Washington, Washington State Historic Preservation Plan, historic properties, preservation, HISTORIC RESOURCES, American Planning Association, HISTORIC PRESERVATION, properties, Washington State, cultural resource, Traditional Cultural Properties, National Register, planning cycle, DAHP, preservation plan, PLANNING PROCESS, landscapes, SUSTAINING COMMUNITIES, PRESERVATION COMMUNITY, cultural group, cultural resources, Landing National Historic Reserve, environmental protection, Native American tribes, cultural landscapes, Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division, Inventory, Inventory databases, state historic preservation, Archaeological Records, archaeological site, Washington Heritage Register, Tribal Historic Preservation Officers, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, Washington Department of Transportation, National Register of Historic Places, Washington Chapter, National Trust for Historic Preservation, Historic Tacoma
Table of Contents
PART 1: OVERVIEW AND PLANNING PROCESS
DEFINING ROLES: THE SHPO AND THE PRESERVATION COMMUNITY ......................................................... 1
STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION PLANNING: A NATIONWIDE EFFORT ................................................ 2
A QUICK REVIEW OF SUSTAINING COMMUNITIES THROUGH HISTORIC PRESERVATION: 2009-2013. 3
THE PLANNING PROCESS .............................................................................................................................. 4
PLAN STEERING COMMITTEE ................................................................................................................ 4
OUR VISION FOR THE FUTURE............................................................................................................... 4
PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT PROCESS ........................................................................................................... 5
PUBLIC MEETINGS ................................................................................................................................. 5
TRIBAL SUMMITS WITH THE SHPO........................................................................................................ 6
ONLINE SURVEY ..................................................................................................................................... 6
CERTIFIED LOCAL GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRES........................................................ 6
STUDENT ENGAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................... 6
OUTREACH TO OTHER STAKEHOLDERS......................................................................................................... 6
RESULTS ................................................................................................................................................. 7
THE PLAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PARTICIPATION..................................................................................... 7
NATIVE AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE ON HISTORIC PRESERVATION.................................................................. 8
PART 2: WASHINGTON STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION PLAN
SUMMARY OF GOALS AND ACTION STRATEGIES*........................................................................................ 9
GOAL 1. ENHANCE COMMUNITIES BY ACTIVELY ENGAGING HISTORIC PRESERVATION WITH OTHER FORCES SHAPING OUR ENVIRONMENT..................................................................................................... 9
GOAL 2. ENGAGE A BROAD SPECTRUM OF THE PUBLIC IN PRESERVATION; IMPROVE ACCESS TO INFORMATION. ......................................................................................................................................... 9
GOAL 3. STRENGTHEN POLICIES AND PLANNING PROCESSES TO ENHANCE INFORMED AND CROSSDISCIPLINARY DECISION-MAKING FOR MANAGING CULTURAL AND HISTORIC RESOURCES. ................... 9
GOALS, STRATEGIES AND ACTIONS............................................................................................................. 10
GOAL 1. ENHANCE COMMUNITIES BY ACTIVELY ENGAGING HISTORIC PRESERVATION WITH OTHER FORCES SHAPING OUR ENVIRONMENT................................................................................................... 10
GOAL 2. ENGAGE A BROAD SPECTRUM OF THE PUBLIC IN PRESERVATION; IMPROVE ACCESS TO INFORMATION. ....................................................................................................................................... 13
GOAL 3. STRENGTHEN POLICIES AND PLANNING PROCESSES TO ENHANCE INFORMED AND CROSSDISCIPLINARY DECISION-MAKING FOR MANAGING CULTURAL AND HISTORIC RESOURCES. ................. 15 SUMMARY................................................................................................................................................... 17 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................................................................ 18
Part 3: Resource Overview and Historic Preservation trends
ASSESSMENT OF CULTURAL AND HISTORIC RESOURCES ........................................................................... 20
A WORD ABOUT NOMENCLATURE...................................................................................................... 20
CURRENT STATUS OF INVENTORY DATA AT DAHP.............................................................................. 21
WHAT IS THE WASHINGTON STATE INVENTORY OF CULTURAL RESOURCES ..................................... 21
DOCUMENT TYPES HELD IN THE INVENTORY ..................................................................................... 21
BY THE NUMBERS ................................................................................................................................ 21
COUNTY ASSESSORS' DATA IMPORTS ................................................................................................. 22
ASSESSMENT OF SURVEY AND INVENTORY EFFORTS ......................................................................... 23 AN INVENTORY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY.............................................................................................. 24
AN OVERVIEW OF THE RESOURCE BASE: ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES................................................. 25
ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN WESTERN WASHINGTON ............................................................. 25
ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN EASTERN WASHINGTON .............................................................. 25
CEMETARIES AND BURIALS ................................................................................................................. 26
FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS ................................................................................................................. 26
HISTORIC RESOURCES.......................................................................................................................... 27
AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES AND LANDSCAPES................................................................................ 27
INDUSTRIAL COMPLEXES..................................................................................................................... 28
RECREATION AND ENTERTAINMENT PROPERTIES .............................................................................. 29transportation infrastructure
MARITIME HERITAGE .......................................................................................................................... 30
HISTORIC PROPERTIES OF THE RECENT PAST...................................................................................... 31
TRADITIONAL CULTURAL PROPERTIES........................................................................................................ 31
CULTURAL LANDSCAPES...................................................................................................................... 32
PROPERTIES ASSOCIATED WITH UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS ...................................................... 33
TRENDS AND ISSUES AFFECTING HISTORIC PRESERVATION....................................................................... 33
WASHINGTON'S POPULATION OUTLOOK AND TRENDS ..................................................................... 33
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATION .............................................................. 36
PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY ...................................................................................................................... 37
PRESERVATION TRAINING AND EDUCATION .............................................................................................. 38 ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP ............................................................................................................... 38 disaster preparedness
........................................................................................................................... 39 INFRASTRUCTURE ....................................................................................................................................... 39 TECHNOLOGY .............................................................................................................................................. 40 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................................. 1 ATTACHMENT A: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..................................................................................................... 2 STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERS ........................................................................................................ 2 DAHP STAFF ........................................................................................................................................... 3 CONSULTANTS....................................................................................................................................... 4 PARTICIPATING NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES.................................................................................................43 ATTACHMENT B: ACRONYMS ....................................................................................................................... 5 3
Part 1: Overview and Planning Process Introduction Washington has a long and interesting history, beginning with indigenous peoples who lived here for centuries before the arrival of Euro-Americans. Our history tells the story of who came before us and how they shaped present-day Washington State. This vast and rich heritage gives us a compelling reason to protect our past to share with and enrich future generations. To ensure that important cultural and historic resources are protected and maintained into the future, the State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) works with stakeholders on a five year planning cycle to develop and implement a Statewide Historic Preservation Plan (Plan). This Plan sets forth a vision and strategic direction for historic preservation efforts in the state. These preservation efforts are usually led by the Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation (DAHP) under the direction of the SHPO, a position appointed by the Governor. The Washington State Historic Preservation Plan for 2009-13, Sustaining Communities through Historic Preservation, helped to stabilize and maintain historic preservation efforts in a difficult economic climate. The Plan helped drive policies and budgets to include historic preservation, recognizing that historic preservation is an important tool in realizing sustainable communities and preserving our heritage. The Washington State Historic Preservation Plan for 2014-19, Getting the Future Right, charts the direction of historic preservation policy and action during the next five-year planning cycle. The Plan identifies the current state of cultural and historic properties statewide and provides strategies to strengthen and increase the effectiveness of preservation efforts. The Plan is also intended to expand awareness and commitment to preserving the state's diverse cultural heritage and to increase public knowledge about the goals and benefits of historic preservation. Defining Roles: The SHPO and the Preservation Community Fulfilling requirements of federal historic preservation legislation, DAHP, in its role as Washington's state historic preservation office, is the responsible agent for developing the Plan. Implementing the Plan is a shared responsibility that includes DAHP and also encompasses the efforts of a wide range of interested individuals, organizations, businesses, and government entities. In short, this is not a plan for DAHP, but a statewide tool to guide cooperative efforts to preserve the state's cultural heritage. Property owners, tribes, state and local agencies, private non-profit organizations, architects, planners, archaeologists and all persons or groups with an interest and connection to historic preservation play a role to implement these Washington State historic preservation efforts, and thus help build better communities. The Plan is intended to guide the state's historic preservation community to focus on carefully selected goals and strategies. The Plan is also a powerful tool that can be used to communicate statewide historic preservation issues, trends, goals, efforts, and outcome-oriented results.
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION PLANNING: A NATIONWIDE EFFORT As described above, Washington's state historic preservation plan is developed and implemented as a necessary aid to guide and coordinate statewide heritage preservation initiatives. It is interesting to note, that state preservation plans are created across the nation by preservation agencies in each state and U.S. territory. In passing the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, Congress included in the legislation the preservation plan mandate by stating: "It shall be the responsibility of the State Historic Preservation Officer to...Prepare and implement a comprehensive state-wide historic preservation plan..." To implement this congressional mandate, the National Park Service
has promulgated requirements and guidelines for all state plans to adhere to. These requirements include: · A plan in which a wide array of organizations, individuals and agencies can participate in and help implement. · The full range of cultural and historic resources are addressed by the plan. · A robust public participation process is designed and implemented to help draft the plan. · A summary assessment the status of the SHPO's inventory of cultural and historic resources plus registration efforts. · An overview of issues, threats and opportunities that will likely play a role in historic preservation planning efforts during the planning cycle. · The goals, strategies and actions identified in the plan must be realistic and attainable during the planning cycle. Washington's plan, Getting the Future Right contains all NPS required elements. In light of this discussion, a few noteworthy aspects of this document and the planning process are made here: · The Plan Steering Committee and the SHPO made a deliberate effort to raise the level of participation by Native Americans in the planning process. Tribal representatives were fully engaged in committee work and outreach efforts. Evidence of this is seen in the Native American Perspective on Historic Preservation found on page 8 as well as inclusion of several strategies and action items intended to address concerns that were voiced in various forums. Also, the document has been written and edited in an attempt to make sure that the full range of cultural and historic resources are given equal weight and consideration. · Each action item is accompanied by identification of entities that will be tapped to lead or support implementation of each task. Also included is identification of the year in which the action item is to be implemented as well as the end product or accomplishment. Including this level of detail is intended to convey to stakeholders that the action items have tangible and measurable results. · While many worthy ideas and needs were articulated throughout the planning process, a conscious effort has been made to make sure the goals and action items are realistic and attainable in the five year planning time-frame. As a result, goal statements are limited to three while the supporting strategies and action items are written to be clear and concise. 2
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" A QUICK REVIEW OF SUSTAINING COMMUNITIES THROUGH HISTORIC PRESERVATION: 2009-2013 As Washington preservationists enter a new state historic preservation planning cycle from 2014 to 2019, it is useful to look back over preservation accomplishments during the most recent five-year plan cycle. In doing so, it should be noted that just as Sustaining Communities through Historic Preservation came into effect, Washington and the entire nation plunged into economic recession. While the repercussions of that event substantially reduced or eliminated public and private funding sources for some plan initiatives, the SHPO working closely with partners identified in the 2009 plan, demonstrated historic preservation as an effective, efficient, and popular tool for community development. A few notable examples of accomplishments over the past five years include the following: · In accord with Goal I. B. Preserve threatened historic and cultural resources, both the Washington Heritage Barn and Historic County Courthouse preservation efforts were not only sustained but thrived amidst bad economic times. Broad-based support, economic impact
, and several dramatic rehabilitation projects solidified the popularity of these two programs. · When under threat of elimination, the Washington Main Street Program was moved to DAHP. In partnership with the Washington Trust for Historic Preservation (WTHP), the program continues to grow and expand in more communities. During hard economic times, Main Street has supported small and local businesses; brought jobs and investment to downtown districts; and offered state tax incentives to businesses. Follows up on Goal I.C. Expand partnerships and collaboration. · Responding to Goal II Strengthen the Connections between Historic Preservation and Sustainability, DAHP produced the Sustainability and Historic Preservation report in 2011. Completion of the report joined with research by the National Trust for Historic Preservation's Preservation Green Lab and the City of Seattle's monthly Preservation & Sustainability Brown Bag Lunch information exchange to realize major progress in reaching this goal. · To realize Goal I. E. Create an integrated set of online resources, DAHP conducted a major upgrade of its web-presence. In 2010, the agency took a major step forward in transitioning its programs to the Web, when the Historic Property Inventory (HPI) database was linked to the DAHP website. This step made the HPI and National Register records accessible to the public on a 24/7 basis. In 2012, DAHP's homepage at www.dahp.wa.gov was re-configured to be more user-friendly while continually being expanded with documents, reports, web-links, and more, not only about DAHP programs but a broad range of information about cultural and historic resource preservation. DAHP also posts notices and new items on its daily blog and Facebook page. · Great strides have been taken to reach Goal IV Increase the Diversity of Participation in Historic Preservation. The 2009-2013 planning cycle has seen two successful Youth Summits. Sponsored by the WTHP with support from DAHP and local hosts, these one week summertime youth camps have proven a major success in introducing junior and high school students
