Managing Amazonian variability with indigenous knowledge

Tags: Amazonia, populations, Brazil nut, floodplain, indigenous peoples, prehistoric populations, palm, Brazil, bamboo forests, sandy soils, geological areas, Vigna, upper Amazon, Amazon, loamy soils, Amazon floodplain, native populations, soils, Freudenberger, Amazon Estuary, Pergamon Press, plants and animals, food production system, biological processes, food production, indigenous knowledge systems, Baixo Amazonas, trees and shrubs, campo cerrado, 93-01 Mausel, peoples, types of vegetation, sustainable strategies, vegetation characteristics, Y. Wu, Amazon Town, Imagens de Satelitepara estudos de Ecologia Humana de Populacoes, Human Ecology, Brazilian Amazon, P. Mausel, Simposio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto, Y. Li, E.F. Moran, bamboo forest
Content: ACT Publication No. 93-02 Managing Amazonian Variability with Indigenous Knowledge E. F. Moran Reprinted from: Tropical Forests, People and Food: Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development. C.M. Hadlik et al. (eds.) Pp. 753-765 (1993) Anthropological Center for Training and Research on Global environmental change Indiana University, Student Building 331, 701 E. Kirkwood Ave., 47405-71 00, U.S.A. Phone: (812)855-61 81, Fax: (812 ) 855-3000, Email: [email protected], internet:
CHAPTER 64 MANAGING AMAZONIAN VARIABILITY WITH INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE Emilio F. M O ~ N INTRODUCTION The Amazon has the capacity to feed sizeable populations but for this potential to be achieved, current forms of resource use and development will have to change so that a broad array of food sources are exploited rather than a narrow range. It will be necessary also to recognize that the Amazon is not homogenous. It is neither Green Hell nor Paradise. The Amazon Basin is an ecological mosaic where one finds a rich variety of flora and fauna, soils of all kinds, and significant climatic differences. The native populations of Amazonia recognized this heterogeneity long ago, and contemporary populations need comprehend the difference that such a recognition can make to how we think about and treat this vast region. The Amazon Basin is neither a demographic nor a cultural vacuum. Living in this green space are Indian and mixed populations that have grown familiar with the special character of their local habitats (Posey and BalCe, 1989;Morh, 1990).If we are to contribute to balancing the use and conservation of this habitat, we need to begin by appreciating the knowledge that these local populations have about their environment. The Amazon includes a very large number of ecosystems, each one related to the other, each one having a distinct natural history, unique geophysical and chemical characteristics, and human populations that differ in their history, demography, social and political organization and in their view of nature. These differences are in part the result of the process of adaptation of individuals in these populations to the variability present within Amazonia, and in part from differences in their cultural histories. human beings are embedded in a historical context and their future is shaped by these particular experiences.
Tropicalforests, people and food Source: Salati et al. 1978: 204 Figure 64.1 Rainfall variability in the Amazon The Amazon is far more diverse than the dichotomy made between terra firme (uplands) and varzea (floodplains) would suggest. We can usefully contrast today well-drained and poorly-drained savannas. We can compare mature upland forests with anthropogenic forests that look "virgin" but which have been shaped by prolonged indigenous management. We can compare species-diverse forests with species-dominant forests, and evergreen forest; with seasonal forests. Each ecosystem offers opportunities, as well as limitations. Each one has unique characteristics that can be either used advantageously or resisted. Native peoples not only adjust to the environment but also actively modify the environment to enhance features that result in greater long-term value to them. The view that native peoples of Amazonia are "backward" (a view common in national government circles) must be replaced by appreciation of their stewardship of that region. The view that they are "noble savages" is no less off the mark. They vary a great deal amongst themselves. They do not agree about how to treat nature, no more than we do. Nevertheless, the imprint they have left on the forests has been far less destructive than ours despite their use of the region for millenia, compared to the impact we have had in a comparatively small number of years.
