure high quality guiding with local knowledge. Tours that involve local people will not be successful if guides are hostile or dismissive of local culture.A diverse guide service can substantially enhance the tourist experience and create local employment.
Benefits to be gained from new, diverse, people-focused excursions · For hoteliers: extended length of stay, repeat business, word of mouth marketing and referrals · For tour operators: increased business, revenues/profits from commissions, a more distinctive offer
Be open to different kinds of guide training.The licensing of guides can ensure quality; however it can also exclude those without formal education but with good conversational language skills. Initiatives by government which take unlicensed informal sector guides and train them are one way to enable less educated guides to enter the market. Ensure destination managers and local guides work in collaboration on the development of guiding
· For local communities: employment and enterprise opportunities, inclusion in opportunities provided by tourism, and promotion of cultural preservation through tourism · For all: a better experience, customer satisfaction, increased spend and an enhanced brand
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Developing local excursions: more working examples
Recognising the value of local traditions In Dominican Republic, Bachata is a style of rural guitar music, which until recently was regarded as vulgar, associated with rural backwardness and poor quality. Only after Bachata artists began to win international acclaim in the 1990s was Bachata included in tourism programmes. Don't dismiss the value of local culture
Learning about marketing the hard way Mamiku Gardens, an eco-heritage site in the Windward Islands has been able to break into the cruise ship onshore excursion market. One of the lessons learned by the proprietor was the importance of marketing. `[We] were totally unaware of the importance of marketing when the Gardens were first opened and valuable time was lost.' The enterprise has now spent far more than originally planned on a website, videos, maps, brochures, flyers, radio and television features, and road signs. Based on her experience, the owner estimated that it took `two years or more' for a cruise line to become interested in a new product. Help local entrepreneurs to invest sufficiently in marketing and to tap into your tourist market
About the Briefs . . . The eight Briefs in this series provide practical tips on how to develop different types of local linkages, drawing on experience in several different countries in the Caribbean For other Briefs in the series and further information see www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Brief 1: Overview: tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages Brief 2: Bringing local producers into the supply chain Brief 3: Building links with local farmers Brief 4: Employing local staff Brief 5: Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions Brief 6: Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy Brief 7: Building neighbourhood partnerships Brief 8: Managing internal change for developing local linkages.
The Appendix provides more details, further examples, sources, and a useful list of contacts. The Briefs outline some of the benefits and challenges of local linkages, and then focus on what to do. They provide tips on good practice mainly for hoteliers, but also for other private, governmental and nongovernmental operators in tourism.
Endnotes: 1. See also a Travel Foundation checklist and guide to creating sustainable excursions, at www.thetravelfoundation.org.uk/tools_training__guidelines.asp 2. For an example of development of codes of practice with local guides and vendors, see details from The Gambia in PPT Working Paper No. 15 Improving Access for the Informal Sector to Tourism in The Gambia, by Adama Bah and Harold Goodwin (2003) www.propoortourism.org.uk/15_Gambia.pdf 4
More details, sources and further examples can be found in the Appendix.
Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation
Brief Encouraging tourists to spend in the local 6 economy
The Issue
The money spent by holidaymakers in the local economy makes a direct contribution to raising the household incomes in local communities. It also provides an enhanced experience for tourists.
Activity around the resorts and hotels contributes to creating a richer destination ­ in both senses. If tourists are to spend freely, they need to feel comfortable as they explore the neighbourhood, attractive goods and services must be highly visible, and tourists must trust the health and safety standards.
Consider the opportunities In an increasingly competitive `sun, sand and sea' marketplace, it is important to offer tourists goods and services that are distinctive to the local area. Whether buying local crafts or enjoying an annual festival, local activities enrich the destination experience leading to more referrals, repeat business, and an enhanced destination image. Shopping is a vital component of the holiday, but tourists want to buy goods that are particular to their destination.If they are sold items which are imported from another country, or worse still another continent, then the authenticity and quality of the destination is called into question and the competitive edge is lost. In the Caribbean, many of the curios are imported, some from Asia. One way to raise tourism expenditure, without raising the `cover price' of a holiday, is to provide tourists with high quality opportunities to spend more while in the destination.
Understand the challenges Local people hassling tourists over entering shops, taking taxis and accompanying them puts tourists off, creates an air of insecurity, and can cause crime to develop. Commission structures can mean that there is little scope for local producers to earn a profit because of the margins paid to tour guides. It can be hard to break into the market and persuade excursion groups to stop at a new product, because guides rely on established commissions from their existing stopovers. Excess haggling by tourists ­ sometimes encouraged by guides, taxi drivers or out-of-date guidebooks ­ further reduces returns. Poor marketing strategies for local products and lack of a brand identity result in poor awareness amongst tourists of the opportunities to purchase local products and of their inherent value. Excessive competition between producers can drive prices down. Local crafts struggle to compete with imports if either the quality is lower or if well-produced, price is comparatively high. Tourists are often prepared to pay more for the genuine article if they understand about the raw material, the production process and its 1
cultural value, particularly if there are only a few practitioners. Lack of information on the local area, lack of reliable public transport, and uncertainty about where it is safe and unsafe to go, can discourage tourists from going outside the resort. The structure of the all-inclusive package is not predisposed to encouraging expenditure outside the resort for two reasons: tourists have an incentive to stay inside where food and drinks are free and the environment known; and the legal liability of tour operators prevents the recommendation of any local activity unless it has been audited for health and safety. Using festivals as a way of attracting visitors to spend locally The St Lucia Jazz Festival was originally conceived in 1992 as a marketing tool to raise market visibility and boost arrivals in the low season in a relatively low cost way. The initiative required an enormous amount of stakeholder collaboration involving multiple finance sources, tax waivers, media collaboration, use of volunteers and contracted staff, sponsorships and partnerships but is now a leading event in the national and tourist calendar.The festival boosted visitor arrivals, raised awareness of the destination, provided exposure for local artists, and a ready audience for other tourist accommodation, transport, food, performances, events and souvenirs services.The value of additional media exposure due to the event is estimated to exceed the annual budget of the marketing board. Each year, the Jamaica Conservation and Development Trust holds its `Misty Bliss' at Holywell Recreational Park in the Blue Mountains.The fair blends cultural entertainment with the rich natural heritage.A major part of the fair aims to increase the awareness and sensitivity of Jamaicans to the Blue and John Crow Mountain Park, as well as generating revenue towards the park's further preservation. In St Lucia, the weekly Seafood Friday in Anse La Raye provides the opportunity for local vendors to reach a new market, and provide a channel for locally caught seafood.The key outcome has been that typically unemployed middle aged females of Anse La Raye now have alternative means of income, up to $600 per month. Use festivals as a catalyst for tourists to enjoy ­ and spend in ­ the local area.