and teachers to preservation principles and issues. With National Park Service (NPS) assistance, the 2012 Youth Summit focused on Latino students and their heritage. The WTHP intends to continue the program. 3
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" The Planning Process For the 2014-2019 Plan, DAHP has engaged a wide range of interested individuals, organizations, businesses, and agencies involved in preserving the state's cultural resource base. The ideas and recommendations gathered during the planning process were synthesized into the goals, strategies, and actions that comprise the Plan and will guide' actions statewide during the planning cycle. To assist in the preservation planning process, DAHP enlisted the services of a consultant team that was charged with implementing an effective public engagement process; facilitating the Plan Steering Committee meetings; and developing goals and strategies informed by public comments and pertinent data gathered during the process. The consulting team included BERK Consulting, which also assisted with developing the 2009-13 Plan, together with Teresa Brum, who chaired the 2009-13 Plan Steering Committee. PLAN STEERING COMMITTEE A Plan Steering Committee was formed to guide the Plan's design, development, and public participation process. Members were selected to represent a cross-section of the state's historic preservation community and optimize geographic representation. These individuals were tasked to represent their constituency's perspective on historic preservation, as well as share their expertise on trends and issues seen as affecting historic preservation in Washington during the Plan's timeframe. Mr. Paul Mann of Spokane and Chair of the Washington State Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, served as the Plan Steering Committee Chair. See the Acknowledgements in Appendix A on page 43 for a complete list of Planning Steering Committee members. The Plan Steering Committee met three times over the course of the Planning Process: in March, July, and September 2013. Members also conducted numerous electronic reviews of the draft Plan, public comments/recommendations plus related documents over the course of the process. The committee worked as an advisory group, primarily responsible for recommending planning goals and specific actions to reach them during the coming five years. The committee's accomplishments included revising and updating a vision for historic preservation at the end of the planning cycle (2019). In arriving at a vision for the Plan, committee members strove for a statement that was brief, concise, and active. In addition to these qualities, they also wanted to convey the well-being that historic preservation brings to communities. After several reviews and edits, the following vision statement for the Plan has been adopted by the Steering Committee: OUR VISION FOR THE FUTURE Washington residents and communities possess a greater understanding and appreciation for the cultural and historic resources in our state. As a result, historic preservation is an essential strategy to maintain a community's identity and unique sense of place; a pathway to economic and environmental sustainability; and an important way to understand how our past shapes our future. In addition, the Steering Committee was tasked to define guiding principles for the design, development, and implementation of the Plan; to review and refine the public engagement process; and review and comment on drafts of the preservation plan and related process documents. Committee work resulted in the following guiding principles: · The Plan must be implemented. 4
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" · This Plan must address the full range of historic and cultural resources in the state. This range includes sites, buildings, structures, districts, and objects that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), the Washington Heritage Register, the Heritage Barn Register, plus local and tribal registers of historic places. Additionally, the Plan addresses a greater depth of properties by including those cultural and historic resources that have not been formally evaluated for designation purposes but retain value to, and convey information about, the communities and cultures that have found a home in what is now Washington State. · The Plan belongs to all of us; all share in its implementation. PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT PROCESS Under the direction of the Plan Steering Committee, the SHPO, and DAHP staff, a public participation process was designed. This process was tailored to engage a diverse group of stakeholders by leveraging a variety of participation methods including: · Public Meetings, · Cultural Resource Summits, · Online Survey, and · Certified Local Government (CLG) Leadership Questionnaire. Information about these public engagement methods and their results are detailed below. PUBLIC MEETINGS Stakeholder meetings provided an opportunity to engage the historic preservation community and other interested parties in a series of conversations about current issues and opportunities facing cultural and historic resources in Washington. To enhance the diversity of input gathered at these meetings, they were held in seven different locations throughout the state: Bellingham, Ellensburg, Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma, Vancouver, and Walla Walla during April and May 2013. There were two formats used during these meetings: · General Discussion Format (Bellingham, Seattle, Tacoma, and Spokane). These meetings featured a brief introduction to the project before participants were divided into small groups. These small groups discussed themes and trends identified by the Plan Steering Committee as focus areas for the Plan. Areas of focus for the 2014-19 Plan included what was working well or not working from the previous Plan; immediate and emerging trends in historic preservation; and potential partnership opportunities. · Neighborhood Tour and Discussion Format (Ellensburg, Walla Walla, and Vancouver). These meetings included the same discussion format as the others, but were preceded by walking tours of nearby historic neighborhoods. These walking tours were led by local preservation leaders to help participants focus on neighborhood character and issues through a historic preservation lens. After returning to the meeting hall, issues raised during the tour helped inform the small group discussions. Credit and appreciation for leading the tours is given to Fennelle Miller of Ellensburg, Jon Wagner of Walla Walla, and Derek Chisholm of Vancouver. 5
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" TRIBAL SUMMITS WITH THE SHPO Two Tribal Summits, in western and eastern Washington, were held amongst the State Historic Preservation Officer, DAHP staff, and Tribal representatives. The Westside Summit was held in May at the Suquamish Cultural Center and the Eastside Summit was held in May at the Northern Quest Resort in Airway Heights. Discussions with the tribes allowed DAHP to address the same questions being presented at the public meetings and to explore important issues unique to Tribal perspectives. ONLINE SURVEY An online survey was developed to solicit broad feedback from historic preservation stakeholders around the state. The survey was made up of targeted closed-ended questions, designed to solicit input on current issues, opportunities, and priorities, and was available from April 8th to May 31st 2013. Overall, 377 respondents completed the survey. A profile of the respondents indicates that the largest stakeholder response (at 26%) came from representatives of city and county governments. Respondents who self-identified themselves as representing a non-profit organization, preservation professional, historic property owner, consultant, or private citizen participated in the survey in similar numbers ranging from 7% to 11% of total responses. However, the largest number of responses identified themselves in the "other" category; a breakdown of these 85 respondents identified themselves as representing a state agency, educational institution, tribal government, Main Street community, federal agency, other local government entity, private business, or historic property developer. In terms of the geography of survey responses, it is interesting to note the strong participation by Eastern Washington respondents representing 40% of all responses. Not surprisingly, data shows that most responses were from counties flanking the Central Puget Sound region at 44% with the balance coming from Southwest, Central, and Northwest Washington counties. CERTIFIED LOCAL GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP QUESTIONNAIRES The Local Leadership Survey was conducted by representatives of CLGs in cities and counties to generate insights on local government policy. This questionnaire was designed to be used by CLG staff or preservation commission members to solicit feedback from elected officials. The interview sessions focused on aspects of public policy such as awareness, funding, and legislative support for historic preservation. To prepare, CLG representatives were offered online and phone trainings for using the questionnaire to interview elected officials. Ultimately, 10 of the 50 CLGs conducted a representative interview with an elected official and completed the questionnaire. STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Plan Steering Committee members recommended that the planning team craft a way to reach a younger audience to engage in the planning process. To meet this challenge, students in archaeology, planning and preservation participated at meetings in Ellensburg, Spokane, and at the 2013 Pacific Northwest Field School at Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve. While these special meetings resembled the other public participation forums, the content was varied to touch upon preservation as a career and how technology can be used in the profession. OUTREACH TO OTHER STAKEHOLDERS Effective implementation of the State Historic Preservation Plan depends on working with a wide range of individuals, agencies, and organizations well beyond Steering Committee members and others actively engaged in statewide preservation efforts. However, reaching these stakeholders often 6
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" requires engaging them in a work setting, well outside the questionnaires and public meetings of the Plan's formal public participation process. During the course of preparing Getting the Future Right, the SHPO and DAHP staff regularly met with many stakeholders on issues related not only to regular business matters but the Plan as well . A good example if this includes the SHPO working with the Washington Tourism Alliance in an ongoing basis to more closely integrate historic preservation with statewide tourism promotion. Other examples include ongoing staff participation in various workgroups and committees. All of these forums bring together representatives from a wide range of tribal, federal, state, and local governments in addition to other interest groups and active individuals. A few examples include the Timber/Fish/Wildlife Cultural Resources Roundtable, the Infrastructure Assistance Coordinating Council, Interagency Workgroup on Growth Management, Resource Team at the State Department
of Commerce, and the Brown Bag Lunch on Sustainability and Historic Preservation. At these and other such forums, briefings and progress reports were given about the Plan including links to the on-line questionnaire. RESULTS The public engagement process for the 2014-19 Plan reached a diverse and substantial group of individuals and stakeholder groups, providing robust input made up of comments, recommendations, and issues to consider in the Plan. These comments were detailed in a Public Engagement Summary that was made available to DAHP and the Plan Steering Committee, and ultimately synthesized in developing the Plan's Goals, Strategies, and Actions. The Plan and Native American Participation At the initial stage of drafting the State Historic Preservation Plan, the Plan Steering Committee, the consultants and the SHPO placed high priority on fully engaging Native American Tribal representation in the process. This high priority acknowledges that ancestors of present-day Native Americans have lived here for thousands of years. Therefore, they have deep-rooted ties to the land and the cultural resources that manifest this heritage, plus a strong commitment to protecting these resources. This strong commitment also makes Tribes key stakeholders and partners in statewide historic preservation efforts. To this end, Dennis Lewarch, Tribal Historic Preservation Officer for the Suquamish Tribe and Kevin Lyons, Cultural Resources Program Manager for the Kalispel Tribe, together represented Native American concerns and interests on the Steering Committee. Their presence on the committee sparked the idea of including text in the Plan that articulates a Native American perspective on cultural resources and the value of historic preservation work. Credit and appreciation for this text is given to Kevin who initiated work on this statement and Dennis who followed up with comments and revisions. As a result, the following statement is included to articulate for Plan readers and users how Native Americans view and value cultural and historic resources. It is also included to serve as a reminder that the Plan is intended to address the full range of resources that give evidence to our heritage. As a result there is the expectation that the goals, strategies and actions following in Part 2 of the Plan are expected to be respectful and inclusive of cultural and historic resources important to Native Americans. 7
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Native American Perspective on Historic Preservation There are 37 Tribes that call Washington State home (Governor's Office of Indian Affairs), each with a long and rich history interacting with the coasts, mountains, plains, and rivers of the state. Each Tribal perspective is as varied and precious as the unique landscapes that comprise the state; from tidal waters in Puget Sound, rain forests of the coastal plain, towering peaks of the Cascades, the broad and rugged Columbia River
, and the rolling hills of the Palouse. Blessed with such diversity, the state's Native American perspectives on historic preservation are varied and robustly developed. They are peppered with subtle local distinctions of emphasis, yet hold consistent core values. The first of these values is that Euro-American concepts regarding historic resources are too narrow to view and understand the growth of Indian culture. Although archaeological sites and historic era structures and objects of great beauty and/or importance commonly are considered the main components comprising historic resources, they do not reflect the entirety of Washington State's story. The state's Tribes tell the history in the language of their people and the songs of the land; their stories of creation, of hunting, fishing, and great adventure. The connections between people and place are readily understandable and deeply cherished within such a narrative. In addition to such intangibles as stories and songs, many tribes hold tangible living plants and animals to be sacred, and celebrate them as well. Examples would be the first returning salmon or an old growth cedar tree. While statutory recognition of living resources as cultural resources remains a need, it is important to take note of this tribal perspective. A second common value is that the nature/culture divide is an artificial, Euro-American distinction. Tribes emphasize the role of Indian people as part of nature and the mutual effects of interactions between people and the environment. Both foolish and wise interactions between societies and their homes leave stories on the land. Some are comforting; others are more challenging and disquieting. Many Tribes have partnered with the State and others to correct past plunders through the conservation/rehabilitation of habitat, language, and tradition; these acts reaffirm the connection between contemporary and ancestral populations. This focus on generational connection is the reverse side of the historic preservation coin that celebrates place. A third Tribal value is that the varied histories of the first people represent living legacies that connect contemporary and ancestral generations and that provide sustenance for the mind, body, and the spirit. The all-too modern concept of "then versus now" strips modern actors from their history, from full ownership of their identity, and is the reason why the concept often is shunned in tribal society. Who are we, if not the sum of our memories? History, as an individual's life, is the unique tapestry of triumphs and failures, which are equally important in forming the whole person and society. Granted, we hold in our memories a special place for triumphs, but the lessons learned from failings are the substance of our maturity as a people and a society. 8
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Part 2: Washington State Historic Preservation Plan Summary of Goals and Action Strategies* Goal 1. Enhance communities by actively engaging historic preservation with other forces shaping our environment. A. Create new and enhance existing incentives for historic preservation. B. Increase awareness of the community and economic benefits of preservation. C. Promote cultural and heritage tourism. D. Increase the connection between historic preservation and sustainability/environmental initiatives. E. Enhance local program support. Goal 2. Engage a broad spectrum of the public in preservation; Improve access to information. A. Improve and expand information about preservation. B. Increase outreach to, and education for, state and local government staff and officials. C. Provide preservation education and hands-on training, inclusive of Tribal cultural resources. D. Build awareness, enthusiasm, and support for historic preservation. Goal 3. Strengthen policies and planning processes to enhance informed and cross- disciplinary decision-making for managing cultural and historic resources. A. Position historic preservation to be more fully integrated into land use decision-making processes. B. Establish policies and provide tools to improve protection of cultural and historic resources. C. Improve planning, management and funding of historic and cultural resources on state-owned and managed lands. * For a key to the acronyms of agencies and organizations referred to in the plan, refer to Attachment B beginning on page 45. 9
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
Goals, Strategies and Actions
Goal 1. Enhance communities by actively engaging historic preservation with other forces shaping our environment.