Managing Amazonian variability with indigenous knowledge AMAZONIAN ECOSYSTEMS The Amazon shares with the rest of the humid tropics a high solar radiation, uniformly high temperatures, high rainfall and humidity, and rich species diversity. Indeed, the Amazon is so different from the temperate and subtropical regions from which most scientists and bureaucrats come that it is not surprising that to them it is all hyperhumid, hot and luxuriously green. If any distinction is made, the tendency has been to over-rely on a simple but dramatic dichotomy between floodplains and upland interfluves. This dual distinction fails to distinguish between very fragile regions within,the terra firme and regions with greater resilience, between areas with relatively high plant and animal biomass productivity and areas much more limited. The floodplains amount to about 2% of the Basin, while the upland interfluves amount to 98% . Evidence for the diversity of Amazonian ecosystems has only begun to be available in the past decade or two. At the level of climatic differentiation, there are important differences in the seasonality of rainfall within this vast Basin (Figure 64.1). In the areas orographically affected by the Andes, rainfall can be as high as 5000 mm annually with virtually no dry season. By contrast, the eastern Amazon receives as little as 1700 mm,has a dry season of about 4 months, and supports evergreen moist forests and seasonal forests (Moran, 1991; Salati, 1985). The soils of the region, long-thought to be uniformly poor and acidic, are now known to range across the full spectrum of soil types and fertilities (Table 64.1). This is evident both at the level of the soil sample, and at the level of the watershed (Junk and Furch, 1985) where the various soils produce three distinct types of rivers: whitewater, clearwater and blackwater (Sioli, 1951; 1984; Sternberg, 1975). The common view, most recently expressed by Bailey et al. (1989; 1991), that the tropical rain forest is depauparate and its rivers blackwater applies only to a small proportion of the Basin, drained by the Rio Negro with large areas of nutrient-poor white sands or spodosols (Morin, 1991; Jordan, 1985; Clark and Uhl, 1987; Goulding er al., 1988).The extreme poverty of these areas is atypical of the Basin as a whole. Smith (1979) has noted that blackwater lakes have a fish productivity 15 to 19 times lower than lakes fed by whitewater rivers. Blackwater rivers are poor in total fish biomass but they are rich in number of species (Goulding et al., 1988). The floodplain needs to be differentiated into at least three distinct habitats: the estuary, the lower floodplain, and the upper floodplain. The estuary is less rich in plant species than most of the Basin, but it is rich in net yield to human populations. Traditional populations have taken advantage of these regions by favoring palms that cope well with the cycles of daily tides. While the estuary is restricted in total surface area, it has very high carrying capacity when properly managed. Research has found contemporary popula-
Tropical forests, people and food
Table 64.1 Distribution of soils in the Amazon
Great Group Million hectares % of Amazon
Ustox Aquox Udults Aquults Ustults Aquents Orthenu Psamments Fluvents Udalfs Aqualfs Aquepts Tropepu Udolls Aquolls
Haplonhox Acronhox Euthorthox Aausthox Haplusthox Euaosthox Plinthaquox Tropudults Paleoudults Plinthudults Plinthaquulu Tropaquults Paleoquults Albaquults Rhodustults Fluvaquents Tropaquents Psammaquents Hydraquents Troporthents Quamipsamments Tropfluvents Tropudalfs Tropaqualfs Tropaquepts Humaquepts Eutropepu ~SnoPepts
21 9.9 137.8 675 0.3 6.6 4.8 . 2.0 . 0.9 141.7 83.6 29.9 7.6 12.2 7.1 0.7 0.1 05 72.0 44.8 6.7 2.8 0.6 6.9 5.5 4.7 19.8 165 3.3 16.0 10.6 0.5 4.3 0.6 10.5 3.5 2.8 0.9 0.5
Source: After Cochrane and Sanchez, 1982:152-153
tions at a density of up to 48 persons km-2,with considerably higher incomes than elsewhere in the region due to the proximity of urban markets and high demand for palm fruits. However, it would be a mistake to think that the extractivist system found here can be replicated in non-estuary portions of the floodplain or in terra fime (Anderson and Ioris, 1989).