What can you do? Good practice approaches Support product quality and innovation. Start by identifying authentic local products that are already produced and look at ways of developing these further. Innovation can mean developing a traditional skill or product into a modern product desired by tourists. Offer retail space to local craftspeople and advertising space to local taxis, excursions and guides. Provide business advice and support to local entrepreneurs. Your contacts, market networks and understanding of tourists' needs can be invaluable. Work with local partners to ensure security of tourists in the community and reduce hassle. This involves engaging the local community and its leaders, the tourism industry and local police (see Brief 7). It is not surprising that poor people on the margins of the industry take every opportunity to earn a little cash, but if harassment is reduced, sales can expand to benefit everyone. Provide information to tourists: · Maps, so that tourists can find their way around the area · Guides to pricing: for appropriate haggling, ballpark prices · Information on public transport: where to find taxis, taxi charges · Information in the hotel lobby or in rooms. If local products reach quality standards, information can be provided in welcome packs and briefings. Engage in open discussions on a commission system that will work for the destination, including the poor producers. It is not possible to take ever larger commissions from ever fewer sales.A virtuous circle needs to be created where product expansion, reduced harassment and greater quality increase the volume and value of sales and commissions spread further. Drop off tourists at craft markets close to hotels and point out the short walk back to the hotel.This can work if security along the route is managed. Support destination-wide initiatives, such as festivals, regeneration of infrastructure, and development of a local brand. Festivals can bring tourists into the destination in the low season, and encourage tourists out into the community.The success of certification schemes, such as a local brand, also depends on general acceptance and uptake by many operations. Table 1 shows a wide range of ways in which local artisans, guides and restaurateurs can boost their sales. Hotels and tour operators can assist with making change happen.
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Table 1: Factors that encourage purchases of local crafts, food, guiding and market products
Local craft sales are boosted by: · Products specific to the destination (based on amber, coconut, rum, colonial `firsts') · More production on-site, at the stalls · A range of differentiated products: not all vendors selling the same · Product innovation: combining local skills with modern preferences (e.g. in the Gambia, women make Gambian dresses for Barbie dolls!) · Less hassle of tourists: harassment stops sales · Price information for tourists (a range within which haggling is appropriate ) · Better quality products · Better presentation of products · Ensuring products can be packed and are transportable · Sales inside hotels · Labelling and interpretation to tell `the story' and thus add value · Tailor-made items made to order (e.g. personalised with names) · Code of conduct among sellers governing behaviour, prices, location, management of environmental impacts of materials used · Art and craft areas or clusters, where tourists can see producers and competition drives innovation · Reputation and popularity (the idea of must-have souvenirs)
Local food and drink sales are boosted by: · Ensuring product quality and standards · Exploiting smells, flavours, tastes and niche preferences (e.g. organic coffee and chocolate) · Opportunities to mix with locals · Country labels: brands that guarantee tourists authenticity, local sourcing and recognised quality · Local festivals Local market visits are boosted by: · Local colour · Range of products · Opportunities to see producers at work · Reliable transport · Opportunities to mix with locals Local guiding is boosted by: · Availability of specialist guides (e.g. in birding, agricultural tours) · Licensing or system of official recognition · Agreed pricing that is made available to tourists in writing
Encouraging tourist expenditure locally: working examples Developing a unique product and brand In Barbados, a national logo competition held by the IICA Agro-tourism Linkages Centre in Barbados aimed to enhance the development of a signature Barbadian product ­ `Barbados Blackbelly Sheep'. A workshop was then held for artisans to consider ways of using the logo on a range of functional and decorative craft items. Such unique locally branded products may be marketed through hotels and/or sold directly to tourists. Develop a new brand highlighting local quality products
Creating opportunities for tourists to spend in villages In Dominican Republic, Outback Safaris provide rural excursions which combine `history and social lessons, culture, plants, animals, fun and charisma'.The community gains directly from cash spent by the company, such as payments to boat owners and ranches, and expenditure on road building. But just as importantly, Outback Safaris creates opportunities for tourists to spend locally too. Tourists visit villages and homes, and rural people earn approximately US$1,300 per month from sale of local products to tourists or fees for visiting their house. The company makes donations for education and health through a local foundation and encourages tourists to do the same, rather than to give away sweets or coins on the street. In the first half of 2005, around US$35,000-40,000 was earned for the Foundation from the sale of T-shirts to tourists. There will be many different ways for tourists to spend on local products. Find some and keep adding more. 3
Caribbean festivals: a key route for incorporating local people and culture into the tourism product
Festivals are one way to involve local people in the tourism product, and encourage tourists to enjoy ­ and spend in ­ the local area. Carnivals and indigenous music festivals in particular have been pivotal to the development of the cultural industries and arts sector. Festivals create new clients, markets and media exposure for the entertainment sector, stimulate infrastructure development, heritage conservation and investment into the arts and strengthen inter-sectoral linkages between tourism, travel and culture. Festivals have also proved to be very useful in boosting the destination as a whole, by creating a new tourism season, filling the void in the tourism calendar, improving hotel occupancy levels and building destination image. Festivals
also create new tourism demand from the short break travel market, the Diaspora and intra-regional tourist (groupings that are largely omitted in tourist marketing plans). The spending of festival tourists, which is considered `new' or incremental and counts as an export industry,has been very significant as a share of total visitor expenditure, where the data on visitor arrivals have been documented by exit surveys ­ see Table 2. The best example is the Trinidad carnival ­ the largest festival in the region in terms of visitor arrivals and expenditures. Arrivals have grown by 60 per cent since the late 1990s, such that by 2004 there were over 40,000 visitors that spent approximately US$28 million.This accounts for over 10 per cent of annual visitor expenditures.
Table 2: Festival tourism economic impact
Festivals Trinidad & Tobago Carnival St. Lucia Jazz Festival Barbados Cropover
Year 2004 2000 2000
Arrivals 40,455 11,041 3,485
Visitor expenditures US$m 28.0 14.8 3.2
Data is taken from K. Nurse.`The Cultural Industries and Sustainable Development in Small Island Developing States' (forthcoming Commonwealth Secretariat).
About the Briefs . . . The eight Briefs in this series provide practical tips on how to develop different types of local linkages, drawing on experience in several different countries in the Caribbean For other Briefs in the series and further information see www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Brief 1: Overview: tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages Brief 2: Bringing local producers into the supply chain Brief 3: Building links with local farmers Brief 4: Employing local staff Brief 5: Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions Brief 6: Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy Brief 7: Building neighbourhood partnerships Brief 8: Managing internal change for developing local linkages.
The Appendix provides more details, further examples, sources, and a useful list of contacts. The Briefs outline some of the benefits and challenges of local linkages, and then focus on what to do. They provide tips on good practice mainly for hoteliers, but also for other private, governmental and nongovernmental operators in tourism.
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Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation
Brief 7 Building neighbourhood partnerships
The Issue Partnerships with residents and neighbours can cover a variety of issues: waste management, water use, energy supplies, development of local craft markets, local guiding services, improvement of local enterprises and services, seafront development, creation of pedestrian streets and local restaurants and cafes, management of attractions and development of new ones, management of begging, traffic control, control of sex tourism and policing of crime, as well as festivals for local people and tourists to enjoy together. There are many opportunities to enrich the destination. A successful tourism destination requires that the host community is welcoming to guests. Part of the business case for ensuring that there are significant local benefits from tourism for local communities is the `license to operate' (see Brief 1). Local communities are reduced to hawking and begging when they are denied access to sell to tourists and when the community sees tourists as unwelcome and `fair game'. In order to avoid this, the tourism industry needs to work individually and collectively at developing positive relationships with neighbouring communities.