Historic preservation is naturally compatible with other community revitalization strategies. When combined together, these strategies become even more powerful tools for reusing existing resources and enhancing community assets, all at a cost that is competitive with the cost of new development. This goal outlines ways to connect with partners in the growing number of interests related to historic preservation, including building code updates, sustainability, economic development, heritage tourism, conserving sensitive lands, and energy efficiency. This goal also seeks to strengthen existing programs that deliver services to stimulate revitalization, such as the Certified Local Government, Main Street and preservation related grant programs.
A. Create new and enhance existing incentives for historic preservation.
i. Convene a Work Group to research, identify, and define state and local government incentives and grant programs that enhance preservation of cultural and historic resources.
Lead: DAHP Support: Washington Trust for Historic Preservation (WTHP), Association of Washington Cities (AWC)
Products: white paper with list and recommendations
ii. Inform local governments on the applicability of
cultural and historic properties for current use tax Support: WTHP, AWC
assessments and promote the use of this program by Timeframe: 2015
providing training to local governments.
Products: white paper with
iii. Provide information and training to local
governments on how to interpret the new International Existing Building Code (IEBC) as an incentive for development of historic buildings.
Support: CLGs, State Building Code Council (BCC), Washington Association of Building Officials (WABO), AWC
Products: conference sessions
B. Increase awareness of the community and economic benefits of preservation.
i. Update the 2006 Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation in Washington State report, including new case studies and stories communicating community benefits.
Lead: DAHP Support: WTHP and Certified Local Governments (CLGs) Timeframe: 2015-17
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
ii. Develop a report template on the local economic development impact of historic preservation, to highlight the value of historic resources to local leaders and decision-makers. iii. Track and post on the DAHP website existing incentive data that charts the impact of historic preservation on economic development and sustainability. iv. Encourage local governments to include historic preservation as a local policy priority.
Products: updated report Lead: DAHP Support: WTHP and CLGs Timeframe: 2014 Products: report template Lead: DAHP Support: CLGs and Main Street Programs Timeframe: 2015 Products: page on DAHP website & data input Lead: CLGs Support: DAHP, Washington State Department of Commerce (COM) Timeframe: ongoing Products: Legislative goals or inclusion in local comprehensive plans
C. Promote heritage and cultural tourism. i. Partner with the Washington Tourism Alliance and heritage partners to develop the framework for a Washington tourism strategy that includes heritage tourism. ii. Partner with the Washington Tourism Alliance to develop their new strategic plan and explore heritage tourism funding sources.
Lead: Washington Tourism Alliance (WTA) Support: DAHP, Main Street, and interested Tribes Timeframe: 2015 Product: framework Lead: WTA Support: DAHP and Tribes Timeframe: 2014-15 Products: strategic plan
iii. Market historic preservation through the Washington Scenic Byways program. iv. Coordinate with partners to designate National Heritage Areas (NHAs).
Lead: DAHP Support: Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Timeframe: ongoing Products: report with recommendations/strategies Lead: National Parks Service (NPS) Support: DAHP, Mountains to Sound
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
Greenway Trust Timeframe: 2017 Products: At least one National Heritage Area (NHA designation
D. Increase the connection between historic preservation and sustainability/environmental initiatives.
i. Assist with implementation of the City of Seattle Outcome Based Energy Code model in one eastern Washington community. (subject to funding)
Lead: Preservation Green Lab Support: DAHP, McKinstry Timeframe: 2015-16
Products: completed case study & workshop
ii. Assist Preservation Green Lab America Saves! Program by coordinating outreach to the Washington Main Street community. (subject to funding)
Lead: Preservation Green Lab Support: DAHP, Main Street, and McKinstry Timeframe: 2015-16
Products: identify MS community & case study
iii. Identify an individual at DAHP to serve as a point person on sustainability issues to serve on-call to consult and offer presentations.
Lead: DAHP Support: , Washington Main Street, and McKinstry
iv. Undertake a demonstration project to develop
sustainable design principles as applied to a selected
Support: CLGs, Washington Main
Product: Document with design principles
E. Enhance local program support.
i. Strengthen communication, capacity, and
collaboration between the Washington Main Street Support: Main Street Programs and
Program and CLGs.
Products: collaborative projects, conference sessions
ii. Develop and implement a plan to build the capacity Lead: DAHP
of CLGs, similar to capacity-building resources for Main Street programs. These resources could
Support: CLGs Timeframe: 2014-19
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
include: · Studies that demonstrate that designation increases property values; · Model ordinances to reduce permit fees for qualified rehabilitation; · Top ten list of "reasons to preserve"; · Database of completed CLG grant projects, and recognition for exemplary CLG grant projects in the DAHP award program.
Products: DAHP webpage with listed elements
iii. Analyze the implementation of House Bill (HB) 1386 Lead: WTHP
to evaluate historic preservation activities that were Support: CLGs and Tribal Historic
funded by the additional county document recording Preservation Officers (THPOs)
Products: report and recommendation document
iv. Support the development of historic context statements to aid preservation planning activities.
Lead: DAHP Support: CLGs
Products: context statements completed using CLG grant funding
Goal 2. Engage a broad spectrum of the public in preservation; Improve access to information.
The future of preservation depends greatly on our ability to encourage the support and active participation of a broad spectrum of people in the community. The resources to accomplish preservation efforts are always limited, and support is needed in many areas such as policy and program development, resource allocation, and to build an educational foundation for future generations. This goal recognizes that this as an ongoing effort and emphasizes providing more information and resources about existing programs. It also stresses educating decision-makers such as state and local elected officials on the value of historic preservation programs. The goal also seeks to educate a more diverse cross section of the population and in doing so to gain more widespread support for historic preservation and build capacity for the future.
A. Improve and expand information on historic preservation.
i. Develop messaging and marketing materials around Lead: DAHP, Main Street Program, and
historic preservation specifically targeting design
professionals, property owners, real estate agents Support: CLGs and THPOs
and private developers focusing on economic benefits, tax incentives, and market advantages.
Timeframe: 2018 Products: Targeted Pamphlets/Info
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
ii. Provide state and local elected officials with
resources and information on existing successes and opportunities to support expanding policy at the state and local level.
Support: AWC Timeframe: 2015 and ongoing Products: Two to four page folio
B. Increase outreach to, and education for, state and local government staff and officials.
i. Provide workshops about historic preservation best Lead: DAHP
practices to targeted audiences, including planners, Support: Planning Association of
economic development professionals, building code Washington (PAW), American Planning
officials, and other land use related professions.
Association (APA), and BCC
ii. Engage and educate elected officials through a
variety of training and educational opportunities
Support: AWC, WSAC, and
with Local Government Association
s such as AWC,
Infrastructure Assistance Coordinating
WSAC, and IACC on how to use historic preservation Council (IACC)
strategies for community revitalization.
iii. Schedule forums for discussion and communication Lead: DAHP
around cultural and historic resource preservation Timeframe: 2015-16
by bringing together Tribes and decision-makers
Products: convene two workshops
from different levels of government (local, state, and
C. Provide preservation education and hands-on training, inclusive of Tribal cultural resources.
i. Foster and coordinate cultural resources and preservation trades Lead: DAHP
curriculum for hands-on training for specific skills needed in
rehabilitating historic properties.
Products: trades programs
ii. Strengthen and expand higher education programs to include online courses
and continuing education.
Lead: DAHP Support: Washington's higher education institution
s Timeframe: 2016 Products: expanded programs; potential new certificate programs
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
iii. Create education programs tailored for elementary through high Lead: WTHP
school students to cultivate an interest in cultural and historic Support: DAHP
resources; explore links between students and broader heritage Timeframe: 2014-19
programs and entities.
Products: Annual Youth
iv. Provide educational forums to discuss strategies to deal with the Lead: DAHP pressure for communities to accommodate new development Timeframe: 2018 and infrastructure in areas with cultural and historic resources. Products: forums and workshops
D. Build awareness, enthusiasm and support for historic preservation. i. Encourage more National Register nominations that reflect the diversity of our heritage, especially with properties related to underrepresented communities. ii. Recognize and publicize public and private successes in historic preservation. iii. Develop and implement an effective marketing plan
to generate broad public enthusiasm and support for historic preservation.
Lead: DAHP Support: NPS and Washington State Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (WACHP) Timeframe: 2014-19 Products: National Register nominations Lead: DAHP Support: Washington cities and counties; Tribes Timeframe: ongoing Products: Increased publicity for historic preservation successes Lead: DAHP Support: NPS and WACHP Timeframe: 2015-16 Products: completed plan
Goal 3. Strengthen policies and planning processes to enhance informed and cross-disciplinary decision-making for managing cultural and historic resources. Each year, significant cultural and historic properties are protected for Washington's citizens when many thousands of undertakings are reviewed by local and state agencies for effects on cultural resources. This goal seeks to position historic preservation in an even more meaningful role in the review process by working collaboratively with affected stakeholders to establish new policies and facilitate more informed decision-making about existing processes. Advancing the strategies under this goal will help achieve other desired outcomes described in this Plan by integrating historic preservation in a wider variety of planning and regulatory conversations.
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
A. Position historic preservation to be more fully integrated into land use decision-making processes.
i. Create a systemic way to regularly engage with federal, state, and Lead: DAHP
local agencies to raise the profile of historic preservation
concerns and impacts to cultural and historic resources affected by state and federal agency decision-making processes such as State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) reviews, Growth Management planning, building codes, and local development regulations.
Products: Integration of DAHP standards/best historic preservation practices into local codes
ii. Increase opportunities for timely and effective consultation
between Tribal cultural and historic preservation officials and land use decision-makers to ensure that Tribes have a meaningful role in land-use decision-making that affects Native American cultural and historic sites.
Support: National Preservation Institute, APA, and Tribes Timeframe: 2015-16
Products: two workshops
iii. Provide best practice examples, templates and other technical Lead: DAHP
resources to cities, counties, and agencies at all levels to
Support: CLGs, COM,
incorporate cultural and historic resource management planning APA, and PAW
into their broader planning efforts, including Growth Management planning, building codes, and local development regulations.
Timeframe: ongoing Products: materials posted on DAHP website
iv. Develop tools to streamline the integration of cultural and historic Lead: Department of
resources into SEPA procedures.
Products: two model documents/templates
B. Establish policies and provide tools to improve protection of cultural and historic resources.
i. Understand and make better use of United States Forest Service (USFS) Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) funding that federal agencies provide to local governments in lieu of tax to do survey and inventory work, and educate local RAC Committees on cultural resource issues. ii. Provide tools for local jurisdictions to prepare for and respond to impacts of disaster events on cultural and historic resources; encourage jurisdictions to include historic resources in hazard mitigation and emergency management plans.
Lead: DAHP Support: USFS Timeframe: 2015 Products: at least one RAC funded survey Lead: DAHP Support: Emergency Management Division (EMD) of Washington State Military Department, Federal Emergency
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
Management Agency (FEMA) Timeframe: 2014-16 Products: model plan
C. Improve planning, management and funding of cultural and historic resources on state-owned and managed lands.
i. Obtain commitments from state landowner agencies to inventory an agreed-upon percentage of their lands annually; help identify funding sources for this inventory work.
Lead: DAHP Support: State landowner agencies
Products: inventoried properties
ii. Partner with higher education institutions to involve students as Lead: State landowner
appropriate in state lands inventory.
Support: Washington State education institutions
Products: students involved
iii. Encourage state landowner agencies to hire professional cultural Lead: DAHP
resource managers (CRMs).
Support: state landowner
Products: two state agency CRM hires
iv. Develop and implement agency historic and cultural resource management plans.