Managing Amazonian variability with indigenous knowledge
Table 64.2 Complex use of biotopes by local populations in an areaof the Puuvian upper Amaton
-- Biotope
Levee Top High Levee Upper Levee Low Levee Beaches Backswamp
Not subject to inundation, sandy and silt-loam soils Infrequent flooding, sandy and silt-loam soils Rarely flooded clay soils Annual inundation, sandy to loamy soils , sand to loam banks Shallow depressions between levees Ox-bow lakes Shallow swamps dominated by Mauritia jlexuosa palms
Bananas, manioc, sweet potatoes
Vigna, pineapple, guava fruit tnes.
Manioc. plantains, peanut and
rice after floods.
Manioc, plantains, sugar cane
rice, com, Vigna
Vigna on sandy soils. peanuts on loamy Construction materials
Fish and game meat Palm fruit
Source: Hiraoka, 1985
A second type of floodplain occurs upstream and is known as the lower Amazon. This is the commonly thought of Amazon floodplain: rich in deposited alluvium from the Andes, with pH near neutral, and a high fish biomass (Junk, 1984: 2 15). It supported large prehistoric populations, such as the Omagua (Myers, 1989; Porro, 1989). However, following the devastating depopulation of the Basin with contact, the ecosystem has been underexploited and mismanaged. The highly variable annual flood levels make control of the water system difficult and costly in both terms of labour and capital. This region occupies about 1.6% of the Basin or 64 000 kxr2.The most.promisingpopulations to learn from are the caboclosor riberenos, riverine populations that have lived here for long periods of time (e.g. Frechione er al., 1989; Wagley, 1953). The third kind of floodplain is known as the upper Amazon and is highly variable, depending on the geological areas from which its sediment is derived. Some are highly acidic, some are near neutral. Their potential varies accordingly for human populations in terms of food production potential. These variations have not been noted in most ethnographic reports and thus it is unclear what the productivity of this mosaic-like ecosystems are. There are still sizeable native populations of indigenous peoples (e.g. Shipibo) and of non-indigenous communities from whom one can study the alternatives for managing the region (Table 64.2). The 98% of the Basin which is terra f m e contains a broad array of vegetations. We could begin by distinguishingminimally between caatingas, liana forests, palm forests, bamboo forests, seasonal forests, and savannas (Table 64.3 for a recent classification of types of vegetation in Amazonia). Caatingas amazonicas or campinaranas are a type of xeromorphic vegeta-
Tropicalforests, people and food
Tabk 643 Types of vegetation in Amazonia
Upland forests of terrafinne l%oodplainsand flooded forests Upland savannas of terrafine Restricted vegetation
a. dense forest b. opm farest c. liana forest d. cMlinga or campinu over spodosols e. bamboo forest f. palm f m g. dry forest h. pre-montane foiea , a. forests over clay sqils . b. floodplain f-ts of the lower Amazon c. floodplain forests 6f the upper Amatan d. forests of the mitry e. pantanal of the Rio Branco f. flooded forests in blackwater riven a. compo sujo b. camp cewado C. ce& d. c e r r h o e. compo mpestre f. savanna of Roraima g. coastal savanna h. flooded savannas a. mangroves b. levees c. buriri or agutzjal dominated areas (Mauriria).
Source: Adapted from Prance 1978 and Pircs and Prance 1985: 113.
