Mersey Built

Tags: Charleston, George Alfred Trenholm, Liverpool, H.M.S., Thomas, South Carolina, Charles Kuhn Prioleau, John Fraser, George Trenholm, Capt. William, Henry Lafone, Ethel Trenholm Seabrook Nepveux, the American Civil War, Eliza Bonsall, Charles Prioleau, Captain James Alexander Duguid, blockade runner, James Iredell Waddell, Brazilian Navy, commerce raider, Stephen Chapin Kinnaman, John Frasers, Richard Harris, United States, Julia Usher, European Trading Company, Charles Manigault Morris, Hill Henry, Senator Robert, Charles J., Fanny Lewis, Edward Lomnitz & Co., Fort Donelson, Southern hospitality, William Cowley Miller, Mersey, Vernon Art and Science Inc., Captain James Dunwoody Bulloch, Vernon Art and Science Inc, Nick Prioleau, Christina Duguid, Vernon Press, Captain Duguid, Charleston SC, Samuel Price, Confederate Navy, Southern war effort, Pastor Prioleau, Fraser Trenholm, Trenholm Brothers, Aunt Chrissie, Robert Thorp, John Laird, Elizabeth Lynch, Midshipman George Terry, Constable Robert, Thomas L. Wragg, Commander William, Robert E. Lee, General Thomas, Henry Shelton, Prince Alfred, Pollock Arthur, Portsmouth Dockyard, Russell Index Lord John, Henry Wilson, Robert F. Stockton, Robert Joshua, Thomas Buxton, John Frederick, John Laurens, John Maxwell, Robert John, Thomas Brothers, George Henry, John Henry, Commander John, Roberts Captain, Plymouth Dockyard, James Adger, Admiral Sir James, Goldsborough Admiral Louis M., George Latimer, Fort William, Ferguson James, Eliza Hand, Thomas K., Eliza Henrietta, East India Company, Foster Charles, Gardner Colonel John, James Diniston, James Nichol, Susan G. Owens, Lt. Robert, Steel Joseph, Eliza Ann, John Randolph, John Kirton, William Nathan Wright, John Augustus, John Saunders, John MacIntosh
Content: Mersey Built The Role of Merseyside in the American Civil War Robert Thorp Vernon Series in World History
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For Jacqueline and Carolyn and Our Children's Children's Children This book is also dedicated to the fond memory of Ethel Trenholm Seabrook Nepveux (1923-2016)
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
vii
Acknowledgements
ix
Foreword
xi
Introduction
xiii
Chapter 1 Fraser, Trenholm and Company
1
Chapter 2 Trouble in America
11
Chapter 3 This is war
19
Chapter 4 Spies and secret agents
29
Chapter 5 W.C. Miller & Sons and the Oreto
53
Chapter 6 The Labuan affair
83
Chapter 7 Trouble in Nassau
89
Chapter 8 Lairds and the 290
115
Chapter 9 More trouble for Maffitt
127
Chapter 10 The further adventures of Captain Duguid 139
Chapter 11 Jones, Quiggin and the Banshee
151
Chapter 12 The Laird rams
161
Chapter 13 Prioleau and the Alexandra
167
Illustrations
179
Chapter 14 The Phantom and the Rose
221
Chapter 15 To the brink of war
237
Chapter 16 Henry Lafone and the Kate adventure
249
Chapter 17 Squabbles, skulduggery and sabotage
269
Chapter 18 The Confederate commerce raiders
281
Chapter 19 The last push
307
Chapter 20 A bitter end
315
Chapter 21 The aftermath
331
Appendix 1
345
Appendix 2
359
Appendix 3
367
Notes on the illustrations
375
Notes on the chapters
383
Bibliography
403
Index
407
List of Illustrations 1. George Alfred Trenholm 2. Charles Kuhn Prioleau 3. Ashley Hall, Charleston SC 4. 10, Rumford Place, Liverpool 5. Major Caleb Huse C.S.A. 6. Captain James Dunwoody Bulloch C.S.N. 7. Capture of the Emily St. Pierre by the U.S.S. James Adger 8. William Cowley Miller 9. The Maia 10. The Marco Polo 11. Canning half-tide dock and Liverpool customs house 12. Catherine Mary and Margaret Elizabeth Miller 13. Royal Navy Philomel class gunboat 14. H.M.S. Pandora under sail 15. C.S.S. Florida 16. Captain James Alexander Duguid 17. Commander John Newland Maffitt C.S.N. 18. First Lieutenant Charles Manigault Morris C.S.N. 19. John Laird 20. S.S. Morocco 21. C.S.S. Alabama 22. Rear Admiral Raphael Semmes C.S.N. 23. P.S. Girraffe 24. P.S. Banshee 25. U.S.S. Niphon 26. H.M.S. Wyvern 27. The Alexandra 28. Charleston harbour under fire with P.S. Juno 29. Henry Lafone and his second wife, Lucy Mallins 30. P.S. Lucy 31. U.S.S. Santiago de Cuba 32. Sinking of the Mary Celestia 33. U.S.S. Kearsarge 34. Sinking of the C.S.S. Alabama 35. Cutting Out the Florida from Bahia, Brazil by the U.S.S. Wachusett 36. C.S.S. Shenandoah surrendering to H.M.S. Donegal in the Mersey 37. Commander James Iredell Waddell C.S.N. 38. Confederate Blockade Runner Colonel Lamb 39. 15-inch Rodman cannons at Fort Moultrie, Charleston SC 40. P.S. Chicora as a palace steamer on Lake Huron
Acknowledgements The initial seeds of inspiration for this book were sewn some fifty years ago when, as a lad of twelve years old, I first met Miss Christina Duguid. Aunt Chrissie, as I knew her, was the grand-daughter of Captain James Alexander Duguid: a famed blockade runner and cotton smuggler during the American Civil War. She was also a cousin to my grandmother. Aunt Chrissie's house in Holland Road, Wallasey, was packed with maritime memorabilia from the four corners of the world and its walls were covered with paintings of ships, stern looking men and strange tapestries. It was like an Aladdin's cave to a small boy and could not fail to pique my curiosity about our shared maritime ancestry. Aunt Chrissie beguiled me with stories of Captain Duguid's exploits as a blockade runner and she generously gave me his portable writing-desk, complete with secret compartments ­ guaranteed to thrill a young lad with an active imagination. She also gave me a faded photo of a painting of the commerce raider, C.S.S. Florida and another of a paddle steamer, which I was later able to identify as the blockade runner Lucy. Sadly, Aunt Chrissie passed away before I was old enough to fully appreciate the importance of our family connections to these two ships or to properly tap her fund of knowledge on the finer points of the good captain's adventures commanding them; however, she deserves a large vote of posthumous thanks for getting me hooked on the subject and for starting me down the road to authordom. Another relation, who has been enormously inspirational and supportive over the years, is my own cousin, Richard Harris. Richard studied the Alabama Claims as part of his university degree. His research into that subject and all things related to the American Civil War at sea has been legendry; as has his generosity in sharing with me many of the new facts and details that he continues to unearth. Perhaps the greatest gift that Richard has given me, was an introduction to Mrs Ethel Trenholm Seabrook Nepveux of Charleston, South Carolina. Ethel is the great-grand-daughter of George Alfred Trenholm, who became Secretary of the Confederate Treasury towards the end of the civil war. She is the author of several books about George Trenholm and of numerous articles on the ships and captains employed by the Trenholm companies. Some years ago, I had the privilege of staying with her and her delightful husband, Felix, in their Charleston home and was given access to Ethel's extensive private library, along with a large helping of Southern hospitality. I am forever indebted to Ethel for sharing her knowledge so freely and also for introducing me to her like-minded Charleston colleagues, including Charles Peery, Priestly Coker, Russell Horace, the Westendorfs, the McDonalds, the Andersons and several members of the Charleston Civil War Round Table. Through participating with Ethel in delivering a joint paper on the C.S.S. Florida along with John Ellis of Mobile, I have been
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fortunate enough to meet many key members of the American Civil War Museum in Richmond, Virginia and have special thanks for John Coski, chief historian, and Sam Craghead, public relations manager, for their encouragement and example. Closer to home, I am indebted to all the helpful staff at the archives and library of the Merseyside Maritime Museum, Liverpool, where many happy hours have been spent in researching details of the Mersey-built ships that are the subject of this study. Similarly, I am indebted to the staff at the Liverpool Central Records Office whose collection of various Victorian publications has provided a wealth of information on the period of local history in question. I cannot mention Liverpool without expressing my thanks to Bob Jones, who was an irrepressible enthusiast on the Confederate connections within that city. Sadly, Bob passed away in 2015 and will be sorely missed. Through Bob's Confederate events in and around Liverpool I have met several notable authors who share my interest in the Confederate marine and who have been helpful to me with advice and information: men like Walter Wilson, Gary McKay, Andrew Bowcock and, in particular, Stephen Chapin Kinnaman whose friendship and guidance over the past few years have had an enormous influence on this book. The post-Civil War era led to a number of redundant blockade runners being snapped up by the Brazilian Navy for employment in the War of the Triple Alliance. Tracing them has required the help of a Brazilian interpreter in the person of my good friend and colleague, Luciana Duarte Plint, who earns my gratitude for her liaison work with the Brazilian Navy's history department on my behalf. Tracing the histories of some of the key characters involved with supporting the Confederacy during the Civil War has been helped by such people as David Saunders-Davies who shared the Prioleau Family Tree. Nick Prioleau kindly gave permission for me to use his portrait of Charles Kuhn Prioleau and Sue Sayers equally kindly gave permission for me to use her photo of Henry and Lucy Lafone. Thanks are also due to Nathan Pendlebury: image reproduction administrator at National Museums Liverpool; Ted Walker: artist and proprietor of Walker Marine Art in Liverpool; Becka Heister: curatorial assistant at the Gibbes Museum of Art in Charleston; Marcus De Chevrieux: senior curator at the Kelton Foundation in Santa Monica; Robert Zinck of the Harvard University Library Imaging Service; Jane Downing: registrar at the National Museum of Bermuda; The Library and Archives Canada; and the Picture Library of the Royal Museums at Greenwich for their collective help in providing many of the illustrations. Lastly, I want to thank my long-suffering wife, Ailsa, who has spent many lonely evenings looking at the back of my head, bent over a keyboard, yet she has been the one to keep me at it with encouragement and kindly chidings to "Get that book finished." Thank you all.