Lead: state landowner agencies
Products: cultural resource management plans adopted
Summary Public discussion and comments made as part of preparing the 2014-19 preservation plan was very much colored by events and experiences of the previous five years. That time-frame was characterized by economic uncertainty; across the board in all sectors, budgets were cut, jobs lost, and programs
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" curtailed or eliminated. That the historic preservation movement held its ground during the recession can be seen as a result of its broad public support plus its fundamental ethic of conserving existing resources to the greatest extent feasible. As the nation and Washington state emerge from economic doldrums, preservationists are newly energized to make sure that historic preservation is strategically positioned as a means to achieve vibrant communities, sustainable economies and healthy environments. Sensing that a fundamental shift has taken place in how the state and nation view change in our communities, "Getting the Future Right" has been selected as the Plan's title. This title is intended to convey the sense that the historic preservation movement is recognized as a critical voice in how we shape our communities. It also expresses the vision and confidence that historic preservation work results in a better tomorrow. The goals, strategies and actions set forth in the pages above comprise the very heart of the Washington State Historic Preservation Plan for 2014-19. These actions represent a distillation of the issues, needs, and opportunities identified by Washington's preservation community and stakeholders during the planning process. Based upon feedback from the public participation process, Plan Steering Committee discussions, and interactions between the SHPO, DAHP staff and the consultants, overarching plan themes began to coalesce around the following: · Assist efforts at the local level to increase protections, incentives, and mechanisms to protect heritage. · Package and deploy data, tools, and partnerships to make the case for decision-makers to undertake historic preservation work. · Increase efforts to make sure cultural and historic resources are taken into consideration in land-use decision-making processes. It needs to be acknowledged that the preservation planning process elicited many more ideas, needs, and issues to tackle than are addressed in this document. Plan Steering Committee members working with the consultants sorted through hundreds of comments and chart paper notes. The final list of action items included herein was carefully selected and crafted to span as many of the expressed needs and concerns as possible. While recognizing that there are many good ideas, limiting the number of actions to those listed in the Plan is a nod to being realistic about what can be achieved in a five year time period given already stretched resources. It also acknowledges the value of these actions as being carefully crafted strategies that have been designed to address fundamental planning issues and needs. As stated elsewhere in this document, Getting the Future Right is not "owned" by the SHPO nor is it a work plan for DAHP staff to implement. As evidenced by the many entities mentioned in the document, this Plan will be realized as a result of collaborations amongst the many organizations, agencies, businesses, and individuals that comprise Washington's historic preservation community. Plan Implementation This Plan will now be put into action. As the guiding principles of the Plan state, the Plan must be implemented. In order to monitor implementation, the Plan Steering Committee members have agreed to continue oversight of the Plan, and will reconvene 18 months after Plan completion to review what progress has been made. 18
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" It should also be made clear to readers and users that the Plan does not bring with it funding for implementing the actions that are set forth in the document. As stated above, plan implementation is dependent upon DAHP working in partnership with the entities already mentioned herein, plus other stakeholders as well. Certainly, various actions can be achieved through the regular course of doing business (i.e. webapplications, correspondence, workshops, etc.). Each year, the SHPO and DAHP staff convenes to draft annual office work plans. These work plans must support implementation of the Plan according to federal historic preservation program guidelines. A good example of this is action item 2.D.ii. Recognize and publicize public and private successes in historic preservation. The King County
Historic Preservation Officer, Historic Seattle, the SHPO, and many others organizations already host well established recognition programs that celebrate preservation successes. However, other actions identified in the Plan clearly will require financial sources to be realized. A good example of this would be action 1.B.i Update the 2006 Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation in Washington State report. Since DAHP does not possess the time nor the expertise needed to produce this update, the agency and its partners will need to seek out other sources to pay for this and other projects. 19
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Part 3: Resource Overview and Historic Preservation trends Assessment of Cultural and Historic Resources The following narrative provides a status report on the Washington State Inventory of Cultural Resources (hereinafter referred to as the Inventory), the state's primary repository of information on cultural and historic properties. Following the status report is an overview of the various cultural and historic resource types that can be found in Washington. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive description of these property types, nor a scholarly context of historic trends that have shaped the place we now refer to as Washington State. Rather, what is provided here is a thumbnail sketch of Washington's cultural and historic resource base to give readers a sense of the wide range of property types found here. For purposes of discussion, the text is divided into two broad categories. First discussed are archaeological resources, often thought of as cultural resources found on or below the earth's surface that can be represented by sites, structures, districts, and objects. Secondly, historic resources are those cultural resources that are readily found in the built environment and include buildings, structures, districts, and objects. Although this breakdown between the two resource groups is over simplified, it is made here for discussion purposes only. In actuality, there is extensive overlap between these two general categories of resource types. Examples of this overlap are historic districts that include archaeological as well as historic resource components, such as Fort Vancouver National Historic Site in Vancouver or Pioneer Square Historic District in Seattle. Also discussed here are cultural resource types that are more unusual or challenging in terms of identification, documentation, and management. These include traditional cultural places (TCPs), cultural or historic landscapes, maritime or submerged cultural resources, and properties from the recent past. A WORD ABOUT NOMENCLATURE Like other highly specialized and technical fields of expertise, historic preservation has evolved its own formal and informal glossary of terms, jargon, acronyms, and word usage that is peculiar unto itself. It should also not be surprising that sometimes confusion and disagreement occurs regarding usage and meaning of these terms. In the historic preservation field, a prime example is the term "cultural resources." At DAHP, everyday use of the term "cultural resources" implies the full range of resources associated with human use and manipulation of the environment. For purposes of the Plan, the phrase "cultural and historic resources" is used in the document when referring to the full range of resources potentially eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, the Washington Heritage Register or local registers of historic places. These resources or "property types" are: sites, buildings, structures, districts, and objects plus Traditional Cultural Properties and cultural or historic landscapes. The word "historic" is included in the Plan to make sure there is no doubt that the full range of property types are being addressed here. This includes not only archaeological sites but also other property types that post-date Euro-American contact with Native Americans in the late 18th century. 20
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" CURRENT STATUS OF INVENTORY DATA AT DAHP The following narrative provides a description of the current status of the Inventory. Also included is an update on DAHP's ongoing efforts to enhance the utility and value of the records for research, environmental review, and project planning purposes. WHAT IS THE WASHINGTON STATE INVENTORY OF CULTURAL RESOURCES From a general perspective, the Inventory serves as a comprehensive statewide database of recorded cultural and historic resources found within the state's present boundaries. Archaeological sites and historic resources have been recorded and deposited with the State of Washington since the early 1900s. Since passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and creation of the State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) in the late 1960s (later becoming DAHP), the agency has systematically collected documentation (site records) on cultural and historic resources. At this point, the Inventory of Cultural Resources, housed at DAHP's offices in Olympia and accessible online through its WISAARD database, is the state's most comprehensive repository of cultural resource data. DOCUMENT TYPES HELD IN THE INVENTORY The bulk of document types held in the Inventory are comprised of: · Archaeological Site forms · Historic Property Inventory site forms, and · Cultural resource survey reports. Other holdings include nomination documents for: · The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), · The Washington Heritage Register, · The Heritage Barn Register, · Federal agency property nominations, and · National Historic Landmark property listings. Other components of the Inventory not to be overlooked are drawings, plans, photographs, and text about properties included in the Historic American Building Survey (HABS), the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), and the Historic American Landscape Survey (HALS). Similar documents include a growing library of historic structure reports and historic preservation plans and reports. Smaller, though equally important, are specific databases on traditional cultural properties plus underwater archaeological sites and submerged historic properties (sunken vessels and aircrafts). A recent addition to the Inventory is the Cemetery and Burials database established as a result of State legislation in 2008. This database is remarkable for the legislative mandate that the database be in Geographic Information System (GIS) format with the goal of mapping all cemeteries and burials in the state. Since 2009, the database has grown from 932 to 2,819 mapped cemeteries and individual burial sites
. BY THE NUMBERS At the beginning of the 2014-19 preservation planning cycle, the Washington State Inventory is comprised of nearly 125,000 cultural resource records. This number does not include over 24,000 21
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" cultural resource survey reports and data on over 14,000 "contributing" properties within National Register or Washington Heritage Register listed historic districts. The increase represents a gain of over 34,000 records or a 38% increase since 2009 when the inventory housed over 90,000 records. A breakdown of the 2013 quantities by record type, including their gains since the last planning cycle, is as follows: · 2,512 NRHP, Washington Heritage Register and Heritage Barn Register nomination listings (+ 267) · 14,561 "contributing" properties to Register listings (historic districts or listings with multiple components) · 2,819 Historic Cemetery database entries (+1,888) · 29,622 Archaeological Site Forms (+7,213) · 89,921 Historic Property Inventory database entries (+24,989). This significant rate of growth
is seen primarily as the result of the following: · Priority given to implement the Historic Cemetery database and fulfill the legislative mandate by data collection and entry on hundreds of new site records. · Ongoing enhancements to DAHP's award-winning Washington Information System for Architectural and Archaeological Records Data (WISAARD) database. Advances to the database have resulted in increased ease of data input and downloading of forms and reports into Inventory databases. · Several large NRHP historic district listings, such as Broadway Park, South Hill, and York neighborhoods in Bellingham. · Several large public works projects have generated hundreds of new or updated archaeological and historic property inventory records. Examples include the State Route 520 expansion and Link light rail projects in Seattle and the East King County suburbs. · Increased participation by state and local agencies consulting with DAHP on cultural resource surveys under the auspices of Section 106, Governor's Executive Order 0505, or the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA).Examples include a comprehensive inventory of cultural and historic resources at American Lake Medical Center and Western State Hospital, both in Lakewood. These numbers and trends demonstrate that the Inventory continues to grow in volume and coverage of the state's land mass. Nevertheless, it should be noted that as Washington's population continues to increase, resulting in increased conversion of land for new uses, the Inventory's coverage is not keeping pace with the demands made upon it by project planners. COUNTY ASSESSORS' DATA IMPORTS Regarding recent enhancements to the Inventory, it is important to report the successful import of county assessor's parcel data into the Historic Property Inventory database. Briefly, this project capitalized on electronic parcel records compiled by the state's county assessors. Working with consultants, DAHP was able to download publicly available records for thousands of parcels statewide. Data for parcels with structures 40 years of age and older were electronically provided by county assessor's offices, in counties with CLGs. It was then imported into DAHP's database thereby creating "sketch" inventory database entries and mapping the locations in WISAARD. With the introduction of the assessors' data, the Inventory has expanded to include more than 644,000 records. The goal of this data processing effort was to create a preservation tool for project planners and researchers. While the data imported into the database are insufficient to evaluate significance or make 22
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" recommendations, they serve as an aid for planners to locate projects that minimizes adverse impacts in areas with a high concentration of potentially historic properties. It also becomes a tool to budget and focus survey field work. The imported records provide researchers with information including the approximate date of construction, property type, and ownership information. ASSESSMENT OF SURVEY AND INVENTORY EFFORTS Although the Inventory has grown substantially during the 2009-13 planning cycle, it is safe to say that only a small percentage (less than 2% according to DAHP estimations) of Washington State has been surveyed at any level. Furthermore, although many of the state's urbanized areas have been surveyed to some degree, much of this survey data is approaching 30 or more years in age. While DAHP protects and manages these records, the data is often outdated and must be evaluated as such. In past decades, DAHP had sufficient funding to routinely conduct survey and inventory projects as part of the agency's annual work plan. This effort was in fulfillment of DAHP's charge under the NHPA as well as state statute. However since the early 1990s, funds for comprehensive survey efforts have only sporadically been available to the Department for this purpose. For example, in 2011 DAHP took advantage of a Preserve America grant award to conduct a thematic survey of 527 properties related to the state's maritime heritage. In addition to survey projects initiated by specific federal and state funding, DAHP continues to gain many new inventory records from survey projects undertaken by Washington's 50 CLGs. These projects are assisted by federal funds and administered by DAHP to aid local governments to implement historic preservation planning projects. Eligible CLG grant activities include development of local cultural resource inventories. Many CLGs and Tribal Historic Preservation Officers (THPOs) have adopted goals to update and expand survey coverage within their jurisdictions. For example, the cities of Walla Walla and Yakima, along with King County, have taken advantage of CLG grant funds to update old, and generate new, inventory information. This data is incorporated into local planning and permitting databases as well as the statewide Inventory. Federal agencies continue to survey and inventory cultural and historic resources on lands under their control or management. This ongoing effort is in fulfillment of sections 106 and 110 of the NHPA, mandating that agencies survey cultural and historic resources and protect the nation's heritage. This mandate applies not only to land managing agencies such as the United States Forest Service (USFS) and Bureau of Land Management, but also to more program oriented agencies such as the Federal Highway Administration or Department of Veterans Affairs. As an example, the U.S. Army
routinely undertakes cultural resource survey work on its lands at Joint Base Lewis-McChord in Pierce County and the Yakima Training Center in order to avoid affecting cultural resources during military training
exercises. Also, the Department of Energy must inventory properties that may be affected by its grant programs for energy retrofits. Responding to signing of the Governor's Executive Order 0505 in 2005, Washington's state agencies are stepping up their efforts to survey cultural and historic resources affected by expenditures from the State's capital budget. The order requires that agencies seek comments about capital budget projects from DAHP as well as interested/affected tribes. Examples include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) that may be conducting habitat restoration work on State-owned land or the State Department of Commerce that administers a wide range of state-funded programs for energy efficiency, community infrastructure, and performing arts facilities. 23