tion present in the blackwater basin of the Rio Negro (Jordan and Herrera, 1981). Rainfall is high with little seasonality, soils are extremely poor spodosols of near-pure quartz, plants have a high prevalence of secondary toxic compounds that reduce herbivore pressure. a high proportion of total biomass is in the root component, and many have sclerophylous leaves.' Native peoples did not attempt cultivation of these oligotrophic areas but restricted cultivation to patches of upland tropical moist and rain forest on patches of oxisols (Hill and Morin, 1983). It is here we find the most elaborate, as well as effective, responses to environmental limitations in Amazonia. Here we find dependence on bitter manioc in horticultural activity and a near-absence of sweet varieties in cpntrast to areas like the western Amazon where mainly sweet varieties are cultivated (see discussions in Dufour; McKey and Beckerman, this volume). Unlike other regions of Amazonia, in this area one finds inherited control of riverfronts, with rights vested in patrilineal sibs. Unlike elsewhere in Amazonia, some communities delegate hunting to populations who are held in low esteem by the dominant fishing and farming populations. The system is supported by cultural homo-
Managing Amazonian variability with indigenous knowledge
Table 64.4 Ecological characteristics of types of foresl
Bana and Cauringa
RioNegro Upland forest
Othn moist and rain forest
Number of tree species >10 cm dbh ha-' Number of individual trees >I0 cm dbh ha-' Canopy height (m) Basal arch for trees >I0 cm dbh (km-'ha-') Above p u n d biomass (memc tons ha-') Root biomass (96) Source: Modified from Klinge 1982 and Uhl and Murphy 1981
geneity among groups of diverse language families, by geographically farreaching marriage systems, and by a system of interdependent rank classes (cf. Morin, 1991). There are important differences and similarities between caatingas and proximate tropical rain forest on oxisols and between both of these and the averages for other tropical rain forests in Amazonia (Table 64.4). Of special note is the substantial increase in species diversity when moving from band caatinga to upland forests in the Rio Negro, which in turn is very much like that of tropical moist forests elsewhere. However, the Rio Negro forests have a shorter canopy, a considerably smaller basal area, lower-above ground biomass, and a higher proportion of total biomass in roots. As agricultural areas, these are areas to be avoided and their harvesting limited to the extraction of secondary compounds for pharmacological use and for Environmental Protection of their rich species diversity (Schultes and Raffauf, 1991). Liana forests occcur throughout the Basin and are estimated to cover up to 100 000 kme2(Pires and Prance, 1985). They tend to be associated with outcroppings of high base status parent materials and patches of high fertility soils and anthropogenic soils. These are the fore& referred to by Herrera (1985) as eutrophic, as compared with the oligotrophic forests discussed above. Agriculture can be sustained for longer time periods here, given the higher initial soil fertility and higher pH. Field abandonment in these areas is likely to be an escape from the onus of weeding, rather than due to fertility decline (Sanchez, 1976). There is some evidence that these forests may be wholly, or in part, the result of the activities of prehistoric populations of Amazonia which over time concentrated plants of economic interest in these favoured soils (Balie, 1989). It is these areas which suggest intensive and
~ropicaflorests, people andfood
Table 645 Soils and vegetation of the savanna
Soil propmy Organic Matter % Potassium (meq 100 ml.') Calcium (meq 100 ml-I) Magnesium (meq 100 ml") Zinc (ppm) copper ( P P ~ ) Iron ( P P ~ ) Source: Lopes. 1975
Cmpo runPo 2.21 0.08 0.20 0.06 0.58 0.60 35.7
-0 cerrado 2.33 0.10 0.33 0.13 0.61 0.79 33.9
Ccrrado Ccrradoo
0.1 1
- sustainable strategies for resource use in Amazonia although what works here may not necessarily work elsewhere. Palms are very good indicators of prehistoric occupation when found in unusual densities. Pupunha (Bactris gassipaes), inaja (Maximiliana maripa) and buriti (Mauritiaflexuosa) have been used by ethnobotanists as indicative of past occupation. Tucuma (Astrocarium vulgare) is also associated with secondary growth: The Urubu Ka'apor of Maranhao, Brazil, consider the fruits of this palm attractive to small game and tapir, a relationship which probably encouraged them to promote its growth to increase the value of "hunting gardens" (Linares, 1976; BalCe, 1989). The best known and most intensively managed palm is probably baba~u(Orbignya