Foreword The American Civil War evokes images in most people's minds of the well-known land battles--Bull Run, Antietam, and Gettysburg to name a few. But much of the war's hostile action occurred off America's coast. Invisible and out of sight, the United States Navy struggled day and night, in fair weather and foul, over four long years to seal the ports of the newly born Confederacy. And who were their foes? A relentless infestation of swift blockade runners, captained by daring men who risked everything--capture, injury and death--in pursuit of fabulous profits. And where were they from? Almost without exception, they came from Great Britain. Hundreds of fast, British-flagged steamers, and the handful of Southern cruisers that complimented them, were all built in British shipyards and manned by British crews. And of the blockade runners, nearly all of them were financed with money raised by British-organized consortiums. The details of their aggressive breach of the Federal blockade have remained largely invisible, forgotten acts of defiance in support of the lost cause of a slaveowning republic. And that in part explains why this story of bold, brash entrepreneurs has remained for so long in the shadows. It is often said that the victors write the history, and never was it truer than in the aftermath of America's Civil War. But there was another, less appreciated reason these epic adventures of men risking their all have remained in the background. In pursuing the means to their ends, they skirted the law at every turn. They flaunted Britain's neutrality, built their fleets of fast steamers, organized investments schemes, and craftily managed their ships and crews, all within the letter of the law--as they interpreted it. Their Confederate navy counterparts followed in their footsteps, mobilizing war steamers that cleverly circumvented Britain's foreign enlistment act's arcane language, and then proceeded to destroy American shipping. But the target of these manifold endeavors, the United States of America, viewed their activities very differently. The Federal government was outraged at their blatant violations of American sovereignty and of Britain's proclaimed neutrality--their ships were judged as prizes of war, their crews labeled pirates, and their cargoes condemned. For very good reason, these same enterprising men's desire to boast of their achievements, as spectacular as they were, was understandably suppressed. During the tense years that followed the bloodiest war America ever fought, they kept quiet, both to escape unwanted attention and to avoid criminal prosecution. Their new quest was simply to resume their interrupted lives. Robert Thorp's new book, Mersey Built, has fixed a bright, shining light on the clandestine activities of the men behind the blockade runners and Southern cruisers, and the vast infrastructure that made them all possible. The book's title, keying on the role of Merseyside, gives only a hint of its true scope. But Liverpool
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is a well-chosen place to start. It was, as British Foreign Secretary Lord John Russell dryly quipped, "a port specially addicted to Southern proclivities, foreign slave trade, and domestic bribery." The far-flung sweep of Robert Thorp's story takes the reader on a journey from the River Mersey to New Brunswick's Miramichi, from tropical Nassau in the Bahamas to the South's Charleston and Wilmington, then back to England through many ports in between. And the author has more than an engaged historian's enthusiasm for the events he relates; he is the lineal descendent of two of the most outsized characters at the heart of his wonderfully crafted tales--William Cowley Miller, a cerebral, calculating ship builder, and his son-in-law, James Alexander Duguid, a daring but supremely competent sea captain. Mersey Built encompasses the myriad threads of the South's struggle for life. Selecting but a few of the episodes, one reads of the origins of Fraser, Trenholm & Co., the Liverpool bank that financed the Confederacy's operations in Europe; the gripping story of Emily St Pierre's near single-handed escape from capture by the Union navy; accounts of diligent Southern agents, the army's Caleb Huse and the navy's James Dunwoody Bulloch; the life and death of the Southern spy, Rose O'Neale Greenhow; the story of how the deadly Confederate raiders Florida and Alabama got to sea; the convoluted legal imbroglio that was the Alexandra affair; and of the very real threat of the Laird rams, powerful armored turret-ships that brought the United States and Britain to the brink of war. The engineer in Robert Thorp is also on full display throughout the pages of Mersey Built. Technological triumphs enabling faster and stealthier vessels are frequent companions to the sheer excitement of the chase. The advantages of lifting screw propellers, feathering paddle wheels, telescoping funnels, compound steam engines and perhaps the first application of camouflage paint, are all welldocumented. Many of the blockade runners were custom-built ships, each pushing the envelope of shipbuilders' knowhow. The first steel vessel to cross the Atlantic, the blockade runner Banshee, was constructed with hull plates as thin as inch, and not surprisingly, nearly sank before she left British waters. Other vessels, originally designed for benign coastal service, were flung across the Atlantic and relentlessly raced in and out of Southern ports, often dodging gunfire from Federal cruisers. The wonder is not that so many were lost or captured, but that so many survived. Anyone with even the most rudimentary mechanical bent will take delight at the technical virtuosity and operational abandon of the blockade runners' builders, owners and captains. In summary, Mersey Built presents a welcome addition to the history of the American Civil War at sea. It delivers a rousing tale of cloak and dagger adventure, all of it superbly researched, and all of it true. Stephen Chapin Kinnaman Chappell Hill, Texas June 2017
Introduction The American Civil War (1861-1865) is characterised by the major land battles that were fought between the two sides. Bull Run, Vicksburg and Gettysburg are just some of the battlefield place names that ring on down through history. Merely speaking these names conjures up visions of serried ranks of infantry: the blue and the grey advancing grimly towards each other, staunchly holding formation through artillery bombardments until they were within range of rifle and musket. Then they would stop to form firing banks, two standing and one kneeling, with a thousand gun barrels loaded, primed and ready to let loose a hail of lead on the order, "Fire!" The men would disappear in clouds of powder smoke as volley, after volley was poured into enemy ranks; then, bayonets fixed, they would run the last closing yards yelling their battle cries at full pitch to meet head on with steely points dealing the last grim hands of death. The fighting was ferocious and the casualties horrendous being roughly estimated, after the war as 620,000 dead with many more wounded. We will never know the exact numbers or the exact split between Confederate and Union casualties. Suffice it to say that the numbers were huge and American society was changed irrevocably, because of the conflict. While the physical war raged across the country, there was another war being fought in parallel. This was an economic war which suffered very few casualties, yet arguably had even greater consequences than the land war. Soon after the outbreak of the conflict President Lincoln ordered a naval blockade of the whole Southern coastline with the intention of cutting the Confederacy off from the outside world. Without foreign trade the South would not be able to equip or feed their armies. They would soon have to capitulate and the war might be won within six months. Naturally, President Davis had other ideas and ordered retaliation with the intention of destroying as many Union merchant ships as could be found on the high seas. Both could play the game of crippling the other's ability to trade outside its borders and both sides desperately needed that trade. Then of course, there was the outside-world view of Lincoln's blockade. On 30th March, 1856, there had been international agreement, when 55 nations excluding the United States - ratified the Treaty of Paris. This treaty had been negotiated following the Crimean War and laid down certain principles of maritime behaviour that should henceforth be adhered to by all of the signatory nations. Arising from the treaty was the Declaration of Paris, part of which was to agree the principle that blockades, in order to be obligatory, must be effective. In other words, it was one thing for Lincoln to declare a blockade, but unless he could make it stick, it would be fair game for any foreign trader wishing to deliver goods to a so-called blockaded port to attempt to run the blockade into that port.
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The Confederacy sent agents to Europe - principally Britain and France - to purchase arms, equipment and food for their armies and ships for the navy. Private individuals and corporations on both sides of the Atlantic sourced fast steamers with which to run much needed supplies through the blockade and into Confederate hands. The Confederacy sent cotton, tobacco and turpentine out on the return voyages to raise the money they needed to prosecute the war on land and to finance the commerce raiding cruisers they would put to sea. It has been estimated that the Confederacy's success in the economic war allowed them to carry on the physical war for two more years than would otherwise have been the case. It was also true that American merchant shipping would take eighty years to recover from the devastation wrought upon it by the Confederate commerce raiders. The land war was controlled mostly from the two seats of government: Washington, DC for the North and Richmond, Virginia for the South, while the heroes in the field were Grant and Sherman for the North with Lee and Jackson for the South. The economic war centred on Europe with Liverpool as the hub for the Confederacy. Liverpool was the main port for landing Confederate cotton and the primary home of the cotton brokers who traded it. Liverpool was the base from which the Confederate Navy's senior procurement agent operated, having been given office space in the Anglo-American company which acted as overseas bankers to the Confederacy. Liverpool was at the heart of the logistics system that kept the Confederacy supplied, yet Liverpool is rarely mentioned in context of the Civil War and there are no heroes of the economic war remembered in the same way as Grant, Sherman, Lee and Jackson. For most of the civil war period the Southern government was happy to leave the import and export of goods through the Federal blockade largely to private enterprise. Entrepreneurs on both sides of the Atlantic seized the opportunity for massive profits as scarcity in supply with burgeoning demands sent prices for almost everything soaring to dizzy heights in the Southern States. Large consignments of arms and domestic goods were shipped from ports in England and Scotland to Saint George's in Bermuda and to Nassau in New Providence Island, both of which were British colonies. They were sent over in British registered ships with British registered captains in the belief that cargoes being shipped across the Atlantic between one British port and another on British flagged vessels should, in theory at least, be immune from U.S. Navy interference. Once safely in St. George's or Nassau harbour, the large shipments were broken down into smaller lots to be loaded onto fast steamers for the run in through the blockade. Wilmington in North Carolina, Charleston in South Carolina and Savannah in Georgia were the favoured east-coast destinations. Havana in Cuba was also used as a staging post for shipments through Galveston, New Orleans, and Mobile on the Gulf of Mexico coast, but Havana was not as secure a destination as the British ports and was not as widely used. Similarly, the little
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Mexican port of Matamoros was used as a landing point from where to smuggle goods across the Rio Grande into Texas. It was not until 1864 that the Confederate government decided to take a more direct hand in blockade running by ordering a number of new ships to be built on Merseyside. These were to be operated by the Confederate Navy, but they had left it too late. The war was over, before many of these ships could be brought into service and a number of builders were left with part finished vessels on their hands for which they would no longer be paid. The commerce raiders operated by the Confederate States Navy were built in equal numbers on the Mersey, the Clyde and the Thames. The most notorious of these were the C.S.S. Alabama, built by John Laird and Sons of Birkenhead, the C.S.S. Florida built by W.C. Miller and Sons of Liverpool and the C.S.S. Shenandoah built by Alexander Stephen & Sons of Govan, Glasgow. The state of South Carolina played a leading role in the conflict, being the first to secede from the Union and the first to start the fighting. The first shots of the war were fired by the guns of Fort Moultrie in Charleston harbour and Charleston was among the last cities to surrender to Federal troops at the end of the war. During the whole of the conflict, one man, a native and resident of Charleston, stands out as the prime facilitator of the Southern war effort. That man was George Alfred Trenholm: rumoured to be the richest man in the Confederacy at the outbreak of the war and thought by some to be the real life hero on whom Margaret Mitchell based her fictitious character, Rhett Butler, in the novel "Gone with the Wind". George Trenholm was the senior partner in the Charleston shipping and trading firm of John Fraser and Co. with sister companies in New York and Liverpool. The New York branch traded under the name of Trenholm Brothers Inc., while the Liverpool branch was titled Fraser, Trenholm & Co. In addition to his interests in these three companies, Trenholm was a director of the Bank of Charleston and a major share-holder in one of the railroads running out of Charleston to the hinterland. In short he was something of a genius when it came to finance and logistics. When the war started, the Confederacy had no `Federal Reserve' with which to equip and pay its armed forces. Despite taking loans from various banks, the government was unable to quickly put its hands on the cash needed to purchase the requisites of war in Europe. George Trenholm immediately stepped up to the plate to offer the services of his companies and his ships. He offered the government credit through Fraser, Trenholm & Co. in Liverpool who acted as bankers to the Confederate procurement agents working in Europe, advancing them whatever money they needed to buy arms and ships. Trenholm charged a small commission on these loans, but took most of his repayments in government-owned cotton, smuggled out of the South, which his company could then sell in the Liverpool markets. In the final year of the war Christopher
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Memminger, the Secretary of the Confederate Treasury, resigned his post. Although he was somewhat reluctant to take it on, George Trenholm agreed to take over the role and saw it through to the end. When the war was lost, Trenholm did whatever he could to ensure that the government's creditors were paid a fair share of whatever little money was left. Partnering George Trenholm in the shipping and banking empire was a younger man named Charles Kuhn Prioleau. He was another native of Charleston, but a few years, before the outbreak of the war, he moved to Liverpool as managing director of Fraser, Trenholm & Co. He married a local woman and, in 1860, became a naturalised British subject, signalling his intention to remain in England for the long term. Charles Prioleau was every bit as energetic as George Trenholm in facilitating the activities of Confederate agents working out of Britain and every bit as active, if not more so, in managing the company's fleet of blockade runners. The firms of John Fraser and Co. in Charleston and Fraser Trenholm and Co. in Liverpool bought numerous ships to run the blockade throughout the war and provided the finance for a number of other private enterprises to have their own ships built for the same purpose. A number of those were built to order by Mersey shipbuilders both in Liverpool and in Birkenhead. The Confederacy could not have survived for as long as it did without Trenholm and Prioleau and yet they are both relatively obscure, forgotten heroes of the conflict. This book recounts the part played in the American Civil War by Mersey-built ships and the companies who built them. Where possible it tells something of the brave captains who risked life and limb to dodge the Yankee blockading fleet, though unfortunately, many of them have left little or nothing in the way of historical records. The story is told against the background of the wider Confederate procurement effort that was centred on Liverpool and London and the efforts of the Federal spies and diplomats who did their best to confound that activity. Given the central role played by Fraser, Trenholm & Co. there is no better place to start than to shine a light on how that company came to be and what roles its various members had to play.
