MEDICINA MENTAL Y SOCIEDAD AUTORITARIA: SABERES Y PRÁCTICAS PSIQUIÁTRICAS EN EL PRIMER FRANQUISMO

Tags: Catholicism, Ricardo Campos, New State, Francoist, racial hygiene, Paula A. Michaels, General Franco, Nazi eugenics, Juan Jos�L�ez Ibor, National Catholicism, Myles W. Jackson, psychiatric treatments, Keith Wailoo, ideological background, PSYCHIATRIC KNOWLEDGE, Ricardo Jorge, political principles, scientific organization, racial anthropology, mental illness, National Board of Psychiatric Care, Mental hygiene, Enric Novella, international context, International History, chemical products, The Portuguese Red Cross, Rui Pita, air pollution, medicaments, Ana Leonor Pereira, Portugal, penicillin, Victoria Bell, Emma Sallent de Colombo, Sofie Lachapelle, Psychiatry Conference, Conference, scientific society, Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products, National Neurology and Psychiatry Conference, Pablo Psychiatry, Palmira Fontes da Costa, National Chamber of Manufacturing Industry, France Andrea Graus, Miguel Garc� Sancho
Content: Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam
Volumen 37(1)
2017
Sumario DOSSIER MEDICINA MENTAL Y SOCIEDAD AUTORITARIA: SABERES Y PRБCTICAS PSIQUIБTRICAS EN EL PRIMER FRANQUISMO Editado por Ricardo Campos y Бngel Gonzбlez de Pablo Psiquiatrнa en el primer franquismo: saberes y prбcticas para un «Nuevo Estado» Ricardo Campos y Бngel Gonzбlez de Pablo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 En los inicios de la psiquiatrнa franquista. El Congreso Nacional de Neurologнa y Psiquiatrнa (Barcelona, 1942) Rafael Huertas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1.--Introducciуn. 2.--Una nueva sociedad cientнfica. 3.--El Congreso: organizaciуn y propaganda. 4.--Sobre las ponencias: saberes y prбcticas neuropsiquiбtricas en los primeros aсos cuarenta. 4.1.--Neurologнa y Psiquiatrнa de guerra. 4.2.--Los nuevos tratamientos en psiquiatrнa. 4.3.--Avitaminosis y sistema nervioso. 5.--Una nueva psiquiatrнa para el «Nuevo Estado». Por la psicopatologнa hacia Dios: psiquiatrнa y saber de salvaciуn durante el primer franquismo Бngel Gonzбlez de Pablo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 1.--Introducciуn: la hegemonнa del nacionalcatolicismo. 2.--Un «Nuevo Estado», un nuevo hombre y una nueva ciencia. 3.--Lуpez Ibor y el discurso sobre la ciencia cristiana. 4.--La construcciуn del saber psiquiбtrico cristiano. 4.1.--La fase de depuraciуn. 4.2.--La fase de creaciуn. 5.--Epнlogo.
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La higiene mental durante el primer franquismo. De la higiene racial a la prevenciуn de la enfermedad mental (1939-1960) Ricardo Campos y Enric Novella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 1.--Introducciуn. 2.--La refundaciуn de la higiene mental. 2.1.--En busca de las raнces histуricas de la asistencia psiquiбtrica espaсola. 2.2.--Higiene mental como higiene moral y racial. 3.--El giro de la dйcada de 1950. Hacia la Salud Mental. 4.--Conclusiones. Iberian eugenics? Cross-overs and contrasts between Spanish and Portuguese eugenics, 1930-1950 Richard Cleminson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 1.--Introduction: collaboration between the Iberian dictatorships. 2.-- Trafficking knowledge. 3.--The scientific organization of work, professional orientation and biotypology. 4.--From racial anthropology to eugenics of the spirit. 5.--Conclusion.