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" The Inventory is also populated by inventory data submitted to DAHP by local agencies complying with the SEPA. Administered by the Department of Ecology, SEPA serves as a vehicle for local governments (cities, counties, and special districts) to notify the public of project proposals. The SEPA project review process also provides a formal opportunity for interested and affected parties to provide comments and recommendations on project proposals. Under SEPA, project proponents/applicants complete an environmental checklist in which project information and potential impacts are disclosed to the public. The environmental checklist includes three questions pertaining to potential impacts to known cultural and historic properties. In commenting on SEPA reviews, DAHP recommends conducting survey and inventory activities where cultural and historic resources may be impacted by development. Results of these survey efforts are provided to DAHP for review and entry into the Inventory. Finally, in addition to Inventory submittals from agencies, grant recipients, and project proponents, DAHP also receives a significant share of new inventory data from volunteers interested in recognizing and protecting cultural and historic resources. While most of the forms from members of the public document the historic built environment, some new archaeological site records are submitted to DAHP by professional archaeologists who are retired or working on a pro-bono basis. Other recent examples of volunteer survey work include members of the Jefferson County Historical Society who added over 1900 inventory forms and volunteers in Anacortes who conducted a baseline survey of over 300 mid-20th century modern properties within the city. AN INVENTORY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY As steward of the Inventory, DAHP takes seriously its mandate to protect and manage these records to the highest standards. Also important is the agency's effort to make the Inventory an indispensable tool for research and project planning in order to help protect cultural and historic resources. During the 2009-13 preservation plan cycle, DAHP continued to build upon previous advances in transforming site records from paper to electronic images. Most remarkable has been the ability by the public to remotely search and interact on-line with DAHP's WISAARD database. Comprised of a series of GIS data layers, WISAARD provides tabular and spatial data on the properties held in the Inventory, including historic properties and historic registered properties. Archaeological and cultural resource site records, survey reports, and cemetery records are also digitized and available on-line but are password protected and accessible only to qualified cultural resource professionals and authorized agency managers. These and other advances have dramatically changed the Inventory and the way DAHP conducts business. Recognizing the impact that WISAARD has on agency operations and its effectiveness as a project planning and cultural resource protection tool, in 2010 the American Council for Technology recognized DAHP with its Inter-Governmental Solutions Award. This nationally competitive award recognizes leadership by government agencies using technology to enhance program efficiency and customer service. Despite significant progress to date, the next five years of historic preservation planning will see further advances in the capability, accuracy, and accessibility of the Inventory as a project planning and resource protection tool. In the near term, DAHP anticipates moving much of its business practice to online interactions. Generous funding provided by the Federal Highway Administration has facilitated this automation of office operations by merging the Inventory databases with DAHP's environmental review responsibilities. Both the agency and its stakeholders will benefit by even more rapid sharing of data with reduced review and response times. 24
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" An Overview of the Resource Base: Archaeological Resources Archaeology is the scientific study of both prehistoric and historic cultures by excavation and analysis of their artifacts, monuments, and other remains, in the context of their location of discovery. By studying this physical information, archaeologists can learn about past cultures as well as apply the lessons of those past cultures to contemporary issues. In addition to studying these artifacts, archaeologists consult with tribes to better understand the archaeological sites associated with their ancestors. As a metaphor, archaeological sites are like a rare book, the reading of which can be transformative, but, by virtue of their age, they are fragile and can easily be destroyed if not treated with care and respect. People have inhabited the lands that now comprise Washington since at least the end of the Pleistocene Epoch, approximately 12,000 years ago. The record of their daily activities, art, and their economic and spiritual lives is evident in the over 29,000 sites (including isolates) on record with DAHP. Archaeological sites have been discovered in every county in the state and in every environment imaginable. Obviously, the actual number of archaeological sites in Washington is unknown as there are many that are likely undiscovered. This is partially because many sites are assumed to be buried deep underground, underwater, or both. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN WESTERN WASHINGTON Throughout time, most human settlements have been located in the immediate vicinity of lakes, rivers, or oceans. Not surprisingly, the abundance of water in western Washington is matched by an abundance of archaeological sites. As an example, located along protected saltwater shorelines are permanent winter villages that are archaeologically visible as large, deep shell middens. These shell middens are composed of a dark organically enriched soil with shell fragments, hand tools, fire-cracked rock, and sometimes reveal rectangular depressions where longhouses stood. Most of the shell middens previously discovered date from approximately 3,000 years ago. In addition, evidence of seasonal campsites associated with Native American fishing, hunting, or gathering activities is typically located on upper river terraces. Many such village and campsites have been discovered. Predictably they are located in association with water, animal, and plant resources, and on average, they date between 4,000 and 8,000 years old. Some less common archaeological sites in western Washington are pictographs, petroglyphs, and wet sites. A pictograph is an image drawn onto a rock surface with a mixture of pigments that can include ochre, charcoal, or other plant and animal materials. A petroglyph is an image chiseled into a rock surface. These images can be geometric designs or human or animal forms and are often found on prominent boulders along the shoreline or on rock outcrops. Wet sites are located in intertidal areas or other salt or fresh water areas in which perishable materials like basketry, wooden artifacts, or wool and hair are submerged, and therefore, preserved. Such sites range in size from the well known, mile-long village of Ozette, to numerous smaller campsites, and intertidal fish weirs. An archaeological event that has recently been "recognized" is the cultural modification of trees. Culturally modified trees (CMTs) are living cedar trees that have had bark stripped from one or more sides for use in making baskets or clothing. CMTs are found in stands of old growth cedar but more often are relict trees in younger stands. Finds of CMTs appear to date back 300 years. ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN EASTERN WASHINGTON While most residents of Washington today recognize the prior habitation and use of the coasts and forests by Native American Populations
, there is less recognition of use of the mountains and arid 25
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" scablands of eastern Washington. As in western Washington, eastern Washington has archaeological evidence
of numerous camp and village sites. One type is the winter pithouse village located along major rivers, such as the Columbia, Snake, Spokane, and Okanogan. Other sites associated with seasonal subsistence include lithic sites and stone tool quarries. Such sites are usually located along tributary creeks and associated ridges and slopes, and are often characterized by the presence of stone outcrops and small stone flakes, the waste or by-product of stone tool making. In addition, purposefully stacked rocks in a variety of forms including cairns or other alignments are found in many areas. There are a number of different functions attributed to these features. Cairns have served as burial sites to cover and seal human remains. Rock piles in different configurations are also associated with ceremonial and religious activities
such as a vision quest. Rock features are also reported to be used in the hunting or driving of game, and in the storage of gathered foods. A more recent addition to the archaeological site records of inland areas is huckleberry-drying trenches. These are sites where huckleberries were dried over smoldering fires to preserve them, so they could be stored for winter use. Characteristics of these sites are the presence of low swales and shallow rectangular depressions upon which berry- laden mats were placed. A smoldering fire built inside a downed log served as the heat source. CEMETARIES AND BURIALS Throughout the state, burial or cemetery sites are of special significance and sensitivity. The location and formation of burial sites varied over time and among cultural groups. In some parts of western Washington, small off-shore islands adjacent to villages were used as cemeteries. In other areas of Washington, the deceased were buried on wooded slopes adjacent to their village. Furthermore, isolated burial spots are found in a variety of locations. At the time of early Euro-American contact, entire villages were decimated by disease and thus became virtual cemeteries. It goes without saying that such areas are to be treated with respect. As discussed previously, State legislation passed in 2008 directed DAHP to create and maintain a GIS database of cemeteries and burials of human remains. The Historic Cemetery and Burials database currently houses data of nearly 3,000 cemeteries and burials within the state. These places are also being mapped in GIS map layers as are other inventoried sites. While much progress has been achieved, it must be recognized that the database will require constant updating as cemeteries and burial sites are identified or discovered. FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS Archaeological resources in Washington State are protected by a latticework of federal and state laws. Federal antiquity laws protect historic properties on federal land or when a federal activity is involved. State laws protect archaeological sites and human burials on non-federal land. For example, state legislation passed in 2008 made a significant stride in protecting the treatment of inadvertentlydiscovered human remains. This legislation created the position of State Physical Anthropologist, housed within DAHP. The Physical Anthropologist is charged with overseeing the proper handling of nonforensic human remains and conveying these remains to appropriate caretakers. Despite these protections, there is the reality of site loss. Vandalism, lack of funding, and inadvertent destruction is indicative of the need for public safety agencies at all levels of government to pursue enforcement of these laws. 26
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" HISTORIC RESOURCES The historic era is considered to begin at the time of the first European contact with Native Americans. For present day Washington State, this contact is usually dated to the 1790s. Historic resources include buildings, structures, sites, districts, and objects typically associated with the National Register of Historic Places and the Washington Heritage Register. Not to be overlooked are historic archaeological resources, or archaeological sites that can provide important information about our past since the late 18th century. Other cultural resource property types addressed in this document are historic or cultural landscapes, and traditional cultural properties. Beyond these property types that might be considered as "mainstream" historic properties, the historic preservation community in the U.S. and beyond, are increasingly expanding the boundaries of what are considered important to conveying our heritage. As a result of this expanded thought, historic preservation planning principles and practices espoused in this Plan include resources that are less tangible but still worthy of recognition and preservation efforts. Examples of such resources include, but are not limited to languages, music, crafts, ceremonies, plus folk art and traditions. Unlike archaeological resources, evidence of which is usually not apparent except to the trained eye, historic resources comprise our built environment. Though we pass by historic resources every day, they are key to giving our city streetscapes and rural landscapes a distinctive character or "sense of place" that people seek to retain for their community. As with archaeological resources, historic resources are under constant threat from the lack of maintenance, alteration, vandalism, disaster, or demolition. The following discussion focuses on certain types of historic resources that are often threatened by loss or redevelopment. AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURES AND LANDSCAPES As development spreads further from the state's urban centers, properties reflecting the state's agricultural heritage are increasingly threatened with loss. While the recent recession's slow economy may have temporarily reduced the rate of development, owners of historic farm properties still face multiple challenges such as drastic market swings, shifts in consumer habits, and high overhead costs. As a result, intact farmsteads and associated landscape features are disappearing from rural landscapes. Barns, an American icon and sentimental favorite, seem to be particularly vulnerable to loss due to deterioration, exposure to the elements, functional obsolescence, the high cost of maintenance, and conversion of farmland to other land uses. Although all areas of the state are impacted, rural landscapes in the Puget Sound basin and along interstate highway corridors such as Interstate 82 in the Yakima Valley, face development pressure. Despite these ongoing market forces, Washington's Heritage Barn program is making notable strides to preserve our agricultural heritage. Since passage of State legislation in 2007, Washington has become a national leader in historic barn preservation. In recognition of the success of the program, in 2012 the NTHP presented an Honor Award to the state's Heritage Barn program. After seven years of the program, there are now nearly 600 barns listed in the Heritage Barn Register. At least one barn is listed in every county, with Skagit County being the leader with 55 now on the Register. Besides the recognition and prestige resulting from register listing, the Heritage Barn Grant program provides a financial incentive for owners to rehabilitate their barns. Since grants were first made available in 2007, the program has: · Invested nearly $900,000 in State funds granted to property owners for barn rehabilitation projects. 27
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" · Rehabbed 46 Heritage Register barns with new roofs, siding, framing, windows, paint, and foundations. · Leveraged $1.28 million in local investment (labor, materials, and equipment) for each State dollar granted by the program, and · Resulted in the estimated creation of 220 jobs and generated approximately $150,000 in local sales tax revenues. In addition to the Heritage Barn Register and Grant program, DAHP, in partnership with the Washington Trust for Historic Preservation and Washington State Parks, has created a barn materials salvage program. This program has enjoyed success by salvaging materials (siding, framing, etc.) from demolished barns. Once salvaged, the program works to redistribute the material free of charge to Heritage Barn owners to aid their preservation efforts. In addition to the State's barn preservation efforts, recognition must also be given to the King County Historic Preservation Program that has pioneered barn preservation as a local priority. The King County initiative has funded a comprehensive inventory of barns and developed a package of incentives and planning tools to foster barn and farm preservation throughout the county. Work in King County and at the state level has sparked similar efforts in local jurisdictions such as San Juan and Thurston Counties, as well as in other states. INDUSTRIAL COMPLEXES Washington's industrial and manufacturing heritage is reflected not only by buildings but also by structures, historic archaeological sites, and districts. The Georgetown Steam Plant in Seattle and the Milwaukee Railroad Yard Site in South Cle Elum are just two examples of historic resources that are recognized for their contribution to the state's industrial past. However, other examples are rapidly disappearing: lumber mills, mine ore concentrators, shipyards, warehouses, and manufacturing facilities are dwindling in number due to many factors including the nation's shifting economic base, maintenance costs, new technologies, natural resource remediation, and environmental clean-up efforts. Historic canneries, once prominent in many Puget Sound and Columbia River port communities
, have virtually disappeared. Another historic industrial site needing attention is the Olympia Brewery in Tumwater; despite the efforts of the property owner, the community, and preservationists, the complex still languishes after years of abandonment. In addition to hazardous waste concerns, the remote location of some historic industrial properties makes it more difficult to preserve them, since the population base in remote areas is unable to support the adaptive reuse of these structures. Mining-related properties are a prime example of this scenario. In some instances, documentation of industrial facilities before demolition, including the expert identification of machinery and equipment, is helping to mitigate these losses. In other instances, interpretive efforts have been successful in capturing the history of these properties including associated archaeological resources. For example, the Snoqualmie Falls Hydroelectric Project has preserved original turbines and created interpretive displays for visitors to the Puget Sound Energy facility near Snoqualmie. Despite the losses of historic industrial facilities, there have been notable successes in the preservation and even adaptive re-use of some important examples including: · Albers Mill on the Thea Foss Waterway in Tacoma that has been rehabbed for housing and retail. 28