Chapter 1 Fraser, Trenholm and Company John Fraser and Company had been trading out of Charleston, South Carolina for over fifty years, before the outbreak of the American Civil War.1The firm had been built on strong foundations by the father and son team of the John Frasers, senior and junior, backed by Fraser family money. After John Fraser senior took his retirement, the enterprise expanded and diversified under the leadership of George Alfred Trenholm. It eventually became a Trenholm family firm when both the Frasers passed away and their widows sold out their interests. For reasons best known to George Trenholm, he kept the name of John Fraser and Company, despite there being no Frasers left within the partnership. By 1854 Trenholm's business acumen and vision had led to the establishment of two branch subsidiaries: Trenholm Brothers of New York and Fraser, Trenholm & Co. of Liverpool.2 The company future looked set for further success and expansion until South Carolina's secession in December, 1860, and the war that followed a few months later. That war would prove to be the company's nemesis. Trenholm Brothers in New York was on the wrong side of the border between North and South when the fighting started. The position of a Confederate company based deep in Union territory quickly became untenable and that branch of the firm had to be hastily abandoned. When the war ended in 1865, Fraser, Trenholm & Co. in Liverpool was owed some Ј170,000 by the disbanded Confederate government. That sum is equivalent to about Ј14,000,000 in 2015 money. Despite claims and counter claims between Charles Prioleau and the United States government, the company had no chance of obtaining recompense and was declared bankrupt in 1867. Back in Charleston, the United States Treasury placed spiteful demands on John Fraser and Company for unpaid import taxes on all the goods and military equipment they had shipped into the country during the four years of war. The company's assets were stripped in order to pay what little portion of that bill they could muster the cash for and the then worthless company was wound up.3 For his part as latter-day Secretary of the Confederate Treasury, George Trenholm was jailed and his personal property confiscated. He was later pardoned and released during the reconstruction period and returned to business in Charleston, but John Fraser and Company was never resurrected. John Fraser and Company of Charleston and Fraser, Trenholm & Co. of Liverpool played such pivotal roles in facilitating the Confederate war effort that it is worth spending a little time to examine the background history of the firm and to
2
Chapter 1
understand how the various characters involved came together. The roots of the company stretch right back to the early days of Charleston's colonial history and, as was typical of those early colonial days, they have English, Scottish and French connections. The first of the families to arrive in Charleston were the Prioleaus who went there to escape from religious persecution in France. Elias Prioleau4 had been the pastor of a Protestant church in the town of Pons in the Saintonge region of southwest France when, in 1685, King Louis XIV passed the Edict of Fontainebleau declaring Protestantism to be illegal. Protestant services were forbidden: all existing Protestant children were to be educated as Catholics and any new-borns were to be baptised in the Catholic faith. At the same time emigration was prohibited; so, on paper at least, there was no escaping the fact that if you were a Protestant in France you were compelled to stay in France and convert to Catholicism or face the consequences of disobedience. The Edict of Fontainebleau encouraged Catholic persecution of the Protestants, or Huguenots as they were disparagingly called, which frequently boiled over into violence. Many of the Protestant churches were destroyed and thousands of Huguenots were driven from their homes. Many more simply fled the country by any clandestine means they could find. Eventually Hundreds of thousands of French Protestants made their way to safe havens such as Britain, Holland, Prussia, and as far afield as South Africa. After a brief stay in Britain, some four thousand of them were encouraged to move on to the British colonies in America. On 15th April, 1686, Pastor Prioleau's church was attacked by a Catholic mob and was burned to the ground.5 He managed to escape unharmed, but the destruction of his church was a clear enough signal that it was high time for him to take his wife and daughter away from there to somewhere safe. It is not known quite how they made their getaway from France, but it is known that they arrived in England in late April and stayed there for a little over a year until given permission and a grant of Ј8 from King James II to immigrate to the British colony of South Carolina. They arrived at the port of Charles Towne (modern day Charleston) in late 1687 where they settled down to live among the other 1,800 or so inhabitants. When the Prioleaus arrived in Charles Towne there was already a small Huguenot community established with numbers estimated at between 55 and 60 souls. A Huguenot church had been built in 1681, but needed a bespoke Pastor. Elias Prioleau fitted that bill perfectly and soon after his arrival he took over the ministry. He also conducted services at the small church in the parish of St. Thomas, between the Cooper and Wando Rivers to the north of Charles Towne. After living happily in the British colony for ten years, Elias Prioleau and his family gave up all thoughts of ever returning to France and applied for British citizenship6 which was granted on 14th June, 1697. Having made the decision to stay in Charleston, Elias purchased about 140 acres of land on which to build a comfortable home for his family. Later generations of Prioleaus expanded the
Fraser, Trenholm and Company
3
plot to 1,258 acres7 and established a thriving cotton plantation, thereby securing their position among the elite dynasties of young Charleston. At about the same time that the Prioleaus fled from France, the Boyd family from Bordeaux also made their escape.8 Magdalene Boyd, the daughter of the family, seems to have been in Scotland visiting a Scottish cousin of her father's by the name of James Fraser. The Franco-Scottish connection is of no surprise given that the Scottish Frasers were originally from the Normandy region of France. The name Fraser is an anglicized version of the French name Fraiseur, meaning `strawberry producer'. The original Fraiseurs moved into England shortly after the Norman Conquest of 1066 and over time, moved north to settle in Scotland where they achieved power and wealth through services to the crown. The modern standard of clan Fraser is a flag displaying three strawberry flowers to denote the Fraiseur roots of the family. Jean Boyd senior had sent a letter to James Fraser via Magdelene beseeching his help to smuggle the rest of the family, namely Jean and his four sons Jean junior, Gabriel, Jacques and Georges, out of France; a request which he appears to have successfully fulfilled. Like the Prioleaus before them, the Boyds spent a year in London, before most of them took ship to Charleston. For some unknown reason, Georges did not accompany them, but stayed in England for a while, before returning to France. Magdalene also stayed in London and married a fellow French exile there by the name of Hector Francois Chastaigner de Cramahe who was a Captain of Cavalry.9 Soon after their arrival in America Jean Boyd junior wrote a long letter home to his sister Magdalene describing what they had seen in South Carolina.10 He wrote about the land, the flora and fauna, the native Indians with whom there were good relations and of the steady trade in animal hides that existed at that time. The settlement at Charleston grew very rapidly. A census taken in 1672 recorded close to 400 people living in the village. In 1680 the Royal Navy ship H.M.S. Richmond arrived, carrying 45 Huguenot refugees. Her captain later reported that there were between 1,000 and 1,200 settlers living there and that there were sixteen ships in the harbour.11 As we have seen, by the time the Prioleaus and the Boyds arrived in 1687 the population was close to 1,800 and the community was thriving. Jean Boyd's description of Indian produce must have fired the imagination of his Scottish relatives back in Wigton, Galloway, because in 1700 John Fraser arrived in Charleston to join his Boyd relations and to set up an Indian Trading Post there.12 Some years later the whole Boyd family left Charleston for Ireland13 where they eventually settled permanently, but John Fraser and his family stayed put in Charleston. In the early eighteenth century deer skins, bear skins and other hides were in great demand in Europe and the American Indians were more than happy to provide them in exchange for manufactured goods: especially guns, lead and
4
Chapter 1
gunpowder. Some 90 percent of the hides that left Charles Towne went to Bristol and London. The quality of British manufacture attracted the bulk of the trade as the Indians seemed to value British goods above their French or Spanish counterparts. John Fraser made sufficient money from the trade in hides to buy a large plot of land on the southern bank of Goose Creek which he called Wigton, after his Scottish hometown. He had become a plantation owner as well as an Indian trader. The hide trade14 peaked in 1707, when 121,355 deer skins were exported from Charles Towne, but it slumped over the period 1715 to 1717, when the South Carolina Indians turned against the settlers in what became known as the Yemassee War, after the Yemasee tribe who were seen as the instigators of the conflict. Fortunately for John Fraser and his family he had befriended Sanute, one of the Yemassee chiefs, who warned him of the impending trouble and persuaded him to move himself and his family to safety inside Charleston's defences. The Yemassee were in no way alone in the war. The Muscogee, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee, Congaree, Waxhaw, Pee Dee, Cape Fear, and Cheraw all took part in the violence to greater or lesser extent. The reasons for the war were many and varied and included factors such as settler encroachment on Indian lands, with the forests they relied on for game being cleared by the settlers for rice and cotton plantations, abuses by the traders who the Indians saw as profiteering on the hide market and the practice of selling Indian captives into the slave trade. Hundreds of South Carolina's colonists were killed and many of the outlying frontier settlements were completely destroyed. Displaced settlers fled into Charleston for protection which was virtually under siege and ran short of food. The population came close to starvation and throughout 1715 the town's survival was in serious doubt. It was only saved by the Cherokee changing sides in 1716 to fight alongside the colonists against their traditional enemy, the Creek. The last of the tribes gave up fighting in 1717 bringing a fragile peace to the colony, but, not before some 7 percent of South Carolina's white population had been slaughtered. Fortunately, the Prioleaus and the Frasers were not among that number. With the Yemassee War over John Fraser and his family were able to return to their home on the Wigton plantation where they resumed their former business. However, the hide trade had been severely affected by the conflict and never recovered to its former glory. The South Carolina trade was also affected by competition from Georgia, when the colony at Savannah was established there in 1733. In 1771, it was reported that 70,000 deer and stag hides were exported from Charleston: just a little over a half of the number that had been shipped in 1707, but by then the market in rice and cotton had become much more important than the hide trade. These commodities along with tobacco and refined turpentine were now the pre-eminent currency of South Carolina.
Fraser, Trenholm and Company
5
Three generations of Frasers lived and worked on the Wigton plantation until John Fraser's grandson, Alexander, sold it, in 1834, to Senator Robert Hayne, who had previously served as governor of South Carolina.15 In 1764 the French Prioleaus and the Scottish Frasers were joined in Charleston by an English family named Trenholm. William Trenholm from Allerton in Yorkshire and his wife Ann from Durham arrived first in New York, before moving south to settle in Charleston. However, in 1775, as the colony slipped into revolt and the War of Independence gathered pace, William, who was a staunch loyalist, could not bring himself to take up arms against his former countrymen and saw fit to remove his wife and six children away from America.16 They made their way first to Holland and then to the French colony of SaintDomingue, also known as Santo Domingo, on the island of Hispaniola, which we now call Haiti. The Island was very fertile, producing large amounts of sugar, coffee and cotton. By the 1780s, Hispaniola produced about 40 percent of all the sugar and 60 percent of all the coffee consumed in Europe. It became known as The Jewel of the Antilles and was one of the richest colonies in the eighteenthcentury French empire. For all that, it was an unhealthy place with tropical diseases, notably yellow fever, claiming countless lives. Life expectancy amongst the African slave population was so short that numbers could not be sustained through normal reproduction. The ever-increasing demand for slave labour combined with the high mortality rate led to ever increasing rates of importation of slaves from Africa. Between 1764 and 1787, the rate of new slave arrivals rose from around 10,000 per year to 40,000 per year raising the slave population on the island to some 500,000 ruled over by a mere 32,000 Europeans. Outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 and publication by the revolutionaries of the `Rights of Man', declaring all men free and equal spread the idea to Hispaniola that the planters could gain their freedom and take over the island as an independent state. Revolution against the slave system broke out on the island in 1791 led by the mulattoes, Franзois Dominique ToussaintLouverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines. The Trenholms were again caught up in a revolution that they wanted no part of and felt the need to move on again. They made their escape back to England, staying a while in London where, sadly, their son George took ill and died. By 1793 the American Revolution was a thing of the past and peace had returned to a now independent United States. The Trenholms decided to make a second attempt to settle in Charleston and returned there to pick up where they had left off eighteen years earlier. They were initially met with some frostiness as there was a definite prejudice against those who had previously been loyalists, but the Trenholms proved to be good neighbours and, before long, any grievance that the republicans may have felt was forgotten. William Trenholm II, the one surviving son of William and Ann, had been born in Charleston in 1772 during his
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Horner, Dave, The Blockade Runners, Florida Classics Library, 1992. Huse, Caleb, The Supplies for the Confederate Army ­ How They Were Obtained in Europe and How Paid For, Deep River Armory Inc. Houston, Texas, 1970 Kinnaman, Stephen Chapin, Captain Bulloch ­ The Life of James Dunwoody Bulloch, Naval Agent of the Confederacy, Dog Ear Publishing, 2013. Lavery, Brian, Nelson's Navy ­ The Ships, Men and Organisation, 1793-1815, Conway Maritime Press, 1989, revised 1990, reprinted 1994. Long, Renata Eley, In the Shadow of the Alabama ­ The British Foreign Office and the American Civil War, Naval Institute Press, 2015 Lubbock, Basil, The Last of the Windjammers, Brown, Son and Ferguson Ltd., 52, Darnley Street, Glasgow, G41 2SG, first edition 1925, reprinted 1975. Lyon, David and Winfield, Rif, The Sail and Steam Navy List ­ All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815-1889, Chatham Publishing, 2004. Marshall Lieutenant John, Royal Naval Biography; or, Memoirs of the Services of all the Flag-Officers, Superannuated Rear-Admirals, Retired-Captains, PostCaptains and Commanders Whose Names Appeared on the Admiralty List of Sea Officers at the Commencement of the Year 1823; or Who Have Since Been Promoted, printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green of Paternoster Row, London in 1828; available digitally via Google Books. MacDougall, Philip, Royal Dockyards, Shire Publications, 1989 Maffitt, Emma Martin, The Life and Services of John Newland Maffitt, The Neal Publishing Company, New York and Washington, 1906. McCash, June Hall, A Titanic Love Story ­ Ida and Isador Strauss, Mercer University Press, 2012. McKay, Gary, The Sea King ­ The Life of James Iredell Waddell, Birlinn Ltd., 2009. McNeil, Jim, Masters of the Shoals ­ Tales of the Cape Fear Pilots Who Ran the Union Blockade, Da Capo Press, 2003. Michael, Chris, Lelia, Countywise Ltd. in association with Liverpool Marine Press, 2004 Milton, David Hepburn, Lincoln's Spymaster ­ Thomas Haines Dudley and the Liverpool Network, Stackpole Books, 2003. Nepveux, Ethel Trenholm Seabrook, George A. Trenholm Financial Genius of the Confederacy ­ His Associates and his Ships That Ran the Blockade, Electric City Printing Company, 1999. Owsley, Frank Lawrence jr. The C.S.S. Florida ­ Her Building and Operations, The University of Alabama Press, second edition, 1987. Owsley, Hariet Chappel, Henry Shelton Sanford and Federal Surveillance Abroad 1861 ­ 1865, Mississippi Valley Historical Review Volume 48, 1961. Rankin, John, A History of Our Firm ­ Being Some Account of Pollock, Gilmour & Co. and It's Offshoots and Connections 1804 ­ 1920, original published by Henry Young & Sons, Liverpool, 1921 for private circulation; now available through Cornell University Library Digital Collections. Sinclair, Arthur IV, Two Years on the Alabama, Lee and Shephard, Boston, 1896. Reprinted by The United States Naval Institute Press, 1989. Spencer, Warren F., The Confederate Navy in Europe, The University of Alabama Press, paperback edition,1997. Sprunt, James, Tales of the Cape Fear Blockade, 1862-1865, printed by J.E. Hicks of Wilmington N.C. in 1960 for the Charles Towne Preservation Trust.