phalerata). Forests of this palm extend for over 196 370 km2in the Brazilian Amazon (May et al., 1985: 115). Balke has observed baba~uforests of up to three hectares (BalCe, 1984). The fruit is valued for protein and calories, while the leaves are prime thatching material. Bamboo forests (Guadua glomerata) are important to indigenous peoples. In the Brazilian Amazon they cover about 85 000 krrf2 (Braga, 1979) and indicate past indigenous occupation (Sombroek, 1966). Brazil nut forests (Bertholletia excelsa) occupy large areas in the eastern Amazon in the lower Tocantins (about 8000 km2) and are largely unmapped in the rest of the Basin. The Kayapo Gorotire have been observed planting Brazil nut trees because of their importance in attracting game and for their food value (and now market value) (Anderson and Posey, 1985; Posey, 1985). Brazil nut trees are among the most long-lived trees in the forest, which makes their current destruction by cattle ranchers is all the more tragic. Savanna vegetations in the Amazon Basin arc often overlooked due to the attention showered on forests despite their surface area and are not insignificant. At least five distinct types of vegetation along a gradient may be noted: campo limpo is characterized by the absence of trees and shrubs and the dominance of grasses; campo sujo refers to a vegetation where trees of less
Managing Amazonian variability with indigenous knowledge than 3 m high may be found at good distances one from another; campo cerrado refers to an area with discontinuous trees and shrubs averaging four metres in height; cerrado, sensu stricro, is an area with considerable tree vegetation of about six metres in height; and cerradao is an intermediate type of sa- vanna and forest with trees averaging nine m in height and having some- times three distinct strata (Fem, 1977).Eiten (1972)proposed a sixth category, called campo umido such as occur in poorly-drained areas where buriri (Mauritia flexuosa) thrives. Table 64.5 summarizes the soils and vegetation characteristics of the South American savannas. The savannas of central Brazil have much in common with the savannas of the north such as those in Roraima. Plant biomass is less in general in the llanos of Colombia and Venezuela than in the Brazilian savannas. MANAGING VARIABILITY The systems of management observed in the floodplain and estuary suggest that care must be taken if fisheries are to be sustainable. Local populations avoid clearing the flooded forests and understand its importance for the fisheries as a hatchery and a place where the fish gain much of their weight. We also learn from them the importance of cultivating the alluvial beaches, levees and other areas which are enriched by sedimentation during floods. This potential can only be achieved by maintaining the local criteria for predicting the rise and fall of rivers - which, in turn, relies on long-term observation of the behavior of the local fauna and the development of ethnoecological clues. In the estuary, the potential is very high for extraction from fast growing fruit-producing plants that can handle the flood conditions, such as several palms. In the upland forests, one finds a cornucopia of management practices. On the better soils .one finds anthropogenic forests which concentrate species of economic value without excessive simplification of species in the ecosystem so much so that for a long time we thought of them as "virgin" forests. Palm forests, bamboo forests, and Brazil nut forests could also be further developed by observing the ways to do so used by native peoples. The restoration of forested areas convened to pasture could benefit from the expertise of peoples like the Kayapo, in transitional areas of forest and savanna. There is evidence of native reforestation of savannas (Posey, 1985) and which species are able to support each other in such situations. In poorly-drained savannas, like those in Llanos de Mojos, Bolivia and Marajo island at the mouth of the Amazon, the restoration of drainage canals and reconstruction of raised fields could return those portions of Amazonia to their prehistoric productivity and enhance regional self-reliance and incomes. However, these labour intensive activities are unlikely to last at low