Consider the opportunities
Building local partnerships can help the destination become a better place for tourists to visit and a better place for people to live. Local partnerships can do the following: · Enrich destinations: the local area within walking distance or a short bus or taxi ride can become part of the destination used by tourists staying in the hotels and resorts. · Boost local communities: local people not only gain opportunities to sell goods and services to tourists, but also benefit from enhancement of public spaces, parks, gardens, promenades and pedestrian streets.They may be developed for tourists but enjoyed by locals to play chess, talk with friends or sit in the shade of a tree.This in turn adds to the authenticity of a place and creates an ambience that tourists enjoy. · Reduce hassle and feelings of risk to health or safety: effective local partnerships between government, hoteliers and local people can reduce hassle of tourists and
thus greatly improve tourist enjoyment. · Reduce the negative impacts of tourism, such as litter, waste, or sex tourism. Although one hotel or tour operator,with vision and commitment, can achieve real change, so much more can be achieved if stakeholders, and even competitors within a destination, work together: · Economies of scale can be gained by businesses working together: If hotels and tour operators collaborate, they can provide a substantial market to local business that enables them to invest in expanding production, or they can provide inputs (such as health and safety training) that may be too expensive for one operator. Local entrepreneurs can collectively improve their transport or marketing in ways that cannot be afforded individually. · If a new initiative is supported by different parts of the tourism supply chain,success is more likely.For example,
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a new craft centre will flourish if: tour operators are consulted on their client needs and then include it in their tour; international tour operators audit it to ensure its inclusion is allowed;hotels purchase its soft furnishings and provide information about it on notice boards; and agreements are made with local taxis and guides so that tourists are taken to it.
The tourism sector has much expertise to offer local entrepreneurs, but other sector inputs are essential: such as micro-business development, technical aspects of agriculture or light manufacture, and business finance. Local government also needs to be involved.
Understand the challenges
In some destinations in the Caribbean,and elsewhere,it is a considerable challenge to provide experiences for holidaymakers that meet the quality and health and safety expectations of consumers and the requirements of the Package Travel Directive. For tour operators and hoteliers to encourage their clients to venture out of the hotel or away from organised excursions, health, safety and security issues have to be managed so that the necessary minimum standards are assured by the community, local government or the police. Collaboration requires competitors to work with each other, and different sectors to come together. Existing interests, taxi drivers, guides and street vendors are often well organised and adept at defending their interests. Taxi drivers who have borrowed to finance their taxi and
buy a license will jealously guard their interests; they may make it very difficult to introduce a bus service from the hotel or resort to town.Freelance licensed guides and unofficial guides touting for business may intimidate tourists and discourage them from venturing out alone. Vendors selling cheaper imported crafts and paying for their pitches may crowd out local craft workers who could provide a more authentic local experience ­ including demonstrations of weaving, leather work or carving.These issues are not easily addressed and generally require a transparent partnership approach engaging all the stakeholders with the support of government. All those involved need to share a common vision about how the relationships are to be changed and to support the changes knowing clearly what they will gain and lose.
What can you do? Good practice approaches
A neighbourhood partnership will require many stakeholders to think about where they live and work in a whole new light: Gathering views is a great place to start. Collect reliable information about what tourists think about the destination and the quality of its offerings. Find out what each of the stakeholders thinks about the goods and services provided by others. Identify the main problems and thus shared solutions. Partnerships cannot be developed without a shared understanding of the problem and a shared vision about how to change it. It is not just about talking, and not just environmental improvements or social programmes: to achieve sustainable change local people need to have tangible economic benefits. Local approaches to tourism management can be instituted by establishing action groups, such as Tourism Action Committees (TAC), to act as lobbyists and to promote local area linkages, identify needs and opportunities.The TACs should liaise with/report to
the National Tourism Organisations.TACs were established in Trinidad and Tobago. Provide craft workers and other local trades people with a physical space from which to trade and avoid hawking; create markets which are close to tourists. Instead of pushing or wishing them away, bring them in. Have frank and open discussions about commission systems and fees. Explore how everyone can benefit from a `bigger cake' rather than fighting for shares. Agree new rules and shares. Encourage each stakeholder group to develop and regulate its own code of conduct. Whole manuals and treatises have been written about how to do community development. While this is not the place for more, some tips from other local tourism initiatives include: Finding the right people to work with is key. Understand local social structures and include those leaders, poor groups, and social entrepreneurs who get
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things done locally. Bring in a local facilitator to help if necessary. Find out what goals local people have: they may be different to what tourism operators expect. In several pro-poor tourism projects, local income has been welcome, but poor people also have non-financial priorities such as training, dignity, access to natural resources, access to infrastructure and ability to participate in decisions. Partnerships can fall apart when expectations are very high and delivery is very slow. Do not promise more than you can deliver and manage expectations. Focus on some short-term practical steps as well as more ambitious long term plans. Communicate! Lack of communication can breed suspicion. Just as communities may not understand tourists' needs, so business people may not understand community needs. Style and pace of negotiation may be different. Finding joint ways forward depends on creating adequate communication channels, both formal and informal. Find appropriate ways to share risks and benefits across all partners. Make sure the poor understand their risks and are not over-exposed.
A partnership approach working with other stakeholders is essential.Work out how each can benefit more from collaboration, and to make it happen. Partnerships need to include the international and domestic private sectors, local government, local businesses and the community. Seek to involve a range of tourism companies ­ across a destination and up and down the value chain ­ in building local linkages. Test ideas and their market potential with tour operators along the value chain early on. Tourism ministries and tourism officers cannot deliver alone; they will need to secure the support of other parts of government, for example, street cleaning, road maintenance, the police and planning. Focus on what more can be achieved by working together, compared to what any individual company or entrepreneur can achieve alone. Give participants a tangible reason to engage.
Neighbourhood partnerships: working examples1
Using public spaces for community and tourism At Rodney Bay in the heart of St Lucia, the public square features local culinary specialities, as well as local music including picong and other art forms. Rodney Bay Committee handles decisions regarding the area and contributes to such activities as the St Lucia Jazz Festival. Many other Caribbean islands could benefit from the development of local open spaces that can both serve the community and double to feature events that will enhance the tourism product. Form a local group to plan better use of public spaces
Co-ordinating development with the community In St Lucia, the Laborie Development Foundation and Laborie community undertook a three-year strategic planning process from 1999­2002 to reduce ad hoc, unplanned development.The focus was on the overall development of the community, including the development of tourism. One project linked cultural festivals to the accommodation sector in Laborie.The approach has been very successful and requests for assistance from other communities has resulted in the Foundation documenting the approach in various media, including a video. Work with local community initiatives to integrate tourism into local plans
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Neighbourhood partnerships: more examples
Developing the tourism infrastructure and training In St Lucia, significant strides have been made in the area of heritage and community tourism with the development of 14 heritage sites and 24 ancillary attractions. For example, a grant from the Community Tourism Foundation enabled the Forestierre Tour Guides Association to construct a lookout point at the summit of Piton Flore Trail. Other activities also include the re-training of the tour guides, trail reconstruction and signage.The project engaged the Forestry Division and the Ministry of Social Transformation as key partners.
Training health and hygiene At Boca Chica near Santo Domingo in Dominican Republic, 145 women who sell fried fish on the seafront took a course in food handling.They were then offered a micro-entrepreneurs course, and at the end of the course, introduced to a loan scheme run by government. Such a move helps the destination as well as the local economy. Make it real: provide training and finance to local participants
About the Briefs . . . The eight Briefs in this series provide practical tips on how to develop different types of local linkages, drawing on experience in several different countries in the Caribbean For other Briefs in the series and further information see www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Brief 1: Overview: tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages Brief 2: Bringing local producers into the supply chain Brief 3: Building links with local farmers Brief 4: Employing local staff Brief 5: Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions Brief 6: Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy Brief 7: Building neighbourhood partnerships Brief 8: Managing internal change for developing local linkages.