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Index
A Abercromby Square, 10, 331 Aberdeen, 44, 65, 89, 91, 273, 345, 384, 391 Abigail, 336, 364 Actaeon, 101 Adams, Charles Francis, 17, 18, 24, 25, 28, 34, 39, 43, 74, 75, 76, 78, 81, 82, 121, 122, 124, 125, 126, 171, 173, 174, 175, 225, 226, 227, 239, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 340 Adderly Edwin, 222 Henry & Co., 108, 109, 110, 113, 128, 129, 130, 131, 222, 223 Adkins, Capt. Simpson, 360 Admiralty, 55, 70, 71, 72, 87, 117, 119, 127, 246, 247, 391, 394, 397, 404 Admiralty Court, 113 Advance (1), 100, 101, 102, 257 (2), 273 Agnes E. Fry, 279 Agrippina, 126, 282, 283, 286 Aigburth, 337 Ailsa, 100 Aitken and Mansell, 159 Ajax, 336 Alabama Claims, ix, 343, 382 Alabama, C.S.S., vii, xv, 39, 72, 75, 113, 120, 126, 127, 162, 164, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175, 225, 226, 234, 242, 246, 262, 278, 281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 291, 293, 294, 295, 296,
297, 298, 305, 318, 328, 332, 335, 337, 339, 340, 365, 367, 379, 381 Alabama, State of, 12, 14, 30, 66, 132, 271, 365 Alabama, University of, 30 Albatross, 309, 336, 366 Albermarle, C.S.S., 332 Alecto, H.M.S., 224 Alexandra, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 239, 240, 241, 244, 245, 247, 249, 331, 363, 380, 397 Alexandra, Princess of Denmark, 170 Alexandria, 241 Alfred H. Partridge, 287 Alfred, H.B.M., 92 Algeciras, 79 Allan Gilmour & Co., 95 Allerton Hall, 10, 42 Alliance, 10, 24 Almy, Commander John J., 232, 233 Amanda, 294 America, 38 American Civil War Museum, x, 375 American Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy, 18 Amphitrite, 144 Amsterdam, 98, 270 Anaconda Plan, 161 Anderson Captain John, 46, 47 Dorothy M., 400 G.C., 106, 127 John William (Billy), 277, 278 Major Edward C., 38, 39, 42, 45, 46, 49, 50, 83, 223 Major Robert, 20, 21, 22, 29, 31, 32
408 Anglo-Confederate Trading Company, 153, 154, 158, 159, 234, 235, 262, 311, 312, 359 Angra Paquena, 293 Ann, 98, 99 Anna Helen, 28 Annapolis, 333 Annapolis Naval Academy, 259, 278 Annie Childs, 222 Annie Worrall, 69 Anson, Commodore George, 278 Anticosti Island, 98, 99 Antona, 152, 153 Apalachee, 4 Apalachicola, 4 Appomattox, 327 Arcas Island, 283 Archer, 289, 290, 369 Argentina, 336 Argo, 64 Arkansas, 12, 22 Arman, Lucien, 240, 241, 243 Armstrong, 279 Armstrong, John Richardson, 24, 129 Armstrong, Sir William, 38 Ashley Hall, 331, 375 Ashley River, 349 Asia, H.B.M., 92 Atherton, Sir William, 121, 124, 176 Atkinson, Joseph, 263, 265, 266 Atlanta, GA, 151 Atlantic, 222 Atlantic Steam Navigation Company, 7, 8 Atrato, 141 Australia, 44, 65, 66, 67, 68, 101, 340, 376 Austrian army, 106 Averett, Lt. Samuel W., 286, 287, 296 Avon (1), 98 (2), 295 Azores, 47, 125, 172, 281, 282, 365
Index B Badajoz, 61 Badger, 312, 336, 360 Baffin Street, 37, 59, 60, 338, 364, 377 Bahama, 79, 80, 81, 103, 106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 113, 126, 131, 171, 222 Bahama Banks, The, 146 Bahia, vii, 286, 291, 293, 298, 299, 302, 303, 304, 363, 381 Bailey and Leetham, 84, 88, 363 Baines, James, 64, 65, 66, 68, 376 Baines, James & Co., 64, 65, 66, 68 Baker, Acting Master Jonathan, 306 Ballarat, 65 Baltimore MD, 31, 49, 50, 287, 333 Bangkok, 294 Bank of Charleston, xv, 7, 15, 385 Bank of England, 308 Bank of the Republic, 30, 32 Banshee, vii, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 224, 225, 262, 359, 376, 379 Banshee II, 158, 159, 160, 336 Barbados, 90, 285, 357 Barney, Lt. Joseph N., 135, 294 Baron Itajuba, 340 Barracouta, 328 Bat, 309, 360 Bathurst, 65, 95, 96 Battery Buchanan, 327 Bay Line, 31 Bayne, Major Thomas, 223 Beach John Newton, 151, 365, 366 Root & Co., 151, 251, 263, 365, 366 Beagle, H.M.S., 57, 58 Beardslee, Lt. Lester, 300 Beaton, John, 254, 255, 257, 263, 265, 336, 337, 359, 380 Beauregard, Brig. Gen. Pierre G.T., 21, 22, 30, 41
Index Belfast, 126, 141, 142, 143, 273, 282, 313 Bell Capt. William, 360 John, 12 Belle Isle, 295 Bendigo, 65 Benjamin, Judah P., 14, 34, 35, 234 Benson, Peter, 127, 128 Bering Strait, 377 Bermuda, x, xiv, 47, 49, 78, 151, 158, 172, 177, 221, 223, 228, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 242, 267, 272, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 282, 287, 292, 296, 298, 315, 317, 318, 319, 326, 327, 333, 364, 380, 400 Bermuda, 42, 43, 45, 49, 79, 221, 222, 223 Betts, Judge Samuel R., 88 Biarritz, 331 Bienville, 34, 119 Bijou, 275, 364 Birkenhead, xv, xvi, 15, 37, 39, 115, 116, 117, 118, 123, 125, 155, 163, 174, 240, 246, 266, 271, 319, 335, 338, 339, 365 Birkenhead, H.M.S., 117 Bittern, H.B.M., 91 Black Ball Line, 66, 68, 101, 376, 389 Black Sea, 163 Black Warrior, 34 Black, Neil, 173, 241 Blackwood and Gordon, 152 Blair, Montgomery, 17 Blake, Lt. Commander, 284 Blakely, Cannon, 21, 22, 167 Blaney, Mr. - Shipwright, 57 Blazer, 326 Board of Trade, 46, 64, 71, 72, 100, 130, 172, 317, 333 Boca Chica, 85, 86, 87, 88 Bordeaux, 3 Borneo, 88
409 Boston, 15, 49, 85, 86, 244, 265, 287, 401, 404 Bourne, John Tory, 223 Bowdler, Chaffer & Co., 151, 309, 335, 336, 366 Bowdler, George, 366 Boyd Gabriel, 3 Georges, 3 Jacques, 3 Jean, 3, 345, 384 Jean jnr., 3 Magdalene, 3 Bradford, Acting Lt., 111, 130 Bravay & Co., 241, 243, 244, 245 Bray, Capt., 302 Brazil, vii, 34, 60, 67, 286, 293, 299, 305, 306, 336, 337, 340, 363 Brazilian, 60 Brazilian Navy, x, 299, 300, 336, 361, 364 Breck, Acting Master Joseph B., 233 Breckenridge, John, 12 Bremen, 98 Brest, 246, 292, 294, 295, 381 Brewer, H.O. & Co., 270, 271 Brickby, Capt. Richard, 366 Bridgetown, 285 Bristol, 4, 59, 98 Britannia Royal Naval College, 59 Britannia, H.M.S., 59 British and Foreign Steam Navigation Company, The, 378 Britomart, Class Gunboat, 72, 167, 168, 169 Briton, 144 Brodie, Andrew, 323, 324 Brooklyn, U.S.S., 136 Brooks, William, 281 Brownsville TX, 84, 87 Bruges, 331 Brunswick Dock, 37, 53, 62, 238, 239 Bryant, Midshipman, 130
410 Buchanan Admiral Franklin, 135, 316 President James, 11, 14, 40 Buenos Ayrean, 60 Buffalo, 342, 343 Bulldog, H.M.S., 109, 110 Bulloch, Capt. James D., vii, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 72, 73, 74, 79, 80, 81, 102, 103, 104, 111, 113, 115, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 162, 163, 164, 165, 168, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 223, 226, 227, 228, 237, 239, 240, 241, 243, 246, 247, 248, 269, 270, 272, 281, 297, 298, 318, 332, 333, 337, 343, 365, 375, 377, 378, 386, 387, 388, 389, 391, 393, 394, 398, 401, 403, 404, 405 Bulloch, Sailing Master Irvine S, 281 Burke, William, 260, 261 Burma, 44 Burnley, Consul J. Hume, 177 Burns, G. & J. & Co., 142 Burnside, Bruce L., 127 Burriss, Thomas E., 156, 157 Butcher, Capt. Matthew J., 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 170, 173, 262, 265, 337, 361, 365, 378 Butler Capt. James B., 364 Gen. Benjamin F., 162, 313 Rhett, xv Butlers Wharf, 335 Byrne, Andrew, 50 C Cadiz, 295 Cahawba, 34 Caird & Co., 279 Cairns, Sir Hugh QC, 176 Caleb Cushing, 290, 291, 370
Index Caleb Cushing, Congressman, 31, 33 Calhoun, John C., 40 California, 140 Cambria, 104, 222 Camden NJ, 17, 31 Cameron Gov. Simon, 11, 17 James, 364 Camilla, 38 Cammell & Co., 118 Cammell, Laird & Co., 118, 338, 378 Campage, 176 Canada, x, 32, 33, 35, 37, 48, 59, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 234, 340, 341, 382 Canonicus, U.S.S., 364 Canton, 294 (1), 94 (2), 174 Cape Fear, 4, 147, 149, 157, 277, 278, 312, 313, 326, 360 Cape Fear River, 104, 147, 148, 157, 159, 230, 239, 250, 259, 264, 277, 312, 366 Cape Hatteras, 26, 27 Cape Horn, 67, 293 Cape of Good Hope, 295 Cape Town, 67, 293, 294, 295 Cape Verde Islands, 66 Cardale, Lt. C.S., 112, 127, 128 Cardenas, 127, 132, 141 Carolina, 251 Caroline, 336 Carriers Dock, 318, 319, 326 Catawba, Native Americans, 4 Cato, Miller & Co., 37, 390 Catskill, U.S.S., 364 Cayuga, U.S.S., 133 Cecile, 111, 222 Ceres, 274, 275 Chaffer, Richard, 366 Chaloner, Hart & Sinnott, 37 Champion of the Seas, 68 Chanticleer, 152
Index Charleston SC, vii, ix, x, xiv, xv, xvi, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 30, 31, 38, 46, 47, 48, 104, 108, 111, 144, 145, 147, 151, 152, 153, 154, 158, 163, 168, 170, 221, 230, 238, 248, 252, 253, 258, 259, 261, 262, 266, 267, 276, 277, 279, 312, 315, 319, 327, 331, 333, 336, 340, 345, 363, 364, 375, 376, 380, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 403, 405 Charlotte, 60 Charlottesville, 139, 140 Chase, Salmon P., 17 Chatham, 55, 92 Chatham, 266, 365 Chef Menteur Pass, 161 Cheraw, Native Americans, 4 Cherbourg, 295, 296, 297, 365, 381 Cherokee, Native Americans, 4 Chesapeake, 290 Chicago IL, 12, 41 Chickamauga, C.S.S., 340 Chickasaw, Native Americans, 4 Chicora affair, 342 Chicora Importing and Exporting Company, 267, 311, 341, 363 Chicora, C.S.S., 259 Chicora, formerly Let Her B, vii, 267, 327, 341, 342, 343, 363, 382 Chief Surveyor of Tonnage, 64, 72, 175 China, 71, 241, 285, 297 Churchill, Edward, 55 Churruca, 360 Cie. Messageries Maritime of Marseilles, 69 Cimarron, U.S.S., 254 Cincinnati, OH, 49 Citadel Military Academy, 21 City of Dublin Steam Packet Co., 116 City of San Francisco, 333 Clare, Allan Stanley, 123
411 Clarence, 287, 288, 289, 339, 369 Clarence graving dock, 225, 226 Clark James, 320 John, 338 William, 379 Cleopatra, 65 Clover & Royle, 37 Clown Class Gunboats, 70, 72 Clown, H.M.S., 70, 71, 72, 75, 377 Clydesdale, 144 Coberg dock, 171 Cobh, 101 Cochrane, Admiral Sir Alexander, 90 Cochrane's Anchorage, 103, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110 Cockburn, Sir Alexander, 340 Coit & Fraser, 6 Coles, Capt. Cowper Phipps, 163, 164 Collector, 64 Collector, of Customs, 70, 165, 171, 172, 241 Colletis, 46, 49 Collie Alexander, 142, 143, 145, 146, 151, 273, 274, 275, 279, 309, 312 Alexander & Co., 142, 233, 311 George, 273 William, 273 Collier, R.P. QC, 124, 171 Collingwood, 342 Collins, Commander Napoleon, 298, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306 Cologne, 310 Colonel Lamb, vii, 312, 336, 341, 361, 382 Columbia, 223, 385 Columbus GA, 309 Condor, 233, 234, 235 Confederate Veterans Association, 276 Congaree, Native Americans, 4
