India, particulate matter, Diwali festival, air quality, Diwali, Ambient air quality, air pollutants, Diwali day, Hyderabad, India, air quality data, ambient air, Diwali fireworks, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, concentrations, downtown Montreal, Particulate Pollutants, daily variation, Montreal, fireworks, study, gaseous pollutants, Pre-Diwali, PM10, aerosol particles
of environmental science
and Toxicology Research (ISSN: 2408-7262) Vol. 2(5) pp. 136-142, June, 2014 Available online http://www.internationalinventjournals.org/journals/IJESTR Copyright ©2014 International Invention Journals
Full Length research paper
Measurement of Particulate Pollution in Jabalpur City during Diwali Festival 1*R.K. SRIVASTAVA, 1KALPANA SAGAR, GUFRAN BEIG2 1environmental research
Laboratory, P.G. Department of Environmental Science, Govt. Model Science College (Autonomous), NAAC RE-Accredited `A' Grade, College with Potential for Excellence, UGC, Jabalpur 482001(M.P.) India 2Senior scientist-F and programme director, Indian Institute of Tropical meteorology (IITM ) Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune- 411008, Maharashtra, India. Abstract The ambient air quality monitoring
network involves measurement of a number of air pollutants
. A variety of methods exist to measure particulate matter in air. This study evaluates the effects of particulate air pollution
associated short-term exposure of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Diwali festival. Fireworks display during festive celebrations can cause acute short term air pollution. Concentration of air pollutants such as PM10 and PM2.5 was monitored for six consecutive days during Diwali in, a densely populated residential area
near, Jabalpur, India for assessing the impacts of fireworks on ambient Air Quality
. The study was conducted for two consecutive years i.e. 2012 and 2013. The result shows that air quality deteriorates during Diwali festival is due to the use of excessive amount of firecrackers. A comparative account of two years air quality data is also presented. Keyword: Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5), Air Quality, Meteorological Parameter, firework comparison of air quality, Diwali festival, ozone.
INTRODUCTION In general, PM (Particulate matter) is a complex mixture of elemental and organic carbon, ammonium, nitrates, sulphates. fine particles
which are very small in size generally have long residence time in the atmosphere and tend to spread over a large geographic region and thus exert the greatest effect on vegetation and ecosystems by virtue of the mass loading of its chemical constituents and vegetation. This effect can be seen in industrial and highly polluted area like metropolis city. Singh et al., (2009) studied the temporal variation in ambient air quality during Diwali festival in India. For pre-Diwali, Diwali festival, post-Diwali, and foggy day, the variation in air quality was assessed from the ambient concentrations of various air pollutants as total *Corresponding Author Email: [email protected]
suspended particle (TSP), particulate matter 10m (PM10).They found the concentrations of PM10 increased two to six times during the Diwali period and the levels of pollutants observed during Diwali were found to be higher due to adverse meteorological conditions, i.e., decrease in 24 h average mixing height, temperature, and wind speed
. The trend analysis shows that TSP and PM10 concentration increased just before Diwali and reached to a maximum concentration
on the day of the festival. The values gradually decreased after the festival. These results indicate that fireworks during the Diwali festival affected the ambient air quality adversely due to emission and accumulation of TSP, PM10. Barman et al., (2009) analyzed fine particles (PM2.5) in ambient air of Lucknow city due to fireworks on Diwali festival. The 24 hr mean PM2.5 of normal day, pre Diwali day, Diwali day and post Diwali day was found higher pollution and the 12 hr mean concentration of PM2.5 on
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Diwali night was significantly higher than normal day and pre and post
Diwali night. Thakur et al., (2010) studied Air pollution from fireworks during festival of lights (Diwali) in Howrah, India - a Case study
. They monitored concentration of SPM, PM10 and PM2.5 during Diwali in Salkia near Kolkata, India for assessing the impacts of fireworks on ambient air quality. The pollutant concentrations as recorded on Diwali were found to be several times higher as compared to a typical winter day value. The results indicated the huge contribution of fireworks on the pollutant levels. Concentrations of metals like Ba, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Al in collected samples of PM2.5 were found to be increased by maNY Times