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" · Seattle's Gas Works Park on Lake Union is a recognized pioneer in adapting heavy industrial plants to recreation uses and is a landmark in modernist landscape architecture. · The Power House Theatre in Walla Walla has transformed an old electric generating facility into a venue for theatrical performances. · McKinstry Corporation's award winning rehabilitation of Spokane's former Spokane & Inland Empire Railroad (SIERR) car barns for corporate and community office space. RECREATION AND ENTERTAINMENT PROPERTIES In a state blessed with a bounty of natural and scenic beauty, it only stands to reason that there should be numerous properties that showcase Washington's outdoor recreation
al heritage. These properties include cabins, lodges, camps, parks, trails, gardens, as well as the landscapes in which they were constructed. Significant strides are being made to protect these historic properties in national, state, and local park systems. An innovative example is a program administered by the U.S. Forest Service which makes available historic ranger stations, residences, and fire lookout towers to the public for vacation rentals. In addition to preserving and interpreting a remarkable collection of cultural and historic resources, Washington State Parks has a similar program of hosting visitors at park owned lighthouses, fortifications, and even rehabbed resort cabins at Cama Beach State Park. Not to be overlooked are city and county park agencies that continue commendable work to preserve historic properties in their care. Notable examples include: · Kitsap County's assumption of ownership plus preservation of the Pt. No Point Light Station near Hansville. · U.S Fish & Wildlife's replica of a Native American plankhouse at its Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge in Clark County. · Tacoma Metropolitan Park District's award winning restoration of the Pt. Defiance Pagoda following near destruction from an arsonist's attack. · Seattle Parks' ongoing work to preserve the Sand Point Historic District at Magnuson Park, including rehabilitation of Hanger 27 as a private sports and fitness gym. Despite these successes, park and recreation agencies at all levels often struggle to maintain and protect their cultural and historic resources. Maintenance and repair costs coupled with cuts to staff and operational funding have posed a serious challenge to Washington's State Park system. The 2014-19 planning cycle will see federal, state, and local park systems striving to find supplementary funding as well as changes to property programming with a larger role being played by private partners. TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE Washington State is endowed with a wide range of historic transportation resources ranging from ancient trails to innovative highway, ferry, and rail systems
. The impact that transportation systems has had in shaping the state's character and economy is well understood and documented. The importance of transportation is reflected in the number of associated property types (i.e. trails, bridges, depots, vessels, etc.) that are recorded in the Inventory, and in several instances, designated in one of the registers. During the 2009-13 historic preservation planning cycle, Washington State witnessed the planning, initiation, and, in some cases, completion of major transportation projects affecting cultural and historic 29
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" resources. This timeframe is bookended by the completion of two major transportation projects: the 2009 opening of Sound Transit's Link light rail line from SeaTac International Airport to Downtown Seattle, and the 2013 opening of the magnificently rehabilitated King Street Station as a regional multimodal transportation hub. These two examples illustrate that while transportation projects often negatively impact cultural and historic properties, partnerships and early engagement in project planning can result in major historic preservation achievements. The 2014-19 historic preservation planning cycle promises to witness transportation projects impacting cultural resources. The State Route 99 Tunnel under downtown Seattle is projected to be completed and, with it, initiation of planning for the city's waterfront once the Alaskan Way Viaduct is removed. The State Route 520 expansion from Seattle to Redmond will affect a long list of cultural resources, cultural landscapes, buildings, and historic districts along the corridor. The project has also sparked a long list of measures to serve as mitigation for the adverse effects to these resources. Other future transportation projects on preservationists' watch list include: · Renewed effort to replace historic bridge spans over the Columbia River at Vancouver · Proposed port facilities and rail corridors for delivering inland energy resources for export to China. Impacts to cultural and historic resources are projected to affect not just the port facilities, but also along the entire rail corridors stretching from Idaho. · Expansion of Link light rail to Redmond and Snohomish County. · Long-awaited completion by DAHP of a rail transportation historic context document. MARITIME HERITAGE Washington enjoys beautiful and varied shorelines, not only along the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound, but also spectacular lake and river frontages. These shorelines are not only scenic but also rich in cultural and historic properties. These shorelines are also attractive as places to live, work, and play. Therefore, resources associated with the state's maritime heritage continue facing pressure for more intense development and new uses. The 2014-19 state historic preservation planning cycle includes renewed efforts to seek congressional designation of the Puget Sound and Pacific Ocean shoreline as the first National Maritime Heritage Area. Supporting this work is completion in 2011 of the Maritime Resource Survey for Washington's Saltwater Shores (found online at http://www.dahp.wa.gov/sites/default/files/MaritimeResourcesSurvey.pdf). This survey effort documented over 500 maritime related properties and ten context sub-themes from Native American use of shorelines to recreation and scientific research. This survey has several implications for future maritime heritage preservation including: · New documentation of the cultural and historical significance of Washington's shorelines. · Added justification for designation as a National Maritime Heritage Area. · Identification of both long and short-term preservation needs. · Identification of interpretation and educational opportunities. · Data for local communities
to use in their Shoreline Management Program (SMP) update work. Finally, the maritime resources survey reinforces the importance of preservation work already underway by a large number of preservation advocacy groups, museums, and communities working to preserve maritime related resources. Examples include preservation efforts taking place in Aberdeen at Grays 30
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Harbor Seaport; Gig Harbor; Lake Union in Seattle; Foss Waterway in Tacoma; Neah Bay; Port Townsend; and numerous other communities. A longer range issue facing preservationists is mounting scientific evidence of global warming
and the consequences of rising sea levels. 2012's Super Storm Sandy gave the nation a prospective scenario of the consequences of sea level rise to cultural and historic properties in the United States. Even before Sandy, many communities, federal and state agencies plus university programs have been addressing the effects of global warming and developing an appropriate response. These responses are taking shape through Shoreline Management Programs as well as through shifts in land-use and environmental policy. From a historic preservation perspective, rising sea levels may threaten historic waterfront districts as well as erode, submerge, and destroy buried archaeological sites near shorelines. HISTORIC PROPERTIES OF THE RECENT PAST Discussion of the state's historic built environment would not be complete without acknowledging a growing public interest in historic properties constructed in the post-World War II era. Despite this growing public and media interest, designation and preservation of properties from the recent past remain controversial. Such property types include those associated with America's roadside culture including motels, restaurants, gas stations, and auto dealerships. However, interest in the recent past goes beyond popular culture to include modernist skyscrapers, shopping centers, churches, and suburban housing tracts. Through the efforts of preservation advocates including CLGs, appreciation for and protection of mid-20th century modern properties has grown to include NRHP listing and local designations of primary examples including the Barksdale House in Seattle and the Curran House in University Place. With the approach the 50-year old age threshold for eligibility to the National Register now advancing deeply into the late 20th Century, Washington preservationists are increasingly thinking about protecting properties that evoke this timeframe. The last quarter of the century saw Washington emerge from a regional center focused on aerospace and lumber to a national, even international, leader in technology, social change, Environmental Protection
, the arts, and other fields. Washingtonians are keenly aware and proud of this recent heritage and the importance of recording and protecting it. Notable examples of this growing awareness include the National Register listing in 2012 of Seattle's Gas Works Park, a remarkable blending of design, recreational planning, and environmental remediation from the 1970's by landscape architect Richard Haag as well as statewide activism to stave off demolition of the Battelle/Talaris Campus, also in Seattle. Traditional Cultural Properties The significance of Traditional Cultural Properties (TCPs) is based upon historic cultural beliefs, customs, or practices, which may or may not continue to the present. A TCP may be a distinctive natural site, such as a mountaintop, or a historic environment, such as an ethnic neighborhood. Or it may simply be a place with significant historic value to a specific ethnic or cultural group. The previous use and historical association of such properties can be demonstrated through historical documentation and through tradition or oral history. Because TCPs may have a spiritual rather than a physical significance, it may be impossible for outsiders to identify such sites. A few notable examples include Snoqualmie Falls in King County as well as Mount St. Helens in southwest Washington, listed in the National Register in 2013. Although both of these sites are famous for natural beauty and prominence on the landscape, both 31
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Snoqualmie Falls and Mt. St. Helens are recognized as TCPs because of associations with Native American spiritual values. Although TCPs can be associated with any group, the majority of TCPs recorded to date are associated with one or more Native American tribes. There are twenty-nine federally recognized tribes residing in Washington, seven non-recognized tribes, and over a dozen tribes and Canadian First Nations in adjacent states and provinces that have association with lands in what is now Washington State. All may have TCPs located here. Knowledge of, and inventory of TCPs usually arises during the Section 106 of the NHPA consultation process when a federal agency action has potential to affect such properties. The NHPA applies to TCPs in the same way that it applies to other cultural and historic resource types. CULTURAL LANDSCAPES Cultural landscapes are rapidly gaining recognition as a distinct property type worthy of protection. Sometimes referred to as historic landscapes or ethnographic landscapes, cultural landscapes can be associated with any group or historic theme and can be designed (as in a formal garden or public park) or vernacular (such as an agricultural land
scape). To date in Washington, cultural landscapes are most often associated with Native Americans and their closely held cultural values
. These landscapes may represent physical manifestations of important religious beliefs, traditional stories or legends, as well as recognized sources for materials important to Native American culture. Cultural landscapes may include traditional cultural places, and, by circumstance, cultural and historic resources not related to traditional cultural values. The term "cultural" or "ethnographic" landscape" also encompasses landscapes that derive their significance from illustrating how people have used the land to meet their needs. These landscapes may range from large tracts of land and significant natural features to formal gardens of less than an acre. Such landscapes are often overlooked during comprehensive planning efforts or specific development plans. Examples of recognized cultural landscapes in Washington are: Ebey's Landing National Historic Reserve on Whidbey Island and the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Cultural landscapes, like other cultural resources, are particularly vulnerable to growth and development. This is particularly true in eastern Washington where any change to the landscape is visible for miles. A difficult management question occurs when transmission line or wind energy development proposals threaten to change the character of ridges, valleys, and hillsides that may have cultural significance. Just as with buildings, structures, sites, districts, and objects that can be listed in a register, TCPs and landscapes are acknowledged as cultural and historic property types that are eligible for listing in the National Register, and also in several local registers of historic places. However, both TCPs and landscapes continue to challenge traditional Euro-American concepts of defining and managing these types of historic properties. Among the many questions that continue to drive debate about TCPs and landscapes include: How is integrity assessed? Where are boundaries drawn? And, what is adequate documentation? As the Plan moves toward implementation, the NPS has embarked on an effort to revise and update National Register Bulletin 38: Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. While Bulletin 38 remains the seminal guidance document on evaluating and designating TCPs to the National Register, answers remain elusive to larger questions about appropriate management approaches for short and long-term preservation. To augment this work taking place at the national level, a future state preservation planning cycle should take the challenge of drafting a document to parallel Bulletin 38 but with a northwest regional focus. Such an effort should build upon partnerships forged in coming years with tribal representatives, planners, elected officials, and resource 32
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" managers to construct a framework for identifying, evaluating, and managing these fragile yet significant resources. PROPERTIES ASSOCIATED WITH UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS There is growing acknowledgement that past historic preservation planning efforts have focused on properties derived from European settlement in the nation. As a result, national and state register listings are largely comprised of the homes, institutions, and businesses of Euro-American cultures. Often overlooked are cultural and historic resources associated with groups that are under-represented in the nation's historic narrative including African, Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Native American cultures. For example, analysis of DAHP's Historic Property Inventory indicates that only 37 properties have been identified as primarily associated with ethnic heritage. This is in contrast to properties associated with other historic contexts such as transportation with 698, manufacturing/industry with 504, and agriculture with 2,277. The Latino Heritage Youth Summit convened in Yakima County in 2012 and served as a wake-up call to preservationists, reminding them that Washington State has a rich heritage associated with Latino settlement. However, it was also learned that this heritage is largely unrecognized and not being passed down to future generations. The same is true of other cultures that have lived and settled in Washington such as African American and Asian American populations. Gradually, some progress is being made recognizing that several important sites associated with under-represented groups have been surveyed and/or designated in Washington. Also, these resources are recognized as a priority in CLG grant applications where these types of preservation planning projects are given special consideration. An expanded effort to support the survey and inventory of these properties is established as a priority in the Plan (see Goal 2.D. (i). Encourage more National Register nominations that reflect the diversity of our heritage, especially with properties related to underrepresented communities). Trends and Issues Affecting Historic Preservation Implementation of the 2014-2019 Washington State Historic Preservation Plan does not take place in a vacuum. Neither does the broader work of preservationists to recognize and protect our heritage. A wide range of interests and forces shape our communities. These include economic, social, and political trends ranging from the local to national levels and even beyond in today's highly connected global community. These trends often have a direct effect on the work of preservationists, sometimes with good outcomes for heritage, but sometimes not. Coming from a different direction, the work of preservationists also has a direct impact on the communities in which they work: lagging economies are rejuvenated; citizens are engaged in shaping their communities; and decision-makers recognize that preservation policies enjoy broad public support. For the these reasons, it is important that the Plan include the following discussion of trends and issues that shape the economic, social, and political atmosphere in which it will be implemented. While these issues will affect preservationists' ability and effort to protect cultural resources, the more intriguing question is how historic preservation can be positioned as a tool to affect positive outcomes in local, regional, and even global challenges. WASHINGTON'S POPULATION OUTLOOK AND TRENDS Extending trends observed during the 2009-2013 historic preservation planning cycle, the population of Washington State continues to grow; in fact, between the start of the last plan (2009) and the start of 33
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
this one (2013), Washington State has added 203,741 residents. By 2040, the Washington State Office of Financial Management (OFM) predicts the state will have almost 2,000,000 more residents--a total population of almost 9 million (see Exhibit 1). In-migration of households from other states and countries, exceeding out-migration of households is a primary driver of the State's population growth. After a prolonged economic downturn after 2007, households are once again being attracted to the state's quality of life and economic competitiveness.