412 Connecticut, 12, 17, 18 Connecticut, U.S.S., 232, 233, 363 Connor, Henry, 7 Conrad, 293 Constitution, U.S.S., 137 Consul, 51 Conway, 101 Cooper River, 19, 349 Corbett, Capt. Peter, 298 Cork, 98, 319, 379 Cornubia, 223 Cotesworth, Miss, 70 Council of the Mercantile Marine Service, 28 Couronne, 296 Court of Exchequer, 176, 247 Cowper, H.A., 258 Cozzens, Detective William, 227 Craven, Capt T. Augustus, 125, 126 Creek, Native Americans, 4 Creesy, Lt. Josiah, 79 Crenshaw James, 272 Lewis, 272 William, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 309, 312, 315, 316, 317, 318, 327 Crenshaw & Co., 311, 315, 319, 364 Crenshaw Brothers, 271, 272, 279 Crenshaw, Collie & Co., 273, 274, 275, 276 Cressington Park, 337, 338 Crimean War, xiii, 59, 70, 71, 117, 164, 234 Cronstadt, 88 Cropper, John, 319 Cruickshanks, Capt. William, 102 Cubbins, Capt. T., 359 Cuddy, Gunner Thomas C., 297, 319 Cummings, Simeon, 293 Cunard, 119, 120, 141, 337, 378 Curlew, 298, 309, 336, 362 Curry, Kellock & Co., 251
Index Curry, Michael, 322 Curtis & Harvey, 38 D Daguerre, Louis, 71 Dartmouth, 59 Darwin, Charles, 57 Davenport, Lt. Dudlay, 290 David MacIver, 64 Davis, President Jefferson, xiii, 14, 21, 22, 24, 30, 34, 35, 38, 39, 41, 48, 101, 123, 135, 136, 151, 229, 234, 259, 311, 327, 328, 342 Davy, Herbert, 106 Dayton, Governor William, 11, 39 De Costa, John, 123, 171, 172, 227 Dee, 275 Dee River, 116 Deer, 274, 309, 327, 364 Deerhound, 296, 297, 318, 381 Denbigh, 271, 341, 365 Denny & Brothers, William, 291, 378 Denny & Co., 152 Dent, J. Harry, 261 Deptford Dockyard, 55, 57 Despatch, 153, 154 Dessalines, Jean-Jacques, 5 Detroit MI, 49 Devastation, H.M.S., 58 Devonport, 54, 56, 91, 93, 94 Devonport Dockyard, 54, 56, 58, 246, 379 Dickenson, Joseph Henry, 361, 362 Dix, Major General, 228, 229 Dixon, Joshua & Co., 44 Dock, 56 Donahoe, Thomas I, 232 Donegal, H.M.S., vii, 329 Dorisana, 60 Doterel, H.M.S., 72, 167 Douglas, 329 Dr. G. M., 97
Index Isle of Man, 155 Stephen, 12 Dover, 117 Dream, 151, 341, 365 Drouyn de Lhuys, Edouard, 243 Du Pont, Admiral Samuel F, 50 Dublin, 257 Dublin, H.B.M., 92 Dudgeon, John & William, 151, 273, 274 Dudley, Consul Thomas Haines, 12, 17, 18, 39, 74, 76, 78, 82, 102, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 164, 170, 171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, 225, 226, 227, 228, 237, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 246, 284, 291, 297, 316 Duggan, Wynn, 127 Duggin, William, 110 Duguid Alexander, 89, 90, 91 Ann, 89, 91, 92, 93 Capt. James Alexander, vii, ix, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 89, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 119, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 143, 145, 146, 147, 149, 170, 172, 173, 239, 249, 251, 254, 255, 257, 258, 259, 262, 263, 264, 265,266, 326, 336, 337, 338, 359, 361, 363, 377, 378, 380 Capt. William Henry, 93, 94, 95, 99, 100, 101 Margaret Elizabeth, 170, 173 Mary, 93 Miss Christina C., ix Dulwich, 335 Dumbarton, 152, 378 Dumfries, 61 Dundee, 245 Dunnington, Lt., 361 DuPont
413 Admiral Samuel F., 27 Dusseldorf, 310 Dyer, Thomas K., 148, 149, 150 E Eagle, 144, 152, 153 Earl Gray, 99 East India Company, The, 117 Economist, 106, 222 Edward Lomnitz & Co., 263 Edwards E., 112 Samuel Price, 70, 71, 75, 76, 121, 122, 123, 124, 171, 172, 173, 175, 241, 243, 245 Egypt, 241, 243, 245 El Monassir, 243, 247, 248 El Tousson, 241, 242, 243, 246, 247, 248 Eliza Ann, 100 Eliza Bonsall, 10, 24 Eliza Hand, 144 Elizabeth, 222 Elizabeth and Emma, 333 Ella Warly, 222 Elmbay, 343 Emily St. Pierre, vii, 10, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 Emma, 64 Emperor, 171, 172, 173 Enrica, 39, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 262, 281, 337, 365 Eolus, U.S.S., 360 Ericsson, John, 164 Erlanger loan, 242, 270, 272 Erlanger, Emile, 270, 271 Ernestine, 144 Erskine, Chief Engineer, 156 Estelle, 284 Eugenie, 223, 336 Euphrate, 69
414 European Trading Company, The, 270, 271, 311, 365 Eustice, Richard, 129 Evans, R. & J. & Co., 37 Everton, 156 Ewing, Walter & Co., 37 F Falcon, 312 Falmouth, 43, 231 Fanny Lewis, 105, 106 Farragut, Admiral David Glasgow, 87, 88, 161, 162, 271, 287 Fawcett, Preston & Co., 38, 39, 53, 54, 69, 73, 75, 76, 128, 167, 174, 175, 176, 177, 224, 225, 226, 249, 251, 255, 256, 317, 363 Federal Point, 327 Ferguson James B., 272, 274 John, 152 Ferguson, Rankin & Co., 95 Fernando de Noronha Island, 286 Ficklin, Major Benjamin Franklin, 50, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 145, 273 Fingal, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 223 Fitzroy, Capt. Robert, 57, 58, 319 Flamingo, 312 Fleetwood, 101, 126, 262, 333, 334 Flora, 266, 273 Flora, H.B.M., 90 Flores Island, 281 Floria, 62 Florida Florida, 144 Florida, C.S.S., vii, ix, xv, 39, 54, 73, 103, 127, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 162, 164, 167, 168, 169, 171, 175, 225, 226, 242, 246, 278, 284, 285, 286, 287, 289, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 298, 299, 300,
Index 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 328, 333, 335, 339, 340,363, 367, 377, 378, 379, 381 Florida, State of, 12, 14, 153, 252 Florida, U.S.S., 26 Florie, 342 Floyd, Acting Master, 130 Flying Cloud, 68 Forbes, Capt. James Nichol (Bully), 65, 66, 67, 376 Foreign enlistment act, 34, 35, 36, 47, 72, 106, 109, 119, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 129, 165, 171, 173, 175, 176, 178, 225, 244, 285 Forester, H.B.M., 89, 90 Forfar, James, 318, 322 Fort Caswell, 150, 157, 250, 264 Fort de France, Martinique, 282 Fort Donelson, formerly Giraffe, 313 Fort Fisher, 157, 232, 234, 235, 277, 312, 313, 326, 327, 342, 361 Fort Gaines, 133 Fort Jackson, 161 Fort Johnson, 19, 380 Fort Lafayette, 158 Fort Macomb, 161 Fort Monroe, 229 Fort Morgan, 133, 134 Fort Moultrie, vii, xv, 19, 20, 21, 267, 340, 364, 380, 382 Fort Pike, 161 Fort Pinckney, 19 Fort Preble, 290 Fort Pulaski, 48 Fort St. Philip, 161 Fort Sumter, 19, 20, 21, 22, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 41, 168, 260, 380 Fort Wagner, 230 Fort Warren, 49, 50, 301 Fort William, 342 Forwood, Arthur, 365 Foster Charles, 46
Index John, 377 Fox, 341, 360 France, xiv, 2, 3, 17, 34, 38, 48, 54, 55, 56, 61, 96, 118, 151, 230, 233, 240, 241, 243, 245, 246, 269, 272, 292, 340, 345, 351, 352, 354, 355, 365, 383 Franco-Prussian War, 340 Fraser Alexander, 5 James, 3, 345 John & Co., xv, xvi, 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 16, 21, 25, 28, 79, 104, 111, 141, 151, 221, 222, 250, 251, 331, 376 John (1), 3, 4, 5 John (2), 1, 6, 7, 10 John Augustus, 7, 9, 10 Fraser, Trenholm & Co., xv, xvi, 1, 9, 10, 13, 16, 23, 24, 28, 33, 35, 38, 39, 42, 43, 72, 74, 79, 80, 83, 106, 113, 126, 128, 129, 151, 169, 170, 171, 173, 177, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 228, 239, 250, 262, 263, 269, 270, 311, 312, 331, 337, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 375, 390 Freeman, Miles J., 281 French Revolution, 5, 54 Friends, 94 Frisbee Capt. Charles, 285 Mrs., 285 Frying Pan Shoals, 157 Fulton, U.S.S., 276 Funchal, 107, 146 Fyvie, 89 G G.T. Watson, 327 Galloway, John W., 278 Galveston TX, xiv, 159, 271, 283, 327, 365 Galway, 54
415 Gardiner James Diniston, 61 Thomas, 61 Gardner Colonel John, 19, 20 Robert, 271 Garston, 10, 338, 339 Gem, 257 General Clinch, 21, 168, 259 Geneva, 340 Geneva Tribunal, 341 George Latimer, 296 Georgia Belle, 336, 337, 341, 361 Georgia Hussars, 45 Georgia, C.S.S., 291, 292, 293, 298 Georgia, State of, xiv, 4, 12, 14, 34, 43, 44, 72, 151, 254, 309, 310, 335, 365, 376 Georgiana McCaw, 149, 150 Gerard, Henry, 24 Gerchart, Mr., 319 Germany, 96, 97, 309, 310 Gertrude, 94 Gettysburg, xiii, 307 Giant's Causeway, 125 Gibraltar, 74, 78, 79, 80, 82, 107, 125, 381 Gilby, Lt. John L, 112 Gilliat J.K. & Co., 308, 309, 361, 362 John Kirton, 308 John Saunders, 308 Gilmour Allan, 94, 95 Allan & Co., 96 Allan jnr., 94 James, 94 Gilmour & Co. Montreal, 95 Ottowa, 95 Gilmour and Co., 97 Gilmour, Rankin & Co., 95
416 Giraffe, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 172, 223, 257, 258, 259, 273, 313, 376, 379 Gladiator, 51, 83, 390 Gladstone, Prime Minister, 340 Glasgow, xv, 45, 60, 61, 94, 95, 96, 100, 116, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 152, 159, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 273, 298, 313, 319, 376, 380 Glastonbury CT, 18 Glover & Co., 72 Golborne, 332 Goldsborough Admiral Louis M., 50 Commander John R., 26, 27 Gomes, President, 299 Gondar, 10, 21, 24, 25 Gordon, 48, 104, 128, 168, 221 Gordon, R., Coleman & Co., 292 Gore's Directory, 36 Goree, 90 Gorgas, Colonel Josiah, 30, 223, 269, 271, 272, 274, 275 Goshawk, H.M.S., 246, 247 Govan, xv, 142, 152, 159, 233, 274 Governor Buckingham, U.S.S., 361 Grant, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S., xiv, 313, 340 Graves, S.H., 70 Graysbrook & Co., 38 Grazebrook, William, 42 Great Circle (navigation), 67, 71 Great Eastern, 48 Great Float, The, 243 Great Ormes Head, 321 Great Republic, 68 Green Capt. W. G., 276, 277, 279, 364 Cay, 131 Charles, 44, 45, 49 Eliza, 45 Greenhow Prison, 42, 49
Index Robert, 40 Rose O' Neale, 39, 40, 41, 228, 229, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235 Greenock, 45, 46, 47, 115, 116, 142, 379 Greenwich Hospital School, 92, 93, 94 Greffin Compte de, 6 Irene de, 6 Greyhound, H.M.S., 110, 113 Gridley, Gunner E.B., 112 Griffiths, Capt. Thomas, 366 Grosse Isle, 97, 98 Guadeloupe, 90, 91, 117 Guadeloupe, H.B.M., 91 Guerriere, U.S.S., 278 Gulf of Mexico, xiv, 50, 84, 95, 161, 222, 271, 308, 327, 333, 361, 365, 366 H Habana, 23 Haiman, Elias, 309, 310 Haiti, 5, 283 Hale, 223 Halifax, 51, 177, 234, 342, 366 Hamburg, 98, 106, 107 Hamel, F.J., 122, 123 Hamilton, 278, 279 Eliza Henrietta, 39 Elizabeth Lynch, 383 George, 123 James, 8, 383 Lt. John Randolph, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 177, 178, 227, 249, 363 Hammer, Captain, 360 Hampton, 98, 99 Hampton Roads, 287, 288, 289, 305, 313, 363 Hamy, Daniel, 127 Hannah Salkeld, 60