The Appendix provides more details, further examples, sources, and a useful list of contacts. The Briefs outline some of the benefits and challenges of local linkages, and then focus on what to do. They provide tips on good practice mainly for hoteliers, but also for other private, governmental and nongovernmental operators in tourism.
Footnotes 1. The most detailed report on implementing a neighbourhood partnership in a resort comes from outside the Caribbean: The Gambia experience (Bah and Goodwin 2003): www.propoortourism.org.uk/15_Gambia.pdf 2. For more information on Laborie Development Foundation, see www.laboriecommunity.net/projects.htm 4
Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation
Brief Managing internal change 8 for developing local linkages
The Issue
There are many ways of developing linkages with the local economy: bringing local entrepreneurs into the supply chain, developing excursions based on local culture and life, building neighbourhood partnerships (see Figure 1 in Brief 1). Whichever type of linkage a company pursues, it means doing things differently and is likely to involve change management within the company. It is as important to plan for this as it is to plan working with local partners.
Consider the opportunities Many companies have good ideas about boosting local benefit from their enterprise. However, often these are not translated into practical implementation. Or new initiatives stall when they hit operational constraints. Managing internal change within the business can make the difference between a nice idea and real impact. Bringing local benefit by doing business differently means adjusting operational practices.Normal business performance is achieved, but at the same time more local impact is delivered. This differs from philanthropy in that the core competencies of the business are used. It is not divorced from daily operations. If the local linkages are to be maintained, they need to be incorporated into the corporate agenda and operations.However,as with any change in operations, senior management needs to ensure that change is well planned and managed.
Understand the challenges It is often easier to get something going, on a wave of enthusiasm, than to sustain it over time. The challenge is to make it a normal part of every day practice. If local linkages require staff to do their job differently,they may run into resistance at first. If staff need to buy vegetables in a different place, time or quantity, to change where the tour bus goes, or rewrite guest information, staff need to be clear on what they must do and why. If top management support is lacking, a new local initiative will stall when other priorities come up, or when it comes to the point of taking a risk with a new partner or allocating some extra time to getting a local linkage going. Managers need to be clear on the longterm gains in order to see it through.
What can you do? Good practice approaches
Look at how to do business differently: how the company can deliver commercial goals and boost local impact in the process. Pause to consider the full range of local linkage options, from procurement to neighbourhood partnerships (Figure 1 in the Introduction).
Ensure linkages become part of daily operational practice, part of staff routines. For example, a new local supply of table linen may be sourced initially by the champion or an external agency, but it needs to then become part of the procurement network of the procurement manager, so that it continues in the future.
Assess the business case for your company: what are the long-term strategic priorities (consolidation, rebranding, increasing visitor spend or length of stay, improving the local environment, cost-cutting, etc) and how can local linkages contribute? Linkages with the local economy may impose some short term costs, particularly regarding time, but can contribute to delivering long term goals. Prioritise those that fit best.
Link local products with marketing and branding. Make a feature of local products and provide information to tourists (e.g. information boards and photo galleries in hotel lobbies highlighting the local community/service providers, or brochures in bedrooms). If local crafts are on the wall, explain what they are and where they are from. Reap the rewards of your linkage by explaining it to tourists.
Build top management support. Otherwise, when a linkage requires any change in how business is done, it will stall. Innovate, think laterally and be open to new ways of doing business. Encourage a new mindset among colleagues. Turn company challenges into opportunities for change. For example, if there is a problem with beach pollution, use that as a catalyst for local linkages by creating employment for cleaners, or an element of joint action that includes benefits for local vendors or fishermen.
Be strategic but remain flexible, so that `one thing leads to another'. A tiny initiative by a hotel manager to buy local crafts for a theme night can lead to much more: on-going dialogue between the Guest Relations Officer and crafters; provision of business ideas, pricing information, and packaging material; exposure visits for the crafters to other hotel events; and then new marketing opportunities, a regular supply contract or an additional stop on excursions. Do not discount the value of innovative initiatives by individuals. Market-leaders are useful ­ in propoor tourism as much as in business.
Appoint a champion inside the company ­ with resources and a mandate ­ to create change. This can be part of a manager's job, but it needs to be someone who can call on staff in different departments to implement new linkages. Ensure staff understand the long term goal.
Endnote: Guidance on how to manage internal corporate change for implementing local linkages has been written for South African companies. See www.odi.org.uk/propoortourism.toolsandtips.internalchange.pdf
About the Briefs . . . The eight Briefs in this series provide practical tips on how to develop different types of local linkages, drawing on experience in several different countries in the Caribbean For other Briefs in the series and further information see www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Brief 1: Overview: tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages Brief 2: Bringing local producers into the supply chain Brief 3: Building links with local farmers Brief 4: Employing local staff Brief 5: Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions Brief 6: Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy Brief 7: Building neighbourhood partnerships Brief 8: Managing internal change for developing local linkages.
The Appendix provides more details, further examples, sources, and a useful list of contacts. The Briefs outline some of the benefits and challenges of local linkages, and then focus on what to do. They provide tips on good practice mainly for hoteliers, but also for other private, governmental and nongovernmental operators in tourism.
Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in the Caribbean Guidelines for Good Practice April 2006
Published by Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership and the Caribbean Tourism Organisation Funded by UK Travel Foundation
Appendix
Useful contacts and further case studies to accompany the Briefs
Useful contacts and resources on pro-poor linkages
The following provides a brief list of Caribbean tourism organisations and international organisations or sites focusing on issues of pro-poor or sustainable tourism. See also the many websites listed for specific case study examples throughout the Appendix. AgroTourism Linkages Centre, The InterAmerican Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) Office in Barbados Chelsea House, Chelsea Road, St Michael, Barbados Tel (246) 427 4740/1/2; Fax (246) 429 350 E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected] Caribbean Alliance for Sustainable Tourism (CAST) www.cha-cast.com CAST (1998) Trends in Hotel Certification and Rating Programs: Guidelines for the Caribbean www.cep.unep.org/issues/hotel_cert.pdf Caribbean Regional Sustainable Tourism Development Programme (CARIFORUM Tourism Programme Unit) Luis G Chaves, Sustainable Policy Development Advisor One Financial Place, Collymore Rock, St. Michael, Barbados,W.I. Tel: (246) 427-5242; Fax: (246) 429-3095 E-mail: [email protected] Caribbean Tourism Organisation (CTO) www.onecaribbean.org Contact: Mareba M Scott, Sustainable Tourism Product Specialist, One Financial Place, Collymore Rock, St. Michael, Barbados,W.I. Tel: (246) 427 5242; Fax:(246) 429 3065 E-mail: [email protected]
International Centre for Responsible Tourism (ICRT), University of Greenwich, UK. www.icrtourism.org International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), UK www.iied.org/SM/tourism/index.html Organisation of American States (1998); Caribbean Tourism Survey www.oas.org Overseas Development Institute (ODI), UK: Tourism Program www.odi.org.uk/propoortourism Pan American Health Organization www.paho.org Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership, UK www.propoortourism.org.uk Pro-Poor Tourism Pilots in Southern Africa (South Africa) www.pptpilot.org.za `How To...?' series of tips and tools on local procurement, products and partnerships: www.pptpilot.org.za/IFC_tooltips.htm www.responsibletravel.com Technical and vocational education and Training (TVET) Council, Barbados Communications and Research Officer: E-mail: [email protected] Tour Operators Initiative www.toi.org.uk Tourism Product Development Co. Ltd, Jamaica www.tpdco.org The Travel Foundation, UK www.thetravelfoundation.org.uk Tools and guidelines for the tourism industry: www.thetravelfoundation.org.uk/tools_training__guidelines.asp Appendix | page 1
Further case studies and information sources to accompany Briefs 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7
Notes to Brief 3 Building links with local farmers
HELPING FARMERS TO BOOST SALES TO HOTELS Getting volumes up through bulk local purchasing: Sandals Resort and the Farmers Programme in Jamaica The Farmers Programme began in 1996 with ten farmers supplying two hotels. By 2004, there were 80 farmers supplying hotels across the island. Key elements are: · Chefs and management teams visit farms and attend workshop days · Farmers visit hotels to see how their products are used and why Sandals specifications are important · A farmer extension officer assists farmers with production, as do other organisations such as the Rural Agricultural Development Authority · Hotels are informed two weeks before the delivery date about what crops and volumes are available · The hotels make a feature of local food. As a result of the programme, farmers' sales increased over 55 times in three years, from US$60,000 to US$3.3 million. Benefits to hotels include a wider variety of good quality local produce and cost savings. Purchases of watermelon and cantaloupe by one Sandals resort of US$7,200 per month translates into a monthly income of US$100 for 70 families, taking them above the poverty line. For more information see: All-inclusive Resorts and Local Development, Klaus Lengefeld GTZ and Robert Stewart, Sandals,World Travel Market, November 2004 www.propoortourism.org.uk/WTM%20Presentations/WTM%20Sandal s%20presentation.pdf Oxfam helping St Lucian farmers to enter the hotel market In St Lucia,Oxfam GB (an international NGO) is working through local partners to increase farmers' capacity to supply tourism businesses. Whereas sophisticated individual farmers may be able to meet the volume and reliability demands of hotels, poor small-scale producers generally lack the consistency of supply that hotels require. Although it was originally reported that health and safety issues were a constraint on local purchases,the Eurogap and
other standards are, in fact, well understood by Caribbean farmers. Rather, the programme in St Lucia finds that it is the access to the markets of the hotel sector that is a key constraint for farmers. In addition to boosting production, the programme is therefore supporting four co-operatives to strengthen marketing so that the farmers can pool the resources needed to supply volumes of crops to the hotel sector. Oxfam is also working with the national marketing board on transport issues, and to phase imports against local production, to avoid over-supply in the market. In StVincent, Oxfam's partner, ECTAD, is working with a commercial trader to supply hotels on the Grenadines. The programme is also stimulating demand for local goods within hotels. For example it is developing a hotel incentive programme, which is likely to include: · Local brand/identity for hotels who promote local production · Flexible menus that reflect local availability of produce · Menus that promote local cuisine or product usage · Caribbean nights, both in entertainment and cooking · Tax regime to support local purchasing. Key lessons: · Whilst the issues are generic the solutions have to be local · The traditional orientation of the agricultural sector towards export poses constraints as market linkages needed for supplying hotels are weak · If effective agro-tourism linkages are to be made then trading intermediaries must be established to support production planning, packaging and marketing for farmers and to meet the supply demands of hotels · To support this trade,appropriate market services such as credit, transport and insurance providers should exist; or if necessary, be created · It is important to work across levels: support for farmer production; strengthening markets, boosting hotel demand, and seeking change in the enabling policy environment, particularly trade rules at national and regional level.
Appendix | page 2
Notes to Brief 3, continued
Analysing the all-inclusive supply chain in Tobago An analysis of the local economic impact of the all-inclusive hotels in Tobago found low local participation in the supply chain, particularly in agriculture: `Most of the fresh produce needed by the tourism industry is imported from producers in nearbyTrinidad and from importers based there. Business links with Tobago suppliers were limited to fresh fish, lobsters and farm eggs.The absence of six critical success factors ­ Competitive Price, consistent quality, wide variety, reliability of supply, access to credit facilities and business acumen ­ were found to be responsible for the poor performance of the local supply chain,givingTrinidad suppliers the competitive advantage over Tobago businesses.' The report presents options to strengthen the supply chain by supporting local producers, particularly with business development and market orientation and capacity building initiatives. Special emphasis is given to farmers and farmers' organisations, which have the potential to develop the competencies demanded by the tourism sector. However, these improvements can only come about through a change in practice by tourists, tour operators, hotels, destination management companies, government and community organisations.The recommendations have been fed into aTravel Foundation-funded multi-stakeholder programme in Tobago. www.thetravelfoundation/current_programmes.asp Unsuccessful initiatives ­ lessons from Cancun
Giving farmers a secure market in hotels, Four Seasons Hotel, Nevis Prior to 1990, crop production on Nevis was productionled ­ farmers harvested their crops in the hope that they would be able to sell them (rather than growing crops for a specific market). This approach changed in 1992 when the new Four Seasons Resort revised its purchasing approach. Staff from the Department of Agriculture and the Four Seasons Hotel met crop farmers to discuss production and marketing opportunities. Farmers with preference for target crops were identified and dates assigned for the planting of crops for the following commodities: tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber, lettuce, watermelon and cantaloupe. Planting schedules were developed with target quantities to match quantities required. Farmers met once per month to review the production targets and cropping schedule and a marketing division was established. Orders from the hotel are now sent to the marketing division twice a week by fax, which washes, grades and labels the produce to the hotel's specification. The hotel's purchasing department then inspects and weighs produce on arrival.The hotel pays the growers association which distributes payment to the farmers every fortnight. There is mutual understanding between the growers and hotel regarding the availability of produce. If members of the growers association default on delivery the product is sourced to other farmers. Credit to all farmers is also established by the marketing division to assist farmers obtain agricultural equipment.
Success at any level depends on progress in the other levels. In Cancun, hotels bring supplies from Mexico City rather than the local farming area. Analysis of several efforts to boost local agricultural production for tourism finds none that had lasting success, and identifies two common weaknesses.
A similar arrangement has been established with the livestock producers that are producing meat and meat products for other hotels and supermarkets. `Adopt a Farmer' schemes ­ St Lucia and Tobago
· Most initiatives addressed either production by farmers or marketing with hotels, but not both · They operated in isolation instead of building strategic alliances. Other barriers were purchasers' lack of trust of suppliers ­ many chefs hold an outdated view of local agricultural potential, and also limit direct procurements from local producers due to health and sanitation concerns. SeeTorres, R. (2004): Challenges and Potential for Linking Tourism and Agriculture to Achieve Pro-Poor Tourism Objectives. Progress in Development Studies, 4(4): 294­318.