on Diwali as compared to the previous day. Vyas and Saraswat (2012) studied the Atmospheric aerosol's parameters during pre-Diwali to postDiwali festival period over Indian semi arid station i.e., Udaipur. In this paper, they described the day to day changes in atmospheric aerosol's parameters namely AI300, AOD550, TWC, and MC value over Udaipur during period from 2002 to 2007. Daily variations in such aerosol's parameters values from pre-Diwali to post Diwali period show the substantial increase of the order of 30- 60%. The main possible cause may be due to increase in aerosol's loadings of inter mixed effect of local emission activity and long range transport of aerosols from heavy polluted IGP site and in reduction of PBL height and wind speed. The effects of fireworks on air quality was assessed from the ambient concentrations of PM10, water soluble ionic species, metals and SO2 over Kolkata ,India during Diwali festival which was studied by Chatterjee et al., (2013) on Ambient air quality during Diwali festival over Kolkata A mega-city in India. They identified the PM10 concentrations on Diwali night and found PM10 concentrations was higher than the normal day night-time average and water soluble ionic species showed also higher concentrations. The impact of bursting crackers and fireworks on the ambient air quality due to Diwali festival was studied by Khan et al., (2013). They analyzed ambient air quality of Aligarh city (U.P., INDIA) on Diwali day. The SPM concentration estimated at residential site during the day and night times for pre-Diwali, Diwali day and post-Diwali, the level of SPM value was very high as compared with any normal day. Fireworks in large amounts aggravate the level of air pollutants and cause significant short-term air quality degradation with possible impact on human health. Li et al., (2013) investigated Individual metal-bearing particles in a regional haze caused by firecracker and firework emissions. Intensive firecracker/firework displays during Chinese New Year (CNY) release fine particles and gaseous pollutants into the atmosphere. They monitored ambient PM2.5 and black carbon (BC)
concentrations. They found that MOUDI images showed that there was a haze event during the CNY. Daily average PM2.5 concentration reached six times higher than that before and after the CNY. Similarly, the black carbon (BC) concentrations were elevated during the CNY. They also found that sulfate and organic-rich particles were dominant in the atmosphere before and after the CNY. These data suggest that it was the aerosol particles from the firecracker/firework emissions that induced the regional haze episode during the CNY. Yerramsetti et al., (2013) studied the impact assessment
of Diwali fireworks emissions on the air quality of a tropical urban site, Hyderabad, India, during three consecutive years. They focused on the influence of Diwali fireworks emissions on surface ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and BC aerosol concentration over the tropical urban region of Hyderabad, India during three consecutive years. They found that a twofold to threefold increasing in O3, NOx, and BC concentrations during the festival period compared to control days. This is mainly attributed to firecrackers burning. Diab and Hatzopoulou (2013) investigated the Air pollution impacts of major events: A study of the effects of Montreal's largest festivals on downtown air quality. This paper investigated the effects of several outdoor events, including fireworks and car racing competitions, on downtown Montreal's air quality using data spanning several years. They analyze data collected by Montreal's fixed-site air quality monitoring stations using a transformed curves method and regression analysis. They observed that major fireworks have a positive and statistically significant
effect on fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations in downtown Montreal. Firework induced large increase in trace gases and black carbon at Dibrugarh, India was studied by Pathak et al., (2013) religious, occasional and annual fire work festivals worldwide are found to introduce high concentrations of pollutant gases and particulate matter into the atmosphere. These in turn alters the air quality of a region in the short and long time scales and affect human health adversely during the Diwali festival. Significance of the Study The present study has been aimed to assess the air quality during the Diwali festival (a festival in which large quantities of crackers are used) and its comparison with previous years air quality data during the same period. This study provides the useful information about the changes occurred in air quality data in two years of study i.e. 2012 and 2013.