Index Hansa, 312 Hardy and Low, 45 Hardy, Robert, 44 Hargraves, Edward, 65 Harriett Pinckney, 231 Harris Richard, ix, 382 Steve, 382 The Honourable G.D., 128 Hartford CT, 18 Hartford Times Newspaper, 18 Hartford, U.S.S., 162 Harvey and Son, 223 Hatteras, U.S.S., 284 Havana, xiv, 34, 43, 48, 77, 83, 110, 111, 119, 125, 129, 132, 133, 141, 147, 151, 221, 222, 271, 284 Havre de Grace PA, 31 Hayne, Senator Robert, 5 Hebe, 231, 273, 275 Helen (formerly Juno), 261 Heligoland squadron, 90 Helm, Charles J., 50, 77, 83, 222 Henderson, James, 152 Herald, 222 Hercules, 124, 125 Heroine, 312 Heron, H.M.S., 72, 167, 246, 247 Hewett, Capt. William Nathan Wright, 234 Heyliger, Lewis, 222, 223 Hibernia, 99 Hickley, Capt. H.D., 110, 111, 112, 113, 127 Highland Falls Academy, 334 Highland Falls NY, 334 Hill Henry, 40 Lawrence, 152 Hindostan, H.M.S., 59 Hispaniola, 5 Hobson, Charles, 319 Hoggan, Jane, 61
417 Hoghton, George W., 95, 101, 102, 152 Hoghton, Maria, 95 Hoghton, Rankin & Co., 95, 101, 152 Holcombe, Judge, 234 Holgate, Capt. H, 364 Holland, 2, 5, 90, 97 Holland, Dr. Henry, 46 Holmes Anna Helen, 7, 10, 28 Eliza Bonsall, 10 Holyhead, 46, 47, 74, 319, 320, 321 Hong Kong, 72 Hope, 312, 360 Hope, Admiral Sir James, 71, 72 Hora, Capt. A., 360 Hornet, 362 Hornsby, Acting Master's Mate, 26, 27 Horsfall, Thomas, 175, 237 Horton, Daniel, 116 House of Commons, 175, 241 House of Lords, 99, 176 Howard-Watson, J.A., 376 Howe Island, 343 Howquah, U.S.S., 361 Hudson, Thomas, 325 Huguenot, 2, 3 Hull, 84, 88, 223, 363 Hull, F.S. (Solicitor), 35 Humphreys, Sgt. F.C., 19, 20 Hunt, Robert, 71 Hunter, Acting Master Thomas T., 300, 301 Huron, U.S.S., 104, 365 Huse, Major Caleb, vii, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 42, 45, 46, 50, 76, 77, 79, 83, 106, 141, 223, 269, 270, 272, 274, 275, 279, 334, 375 Hussy Sound, 290 Hutson, Thomas, 173
418 I Illinois, 11, 12 Importing and Exporting Company of Georgia, The, 266, 311, 335, 342 Index, 312 Indiana, 12, 17 Inglefield, Captain Edward Augustus, 246 Ino, U.S.S., 79, 102 Iona, 144, 152 Irish Inland Steam Navigation Company, 116 Irving, Walter, 127, 128 Isaac Samuel, 269, 275 Saul, 269, 274, 275, 279 Isabella, 336, 364 J Jackson 'Stonewall', xiv William & Co., 62 Jacob Bell, 285 Jamaica, 284 James Adger, U.S.S., vii, 26, 158, 359, 376 Japan, 17, 72, 257, 278, 294 Japan, 291 Java, 294 John and Edward, 64 John Fraser, 10, 24 John's Island, 6 Johnson Assistant Engineer C., 260 Brig. Gen. Bradley T., 342 Gen. Joseph E., 332 President Andrew, 327 Johnson, Cammell & Co., 338 Jones Colonel, 264
Index Edward, 103, 109, 110, 113, 127, 129 John S., 140 Josiah, 155, 251, 309, 339, 360 Jones, Getty & Co., 155 Jones, Quiggin & Co., 37, 154, 155, 159, 224, 225, 239, 249, 251, 262, 309, 332, 333, 335, 336, 337, 339, 341, 359, 379 Jordon, Capt. Thomas, 40, 41 Jordon, Getty & Co., 155 Julesburg, 140 Julia, 262, 263, 265, 266, 312, 337 Julia Usher, 121, 144, 222 Juno, vii, 152, 153, 254, 255, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 336, 380 Jupiter, H.B.M., 92, 93, 144, 254 K Kansas, U.S.S., 264, 265 Karnak, 119, 120 Karslake, Mr. QC, 176 Kate, 104, 141, 151, 222, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 263 Kate Adventure, The, 250, 251, 254, 262, 263, 266, 267, 311 Kate Stewart, 288, 289 Kattegat, 90 Kearsarge, U.S.S., vii, 79, 228, 295, 296, 297, 365, 381 Kehoe, Police Superintendent, 334 Kell, Lt. John MacIntosh, 168, 281, 284, 294, 297 Kempff, Lt. Louis, 232, 233 Kentucky, 12, 22 Kestrel, H.M.S., 70, 71, 72, 75 King George III, 34 King George IV, 57 King James II, 2 King's Dock Basin, 69 Kingston, Jamaica, 284 Klingender, Melchior G., 83, 390
Index L La Gloire, 38 Labuan, 51, 70, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 161, 362, 363, 391 Labuan, Island, 88 Lady Davis (formerly Cornubia), 223 Lady Falkland, 101 Lady Lansdowne, 116 Lafayette, 282 Lafayette Square, 44 Lafitte, Jean Baptiste, 223, 360 Lafone Alexander, 251 Henry, vii, 176, 177, 249, 250, 251, 254, 255, 256, 262, 263, 266, 267, 309, 310, 311, 334, 335, 337, 341, 342, 343, 363, 380 Henry & Co., 249 Samuel, 249 Laird Brothers & Co., 72, 115, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 155, 163, 164, 174, 237, 239, 241, 243, 246, 247, 248, 309, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 365 Henry, 118 John, vii, 116, 117, 118, 175, 335, 378 John & Sons, xv, 15, 16, 37, 39, 117, 118, 271, 341 John the younger, 118, 365, 366 MacGregor, 116 William, 115, 116, 117 William & Son, 116, 117, 266 William the younger, 118 Laird rams, 122, 164, 240, 241, 243, 270, 379 Lake Pontchartrain, 161 Lamar brothers, 266, 267, 309, 335 Gazaway Bug, 266, 311, 365
419 Lamb, Colonel William, 157, 235, 313, 327 Lancaster Catherine, 296 John, 296, 297 Land's End, 66 Lanier, Sidney, 265 Lapwing, 286, 287, 368 Lark, 309, 336, 365 Laurel, 305, 336 Laverty, Peter, 319 Lawrence Edward, 153, 154, 160, 224, 262, 311, 343 Edward & Co., 153 John T., 359 Lawton, Gen. Alexander, 271, 274 Layard, Austen Henry, 123, 245 Le Havre, 151 Leamington Spa, 45 Leavenworth and Pike's Peak Express Company, 140 Lee Acting Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips, 143, 144 Gen. Robert E., xiv, 46, 307, 327, 328, 341 Maj. Gen George W.C., 341 Leech, Harrison & Forwood, 365 Lees Judge Sir John Campbell, 127, 129 Louisa Ann, 262 Leesburg, 262 Leeward Islands, 90 Lelia, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 334, 341, 364 Leopard, 142, 222 Leopoldina, 336, 364 Let Her B, 267, 327, 341, 342, 363 Let Her Rip, 267 Let Her Run, 267 Lewan, Seaman Gunner John, 112
420 Lexington, 139 Limerick, 99 Lincoln, President Abraham, xiii, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 29, 33, 34, 40, 48, 87, 101, 229, 239, 283, 297, 312 Linda, 302 Lindsey, H.H. & Co., 84, 363 Lisbon, 302, 303, 304 Little Ada, 266, 267 Liverpool and Charleston Steamship Company, 15 Liverpool Customs House, vii, 64, 75, 129, 175, 376 Liverpool Mechanics' Institute, 60, 62 Liverpool Ship Owners Association, 70 Liverpool Shipbuilders Association, 63 Liverpool, H.M.S., 246 Livingstone, 60 Livingstone, David, 116 Lloyds Captains' Register, 120, 337 Lockwood, Capt. Thomas J., 104, 250, 251, 252, 361 Lomnitz, Edward James, 250, 251, 263, 266, 336, 337, 359, 361 London Armoury Company, The, 33, 38 Lone Star, 144 Lord Clyde, 257, 273 Louis XIV, King of France, 2 Louisa Hatch, 286 Louisiana, State of, 12, 14, 21, 161, 162, 240 Louisiana, U.S.S., 313 Low Andrew, 44, 45, 49 Eliza, 45, 49 Isaac, 44 Isaac & Co., 44 Josiah, 49
Index Lt. John, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 53, 79, 80, 81, 82, 89, 103, 104, 106, 124, 127, 128, 129, 130, 281, 282, 293, 294, 295, 332 Sarah, 44, 49 Lucy, vii, ix, 159, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 312, 336, 337, 341, 359, 360, 380 Luna, 336 Lynn, Mr., 70 Lynx, 142, 312, 361 Lyons, Ambassador Lord Richard, 87 M M.A. Shindler, 288 MacDonnell, Lt. Gov. R.G., 177 Maceio, 60 Mackay Hugh, 61 Hughina, 61 Isabella, 61 James, 61 John, 61 Thomas Gardiner, 68 Thomas Miller, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 68, 101, 376 Thomas Miller & Co., 62 Mackay and Miller Shipbuilders, 62, 64, 68, 99, 376 Macy, R.H. & Co., 335 Madeira, 74, 78, 107, 146, 228, 258, 263, 295, 305, 318 Maffitt, Commander John Newland, vii, 35, 80, 81, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 111, 113, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 156, 221, 246, 249, 284, 285, 286, 287, 289, 292, 293, 294, 332, 333, 337, 361, 362, 363, 378 Magdelene, 302, 303 Magellan Straits, 57 Magnall, Fenton, 365
Index Maguire, Matthew, 24, 39, 120, 123, 170, 173, 225, 226, 227 Maia, vii, 60, 376 Maid of the Mist, 144 Maine, 12, 26, 289 Maja, 144 Majestic, H.M.S., 246, 247 Mallins, Lucy, vii, 262, 335, 380 Mallory, Stephen, 14, 18, 23, 30, 34, 35, 36, 38, 44, 45, 46, 50, 72, 73, 77, 79, 80, 104, 111, 113, 120, 130, 135, 136, 162, 163, 165, 168, 169, 223, 248, 269, 271, 272, 276, 278, 291, 294, 296, 297, 302, 332 Malvern, U.S.S., 366 Manassas Junction, 41, 42 Mann Dudley, 35 Felicia, 82 William Thompson, 76, 77, 82, 167, 168, 172, 223, 224, 225, 227, 249, 251, 254, 337, 363 Maratanza, U.S.S., 143 Marco Polo, vii, 65, 66, 67, 68, 376 Margaret and Jessie, 222 Maria, 64 Markley, Albert, 17 Marmelstein, Henry, 293 Marsh Creek, 65, 376 Marshall, E.W., 151 Martin Samuelson & Co., 223 Martinique, 282, 296 Mary, 336, 365 Mary (formerly Alexandra), 176, 177, 178, 331, 363 Mary Alvina, 287 Mary Celestia, vii, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 315, 316, 341, 364, 380 Mason, James, 48, 142, 274, 304 Masonboro Inlet NC, 275 Massachusetts, 12, 29, 31, 38, 149, 151, 339 Matamoros, xv, 83, 84, 85, 363
421 Mathews, Ann, 6, 7 Maury Commander William Lewis, 291 Lt. Matthew Fontaine, 67, 291, 292, 297 McDowell, Gen. Irvine, 41 McFie, Capt. Archibald, 98, 99 McGee, Paddy, 66 McGowan, Captain, 21 McKean, Captain William W., 50, 85, 87 McKeller, Capt. Alexander (Sandy), 254 McKeverigan, Michael, 326 McKillop, Commander H.F., 109, 110 McQueen, Capt. Alexander, 126, 282, 283, 286 McRae, General Colin J., 270, 274, 308, 309, 312 Meadowside, 143 Means & Fraser, 6 Mearns, 94 Medina, 94 Medway River, 92 Melbourne, 8, 66, 67, 101 Melita, 106, 113 Mellor & Southall, 251 Memminger, Christopher, xvi, 14, 30, 32, 141, 311 Merrimack, U.S.S., 259 Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, 325, 338 Mersey River, vii, xv, xvi, 37, 47, 53, 59, 67, 77, 79, 101, 102, 116, 119, 120, 125, 126, 127, 129, 155, 164, 176, 225, 228, 238, 239, 240, 246, 247, 248, 262, 305, 311, 315, 320, 323, 325, 336, 340, 341, 343, 376, 379 Mersey Steel & Iron Co., The, 237, 239 Merseyside Maritime Museum, 376, 377, 378, 379