Tropicalforests, people andfood Table 64.6 Summary of management strategies Esruar?.: Fast-growing fruit producing palms; other extractive products. limited agriculnm usually on raised fields; lower species diversity, high productivity strategies especially near urban centers. Lowerfloodplain:Fast-growing annual crops. irrigation management; fishery and hatchery development; truck farming; ecotourism. [email protected]: ake fisheries development; in low acidity areas rice and other cereals; palm management in swampy anas. Blackwater u p M : Agioforesay focused on Medicinal Plants; extensive agriculnm focused on bitter manioc; extensive fisheries to d u c e potential for ovenxploitation; high speciesdiversity but low productivity. - Non-blockwaferUQW Agro:foresuy development according to local environmental conditions: palm forests, bamboo forests. Brazil nut forests, rubber, and fruit and oil-producing trees; in better endowed areas, intensive cultivation with high value crops and organic matter management. Savannai:Towards the centre of the region, production of cereals with intensive fertilization; restoration of edge areas back to forest and agioforesay uses. population density and unfavourable factor prices. In short, attention to the ways in which indigenous peoples use Amazonian resources suggests that there is a great deal that be learned by anyone who wants to enter the region and to use its resources intelligently. A MATTER OF METHOD To manage Amazonian variability in the ways discussed above will depend on the application of the methods of ethnoecology to the study of plant and animal productivity in tropical forests. The preoccupation of scientists with maximizing commodity production sometimes correlates with a neglect of the impact of such production priorities on the welfare of farming populations. This will have to be corrected as the quality of life declines in cities, and as it becomes more important to have sustainable systems of production nurtured by greater labour rather than capital inputs (Freudenberger, 1988). In short, a growing number of people are demanding a globally-aware, regenerative, and nationally self-reliant food system. This cannot be achleved by giving priority to the relative efficiency of some places to grow staples, while relegating All Other areas to the production of non-staple commodities that wildly fluctuate in price. Food is too basic an item to be subjected to the speculative decisions of a few large-scale producers, or to the random fortunes of weather or prices. National and regional policies will have to favour FOOD SECURITY, and in so doing restore the value of nurturing the earth that is often associated with small and medium scale food producers. A regenerative food production system will need to break the stranglehold that large scale grain producers currently have on local production
Managing Amazonian variability with indigenous knowledge systems. Each nation would need to favour its own farming populations to maintain and enhance the fertility of its agricultural lands, while producing enough food to meet the basic needs of its people. Such a strategy will require that we find ways to maintain and enhance the biological processes that recycle nutrients, build up organic matter, conserve water (in arid areas) or move water (in hyperhumid areas) effectively and at low cost. In short, what we need are better mimics of the complexity and diversity of natural systems. We need to move towards a biologically-intensive, rather than fossil fuel or capital-intensive, foodproduction system (Freudenberger, 1988). It will be a food production system which calls for micro-management of plants and inputs, that incorporates many new plants into the consumption system, and that unlocks the unexploited potential of many plants and animals. The food production system of the future looks a lot like the system known already to many indigenous peoples of Amazonia. While they may not currently share our concern with "efficiency" this may simply be a product of the dislocations and resettlement that have profoundly affected them since colonial times. Not all native populations have very extensive knowledge of the biological processes around them, due to these dislocations, but many do and working with them it will be possible to find interconnections in biological process that reduce the chances of failure that have so often plagued past efforts at increasing food production in the tropics. For example, why invest scarce capital in planting Phaseolus beans in the humid tropics of Amazonia when there is ample evidence of difficulty controlling Fusarium infestation of the bean plants. Why not, instead, allocate more effort to manioc production, processing and marketing? Why introduce sweet varieties to areas that grow bitter varieties of manioc almost exclusively? why plant cotton for the worldmarket if the country or the region cannot feed itself? How often do we ask local people why they plant something? The immediate answer, "because we like it" may not be the entire answer. Behind that like may lie a more profound