ARTНCULOS The transcontinental birth of a species: scientific discussions and natural history museums in the second half of the nineteenth Century Carlos Sanhueza Cerda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 1.--Introduction. 2.--Knowledge in transit and museological objects. 3.--A sea lion in transit: from the National Museum of Chile to the Museum fьr Naturkunde of Berlin. 4.--The birth of a species: the Otaria philippii. 5.--The debate. 6.--Concluding remarks. Hidroterapia e empreendedorismo mйdico: o «feitiзo hнdrico» de Ricardo Jorge Rui Manuel Pinto Costa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 1.--Ricardo Jorge e a hidroterapia. 2.--A anбlise quнmica das бguas e a hidrologia mйdica. 3.--Mergulhando no «feitiзo hнdrico do Gerкs». 4.--Um projeto promissor e absorvente. 5.--Um projeto falhado? 6.--Os anos de clнnica hidrolуgica. 7.-- Consideraзхes finais. Regulaзгo, circulaзгo e distribuiзгo da penicilina em Portugal (anos 40 e 50 do sйculo XX) Victoria Bell, Joгo Rui Pita y Ana Leonor Pereira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
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1.--Introduзгo. 2.--A Comissгo Reguladora dos Produtos Quнmicos e Farmacкuticos. 3.--Penicilina em Portugal: 1944-1945. 3.1.--Importaзгo e distribuiзгo. 3.2.--A receita mйdica obrigatуria e o fornecimento аs farmбcias. 4.--Medicamentos com penicilina: importaзгo, produзгo nacional e preзos. 5.-- Controlo de qualidade de medicamentos contendo penicilina: o laboratуrio da Comissгo Reguladora dos Produtos Quнmicos e Farmacкuticos. 6.--Conclusхes. Tensiones y coincidencias entre el sector salud y los industriales en el control de la contaminaciуn atmosfйrica en Mйxico (1970-1980) Natalia Verуnica Soto Coloballes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 1.--Introducciуn: los humos del progreso. 2.--La politizaciуn del aire. 3.--Entre la incredulidad y la resistencia. 4.--El responsable de la contaminaciуn del aire. 5.--Conclusiones.
RESEСAS Palmira Fontes da Costa. Medicine, Trade and Empire. Garcia de Orta's Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India (1563) in Context Emma Sallent de Colombo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Sofie Lachapelle. Conjuring Science. A History of Scientific Entertainment and Stage Magic in Modern France Andrea Graus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Marina Saad. Cabanis, comprendre lґhomme pour changer le monde Rosa Ballester Aсуn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Jean Luis Guereсa, dir. Sexualitйs occidentales XVIIIe-XXIe siиcles Бngel Gonzбlez de Pablo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Maria-Isabel Porras-Gallo y Ryan A. Davis, eds. The Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919: Perspectives from the Iberian Peninsula and the Americas Carol R. Byerly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Josep L. Barona, The Rockefeller Foundation, Public Health and International Diplomacy, 1920-1945 Iris Borowy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
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Paula A. Michaels. Lamaze. An International History Agata Ignaciuk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Enrique Perdiguero-Gil, ed. Polнtica, salud y enfermedad en Espaсa entre el desarrollismo y la transiciуn democrбtica Esteban Rodrнguez Ocaсa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Keith Wailoo. Pain: A Political History Amaya Garcнa Arregui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Myles W. Jackson. The Genealogy of a Gene: Patents, HIV/AIDS, and Race Miguel Garcнa Sancho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
RELACIУN DE PERSONAS QUE HAN COLABORADO CON DYNAMIS EN LA INFORMACIУN EXTERNA DE ORIGINALES (2012-2016). . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 NORMAS PARA LA ADMISIУN DE ORIGINALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientiarumque Historiam Illustrandam
Volume 37(1)
2017
contents DOSSIER MENTAL MEDICINE AND AUTHORITARIAN SOCIETY: PSYCHIATRIC KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES IN THE FIRST FRANCOIST PERIOD Edited by Ricardo Campos and Бngel Gonzбlez de Pablo Psychiatry in the first Francoist period: knowledge and practices for a «New State» Ricardo Campos and Бngel Gonzбlez de Pablo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 The beginning of Francoist psychiatry. The National Neurology and Psychiatry Conference (Barcelona, 1942) Rafael Huertas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1.--Introduction. 2.--A new scientific society. 3.--Congress: organization and publicity. 4.--Congress papers: neuropsychiatric knowledge and practices in the early 1940s. 4.1.--Neurology and psychiatry in wartime. 4.2.--New treatments in psychiatry. 4.3.--Avitaminosis and the nervous system. 5.--A new psychiatry for the New State. ABSTRACT: While there has been some research into Francoist psychiatry, much work still needs to be done on the reorganization of the mental health profession within the new state. Held in Barcelona on 12, 13 and 14th January 1942, the National Neurology and Psychiatry Conference undoubtedly played a major role in the attempt to overthrow the dominant ideas in the field of Spanish psychiatry and displace its most influential figures. This article seeks to analyse the Conference's main organizational features and examine its most significant
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content, with the aim of evaluating its strategic importance in the context of both the psychiatrists' professional and scientific interests and their ideological and political concerns. Conference papers tackled issues such as neurology and psychiatry in wartime, vitamin deficiency and the nervous system, and new psychiatric treatments, including shock therapy. The Conference's marked ideological nature represented the beginning of a new professional dynamic, featuring the emergence or establishment of new leaders intent on laying the foundations of psychiatry during the early years of the Franco regime.