422 Messagerie Maritimes of La Ciotat, 118 Mexico, 83, 84, 139, 288, 363 Middleton Augusta, 277 Charles (Charlie) Francis, 277, 278, 279, 315, 319 Miller Catherine Mary, vii, 70, 71 Edwin, 326 Henry, 326 Margaret, 91, 92 Margaret Elizabeth, vii, 94 Mary, 82, 170 Robert, 69 Robert snr., 56 Thomas, 72, 75, 76, 82, 170, 171, 172, 226, 227, 319, 320, 322, 323, 324 W.C. & Sons, xv, 37, 39, 46, 53, 54, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 109, 115, 155, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 223, 224, 225, 226, 239, 246, 267, 275, 309, 312, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 326, 327, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 341, 362 William Cowley, vii, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 84, 91, 93, 99, 102, 170, 171, 175, 177, 224, 256, 335, 338, 364, 376 William Lodwick, 69 Minho, 152, 222 Minna, 222 Minnesota, U.S.S., 143 Minor, Joseph, 293 Miramichi, 94, 95, 96, 360 Mississippi, 12, 14, 161, 162, 164 Mississippi, U.S.S., 278 Missouri, 12, 17, 22, 140 Mitchell, Margaret, xv
Index Mobile AL, xiv, 66, 95, 100, 101, 102, 132, 133, 135, 136, 137, 156, 171, 271, 284, 286, 312, 365, 381 Moelfra Bay, 125 Moffat, John, 46 Moir, Capt. James, 48 Monadnock, U.S.S., 364 Mondel, Joseph, 60 Money Wigram & Son, 291 Monitor, 164, 240 Monitor, U.S.S., 164 Montgomery AL, 14, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38 Montgomery, County, 39 Montgomery, U.S.S., 360 Montreal, 32, 35, 49, 95, 97, 99 Montrose AL, 135 Moorsom Admiral George, 63 commission, 63 System, 63 Moran, Benjamin, 78, 79 Morgan, Charles, 75, 76, 122, 173, 176 Morocco, vii, 119, 120, 378 Morris Island, 20, 21, 230, 267, 312 Morris, Lt. Charles Manigault, vii, 294, 295, 296, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 333, 363, 378 Morse, Freeman H., 37, 38, 43, 83, 107 Moss, Henry Elias, 317, 364 Mount Vernon, U.S.S., 231 Mumford, Capt. Oliver Remington, 173 Munday, Capt. William, 288, 289 Muscogee Native Americans, 4 N Nantucket, 289 Napier, Robert & Sons, 73 Napoleon III, Emperor, 233, 240
Index Napoleonic Wars, 54, 58, 61 Nashville, C.S.S., 47, 80, 222, 304, 376 Nassau, xiv, 24, 25, 47, 48, 80, 81, 83, 89, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 120, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 141, 143, 144, 146, 147, 149, 151, 153, 154, 156, 158, 171, 172, 176, 178, 221, 222, 223, 228, 235, 250, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 272, 275, 276, 277, 285, 333, 336, 341, 359, 360, 361, 363, 365, 366, 380 Navigation Company, The, 116, 152, 254, 380 Navy Board, The, 55, 56, 57, 58, 90 Nebraska, 141 Neilson & Co., 152 Nemesis, 117 Neptune, 144 Nepveux, Ethel Trenholm Seabrook, 382 New Brunswick, 25, 26, 64, 65, 94, 95, 98, 110, 129, 130, 376 New England, 282, 289, 353, 356 New Hampshire, 12 New Inlet, 147, 148, 157, 230, 232, 234, 275, 277, 342, 361, 363 New Orleans LA, xiv, 23, 34, 50, 86, 88, 95, 101, 108, 152, 161, 162, 164, 222, 248, 259, 278, 287 New South Wales, 65 New Topsail Inlet NC, 232 New York NY, xv, 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 22, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 64, 66, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 128, 130, 145, 154, 173, 221, 244, 251, 282, 287, 292, 310, 335, 376, 379, 387 Newburyport MA, 29, 31 Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 106, 222 Newfoundland, 281
423 Newport News VA, 143 Niagara Navigation Company, The, 364 Niagara, U.S.S., 86 Night Hawk, 159, 160, 234, 235, 336 Niphon, U.S.S., vii, 233, 234, 361, 379 Nisus, 91 Norfolk, 119 Norfolk Navy Yard, 278 Norfolk VA, 278 North American, 35 North Carolina, xiv, 12, 22, 50, 103, 105, 128, 141, 143, 148, 149, 151, 156, 157, 232, 273, 313, 333, 378 North Lowland Regiment of Fencibles, 61 North, Lt. James H., 38, 44, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 108, 111, 145, 162, 174, 248 Northern Castle, 144 Norwich VT, 18 O O' Brian, Eugene, 281 O' Dowd, J., 123 O' Neale, John, 39, 40 Oakdale Cemetery, 235 Oby, Tynan, 324 Ocmulgee, 281 Ohio, 12, 17 Old Inlet, 149, 157, 264, 275, 279 Oneida, U.S.S., 133, 134, 137, 381 Onward, U.S.S., 26 Ordnance Bureau, 172, 223, 228, 230, 269, 275, 363 Oreto, 39, 53, 54, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 89, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 119, 121, 124, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 145, 147, 156, 171, 172, 173, 175, 223, 224, 225, 239, 249, 363
424 Orkney, 90 Orr, Williams & Co., 37 Otterberg, 310 Owl, 309, 312, 332, 333, 336, 337, 341, 361 P Pacific Telegraph Company, 141 Palermo, 53, 75, 78, 79, 82, 102, 113 Palmer, Roundell, 121, 124, 176 Palmerston, Prime Minister, Lord, 173, 175, 245 Palmetto State, C.S.S., 259 Palmyra, 364 Pandora, H.M.S., vii, 377, 378 Paraguay, 336 Park, Magnus, 319, 321 Parke, Frederick, 129 Passmore, William, 123, 124 Pates, Edward, 17 Paynter, Capt., 329 Pearl, 144, 152, 153 Pearse & Lockwood, 221, 227 Pee Dee Native Americans, 4 Pegram, Lt. Robert, 80 Pei Ho River, 71 Peking, 71 Penguin, 309, 336, 366 Penguin, H.M.S., 72, 73, 167, 377 Peninsular War, 61 Pennsylvania, 11, 12, 17, 26, 31 Pennsylvania, U.S.S., 278 Pernambuco, 291, 292 Perry Capt., 325 Commodore Matthew, 278 Perryville PA, 31 Pertindo, 94 Pet, 231 Pete, Capt., 365 Peterson, Lauritz Jonas, 318, 322, 323, 324
Index Petrel, H.M.S., 131, 261, 284 Peyton, John L., 50 Phantom, 172, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 231, 232, 233, 363, 379 Philadelphia PA, 15, 17, 26, 27, 29, 31, 85, 86, 288, 310, 381 Philippines, The, 294 Phillimore, Sir Robert Joshua, 176 Phillips, Richard, 362, 364, 366 Philomel Class Gunboats, vii, 72, 73, 131, 167, 377, 378 Phlegethon, 117 Pickering, Commander Charles W., 78, 79 Pinchon, Capt. William, 366 Pinckney Castle, 380 Harriet, 30 Pinkerton, Allan, 41 Pique, H.M.S., 58 Plover, 309, 336, 362 Plover, H.M.S., 71 Plymouth, 54, 55, 56, 60, 71, 89, 93, 246 Plymouth Dockyard, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 91, 93 Plymouth Hoe, 56 Plymouth Mechanics Institute, 57 Point de Yeacos, 83 Point Lookout, 341, 342 Pollock Arthur, 94, 95 John, 95 Sir John Frederick, 176 Pollock, Gilmour & Co., 94, 95 Pollock, Hoghton & Co., 95, 102 Pony Express, 140, 141 Porcher, Lt. Philip, 259, 260, 261 Port Royal, 288, 357 Porter Capt. Stephen G., 223, 228, 230, 231, 232, 363 Lt. Thomas K., 299, 300, 301
Index Rear Admiral David D., 313, 326 William, 127, 128 Portland ME, 33, 244, 289, 290, 291 Portsmouth Dockyard, 55, 92 Portsmouth, U.S.S., 84, 85, 86, 87 Potomac River, 41 Potomac, Army of the, 237 Potter, William H. & Co., 37, 60, 151, 309, 338, 364 Praya Bay, 47, 126 Preble, Capt. George Henry, 133, 134, 137 Presgrave, Assistant Paymaster P.O.M., 112 Priestly, Capt. Henry Wilson, 360 Prince Albert, 56 Prince Albert, 365 Prince Alfred, 131, 132 Prince Consort, H.M.S., 247 Prince Regent, H.B.M., 92, 93 Princess Royal, 97, 98, 99 Prioleau Charles Kuhn, vii, xvi, 1, 8, 9, 10, 13, 21, 22, 24, 33, 35, 42, 47, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 82, 106, 143, 151, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 173, 176, 177, 178, 221, 222, 223, 224, 250, 263, 266, 297, 308, 309, 317, 331, 332, 337, 343, 362, 366, 375 Elias, 2, 3, 4, 5 Mary, 331 Prioleau & Co., 331 Proclamation of secession by South Carolina, 13 Puerto Rico, 146, 258 Pulo Condore, 294 Q Quebec, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 102, 342 Quebec Steamship Company, 361, 366
425 Queen Victoria, 33, 35, 56, 72, 234, 242 Queen's Dock, 53, 59, 338 Queenstown, 101, 125, 153, 155, 156, 319 Quiggin, William, 154, 155, 251, 309, 360, 361, 379 Quinn, John, 127, 130 R R.R. Cuyler, U.S.S., 131 Racehorse, H.M.S., 70 Rachel Seaman, U.S.S., 133, 134 Rainbow Hotel, 255, 257 Raisbeck, Capt. William, 129, 360 Raison, Capt. James, 364 Ramsay, Lt. J.F., 305 Randolph, Elder & Co., 233 Rankin Alexander, 94 John, 94 Robert (the elder), 70, 94, 95, 101 Robert (the younger), 95 Rankin, Gilmour & Co., 70, 94, 95, 97, 100, 101, 102, 264, 266 Rappahannock, C.S.S., 292 Rattler, H.M.S., 224 Rattlesnake Shoals, 21 Ray, 336, 364 Read John Laurens, 130, 132 Lt. Charles W., 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 293 Reagan, John, 14 Redden, Henry, 124 Reid Capt. Edward C., 361 Capt. John, 254 Reni, Jules, 140 Restigouche, 95, 96 Rhadamanthus, H.M.S., 54 Rhode Island, 12
426 Richards, Commander John, 89, 90 Richelieu and Ontario Navigation Company, The, 361 Richmond VA, x, xiv, 14, 50, 77, 104, 135, 149, 158, 229, 234, 271, 272, 274, 279, 291, 296, 327, 328, 331, 342, 375 Richmond, H.M.S., 3 Riel Rebellion, 342 Rio Grande, xv, 84, 85, 86, 87 Roanoake River, 332 Robert E. Lee, 149, 223, 313, 341, 376 Robert F. Stockton, 117 Robert Rankin & Co., 95 Roberts Captain, 323, 325, 326 Edward, 124 Thomas, 55 Robinson, Thomas, 127 Rock Lighthouse, The, 101, 317 Ronckendorff, Commander William, 282, 283 Root, Sidney, 151 Rosenberg, David, 309, 310 Rosine, 309, 336, 362 Roskell, Robert, 334 Roskilly, Gunners Mate W., 112 Ross, Alexander & Co., 39 Royal Arch, 326 Royal insurance company of London, 44 Royal Victoria Hotel, 104 Royden Sir Ernest, 377 Thomas, 69, 338, 377 Thomas & Son, 37 Rubin, 144 Ruby, 309, 336, 362 Ruby (2), 144 Rumford Place, vii, 9, 10, 35, 143, 317, 375 Russell
Index Lord John, 74, 75, 76, 87, 121, 122, 123, 124, 165, 171, 173, 175, 176, 226, 227, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247 William, 140 Russell, Majors and Waddell, 140 S S. Isaac, Campbell & Co., 38, 269, 270, 274, 275 Sacramento, 140 Saldanha Bay, 293 Samson, Waters & Co., 53 San Francisco CA, 40 San Jacinto, U.S.S., 48, 282, 284 San Juan, 146, 258 Sanford, Henry Shelton, 38, 43 Santiago de Cuba, U.S.S., vii, 108, 265, 284, 359, 380 Santo Domingo, 5, 6 Sanute, Chief, 4 Sassacus, U.S.S., 360 Sault Saint Marie, 342 Savannah, 360 Savannah GA, xiv, 4, 34, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 50, 73, 78, 163, 221, 248, 266, 349, 365 Savannah River, 43, 48, 50, 266, 365 Savannah River Shawnee Native Americans, 4 Savannah, U.S.S., 43 Scapa Flow, 90 Schroder, J.H. & Co., 271 Scipio, 94 Sclopis, Count Frederico, 340 Scorpion, H.M.S., 248, 379 Scott Commander G.H., 143 Engineer, 130 Henry, 324 Thomas A., 41 Scott, General Winfield, 20, 161