Exhibit 1 Washington State Population Growth and Forecasted Growth, 2000-2040
10,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 6,000,000 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040
Source: Washington State Office of Financial Management, Forecast of the State Population by Age and Sex, 2012; BERK, 2013. This broad trend of statewide population gain is made along with a smaller but growing national and international interest in urban lifestyles. The lingering effects of the economic downturn; quickly recovering and ascending housing prices; and preference for multi-modal and public transit options are attracting many young people as well as "empty-nesters" to living downtown and in inner city neighborhoods. These trends have stimulated considerable investment in downtown areas to make them attractive to residents plus more transit, bike, and pedestrian friendly. This trend is accelerating in larger cities like Seattle, Spokane, and Tacoma, but also emerging in smaller cities like Bellingham, Kirkland, and Vancouver. It is also a trend that is important for preservationists to nurture since it may lead to preservation and rehabilitation of historic buildings and districts for multiple new uses. It is strong validation and manifestation of the work of Main Street programs being implemented across the state in communities such as Ellensburg, Mount Vernon, and Wenatchee. In addition, this trend may also benefit archaeological resources and cultural landscapes by re-directing new development into existing neighborhoods and urban growth
boundaries thereby reducing pressure to convert rural lands to new uses. Although this renewed interest in urban lifestyles presents many opportunities for preservationists, it presents challenges as well. These challenges will occur as demand for housing, commercial, and office space plus commensurate need for public infrastructure, place pressure on jurisdictions to increase densities and encourage new development. Consequently, historic neighborhoods, streetscapes, and infrastructure may be threatened with redevelopment or inappropriate alteration. To respond to these and other threats, preservationists and planners have well-proven tools to contain these threats such as
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
historic preservation overlay districts, design guidelines, and financial incentives. The City of Tacoma has most recently joined a handful of communities that use a transfer of developments rights program to protect designated properties. Exhibit 2 Washington State Population by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2010
Hispanic or Latino
Two or More Races
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
American Indian and Alaska Native
Black or African American
1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000
Source: Washington State Office of Financial Management, Total Population by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin, 2010; BERK, 2013. Not only is Washington State's population increasing, the state is becoming more diverse in terms of race and ethnicity (see Exhibit 2). In the 2009-13 Plan, it was noted that Washington State was 80.5% white; in this Plan, Washington State is shown to be 73% white. This trend of increasing population diversification points to the need for the state's heritage community to engage and include underrepresented groups in historic preservation efforts. Stakeholders commenting during the preservation planning process emphasized the need for preservationists to be more inclusive and to ensure that preservation projects are understood as benefiting the whole community. Many participants also contributed that awareness of these diverse groups and their preservation priorities is important to sustaining the historic preservation movement into the future.
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Exhibit 3 Washington State Population by Age Group, 2010
Source: Washington State Office of Financial Management, Total Population by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin, 2010; BERK, 2013. It is also important to be aware of the age makeup of the State when developing the tools and contexts in which to provide historic preservation information. Over one-quarter of Washington state residents are under the age of 19; the majority of these residents are school-age children. This provides important insight into how to best educate these residents and where to reach them most efficiently. Similarly, this population breakdown shows that over one-half of the state's residents are working-age, those between 20 and 60; it is important for preservationists to set a course for how best to reach out to these groups as is addressed by strategies in Goal 2: Engage a broad spectrum of the public in preservation; Improve access to information.
Global Climate Change and Environmental Mitigation Global climate change and associated issues such as carbon emissions, energy efficiency/production, and sustainability continue to grab headlines and spark dialogues at all levels. While there are those who question the legitimacy of the issue or the degree of its impact, mounting data from organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change point to rising sea levels as a major threat to the human as well as natural environments. Increasingly severe and frequent weather events like droughts and hurricanes effectively translate scientific projections into tragic real-life experiences for many property owners and communities. In response, increasing numbers of decision-makers are taking concrete steps to address the potential consequences. While the issues related to climate change are many and complex, the ongoing research and planning present an opportunity for preservationists to voice concerns about cultural and historic resources. To start, the global heritage community should assume a higher profile in conveying that cultural resources are at stake. In addition, historic preservation activities can play a positive role by applying Archaeological Research
to gain data and insight into past effects and responses to climate change. This recommendation was clearly articulated during the Plan's public participation process in which many
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" stated that preservation must be seen as a means to reduce our carbon footprint and build more sustainable economies. In terms of impacts, rising sea levels as a result of warming temperatures pose a threat to archeological sites and historic communities in low-lying and shoreline areas. But the impacts of climate change are not limited to our coastal shorelines. Climate change is also being associated with more intense weather patterns such as floods and droughts. All of these can affect cultural and historic resources through erosion, fire, as well as by emergency responses. A popular trend supporting sustainability and green practices can also help historic building rehabilitation projects as recycling materials and energy conservation become more valued practices. Public meeting participants across the state suggested ways to strengthen connections between historic preservation and sustainability. Recurring comments subsequently addressed in the Plan include encouraging flexibility in applying building and development codes and fostering rehab projects to demonstrate and document the energy performance of historic buildings. While there are opportunities for collaboration between the environmental and historic preservation movements, efforts to mitigate global climate change and improve the environment threaten many significant resources. Waterfront clean-ups threaten to remove historic maritime and industrial resources while wetland and habitat restoration programs have potential to damage archaeological sites and historic buildings. Preservation plan meeting participants emphasized the need to form partnerships with the environmental community to support green practices while at the same time protect cultural and historic resources. Also important is the need to raise awareness amongst policy and decisionmakers of the role that historic preservation should play in comprehensive as well as targeted approaches to address these environmental issues. The Main Street program is seen as primary means to support locally grown businesses and products; reduce carbon emissions; and keep jobs, wages, and revenue in the community. Public Health and Safety There is an increasing level of discussion and research on public health and how it is affected by the built environment. Research is suggesting that certain qualities of the built environment can positively influence healthier and safer lifestyles. Influencing factors include: · Walkable neighborhoods; · Easy and safe access to transit, schools, parks, recreation, and other community facilities; · Access to healthy and affordable food choices; and · Visual monitoring of street activity. These factors are particularly important to school age populations as well as older adults, both of which are fast growing age groups that face mobility and health challenges
. The historic preservation community can offer much to the public health discussion. Many historic neighborhoods match qualities that afford healthy lifestyles including walkability, access to local amenities such as schools and parks, and building design with "eyes on the street." A good example of making this link is a City of Bellingham CLG grant-funded project to produce a Wellness Walking Tour of a local historic neighborhood. The tour will include walking distances, elevation gained and calories burned. Also, many Main Street communities have established farmers markets in downtown or historic 37
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" neighborhood districts. These markets in communities such as Puyallup, Prosser and Vancouver now enjoy wide popularity by providing access to fresh, local produce at affordable prices. Preservation Training and Education Few topics unite the heritage community more than the need for greater access to education and training programs in historic preservation and closely related fields. This large topic has a wide range of needs and opportunities, far too complex to meaningfully explore in this narrative. However, heritage proponents generally agree that if the historic preservation movement is to gain ground in our efforts to pass along heritage resources to future generations, effort must be stepped-up to expose more students, at all levels, to preservation principles and skills. Let us commend the good work in preservation education that's already taking place in Washington and the Northwest. Some stellar examples include such cultural events as the annual canoe journey hosted by coastal tribes; since 1989 this "Paddle to Seattle" event has exposed thousands in our area to the richness of local Native American heritage. On Whidbey Island, vocational trade students at Whidbey Island high schools fabricated a stunning new functioning lantern for the Admiralty Head Lighthouse; this stands as a new model for the high school level. More recently, the WTHP's Annual Youth Summit actively challenged students and teachers alike to learn about the benefits of preservation to our society (see action 2.C.iii). Yet despite these and other success stories, heritage education programs and trainings often struggle to find venues and trainers plus programmatic and financial support. This Plan, Getting the Future Right, firmly recognizes the importance of continued commitment to existing preservation education programs as well as expanding the scope of training efforts to new audiences. Environmental Stewardship The place that is now Washington State is blessed with a bounty and diversity of natural resources. With this rich natural heritage, it follows that Washington has a long history of legislation and programs that protects the environment as well as the cultural resources that are so closely tied to our natural heritage. Examples include the Forest Practices Act, the Growth Management Act (GMA), Shorelines Management Act, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and the Governor's Executive Order 0505 together with programs that protect air and water quality. During the 2009-13 state historic preservation planning cycle, action was initiated by various statewide stakeholders to update and streamline the SEPA review process. This effort resulted in passage of Senate Bill 6406 by the State Legislature in 2012. This legislation directed the Department of Ecology to form the SEPA Rulemaking Advisory Committee with the charge of revising the SEPA review process. Preservation interests were represented on the Committee along with representatives from local governments, State agencies, tribes, and private and non-profit organizations. Revisions to SEPA were intended to hasten project review timelines and reduce the administrative burden
to local governments of processing reviews and managing public participation requirements. Starting in summer of 2012, the Committee began meeting to fulfill its legislated mandate. Since that 38
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" time and into 2013, proposed revisions to SEPA took the form of reduced public notification and commenting opportunity. In addition, the Committee recommended providing local governments the option of raising project review thresholds whereby only projects of a specified size or character would be subject to public notification and review. These recommendations have since been adopted into rules. Historic preservationists and tribes have expressed concerns that significant cultural and historic resources may be lost or damaged by projects exempted from review as a result of raised thresholds. In response to these concerns, the Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-19: Getting the Future Right, includes strategies to increase outreach to local governments about the importance of cultural resources and offer planning tools and incentives to encourage protective strategies for historic resources. Disaster Preparedness Recent natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, and fires both across the globe and in Washington State, have highlighted the vulnerability of cultural resources to damage or destruction. These events have also intensified the need for preservationists to be proactive in developing disaster plans in the event of a natural disaster. Ironically, preservationists have learned that disaster recovery is perhaps more damaging to cultural resources than the event itself. As a result of the Section 106 consultation process mandated of Federal agencies in the National Historic Preservation Act, DAHP works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to avoid or mitigate the impact of disasters and disaster aid on significant historic properties. Within the 2009-13 state historic preservation planning cycle, FEMA executed a programmatic agreement with the State Historic Preservation Officer with detailed, Washington-specific procedures for protecting cultural and historic resources in the event of a disaster. This agreement also calls for an expanded role for the state Emergency Management Division (EMD) in the consultation process. As a result of this step and other outreach efforts, the SHPO and DAHP staff are now engaged with EMD at the state level in its ongoing disaster preparedness programs, disaster exercises, and planning processes. During the 2014-19 planning cycle, DAHP looks forward to working with local and tribal governments to draft and implement disaster plans to protect cultural and historic resources. Infrastructure Roads, rail lines, dams, power grids, water and sewer lines and other elements comprise the framework or "skeleton" upon which we depend on for fulfilling the routine tasks of a complex society and highly mechanized society. Indeed, the infrastructure upon which we depend plays a major role in shaping the way we live, work, and play and plays a critical role in shaping land use and development patterns. However, mounting studies, surveys, and reports point out that much of the nation's infrastructure is reaching the end of its life cycle and need replacement. These studies receive wide publicity whenever an infrastructure failure occurs. Such was the case on May 23, 2013 when a portion of the Interstate 5 bridge over the Skagit River collapsed. In this situation, the bridge was not historically significant and cultural resources were not affected. However, loss of this critical highway link sparked the Mount Vernon Downtown Association into quick action to sustain local businesses in the historic core during the bridge closure. This event drove home how cultural and historic resources can be immediately impacted by our fragile and vulnerable infrastructure. 39