Christian psychopathology: psychiatry and knowledge for the sake of salvation in the early years of Francoism Бngel Gonzбlez de Pablo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 1.--Introduction: the hegemony of National Catholicism. 2.--A New State, a new man, a new science. 3.--Lуpez Ibor on Christian science. 4.--The construction of a Christian psychiatric knowledge. 4.1.--The cleansing phase. 4.2.--The creation phase. 5.--Epilogue. ABSTRACT: After World War II came to an end, General Franco's regime attempted to step aside from the defeated fascist states by emphasizing its Catholic character. The change of image culminated in 1947 with the establishment of Spain as a Catholic State by means of the Law of Succession. This process generated the national catholic ideology, which became, during the first decades of the dictatorship, the hegemonic instrument for the transformation of Spanish society in an anti-modernizing way. Scientific activity was not excluded from these changes, and a Catholic science conveying universal values and in harmony with the faith was strongly encouraged. One example of this Catholic science was the psychiatric approach developed by Juan Josй Lуpez Ibor during the first Francoist period, including the concepts of anagogy, the perfection instinct, psychagogy and, above all, anxious thymopathy and life anguish. This paper analyses the Christian background of these notions, their scientific repercussions and their social utility for the dictatorship. This paper emphasizes the consideration of these key notions of Spanish psychiatry during the First Francoism as knowledge of salvation, i.e., as conveyors of assumed eternal values in accordance with the prevailing view of Catholicism. On the other hand, it points to the functioning of these concepts as a part of the regulatory network designed and deployed by Francoism to promote submission and resignation in the Spanish population.
Mental hygiene in early Francoism. From racial hygiene to the prevention of mental illness (1939-1960) Ricardo Campos and Enric Novella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 1.--Introduction. 2.--The re-foundation of mental hygiene. 2.1.--In search of the historical roots of Spanish psychiatric care. 2.2.--Mental hygiene as moral and racial hygiene. 3.--The shift in the 1950s towards mental health. 4.--Conclusion.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism. For this purpose, we will focus on analysis of the activities of the Mental Hygiene Week held in Barcelona in 1954 and on the creation in 1955 of the National Board of Psychiatric Care, which took on mental hygiene as one of its functions. This paper shows the close relationship of mental hygiene during the early years of Francoism with the political principles of the Dictatorship. The 1940s witnessed the deployment of a harsh discourse in which mental hygiene was a tool for the (moral and spiritual) education of the Spanish people in the political principles of the «New State», pathologizing political dissent and ideologically purifying the country. In the 1950s, Francoist mental hygiene underwent a process of aggiornamento marked by international political events following the defeat of fascism in World War II, advancing a project for (authoritarian) modernization in an international context already directed towards mental health. Iberian eugenics? Cross-overs and contrasts between Spanish and Portuguese eugenics, 1930-1950 Richard Cleminson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 1.--Introduction: collaboration between the Iberian dictatorships. 2.-- Trafficking knowledge. 3.--The scientific organization of work, professional orientation and biotypology. 4.--From racial anthropology to eugenics of the spirit. 5.--Conclusion. ABSTRACT: This article provides the basis for further considerations on the overlap between different expressions of science, in particular psychotechnics, biotypology and eugenics, in Iberia. It sets the reception of and interest in these scientific undertakings within the specific context pertaining in both Iberian dictatorships and considers the importance of the culture of the scientific community, the role of religion and the presence of positivism within each. While the actual traffic of knowledge between the two countries was limited, the contrasts and differences in the uptake of these specialisms within the two countries and their proximity or otherwise to other fascist and authoritarian regimes of the 1930s and 1940s are explored. The article concludes that in the Spanish case, although there were greater proximities to certain forms of fascist and Nazi eugenics, it was the commitment to Catholicism and nationalist regeneration that allowed for concessions to environmental improvements. A more Germanic strain was present in Portugal but this was dislodged by a consistent commitment to social hygiene rather than racial hygiene, again within the constraints provided by overarching Catholicism.