truth: we have tried x, y and z and they failed to give acceptable returns and thus they have focused on this crop because of its reliable returns. Reliability in food supply may be ultimately more important to farmers - and to us all. Ask any farmer, or the population of Cuba or Russia. Length of residence in the immediate area is the best proxy for expertise when it comes to farming knowledge. As a rule of thumb, no less than one generation in the area of study is necessary before one can expect accuracy in the folk system. A natural starting point is to talk about the soils of the region. A series of questions geated at identifying the major domains can be a start: are there good soils for agriculture around here? how can you tell good soils from bad soils? are some good for some crops and not others? do some need more inputs than others? In areas where the farmers make numer-
Tropicalforests, people andfood ous discriminations and hierarchical ones, it may be necessary to go into greater detail: are there soils around here that are better for corn? for bananas? for cocoa? how does one find such soils? Such quesGons are best asked in the field, where it is possible to point to particular soils and discuss them. How can the native terms for local soils and plants help an agronomist? A native distinction that indicates that soils under certain vegetation are no good for bananas would suggest a method for identifying a common nutrient deficiency (probably potassium or phosphorus) in that soil and allow immediate attention to be directed to what levels of.ferti1ization may be needed and whether it would be cost effective to plant that crop, or one with comp&able nutrient requirements. In short, it can serve as a shortcut to test plots focusing on all macronutrients. Farmer practices can be put in experimental plots and results compared between test plot and farmer fields to discover the value of certain crop associations. This has been amply done over the years for the association between corn and beans, for example- but on very few other associations that surely merit examination. The field practices of native Amazonians constitute a compendium of experimental knowledge which we can learn from and attempt to reproduce experimentally to get at the basic processes which are being used. The ability to isolate the biological principles behind the complex practices may very well determine whether our future is bright or bleak. References Anderson, A. and Ioris, I.M.(1989).The Logic of Extraction: Resource Management. and Income Generation by Extractive Producers in the Amazon Estuary. Paper presented at Conference "Traditional Resource Use in Neotmpical Forests" Gainesville. Florida Anderson. A. and D. Posey (1985). Manejo de Cerrado pelos indions Kayapo. Bolerim do Muscu Paraenre Emilio Goeldi.Botanica. 2, 77-98. Bailey. R.C.. G. Head, M. Jenike. B. Owen. R. Rechtman and E. Zechmter (1989). Hunting and Gathering in a Tropical Rain fmst: Is it Possible? American Anthropologist. 91.5 1-82 Bailey, R.C.. M. Jenike and R. Rechunan (1991). Reply to Colinvaux and Bush. American Anthropologist. 93:160-162 Balte. W. (1984). The Ecology of Ancient Tupi Warfare. R. B. Ferguson ed. Warfare, Culture and Environment. Fp. 241-265. (New Yark: Academic Press). Balte. W. (1989). The Culture of Amazonian Forests. Advances in Economic Botany, 7.129-158 Braga P.(1979).SubdivisaoFitogeograf~caT, ipos de Vegetacao. Conservacao, e Inventaio Floristic0 da Floresta Amazonica Supl. Acta Amazonica, 9.53-80 Clark. K. and Uhl, C. (1987). Farming. Fishing and Fire in the History of the Upper Rio Negro Region of Venezuela Human Ecology, 15.1-26. Dufour. D. (1993).Thebitw is sweet: a casestudyof bioercassava( M o n i h o t c s c W ) usein Amazonia. In this volume. pp. 575-588 Eiten. F. (1972). The Cerrado Vegetation of Brazil. The Bozanical Review, 38.201-341.
Managing Amazonian variability with indigenous knowledge
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Frcchione, J., D. Posey, and L.F. da Silva (1989). The Perception of Ecological Zones and natural resources in the Brazilian Amazon: An Ethnoecology of Lake Coari. Advances in Economic Botany 7:260-282. Freudenberger,C.D. (1988). The Agricultural Agenda for the 21st Century. KIDMA (Israel Journal of Development) 10(2):32-36. Goulding, M., Carvalho, M.L. and Ferreira, E.G. (1988). Rio Negro: Rich Life in Poor Water. (The Hague: SPB Academic Publ.) Herma, R.