An `Adopt a Farmer' scheme was established in St Lucia in order for hotels to support farmers following a hurricane in 1994.The scheme strengthens contracts between hotels and farmers and makes loans available to farmers at favourable rates so that they can buy seeds and fertiliser. It was established on the premise that farmers needed a guaranteed market if they were to get bank loans to diversify production, and they needed to know what to produce, when, and in what quantities. Hotels buy produce from a specified farmer at a contract price before planting. The initiative illustrates how such ventures wax and wane. Momentum was lost due to (1) a mealy bug infestation of
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Notes to Brief 3, continued
local vegetables in the late nineties that led to a return to imported produce; (2) hotel managers who had been involved being replaced by new ones; (3) institutional and interpersonal politics, such as opposition from some government entities and competition between farmers;and (4) a lack of intermediaries. Source: Piccinini J. (1999) Creating employment opportunities in the Windward Countries of the Eastern Caribbean. Working Paper No 2, April 1999. The Caribbean Project, Center for Latin American Studies, Georgetown University. Scheyvens R.(2004:194)Tourism for Development: Empowering Communities. UK: Pearson. In Tobago more recently, Hilton Hotel and a local co-op have established ­ and are expanding ­ an`Adopt a Farmer's Group Project'. This is part of a destination project to enhance sustainability and local impacts of the industry, funded by the Travel Foundation. www.thetravelfoundation/current_programmes.asp INTEGRATING FOOD FESTIVALS INTO THE TOURISM PRODUCT Food festivals are an integral part of tourism in some Caribbean countries.There are twelve food festivals a year in Jamaica; a culinary festival in Trinidad and Tobago; Eat Drink Barbados and the Cashew Festival in Belize. In all these destinations, there is potential for more local festivals to be integrated into the tourism product. Trinidad and Tobago Annual Culinary Program
unique resort product. For example, in 2002, Hedonism III, a SuperClub resort, started to combine a focus on local culinary delights with music and arts and crafts displays to attract tourists for a long weekend under the heading: `CELEBRATE JAMAICAN CUISINE AND CULTURE. Popular Jamaican Super-Inclusive Offers ­ July 31­Aug.3:$627 Per Person (includes accommodations,meals, alcoholic beverages, land and water sports and all themed Jerkfest festivities ­ no tipping is permitted)' Festival activities include a local group of expert `jerkers' demonstrating their cooking skills; chefs offering cooking classes and tips on how to add Caribbean flavour to normal meals using local products; night-time beachfront fish fries;marketplace at the resort featuring local artisans;interaction with local food companies producing spices, sauces, drinks, etc. Importantly, the hotel not only features local food, it also uses the event to draw in a range of local people and businesses.The event has continued to be popular, as is evident from the internet-based advertisement for another similar event in 2005: `HEDO III JERK FOOD FEST 2005. Come celebrate Jamaica's cuisine with us as we offer you one week of mouth watering local delicacies and spicy concoctions that will move the soul and put the local rhythms in your ear. This Saucy Jamaican tradition promises to be hot, hot, hot as we celebrate and share our diverse culture with you. Come enjoy sizzling food to go with hot bodies and tantalizing sounds Mmmm....' Quotes from: www.superclubs.com/brand_hedonism/resort_hedonismiii/
The Annual Culinary Program aims to promote tourism and also strengthen the linkages with local communities through fostering better understanding of local food customs, attract excitement to festivals, and blend community based, export driven, use of local produce and local creativity. The main festival is the popular Trinidad and Tobago Culinary Experience (2004 and 2005). Events for 2006 include the `Oui Foods' festival 2006, Mayaro Fish Fry 2006, Caribbean Liqueur Festival 2006 and the National Agricultural Exhibition with food competition. Hedonism III celebrates local food Local food can be used as a core part of the branding of a
Caribbean Hotel Association:Taste of the Caribbean The Caribbean Culinary Federation, the culinary arm of the Caribbean Hotel Association, is a non-profit regional organization that promotes Caribbean cuisine. It organises an annual Taste of the Caribbean competition, an annual celebration of Contemporary Caribbean Cuisine and culture, which provides a showcase for the diverse culinary skills and styles found throughout the Caribbean. Collaboration across sectors: `Eat Jamaican' ­ SuperClubs and the Jamaican Agricultural Society The many initiatives of agro-tourism linkages are based on collaboration between sectors ­ at the very least between
Appendix | page 4
Notes to Brief 3, continued
tourism and agriculture, and often other sectors, such as water and environment. For example the Jamaica Agricultural Society's (JAS) `Eat Jamaican' campaign, launched in November 2003 by several Jamaican associations and businesses in the productive sector and the Jamaica Manufacturers'Association (JMA) to promote locally-produced goods to residents, visitors and exporters. Since the launch of the campaign, the JAS reported an increase in demand (5.6% growth of the agricultural sector in the last quarter of 2003 compared to 4% in 2002),linked to companies that have made commitments to support the produce of local farmers. The campaign has received strong support from Jamaican resorts and hotels such as Sandals and SuperClubs (currently,SuperClubs purchases just over $110 million worth of local produce annually).
communication across the entire chain of stakeholders; partnership development between and within sectors; education and training at all levels to improve quality,quantity and reliability of goods and services;incentives for investing by public, private and community sectors; marketing and promotion issues. See: `Identifying New Possibilities in Agrotourism development in the Caribbean,' Ena Harvey, IICA, 7th Annual Caribbean Conference on Sustainable Tourism Development. www.onecaribbean.org/information/documentview.php?rowid= 3252 Training in health and hygiene ­ QTC and CAST
`Eat Jamaican' campaign bolstered by hotel chain. Caribbean Net News. February 8, 2004. www.caribbeannetnews.com/2004/02/08/campaign.htm For more information on A Taste of Jamaica, see www.atasteofjamaica.com
The Quality Tourism for the Caribbean (QTC) programme is a collaborative initiative between the Caribbean Alliance for Sustainable Tourism (CAST ­ the environmental subsidiary of the Caribbean Hotel Association) and the Caribbean Epidemiology Center (CAREC ­ a specialized agency of the Pan American Health Organisation).
LOOKING BEYOND FOOD SUPPLIES A wide variety of agro-tourism linkages The food and beverages of a destination and the ways in which they are grown, harvested and processed are part of the holiday experience in mature destinations. A number of success stories in the Caribbean illustrate the many different kinds of agro-tourism linkages: · Sales of agricultural supplies: for example to Sandals resorts in Jamaica and St Lucia, and to Sandy Lane, Barbados; Pine Hill Dairy juices manufactured in Barbados are sold to Caribbean Star Airlines · Farm-based tours: e.g. Organic farming at Exotica, Dominica; Agronomic/Scientific Tours in Citrus, Belize · Agro-heritage excursions: e.g. to Mamiku and Fond Doux in St Lucia;Belmont Estate in Grenada; Tobago Heritage Festival; The Sugar Museum in Barbados; Maroon Festival in Jamaica · Tours: Angostura/Fernandez distillery tours in Trinidad and Bacardi Rum Factory Tour in Puerto Rico ­ demonstrate how the sugar cane plant is used to produce rum · Herbal usage in hotels and spas: Gallon Jug in Belize; Spas ­ Le Sport in Grenada, Ritz Carlton and Terra Nova in Jamaica, Sandy Lane in Barbados.