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ARTICLES The transcontinental birth of a species: scientific discussions and natural history museums in the second half of the nineteenth century Carlos Sanhueza Cerda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 1.--Introduction. 2.--Knowledge in transit and museological objects. 3.--A sea lion in transit: from the National Museum of Chile to the Museum fьr Naturkunde of Berlin. 4.--The birth of a species: the Otaria philippii. 5.--The debate. 6.--Concluding remarks. ABSTRACT: This article is a case study of scientific discussions on the birth of a zoological species that eventually came to be known as Arctocephalus philippii (Peters, 1866). It also examines the movement of the remains of a sea lion specimen from Chile to Germany and the discussions that arose in regard to its taxonomic definition. We argue that international debate on its classification among naturalists in England, Germany, Chile and Argentina was influenced by by the circumstances of its hunting, transportation, and storage of this specimen at different museums, and by material aspects that allowed its later comparison and analysis. The first part reconstructs the context of the sea lion's capture, transport, and transformation, while the second examines the discussion around this particular specimen ­ a controversy that hinged in part on the issue of the conditions under which it was graphically recorded and preserved at the museum. Hydrotherapy and medical entrepreneurship: the «water spell» of Ricardo Jorge Rui Manuel Pinto Costa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 1.--Ricardo Jorge and hydrotherapy. 2.--Chemical analysis of waters and medical hydrology. 3.--Diving into «Gerкs water spell». 4.--A promising and absorbing subject. 5.--A failed project? 6.--The years of clinical hydrology. 7.--Final considerations. ABSTRACT: Between 1886 and 1893, the doctor and hygienist Ricardo Jorge was linked to a commercial and medical project on the waters of Gerкs. Known for many centuries and used for therapeutic purposes, they were administered on an empirical basis. When new chemical analyses were first published, the empirical properties of these waters took on a new role in hydrotherapy based on their now proven mineral and medicinal qualities. The article discusses in detail Ricardo Jorgeґs business venture, framing it in the context of the economic collection and treatment potential of mineral waters and the revival of the phenomenon of hydrotherapy, legitimized by new developments in the chemical analysis of waters. The commercial failure to exploit the water resources highlights the difficulties of this project and the complexity of the professional practice of hydrological medicine, although it resulted in a strengthening of Ricardo`s authority and prestige in the field of hydrotherapy.