Index Scully, Engineer, 130 Seabrook, 108 Sealark, H.M.S., 58 Seaton, 79 Secret, 151, 341, 366 Seddon, James, 223, 272, 274, 308 Seixas, James M., 223 Semmes, Rear Admiral Raphael, vii, 23, 74, 80, 81, 113, 120, 126, 127, 168, 169, 281, 282, 283, 284, 286, 291, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 305, 332, 365, 379 Seward, William, 11, 12, 17, 18, 25, 37, 38, 43, 48, 49, 87, 88, 107, 162, 171, 174, 175, 176, 177, 237, 239, 240, 241, 243, 306 Shanghai, 294 Sheerness Dockyard, 55, 92 Sheffield, 338 Sheldon, Smyrna Pilot, 252 Shenandoah, C.S.S., vii, xv, 305, 306, 328, 329, 333, 340, 367, 381 Sherman, General William T., xiv, 327 Shetland Islands, 278 Ship Island, 84, 85, 86 Shokokon, U.S.S., 275 Siccardi, 47 Sidney Hall, 51, 83 Sidon, 120 Simons Bay, 293, 294 Simons, William & Co., 159 Sinclair Arthur I, 278 Captain Arthur III, 277, 278, 279, 315, 316, 318, 319, 321, 334, 364 Commodore Arthur II, 278 Lelia Imogen, 316 Lt. Arthur IV, 278, 316, 319 Midshipman George Terry, 111, 130, 162, 174, 248 Terry, 278 William, 293
427 Sinclair, Hamilton & Co., 38 Singapore, 294 Skagerrak, 90 Skinner, Capt. Thomas Buxton, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 364 Slade, Jack, 140 Slasher, 326 Slidell, John, 48, 240, 241, 270, 304 Sloyne, The, 79, 317 Smith Assistant Engineer John S., 26, 27 Caleb, 17 James, 65 William, 324 Smith's Island, 157 Smithville NC, 148, 149, 157, 250, 277, 342 Smyrna FL, 252 Sneden Lawrence & Co., 221 Samuel & Co., 251 Snipe, 309, 336, 362 Sonoma, U.S.S., 284 South Amboy NJ, 31 South Carolina, xiv, xv, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14, 20, 21, 24, 29, 40, 43, 122, 151, 167, 168, 230, 345, 375, 376, 380 Governor of, 20 House of Representatives, 7 Navy of, 168, 221, 259 Railroad Company, 7 State Legislature, 24 State Troops, 20 Southampton, 47, 48, 80, 125, 141, 297, 302, 304, 318, 333, 339 Southport NC, 149, 157, 250 Spain, 34, 61, 90, 278 Spidell, Engineer, 130 Spithead, 90 Sprague, Horatio, 78 Sproutz, Capt. B., 60 Squarey, Solicitor, 123, 124, 171, 227
428 St. George's channel, 125 St. George's Steam Packet Company, 116 St. George's, Bermuda, xiv, 47, 277, 278, 292, 364 St. John, New Brunswick, 65, 95, 110, 129, 130, 376 St. Joseph, 140 St. Lawrence, 95, 97, 342 St. Stephen's, New Brunswick, 64 St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, 141, 258 Stag (1), 309, 312, 366 (2), 142 Stampfli, Jacob, 340 Stanton, Edwin McMasters, 37 Star, 254 Star of the West, 20, 21 State of Georgia, U.S.S., 104 Statira, H.M.S., 58 Steady, H.M.S., 72, 73, 167, 168, 377 Steel Joseph, 59 Joseph & Co., 59 Joseph & Son, 37, 59, 60, 62, 338, 376 Joseph jnr., 60, 335 Steele Capt. Jonathan Walkden, 156, 157, 158, 159, 359 Emma, 156 Ernest, 156 Frederick, 156 Mary Anne, 156 Stephen Hart, 51, 83 Stephen, Alexander & Sons, xv, 297 Stockton-on-Tees, 173, 221 Stone, Acting Master Josiah, 26, 27, 28 Stormy Petrel, 159, 160 Stornoway, 88, 363 Strauss Ida, 335
Index Isador, 310, 335 Nathan, 335 Stribling, Lt. John Maxwell, 108, 111, 113, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135 Stringer and Pembroke, 308 Stuart Ist Mate, 279 Master B.B., 112, 127 Sumatra, 294 Sumner, Senator Charles, 339 Sumter, C.S.S., 74, 80, 107, 108, 120, 121, 125, 168, 281, 332, 381 Sumter, General Thomas, 19 Supply, U.S.S., 83, 278 Susan and Abigail, 328 Susan Bierne, 266, 267 Susan G. Owens, 10 Sussard, John, 276 Swan, 336, 366 Swartwout, Commander Samuel, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88 Swarzman, Lewis, 253 Sydney, Australia, 44 Syren, 327 T Tacony, 288, 289, 339, 369 Taku forts, 71 Talbotton GA, 310 Tallahassee, C.S.S., 340 Tamar River, 55, 89 Tatnall, Commodore Josiah, 71, 72 Taylor, 153 Paymaster on C.S.S. Florida, 302 Robert John, 124 Thomas E., 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 235 Taylor, Potter & Co., 60 Teague, Capt. George, 288, 289 Teazer, 360 Tenerife, 120, 228, 295, 298 Tennessee, 12, 22
Index Terceira, 47, 125, 126, 127, 172, 281, 337, 365 Terry, General Alfred, 326, 327 Tessier, Capt. Eugene Louis, 26, 43, 80, 106, 107, 108, 109, 126, 170, 171, 172, 173, 227, 228, 295, 363 Texas, xv, 10, 12, 14, 84, 87, 140, 161, 271, 287 The Southerner, 173, 225, 226, 227, 228, 262, 337 Theodora, 48, 168, 221 Thistle, 152, 312 Thomas John Henry, 53, 78, 363 Police Constable Robert, 226 Robert, 227, 228 Thomas Brothers of Palermo, 53, 75, 78 Thomas L. Wragg, 222, 376 Thomson, J. & G. & Co., 44, 142, 152, 159, 174, 240, 274 Thorpe, Capt., 325 Thunder Bay, 342 Tigris, H.M.S., 58 Tinker, James, 322 Tipton, Mr. R., 251 Todd & McGregor & Co., 152, 254 Tomb, James H., 260 Toombs, Robert, 14 Topsail Inlet NC, 360 Toredo worms, 66 Toronto, 343 Torpoint, 89, 91 Toussaint-Louverture, Francoise Dominique, 5 Towson John Gay, 71 John Thomas, 67, 70, 71, 100 Toxteth Dock, 37, 68, 74, 75, 79, 226, 247, 338, 380 Trathen, Lt. James, 231 Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo, 84, 86
429 Treaty of Paris, xiii Treaty of Washington, 340, 341, 382 Trenholm Ann, 5 Edward Leonard, 7, 9, 10, 29 Emily St. Pierre, 28 George Alfred, vii, xv, xvi, 1, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 48, 168, 221, 222, 230, 311, 312, 331, 375 William I, 5 William II, 5, 6, 7 William Lee, 7, 9, 10, 15 Trenholm Brothers, of New York, xv, 1, 7, 9, 29, 30, 32 Trent, R.M.S., 48, 83, 304 Tristram Shandy, 159, 160, 312 Tubal Cain, 156 Tucker, Mr. C., 260 Tuscaloosa AL, 30 Tuscaloosa, C.S.S., 293, 294, 295, 373 Tuscarora, U.S.S., 74, 125, 126 U Union Dock, 62 University of Alabama, 30 University of Liverpool, 10, 332 Uruguay, 336 Usina, Capt. Michael, 276, 364 Utah Territory, 140 V Valparaiso, 62 Van Wart, Mr. H., 251 Vance, Governor Zebulon, 273 Vandalia, U.S.S., 278 Vanderbilt, U.S.S., 285, 293 Venezuela, 283 Venus, 274, 275 Vermont, 12, 18, 151 Vernon, Thomas & Son, 37, 117
430 Vesta, 64, 274, 275 Viceroy of Egypt, 241 Victor, 291 Victor, H.M.S., 291 Victoria, Australia, 65 Victoria, U.S.S., 104, 149, 150 Videky, Mr. L. de, 300, 302, 303 Virgin, 271 Virgin, John, 278, 279 Virginia, x, xiv, 12, 14, 22, 45, 49, 50, 135, 139, 141, 143, 223, 229, 271, 278, 327, 334, 375 Virginia Military Institute, 139 Virginia, C.S.S., 316 Virginius, 98 Viscount Sandon, 60 Vogel, Captain's Clerk, 130 W Wachusett, U.S.S., vii, 284, 292, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 381 Waddell, Lt. James Iredell, vii, 298, 328, 329, 333 Wadsworth, General James Samuel, 229 Wagner, Theodore Dehon, 7, 9, 15, 267, 311 Walker Edward D., 381 Leroy Pope, 14, 30 Major Norman S., 223, 228, 272, 315 Thomas, 93 William Aiken, 380 Wallasey Pool, 116 Waller, Richard P., 272 Wando (formerly Let Her Rip), 267 War of American Independence, 278 War of the Triple Alliance, x, 336 Ward, Charles, 109, 127, 128, 130 Warrior, H.M.S., 38, 244, 246
Index Washington DC, xiv, 14, 15, 20, 21, 24, 25, 29, 31, 39, 40, 41, 49, 87, 113, 137, 171, 228, 230, 233, 237, 243, 305, 340 Wasp, 336, 362 Wassau Sound, 48, 254 Waterloo Hotel, 70 Waterloo, Liverpool, 262, 335 Waters, Capt. Thomas, 127, 128, 129 Watson, Captain, 131 Watt, James, 116 Wattmough, Lt. Commander P.G., 264, 265 Wave, 85 Waxhaw, Native Americans, 4 Weir, Mr. A.M., 15 Weitzel, Maj. Gen. Godfrey, 313 Welland Canal, 342, 343 Welles, Gideon, 17, 18, 22, 25, 43, 49, 50, 51, 70, 83, 86, 87, 106, 137, 221, 282, 283, 284, 289, 295, 297, 306, 307, 312, 327 Wellington, Duke of, 61 Welsman Captain, 31 James Thomas, 7, 9, 10, 29, 32, 171 Wemyss Bay railway, 254 West Hartlepool, 42, 43, 107 West Indies, 59, 81, 107, 345 West Point Military Academy, 21, 334 Whight, W. & R. & Co., 129 Whistling Wind, 287 White Hollis, 37 John, 273 Whiteinch, 152, 279 Whiteside, Police Sergeant, 334 Whiting, Samuel, 105, 106, 109, 110, 147 Widgeon, 309, 333, 336, 361 Wigg, George, 152, 153, 254, 259 Wignall, John, 262
Index Wigton Galloway, 3 Plantation SC, 4, 5 Wild Dayrell, 159, 160, 262, 312, 359, 360 Wild Rover, 159, 160 Wilding, Henry, 24, 25, 39, 43, 123 Wilkes, Capt. Charles, 48, 147, 284 Wilkinson, Lt. John, 141, 142, 143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 273, 341 William Murray, 94 William Seabrook, 168 Williams Jabez, 7 Mrs., 285 William, 319, 320, 321 Williamsburg NY, 7 Will-o-the-Wisp, 159, 160 Wilmington NC, xiv, 103, 104, 105, 128, 130, 141, 143, 144, 147, 149, 151, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 163, 172, 223, 228, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 239, 248, 250, 252, 253, 255, 258, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 272, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 312, 313, 327, 333, 336,341, 342, 359, 360, 361, 363, 378, 399, 404 Wilson Capt. William, 26, 27, 28 James, 333 Lt. Joseph, 234 Thomas F., 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306
431 Windward Islands, 282, 287 Wingate & Co., 279 Winona, U.S.S., 133, 134 Winslow, Capt. John Ancrum, 228, 295, 296, 297 Wirral, The, 116, 323, 339 Wolsey, Colonel Garnet, 342, 343 Wood, Colonel James Taylor, 341, 342 Woolwich Dockyard, 55, 57 Wren, 309, 366 Wright Mary Elizabeth, 10 Richard, 297, 298, 361 Wye, 116 Wyman, Acting Marine Officer, 130 Wyoming, U.S.S., 294 Wyvern, H.M.S., vii, 248, 379 Y Yancey, William, 35 Yellow fever, 5, 127, 131, 132, 133, 135, 253, 277, 278, 279 Yemassee War, 4 Yokohama, 72 Yonge, Paymaster Clarence, 284 York PA, 31 Yuchi, Native Americans, 4 Z Zenobia, 366

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