The QTC programme has trained over a thousand public, private and community sector workers in environment, health and safety in over three years. It has also developed the Food Safety and Sanitation Standard among six other QTC standards for the tourism industry. www.carec.org
Critical issues for achieving linkage include:information and
Appendix | page 5
Notes to Brief 4 Employing local staff
The Start Programme (Sandals/Flanker Training and Recruitment Tier), Jamaica In 2003, the citizens of Flanker called for the establishment of a skills training centre, which Sandals Montego Bay initiated in December 2003 with fifteen teenage school leavers. While there are obvious benefits to the tourism industry, including the development of a larger skilled labour force, there will also be the potential lowering of crime and harassment. The programme gained a lot of media attention and was very well received by the community. Trainees said that apart from the opportunity to learn a life-long skill, the next best thing was the tremendous respect that they had gained in their community. The programme worked as follows: · The community (lead by the president of the Citizen's Association) was responsible for screening for literacy and willingness of the individuals to learn · Candidates then had an interview and exam. Some candidates excelled, but others were weak in English and were given special consideration.As these were the strongest candidates from the community, Sandals decided to hire an English teacher to provide English lessons. · Candidates were assigned to areas of training.The time period of the training varied (from 3­18 months) depending on the skills area: (a) Three months: Bellman, concierge porter, busboy, steward, houseman, room attendant (b) Six­nine months: Maintenance candidates (plumbers, electrician, refrigeration techncian), bartender, waiter, wine steward, front desk/ concierge agent (c) 18 months: Dive Instructor · Candidates were paid a weekly stipend of JA$1,500 · At the end of each month the General Manager conducted a review with each candidate · Two of the candidates (on the 3 month track) were hired to fill vacancies at the end of the probationary period. Following the success of the programme, candidates will now be able to earn a certificate to show they undertook this level of training ­ the umbrella programme will be named the JHTA/Skills Training and Recruitment Programme.
The Old Road Fund Recognising the benefits of investing in the surrounding community, The Curtain Bluff Resort in Antigua established the Old Road Fund 25 years ago. It is sponsored by owners and management of the hotel, along with concerned guests and friends. It invests in tennis lessons for children of the community, overseas tennis camps which some of the more promising children attend,and gives support to students from Old Road pursuing degree programmes.The Old Road Fund programmes contribute to a very high retention rate amongst staff, with employees remaining on staff for 21 years or more.There are top and middle managerial positions that are occupied both by Antiguans ­ who have been put through tertiary education facilities ­ as well as locals that have come up through the ranks through local training programmes.The business also promotes sales of locally made garments, art and jewellery in the gift shop and provides facilities on its property for local people to sell island wear at stalls. www.curtainbluff.com/index.php Tackling the impact of HIV/AIDS Numbers of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS are growing in the region and are likely to cost businesses in absenteeism, inability to carry out duties and potentially death. The HIV/AIDS epidemic is closely linked to poverty, so by addressing the epidemic, the tourism sector can contribute more to Poverty Reduction, community well-being and its own bottom line. By developing, implementing and monitoring workplace policies on HIV/AIDS,tourism businesses can lead the way in publicly offering care and support to HIV affected employees as well as helping other employees to reduce their vulnerability to the virus. Also, encouraging openness about the epidemic with suppliers, other sectors and local communities will bring the issue further out into the open and help to address stigma and discrimination.This factor frequently inhibits people getting tested for the virus or accessing care where it is available for fear of being known to be positive. Responsible businesses should include provision for education, confidential advice and care and support in their employee benefits.Many businesses are now opting to provide ARV treatment for employees who need it, which often makes sound economic sense.
Appendix | page 6
Notes to Brief 4, continued
Sandals Montego Bay has implemented workplace HIV/AIDS programmes that include regular staff training by peers, confidential advice and support, support for HIV positive employees and support for staff in the face of sexual intimidation or harassment by guests. For further information see `An Employer's Handbook on HIV/AIDS: a guide for action' produced by the International Organisation of Employers at www.ipieca.org/downloads/health/hiv/empl_handbook.pdf Employment in all-inclusive resorts Research by GTZ studied seven all-inclusive resorts in three Caribbean countries. Each resort created between 190 and 450 jobs: three- to four-star all-inclusive resorts typically create one job per room (compared with 0.5­0.7 jobs per room in conventional hotels).In five-star all-inclusive resorts there are typically 1.5­2 jobs per room (compared with one job per room in conventional 5 star hotels).
minimum wages were between US$100 and US$250 per month at three- to four-star resorts and US$450 per month at five-star resorts. It is estimated that free meals, transport and pension contributions amount on average to a further US$200/month per employee. In Jamaica the gross monthly wage, cash and in-kind contribution for Sandals line staff ranges between US$700 and US$1150; staff are able to save up to one third of their monthly salary. At Sandals employees who are recruited completely untrained can achieve salaries of between US$450 and US$900 per month through career progression.At Sandals all line staff receive at least 120 hours of training each year valued at US$85/year. If the contribution of Sandals to training centres and higher education for its staff is added to this, Sandals is spending close to US$600. Source: www.propoortourism.org.uk/WTM%20Presentations/WTM%20 Sandals%20presentation.pdf
In all but one of the resorts surveyed less than 10% of the jobs were seasonal. On average the researchers found that there were between 2 and 4 indirect jobs created in supplier businesses, for each all-inclusive resort job.
Appendix | page 7
Notes to Brief 5 Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions
The need for product diversification in the Caribbean `The level of investment in tourism development has increased substantially in regions such as Asia. . . . Moreover, there is increasing tourism investment in North America and Europe as destinations everywhere are fighting for market share. Part of the strategies destinations employ is to present a diversified product with multiple activities, offered with high quality service standards.This is the future of tourism and this is the direction the Caribbean must go in order to compete effectively'. (CPEC, 2002) `The tourism industry as a whole hasn't yet grasped what this country has to offer culturally. And when it does, it does so in a biased way: presenting Spanish culture but not Taino or African culture. Right from the beginning tourism promotion has been designed to show only beaches not our cultural product.As competition between traditional sun, sand and sea destinations intensifies the "era of improvisation" is over'. (Deputy Minister of Tourism, Dominican Republic ­ interview on July 7th 2005) In Dominican Republic near to Santo Domingo, there are the first three sugar mills built in the Western hemisphere, yet none of them are tourist attractions. Santo Domingo was the first city to be built in the New World and a World Heritage Site, yet hotel rooms in the city do not include brochures about this. See Making Tourism Count for the Local Economy in Dominican Republic: Ideas for Good Practice (Ashley, Goodwin and McNab, 2005), by PPT Partnership and Asonahores. www.propoortourism.org.uk/DomRepguidelines.pdf Adventure safaris: helping tourists enjoy a wider experience On many of the islands,adventure safaris have become very popular,linking historical,environmental,cultural,agricultural and culinary experiences in a one day tour. They enable holidaymakers to visit renowned places that aren't necessarily near their hotel.This provides opportunities for visits to communities and craft workers and spreads the economic benefits of tourism. Outback Safaris in Dominican Republic takes tourists from Puerta Plata and Punta Cana on rural excursions which combine visits to a traditional home,bathing in a river,a boat ride,a lunch stop,traditional dancing,boogie boarding,and
views of the lush interior. The owner describes the excursion as combining `history, social lessons, cultural experience, plants, animals, fun and charisma'. Local people gain benefits through a variety of channels: in addition to the US$5,000 a month in rent paid to owners of boat and ranches, rural people earn approximately US$1300 per month from sale of local products to tourists or fees for visiting their house. The company also invests in local road building and supports community projects such as schools and orphanages. Rather than simply giving things away on their trip, tourists are encouraged to contribute to a Foundation that can administer funds professionally. www.outback-safaris.com/english/about.htm Tour operators shaping consumer choice in the destination Between 1998 and 2002,TUI (Netherlands) used a range of communication strategies throughout the customer `journey' to inform their holidaymakers about local issues in Curacao and Bonaire. Holidaymakers were informed about excursions that are sustainably managed through the following channels: · Brochures · Tips accompanying the airline tickets · In-flight video shown by KLM · Resource book in hotel lobbies · Welcome briefing meetings provided by resort managers and representatives TUI encouraged guests to `enjoy our lovely islands but help us to keep them intact for future generations'and informed guests about how to behave as well as information on attractions, dive operators and hotels participating in the project.The partners received certificates which informed customers about the standards it had committed to, and which the partner could use in its own marketing.These standards were environmental (e.g. that corals and other marine life should not be offered for sale) but the same approach could be extended to socio-economic issues. www.leedsmet.ac.uk/lsif/the/WORKING_WITH_SUPPLIERS.pdf For further information on working examples mentioned in Brief 5: For more on cocoa tours see Monbayasa: [email protected] Fundacion Atlantica: www.sea-horse-ranch.com/foundation/Chocolatera.pdf For more on bachata see http://home-3.tiscali.nl/~pjetax/historias/history_bachata.html For more on Mamiku Gardens see www.mamiku.com Appendix | page 8
Notes to Brief 6 Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy
Developing local products that are unique and competitive `We've been completely invaded by foreign handicrafts. It's something we've not paid serious attention to.This last winter season has been the worst season in terms of sales of handicrafts in the country.' Jose De Ferrari, craft consultant in Dominican Republic, July 2005.