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Regulation, circulation and distribution of penicillin in Portugal (1944-1954) Victoria Bell, Joгo Rui Pita and Ana Leonor Pereira . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 1.--Introduction. 2.-- Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products. 3.--Penicillin in Portugal: 1944-1945. 3.1.--Importation and distribution. 3.2.--Obligatory medical prescription and supply to pharmacies. 4.--Medicaments with penicillin: importation, national production and prices. 5.--quality control of medicaments containing penicillin: laboratory of the Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products. 6.--Conclusions. ABSTRACT: Portugal did not participate in World War II but was one of the first countries in the world to receive penicillin for civilian use. The Portuguese Red Cross began to import the antibiotic from the United States of America in 1944 and appointed a controlling committee to oversee its distribution, due to the small amount available. In 1945, as world production increased, penicillin began to be distributed through the normal channels. An important role in its regulation was played by the official department responsible for controlling pharmaceutical and chemical products in Portugal, the Comissгo Reguladora dos Produtos Quнmicos e Farmacкuticos (Regulatory Committee for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products). Penicillin was imported as a raw material from 1947 and the first medicaments containing penicillin, prepared in Portugal, were released into the commercial circuit in 1948. A laboratory had been established in 1942 by the Comissгo Reguladora for the analytical verification of medicaments and medicinal products with the aim of certifying their quality and minimizing the number of products with no attested therapeutic efficacy. The number of medicaments analysed by this laboratory increased substantially from 72 in the year of its foundation (1942) to 2478 in 1954, including, after 1948, medicaments containing penicillin. The aim of the present paper was to elucidate the role of the Comissгo Reguladora dos Produtos Quнmicos e Farmacкuticos in regulating and controlling the distribution of penicillin in Portugal during the 1940s and 1950s. Tensions and coincidences between the health and industrial sectors over the control of atmospheric contamination in Mexico (1970-1980) Natalia Verуnica Soto Coloballes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 1.--Introduction: the fumes of progress. 2.--Politicization of the air. 3.--Between disbelief and resistance. 4.--Who is responsible for Air Pollution? 5.--Conclusions. ABSTRACT: In the l970s, the Mexican government adopted air pollution policies and solutions recommended by international organizations and applied in highly industrialized countries. However, this move was accompanied by controversies on the legislative and administrative framework involving healthcare, air quality management, and industrial sectors, with a large part of anti-pollution action being aimed at industry. Our hypothesis was that persistent problems with air pollution management in Mexico can be attributed to: the lack of belief in
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each sector on the importance of this issue from the very beginning; and the support by each sector for different concepts of pollution, management and the application of technology. Each stakeholder was driven by economic and political interests that prevented radical solutions. This hypothesis was tested by analysing speeches at the «1st National Meeting on Air Pollution Problems» in 1973, where the priorities of each sector were publicly stated by representatives from the Under-Secretariat for Environmental Improvement of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the National Chamber of Manufacturing Industry, and the Under-Secretariat of Industry of the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. Results of this research help to explain why, despite the institutionalization of air pollution management in Mexico for more than 40 years, a simplistic discourse still prevails in which the vehicle park is considered the main cause of the problem.
REVIEWS Palmira Fontes da Costa. Medicine, Trade and Empire. Garcia de Orta's Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India (1563) in Context Emma Sallent de Colombo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Sofie Lachapelle. Conjuring Science. A History of Scientific Entertainment and Stage Magic in Modern France Andrea Graus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Marina Saad. Cabanis, comprendre lґhomme pour changer le monde Rosa Ballester Aсуn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Jean Luis Guereсa, dir. Sexualitйs occidentales XVIIIe-XXIe siиcles Бngel Gonzбlez de Pablo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Maria-Isabel Porras-Gallo y Ryan A. Davis, eds. The Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919: Perspectives from the Iberian Peninsula and the Americas Carol R. Byerly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Josep L. Barona, The Rockefeller Foundation, Public Health and International Diplomacy, 1920-1945 Iris Borowy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Paula A. Michaels. Lamaze. An International History Agata Ignaciuk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
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Enrique Perdiguero-Gil, ed. Polнtica, salud y enfermedad en Espaсa entre el desarrollismo y la transiciуn democrбtica Esteban Rodrнguez Ocaсa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 Keith Wailoo. Pain: A Political History Amaya Garcнa Arregui . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Myles W. Jackson. The Genealogy of a Gene: Patents, HIV/AIDS, and Race Miguel Garcнa Sancho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 ACCOUNT OF INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE COLLABORATED WITH DYNAMIS AS REFEREES FOR ORIGINAL ARTICLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 GUIDELINES FOR SUBMISSION OF ORIGINAL PAPERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

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