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MATERIAL AND METHOD site specific
ations Jabalpur is a fast developing city of central Madhya Pradesh situated at 23°938N 79°5619E. It is heart of the country. The Narmada River is a part of this city. This city has a sub tropical type of climate with May being the hottest and January being the coldest month. The area of the city 367 km2 (142 sq mi). Sampling and analytical procedure The data on air quality monitoring are collected using AQMS. Ecotech established an instrument for environmental monitoring that is WinAQMS (Air Quality Monitoring Station). WinAQMS has been designed as a client/server program. This means that WinAQMS has two parts: the client and the server. The server handles all the communication between the logger and the analysers, recording of data and starting/stopping of calibrations. The client is concerned with giving the users access to settings and data. On its own the server has no user interface and there is no way you can interact with it using the mouse or keyboard. The client is the visual interface of WinAQMS and communicates with the server by requesting information or receiving information that it has asked for at a prior time. This arrangement means that the WinAQMS server must always be turned on before the WinAQMS client program can connect to it. Beta Attenuation Monitor (BAM): The Met One instruments model BAM-1020 automatically measures and records particulate concentration levels using the principal of beta ray attenuation. This method provides a simple determination of concentration in units of milligrams or micrograms of particulate per cubic meter
of air. A small 14C (carbon 14) element emits a constant source of high-energy electrons known as beta particles. These beta particles are detected and counted by a sensitive scintillation detector. An external pump pulls a measured amount of dust-laden air through a filter tape. After the filter tape is loaded with ambient dust, it is automatically placed between the source and the detector thereby causing an attenuation of the beta particle signal. The degree of attenuation of the beta particle signal is used to determine the mass concentration of particulate matter on the filter tape, and hence the volumetric concentration of particulate matter in ambient air. Through this AQMS, the data about PM2.5, PM10, carbon monoxide, ozone and nitrogen oxide are obtained. This instrument can give data of various parameters of desired duration. For the present study,
the daily averages of different parameters (as mentioned above) are obtained for the pre-Diwali, Diwali and postDiwali period. This study was carried out in two different years i.e. 2012 and 2013 to know the changes if any in the air quality. AWS (Automatic Weather Station):- This instrument provides metrological data e.g. wind speed, pressure, humidity, temperature, wind direction and rain fall with the help of intercept-software. It gives every 10 minutes data. Observation table 1, daily variation in 2012, figure 1, 2, 3 and table 2. Daily variation in 2013, figure 4, 5, 6, table 3 and figure 7 RESULTS and DISCUSSION The data of PM2.5 and PM10 for the Pre-Diwali, Diwali and Post-Diwali day for the year 2012 and 2013 are presented in Table 1, Table 2, and Figure 1 to 2. The result shows that average PM2.5 concentration was around 60g/m3 in pre-Diwali days in 2012 which was nearly similar (60g/m3) in the year 2013. The average concentration of PM2.5 rose to 106g/m3 on the Diwali day, the maximum was observed on the next day (average 136g/m3) in the year 2012. The average concentration of PM2.5 also rose in the year 2013 on Diwali day but as compared to 2012 it was not so high (70g/m3) with a maximum average concentration the next day (81g/m3). Similar results are also observed for PM10 for both the year. In the year 2012 the average PM10 concentration for pre-Diwali days was around 100g/m3which rose to average concentration 142g/m3 on Diwali Days and increased to average concentration 161g/m3 on the next day. In the year 2013 the average concentration of PM10 for pre-Diwali days was 100g/m3 as in 2012 but in post-Diwali day it rose only to average maximum concentration of 121g/m3 as compared to 161g/m3 of 2012 and in the following days it receded. The result shows that the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration was higher in 2012 on Diwali and postDiwali days as compared to 2013. The reduction may be attributed to less use of firecrackers. (Table 3, Figure 7) There is no difference observed in temperature during pre-Diwali, Diwali and post-Diwali time in both the years. (Table-1 and 2) There is a slight increases in CO concentration during post-Diwali time in the year 2012 (Table 1) and slight increases on the Diwali day in the year 2013 (Table-2) and then decreases in both the year during post-Diwali time. NO2 concentration increases on the day of Diwali in both the year (Table 1 and 2) and then decreases in
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Table 1. Ambient concentration of particulate and gaseous pollutants compare with meteorological parameter (temp.) in the college campus recorded Pre-Diwali, Diwali and Post-Diwali 2012.