services in accommodation, transport, food, performances, events and souvenirs.The value of additional media exposure due to the event is estimated to exceed the annual budget of the marketing board. The initiative required an enormous amount of stakeholder collaboration to get off the ground,involving multiple finance sources,tax waivers, media collaboration, use of volunteers and contracted staff, sponsorships and partnerships.
A common problem for local producers is the difficulty of competing with cheaper imports. Many small establishments must resort to importing items actually made in Central America or Asia. A gift shop proprietor in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines reported that she simply could not sell local items because the quality and supply was inconsistent, and visitors considered the prices too high. Several proposals have been made: · One relatively unexplored solution is for farmers to produce unique, upmarket, personalised products for the visiting tourists.The argument is that if an item is unique it cannot be replaced with a cheaper foreign equivalent. For example, one entrepreneur in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines has suggested that farmers and beauticians join together to open skin care salons close to the cruise ship berths. Arriving tourists could treat themselves to massages and facials using unique local herbs and fragrances. · Another proposal was that if producers could purchase a supply of already prepared inputs, they could accelerate production and earn a better living. · Adapting traditional craft designs could also increase competitiveness. If local crafts were modified to function as packaging for a processed food item, for example, this would enhance the marketability of both the food item and the craft product. Source: Clissold (2001) www.trinitydc.edu/academics/depts/Interdisc/International/ caribbean%20briefings/windward%20islands.pdf
For more information on St Lucia Jazz Festival, see St Lucia Tourist Board (2004): St Lucia Jazz Story ­ A Perspective. http://stluciajazz.org/jazz_articles/feststory.asp Seafood Friday ­ Anse La Raye, St Lucia Anse La Raye in St Lucia was an area rich in natural and cultural assets and one of the poorest communities on the island.The weekly event provided the opportunity for local vendors to reach a new market, and provide a channel for locally caught seafood.The key outcome has been that typically unemployed middle aged females of Anse La Raye now have alternative means of income at least US$600 monthly. Showcasing local culture for local consumption and export: Dominica's World Creole Music Festival Since 1997 Dominica has been hosting the World Creole Music Festival, an annual music event showcasing Creole Music to the world. Over seventy bands and individual artists have performed at the event bringing together an estimated seventy-five thousand patrons since the festival began. The Dominica Festivals Commission (DFC) is responsible for promoting, marketing and managing the festival, and aims to encourage its export to the wider regional and international market. www.worldcreolemusicfestival.net
St Lucia Jazz Festival
The St Lucia Jazz Festival was originally conceived as a marketing tool to raise market visibility and boost arrivals in the low season in a relatively low cost way. But it has now developed into a leading event in the national and tourist calendar. The festival has boosted visitor arrivals, raised awareness of the destination, provided exposure for local artists,and provided a ready audience for other tourist
Appendix | page 9
Notes to Brief 7 Building neighbourhood partnerships
TheYouth PATH project in the Caribbean: partnering with poor youth for community-based tourism development The Youth PATH (Poverty Alleviation through Heritage Tourism) project works with young Caribbean men and women aged 15 to 25 years to develop community-based natural and cultural heritage tourism.The projects are not only focussed on enhancing the tourism sites but also on youth development. The project has been carried out at the following eight sites: Gambier Village (The Bahamas), De Heart uh Barbados (Barbados), Toledo District/Sapodilla Cayes Marine Reserve (Belize),CaribTerritory (Dominica),Blue and John Crow Blue Mountains (Jamaica), MabouyaValley and Des Barras Beach (St Lucia), North Leeward (St. Vincent and the Grenadines), and Galibi (Suriname).
At Boca Chica in Dominican Republic, a partnership is being developed for the development of the area and new products. Currently, the only attraction is the beach.The idea for neighbourhood development is to develop the Paseo of San Andreas ­ a boulevard for tourists along the sea front ­ with cassettas (small restaurants), and a range of nearby cultural products (museum, sugar mill, ecopark, yacht marina). See Dominican Republic Good Practice Guidelines: www.propoortourism.org.uk/DomRepguidelines.pdf For more information on Laborie Development Foundation, see www.laboriecommunity.net/projects.htm
At each project site, the work is done with a partner organisation such as a local NGO, government department or environmental conservation trust and includes the documentation of natural and cultural heritage assets; the development/enhancement and preservation of the natural and cultural heritage tourism potential of specific sites; training in entrepreneurial and business skills to enable the young people to develop micro-enterprises to exploit new tourism opportunities; and life-skills training.
www.unescocaribbean.org/culture/culture_youthpath.htm E-mail: [email protected]
Social and Environmental Benefits of Neighbourhood Partnership In Dominican Republic,`clusters' are bringing stakeholders together in six local destinations. For example, Romana/La Bayahibe became one of the first beaches in the Caribbean to have a Blue Flag. This could not have been achieved without wide stakeholder input. There is potential to extend this approach to a range of infrastructural and socio-economic issues.
Appendix | page 10
About the Briefs . . . The eight Briefs in this series provide practical tips on how to develop different types of local linkages, drawing on experience in several different countries in the Caribbean For other Briefs in the series and further information see www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean
Brief 1: Overview: tourism and the local economy ­ building linkages Brief 2: Bringing local producers into the supply chain Brief 3: Building links with local farmers Brief 4: Employing local staff Brief 5: Involving local people and products in tours, packages and excursions Brief 6: Encouraging tourists to spend in the local economy Brief 7: Building neighbourhood partnerships Brief 8: Managing internal change for developing local linkages.
The Appendix provides more details, further examples, sources, and a useful list of contacts. The Briefs outline some of the benefits and challenges of local linkages, and then focus on what to do. They provide tips on good practice mainly for hoteliers, but also for other private, governmental and nongovernmental operators in tourism.
Appendix | page 11
www.propoortourism.org.uk/caribbean

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