(1985). Nutrient Cycling in amazonian Forests. G. Rance and T. Lovejoy (eds.). Amazonia: Key Environments. Pp.95- 105. (London: Pergamon Press). Hill. J. and M o h . E. (1983). Adaptive Strategiesof Wakuenai People of the Rio Negro Basin. In R. Hames and W. Vicken (eds.). Adaptive Responses of Native Aqzonians, Pp. 113-135. (New York: Academic Press). Jordan, C. F. (1985). Nutrient Cycling in Tropical .Forest Ecosystems. (New Yotk: Wiley). Jordan, C.F. and H m r a , R. (1981).TropicalRain Forests: Are Numenu Really Critical?American Naturalist 117:167-180. Junk, WJ. and Furch, K. (1985). The Physical and Chemical Roperties of Amazonian Water and their relationship with the Biota. In G. Pnnce and T. Loivejoy (eds.) Key Environments: Amazonia 4.3-17. ( London: Pergamon Press). Klinge Linares. 0. F. (1976). Garden Hunting in the American Tropics. Human Ecology 4(4): 331-349. May, P.H. et al. (1985). Subsistence Benefits from the Babassu Palm. Economic Botany 39(2):113- 129. McKey, D. and Beckerman, S. (1993). Chemical ecology. plant evolution. and traditional manioc cultivation systems. This volume. pp. 83-1 12 Morsln. E. F. (1991). Human Adaptive Strategies in Amazonian Blackwater Ecosystems. American Anthropologist, 93.361-382 Modn. E.F.(1990). A Ecologia Humana das Populacoes da Amazonia (Pmopolis. Brazil: Editora Vozes). Myers. T.P. (1989). The Expansion and Collapse of the Ornap. Paper presented at the Wenner- Gren Conference "Amazonian Synthesis". Nova Friburgo, Brazil. June 2-10.1989. Pins. J.M. and G.T. Prance (1985). The Vegetation Types of the Brazilian Amazon. In G. Prance and T. Lovejoy (eds.). Key Environments: Amazonia. 4.109-145. (London: Peqgarnon Press). Porro. A. (1989). Social Organization and Power in the Amazon Floodplain: the Ethnohistorical Sources. Paper presented at Wenner-Gren Foundation Conference "Amazonian Synthesis" Nova Friburgo. Brazil. June 1989. Posey. D. (1985).Indigenous Management of Tropical Forest Ecosystems: The Case of the Kayapo Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. Agroforest~System. 3. 139-158. Posey. D. and W. Balk (eds.) (1989). natural resource management by Indigenous and Folk Societies of Amazonia. (New York: New York Botanical Garden Monograph Series). Advunces in Economic Botany, 7. Salati. E. (1985).The Cliinatology and Hydrology of Amamnia In G. Prance and T. Lovejoy (eds.) Key Environments: Amazonia. Pp. 18-48. (London: Pergamon Press). Sanchez. P. (1976). Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics. (New York: WileyIntencience). Sanchez, P. et al. (1982). Amazon Basin Soils: Management for Continuous Crop Production. Science 216:821-827. Schultes, R.E. and Raffauf. R.F. (1990). The Healing Forest: Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia. (Portland. Oregon: Dioscorides Press). Sioli. H. (1951). Zum Alterungsprozess von Flussen und Flusstypen in Amazonasgebiet. Archiv fur Hvdrobiologie. 45,267- 284. Sioli. H.( ed.) ( 1984).The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and its Basin. (Dordrecht: Junk Publ.) Smith. N. (1979). A Pesca no Rio Amazonas. (Manaus: INPA). Sombroek. W. (1966). Amazon Soils. (Wageningen: Cenm for Agric. Publ. and Doc. ) Stemberg, H. 0. (1975). The Amazon River of Brazil. (Wiesbaden: B m z Steiner Verlag.)
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ACT PuMications 1993 NO. 93-01 Mausel, P., Y. Wu, Y. Li, E.F. Moran, and E.S. Brondizio. "Spectral Identification of Successional Stages following Deforestation in the Amazon." Geocarto International 8(4):6181. NO. 93-02 Moran, E. F. "Managing Amazonian Variability with Indigenous Knowledge" In Tropical Forests, People and Food: Biocultural Interactions and Applications to Development. C.M. Hadlik et al. (4s.). Pp. 753-765. Paris: UNESCO/Parthenon Publ. Vol. 15 in Man and the Biosphere Series. NO. 93-03 Moran, E.F. "Deforestation and Land Use in the Brazilian Amazon." Human Ecology 21: 1-21. NO. 93-04 Moran, E.F., E.S. Brondizio, P. Mausel, and Y. Li. "Assinaturas Espectrais Diferenciando Etapas de Sucessao Secundaria no Leste Amazonico" Anais do VII Simposio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto. 2: 202-209. NO. 93-05 Brondizio, E.S., E.F. Moran. P. Mausel, and Y. Wu. "Padroes de Assentamento Caboclo no Baixo Amazonas: Analise Temporal de Imagens de Satelitepara estudos de Ecologia Humana de Populacoes da Amazonia". Anais do VII Simposio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto 1: 1626. NO. 93-06 Brondizio, E.S., E.F. Moran, P. Mausel, and Y. Wu. "Dinamica na Vegetacao do Baixo Amazonas: Analise temporal do Uso da Terra integrando imagens Landsat TM, levantamentos floristicos, e etnograficos" .Anais do VII Simposio Brasileiro de Sensoriamento Remoto 2: 38- 46. NO. 93-07 Moran, E.F. "Minimum Data for Comparative Human Ecological Studies: Examples From Studies in Amazonia." Advances in Human Ecology 2: 187-209.

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