Day Pre-Diwali Diwali Post-Diwali
Year 2012 10.11.12 11.11.12 12.11.12 13.11.12 14.11.12 15.11.12 16.11.12
Particulate Pollutants (g/m3) Daily avg.
PM2.5 63 63 60 106 136 82 75
PM10 109 105 103 142 161 97 112
Meteorological Parameter Temp. (°C) 21 22 23 23 22 20 20
CO (ppm) 0.27 0.33 0.38 0.47 0.67 0.20 0.23
Gaseous Pollutants O3 (ppb) 55 58 58 59 57 55 67
NO2 (ppb) 19 17 30 32 47 14 10
Figure 1. Daily variation PM2.5 (2012)
Figure 2. Daily variation of PM10 (2012)
Figure 3. Comparison of PM10 and PM2.5 with Tem., CO, O3 & NO2 (2012) Figure 3. Comparison of PM10 and PM2.5 with Tem., CO, O3 & NO2 (2012)
140 Int. J. Environ. Sci. Toxic. Res.
Table 2. Ambient concentration of particulate and gaseous pollutants compare with meteorological parameter (temp.) in the college campus recorded Pre-Diwali, Diwali and Post-Diwali 2013.
Day Pre-Diwali Diwali Post-Diwali
Year 2013 31.10.13 01.11.13 02.11.13 03.11.13 04.11.13 05.11.13 06.11.13
Particulate Pollutants (g/m3) Daily avg.
PM2.5 53 55 61 70 81 68 51
PM10 103 92 101 113 121 100 82
Meteorological Parameter Temp. (°C) 25 24 25 25 24 22 22
CO (ppm) 0.24 0.10 0.11 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.14
Gaseous Pollutants O3 (ppb) 44 60 60 53 50 48 54
NO2 (ppb) 11 15 14 15 21 18 14
Figure 4. Daily variation of PM2.5 (2013)
Figure 5. Daily variation of PM10 (2013)
Figure 6. ComparisonFiogfuPrMe160.aCndomPMpa2.r5iwsoitnh Toef mPM., C10Oa,nOd3 PanMd2N.5Ow2i(t2h0T13e)m., CO, O3 & NO2 (2013)
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Table 3. Comparison of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration on Diwali day (2012 and 2013)
Year 2012 2013
PM2.5 106 70
PM10 142 113
Figure 7. Comparison of PM10 and PM2.5 in two years
post- Diwali time. There is not much difference is observed in O3 concentration. Various studies conducted earlier also supports the above results. The result mentioned shows that the concentration of various parameters increases during Diwali day and post-Diwali days as compared to preDiwali day. Singh (2009) also found variation in the quality of various parameters during Diwali. There was a steep increase in PM2.5 and PM10 concentration on the day of Diwali and after Diwali. Barman et al., (2009) and Thakur et al., (2010) also observed same trend of increase in PM10, PM2.5 and other parameters during Diwali due to excessive use of firecrackers. The studies during Diwali conducted by Vyas and Saraswat (2012), Chatterjee et al., (2013), Khan et al., (2013) and several other workers have found the increase in concentration of various parameters during Diwali period. Matching result are also obtained by various workers i.e. increase in the PM2.5 and PM10 levels Doing to Diwali and After Diwali in different part India and other country as mentioned earlier. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are thankful to Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India, New Delhi
, for funding this study in the form of a Major research project
. The authors are also thankful to the Principal, Govt. Model Science College, Jabalpur 482001, MP, India for providing necessary facilities.
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Yerramsetti VS, Sharma AR, Navlur NG, Rapolu V, Dhulipala NSKC, Sinha PR (2013). The impact assessment of Diwali fireworks emissions on the air quality of a tropical urban site, Hyderabad, India, during three consecutive years. Environ Monit Assess (2013) 185:73097325 DOI 10.1007/s10661-013-3102-x.
How to cite this article
: SRIVASTAVA RK, SAGAR K, BEIG G (2014). Measurement of Particulate Pollution in Jabalpur City during Diwali Festival. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Toxic. Res. Vol. 2(6):136-142