Medieval Academy of America

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Content: Medieval Academy of America Review: [untitled] Author(s): Constantine G. Hatzidimitriou Reviewed work(s): Frankish Morea, 1205-1262: Socio-cultural Interaction between the Franks and the Local Population. by Aneta Ilieva Source: Speculum, Vol. 69, No. 3 (Jul., 1994), pp. 805-806 Published by: Medieval Academy of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3040896 Accessed: 18/07/2009 03:48 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=medacad. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] Medieval Academy of America is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Speculum. http://www.jstor.org
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ANETA ILIEVA, FrankishMorea, 1205-1262: Socio-culturalInteractionbetweentheFranksand the Local Population. (Historical Monographs, 9.) Athens: S. D. Basilopoulos, 1991. Paper. Pp. 307. This study is a revised version of a doctoral dissertation that the author defended in 1989 at the University of Sofia, Bulgaria. In it Ilieva seeks to answer the question of why the Latin principalities, especially that of Achaia, established in the Morea after the Fourth Crusade survived for two centuries. Her answer is that the social and cultural interaction between the conquerors and the conquered at the time of the conquest created conditions that allowed the Frankish Morea to survive for so long (p. 241). Her methodology utilizes concepts of "society," "culture," and "civilization" drawn from the social sciences and what she calls "the possibilities of the anthropological approach to medieval culture and the related to it [sic] methods of social psychology and linguistics" (p. 10). The English text, translated by the author and several collaborators, is often awkward and unclear. The text also contains numerous typographical errors, and on occasion blank page references appear in the notes. These defects often make Ilieva's arguments on complex historical and methodological issues difficult to follow. In order to prove her thesis Ilieva begins with a long introductory first chapter in which she reviews the historiography on Frankish/Greek interaction and describes the Byzantine Peloponnese in the twelfth century (pp. 19-106). This is followed by a chapter on the political and administrative development of the Frankish Morea (pp. 107-54) and a final chapter focusing on the relations between the Franks and the local population (pp. 155-240). Ilieva's conclusions are presented on pages 241-46. These are followed by a bibliography and a summary of her argument in Modern Greek (pp. 247-97). Ilieva starts by summarizing the well-known story of the increasing contacts and gradual alienation of the Latin West and Byzantine East. This context of hostile and friendly contacts between East and West is then used as the background for a detailed presentation of the historiography concerning the Latin conquest and interaction between Greeks and Latins in the Morea. She discusses the literature and the positions taken by various scholars on issues concerning the extent and impact of the Latin-Greek interaction in Frankish Greece with great analytical skill. It is noteworthy that many studies published in modern Greek and Slavic languages are included and commented upon. However, as Ilieva admits (p. 41), much of the same material presented in her study has already been investigated in detail by David Jacoby in two lengthy articles that appeared in 1989. What Ilieva contributes is a greater sensitivity to the impact of geographic factors upon the pattern of conquest and interaction. Unfortunately, her theoretical framework and philosophical musings concerning culture and civilization add little to our knowledge of this process. Ilieva concludes her historiographical review with a discussion of the literature con- cerning the various versions of the Chronicleof the Morea and the Assizes of Romania, which she rightly considers the two most important primary sources we have for the Frankish Morea. However, unlike Jacoby and others, she treats the chronicle as a reliable source for events and the nature of the encounter between the conquerors and the conquered during the initial conquest of the Morea even though it was composed during the fourteenth century (p. 55). Despite occasional references to other sources, Ilieva relies rather too heavily upon the chronicle for most of her discussion of examples of Latin and Greek interaction in the Morea. In her first chapter Ilieva describes the military, social, economic, and political conditions in the Morea on the eve of the Latin conquest and brings together a large amount of archaeological and geographic information drawn from specialized works on local history and geography, thereby updating the older work of Bon on the Byzantine Peloponnese. Ilieva recognizes that geographical factors contributed to Peloponnesian ad-
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ministrative decentralization but takes an extreme view concerning its isolation. After utilizing travelers' accounts to show that the Morea was little known in the West, she concludes that even the Byzantines knew little about the region (p. 76)! No reference is made to D. A. Zakythinos's important studies of Byzantine administration in the Peloponnese based on the famous chrysobull of Alexius III and the Partitio Romanie or his study of Byzantine Hellas. Similarly, insufficient attention is paid to documentary evidence concerning commercial contacts, and the full range of Byzantine literary and archaeological evidence referred to in volume 1 of the Tabula Imperii Byzantini is not exploited. Ilieva's discussion of regionalism, decentralization, urban change, and the rise of provincial archons is an extremely useful distillation of a wide variety of recent studies on these subjects. That literature is used in an excellent analysis of the role of Leon Sgouros in opposing the Latin conquest. The sections on archons, administrative decline, and Sgouros are the best in the entire book. Ilieva's presentation of the political and military history of the Latin conquest and establishment in the Morea is straightforward and draws upon recent studies such as those of Kordoses on central Greece and Kalligas on Monemvasia. Ilieva refers to many details concerning the conquest as presented in the Chronicleof the Moreaand shows an understanding of the importance of geographic and social factors that aided the conquerors. However, more attention should have been paid to the political acumen of the conquerors and their exploitation of Byzantine political divisiveness. Boniface of Montferrat, in particular, made maximum use of his marriage alliances and Greek allies. Similarly, Ilieva fails to take into account the effect of the revolt in 1205 that broke out in Thrace and Macedonia, which according to Niketas Choniates had repercussions in occupied Hellas. Ilieva's discussion of the varied reactions on the part of the Indigenous population towards the conquerors is the main subject of her last chapter. Here she attempts to determine to what degree the Morea was actually conquered and to what extent the Greeks were integrated into the new regime. Byzantine reactions ranged from giving the conquerors active assistance, to offering passive resistance, to outright military opposition. Ultimately, she concludes, it was the integration of local Moreot archons into the Frankish elite that proved crucial to the New State's survival. Religious differences and the survival of the Byzantine church on the local level prevented a fuller integration from taking place among other classes. More use should have been made of Kenneth Setton's Papacy in the Levant on this important topic. Despite the limitations I have noted above, this book is a welcome addition to the literature on Frankish Greece because of the wide variety of recent secondary literature that it brings together on late Byzantine society, administration, and the Morea. However, with the exception of the Chronicleof the Morea, it does not sufficiently exploit the wide variety of primary source material on these important topics, nor does it successfully challenge accepted views.
CONSTANTINEG. HATZIDIMITRIOUC, ity University of New York
JORDANUSDE NEMORE,De elementisarithmeticeartis:A Medieval Treatiseon NumberTheory, 1: Textand Paraphrase,ed. H. L. L. Busard. (Boethius, 22/1.) Stuttgart: Franz Steiner, 1991. Paper. Pp. 372. H. L. L. Busard of Venlo has devoted his life to the preparation of scholarly editions of the most important texts of medieval mathematics. In the past decades the works of Gerard of Cremona, Hermann of Carinthia, John of Gmunden, Albert of Saxony, and

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