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" While our infrastructure is, in many instances, fragile and vulnerable, some of it is also historic. For the historic preservation community, several issues are at stake when considering historic infrastructure: much of the infrastructure that is being evaluated at this point for health and safety purposes may well be historically significant and worthy of designation. Examples include bridges, water supplies, dams, even the power grids that carry electricity from generating plants to consumers. The other issue is that new or replacement facilities may impact archaeological resources and traditional cultural properties. Examples of these scenarios include proposed replacement of the McMillin Bridge near Sumner by a wider highway span. Also, proposed new power transmission lines over the Columbia River threaten to impact cultural resources sacred to Tribes. Implementation of the state historic preservation plan comes at a critical juncture in the state's public works history. The challenge for our state and nation is to preserve and protect significant historic and cultural resources while balancing costs and other priorities such as economic development, safety, and natural resource protection. Technology The increasing role of electronic technology in our lives cannot be overstated. And that role will increase during the timeframe of the State Historic Preservation Plan, and beyond. There appears to be unlimited capacity for evolving technology to re-shape the way we learn, work, and play. The process for developing this Plan included statements from many preservationists and stakeholders that it will be very important for the preservation community to seize upon and utilize technology as a preservation tool but also as a communication tool. Technology is seen as a tool to conduct research, facilitate planning, and increase the effectiveness and efficiencies of preservationists in their work. Also voiced were recommendations to take advantage of advancing communication technologies to reach new audiences; implement education and mitigation efforts; gain a higher profile for preservation before the public; and do a better job of telling the "good news" of preservation. 40
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Bibliography American Planning Association Washington Chapter. "Sustainable Washington 2009: Planning for Climate Change." 2008. American Planning Association Washington Chapter. "Ten Big Ideas for Washington's Future." 2013. Marohn, Jr., Charles L. Thoughts on Building Strong Towns, Volume 1. www.strongtowns.org, 2012. Parker, Patricia L., and King, Thomas F., National Register Bulletin: Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Traditional Cultural Properties. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1990; Revised 1992; 1998. Preservation Green Lab, National Trust for Historic Preservation. "The Greenest Building: Quantifying the Environmental Value of Building Reuse." 2011. Speck, Jeff. Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time. Farrar, Straus, Giroux, New York, 2012. Tides Canada Initiatives Society. "Jane's Walk." Website: http://janeswalk.org/. 2013 Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. "A Maritime Resource Survey for Washington's Saltwater Shores." 2011. Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. "Sustainability and Historic Preservation." 2011. Washington Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation. "Washington State National Maritime Heritage Area: Feasibility Study for Designation as a National Heritage Area." 2010. Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division, "Washington State Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan. 2011. Washington Department of Transportation, "Washington State Scenic and Recreational Highways Strategic Plan 20102030." 2010. Washington Office of Financial Management, Forecasting Division. 2012 Data Book. January, 2013 Page 1
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Attachment A: Acknowledgements All members of the public who participated in the state historic preservation planning process deserve many thanks and special recognition for taking their valuable time to provide comments, insights and recommendations. Their contributions had direct impact in shaping the goals, strategies and actions that comprise the 2014-2019 plan, Getting the Future Right. In addition, the following members of the Plan Steering Committee are acknowledged and thanked for their contributions in drafting the Plan and actively shaping the planning process and content. These individuals brought to the task a high level of expertise and energy that sets a high standard for historic preservation planning. STEERING COMMITTEE MEMBERS · Jon Campbell, Architect, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation · Derek Chisholm , Historic preservation planner, Otak · Katie Franks, City of Bellingham, Advisory Council On Historic Preservation · Ted Gage, AICP, Planning Association of Washington · Karen Gordon, Seattle Historic Preservation Officer · Kristen Griffin, City/County of Spokane Historic Preservation Officer · Sarah Hansen, Washington State Main Street Program · Carolyn Honeycutt, Ellensburg Downtown Association · Gary Knudson, Historic Tacoma · Julie Koler, King County Historic Preservation Officer · Dennis Lewarch, Suquamish Tribal Historic Preservation Officer, Western WA Tribes, Association for Washington Archaeology · Kevin Lyons, Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Cultural Resources Program Manager · Paul Mann, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation · Patrick McCutcheon, Central Washington University-Anthropology Department · Reuben McKnight, City of Tacoma Historic Preservation Officer · Jennifer Meisner, Washington Trust for Historic Preservation · Kim Pearman-Gillman, Strategic Market Development · Janet Rogerson, Washington State Historical Society · Sara Sodt, Seattle Department of Neighborhoods · Jill Sterrett, FAICP, Washington Chapter of the American Planning Association · David Strauss, SHKS Architects · Steve Stroming, Rafn Company · Susan White, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation · Sharon Winters, Historic Tacoma Page 2
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" · Eugenia Woo, Historic Seattle DAHP STAFF Credit also goes to Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation staff for their investment of time and energy in formulating, reviewing and helping to implement the state historic preservation plan. Appreciation goes to the following DAHP staff members: · Rick Anderson · Allyson Brooks, Ph.D. · Loren Doolittle · Megan Duvall · Susan Goff · Greg Griffith · Russell Holter · Michael Houser · Austin Hull · Gretchen Kaehler · Stephenie Kramer · Morgan McLemore · Matthew Sterner · Annie Strader · Guy Tasa, Ph.D. · Beverly Ubias · Nicholas Vann · Rob Whitlam, Ph.D. · Lance Wollwage, Ph.D. PARTICIPATING NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBES Sincere appreciation is extended to Native American Tribes for their care and dedication to preserving cultural resources and our heritage. Representatives from the following Tribes directly helped to shape the Plan by participating in meetings, reviewing the products and providing comments. Their interest and contributions are greatly appreciated. · Cowlitz Indian Tribe · Confederated Tribes of the Grande Ronde · Kalispel Tribe of Indians · Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe · Lummi Nation Page 3
· Muckleshoot Indian Tribe · Nisqually Indian Tribe · Puyallup Tribe · Samish Tribe · Skokomish Tribe · Quileute Tribe · Snoqualmie Nation · Squaxin Island Tribe · Stillaguamish Tribe · Suquamish Tribe · Swinomish Tribe
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
CONSULTANTS Recognition is also extended to BERK Consulting and Brum and Associates for their hard work in managing and coordinating every phase of the planning process and drafting all documents. Appreciation is given to project leads Teresa Brum and Natasha Fedo.
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right"
Attachment B: Acronyms
American Planning Association
AWC BCC CLG
Association of Washington Cities Washington State Building Code Council Certified Local Governments
CMT COM CRM
Culturally Modified Trees Washington State Department of Commerce Cultural Resource Managers
Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation
Design, Build, Operate, Maintain
Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife
Washington State Department of Natural Resources
Washington State Emergency Management Department
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Geographic Information System
Growth Management Act
HABS HAER HALS
Historic American Building Survey Historic American Engineering Record Historic American Landscape Survey
Infrastructure Assistance Coordinating Council
International Existing Building Code
Washington State Inventory of Cultural Resources
Leadership in Energy and environmental design
National Heritage Areas
National Historic Preservation Act
National Park Service
National Register of Historic Properties
Office of Financial Management
Planning Association of Washington
Resource Advisory Committee
State Environmental Policy Act
State Historic Preservation Office(r)
Traditional Cultural Property
Tribal Historic Preservation Officer
United States Forest Service
Washington Association of Building Officials
WISAARD WSAC WSDOT
Washington Information System for Architectural and Archaeological Records Data Washington Association of Counties Washington State Department of Transportation
Washington Tourism Alliance
Washington Trust for Historic Preservation
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Attachment C: On-line Questionnaire DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update Introduction The Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation (DAHP) is updating the Washington State Historic Preservation Plan to proactively address cultural and historic resource preservation issues and opportunities in Washington State over the next five years. DAHP is looking for your honest input on issues related to preservation of historic and cultural resources. This survey includes both multiple choice and short answer questions. We expect it to take approximately 15 minutes to complete. Please note that you cannot save this survey and finish it at a later time. We greatly appreciate your input. A note about terminology: In practice and for the purposes of this survey and the preservation plan update, we use the phrase "historic preservation" to apply to the active protection of the full range of property types that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. These property types include not only buildings, structures, and districts, but also archaeological sites, traditional cultural properties (TCPs), and landscapes that are often also referred to as "cultural resources." Since there is often confusion about how broadly the term "historic preservation" applies, in the following questions, we use the phrase "archaeological and historic properties" to refer to the full range of property types that is addressed by the state historic preservation plan. Page 6
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update Challenges, Strengths and Opportunities 1. What do you believe are the most critical issues or challenges affecting AWARENESS of the importance of historic buildings, districts, and archeological properties and landscapes in your community: (Please select your Top 4) f ec Lack of interest by government officials
and agencies f ec Lack of preservation education in K-12 schools f ec Need for strategies to attract new people to volunteer f ec Lack of educational materials to demonstrate community and economic benefits f ec Inadequate funding for historic preservation and archaeological site protection activities f ec Teaching about the past and historic places has dropped as a priority in schools f ec Lack of partnerships between organizations and entities f ec Insufficient local protection for historic and archaeological resources Other (please specify) 2. What do you believe are the most critical issues or challenges affecting PROTECTION of historic buildings, districts, and archaeological resources and landscapes in your community: (Please select your Top 4) f ec Incompatible building codes f ec Insufficient communication between agencies and entities f ec Lack of awareness of community and economic benefits of historic preservation f ec Lack of economic incentives f ec Insufficient research to demonstrate importance of historic resources f ec Lack of disaster preparedness for historic properties f ec Insufficient local protection for historic and archaeological resources f ec Pressure to accommodate new development and infrastructure f ec Impact of new energy-efficiency improvements (e.g. window replacements) and energy-generating facilities (e.g. solar panels) on archaeological or historic properties Other (please specify) Page 7
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update 3. Which historic preservation ACTIVITIES would be most effective in your community over the next 5 years: (Please select your Top 4) f ec Changes to local building codes f ec Increased awareness of heritage at the primary and secondary levels of education f ec Strengthening an existing, or establishing a downtown revitalization effort based on the Main Street model f ec Changes to federal or state historic and archaeological resource protection laws and regulations f ec More training, education, networking opportunities f ec Reaching out to engage groups or stakeholders not usually engaged in preservation efforts f ec Enhancing the existing local government programs f ec Increased education for professionals/government officials f ec Strengthening local historic preservation entities and efforts f ec Changes to local regulations that recognize historical and archaeological properties Other (please specify)
4. Which historic preservation TOOLS would be most effective in your community over the next 5 years: (Please select your Top 4)
f ec Computer models for project planners to avoid impacting archaeological & cultural resources f ec Aid or information to increase advocacy efforts f ec Research and information on historic preservation as an approach to energy efficiency and resource conservation f ec Information about or access to qualified companies or individuals in preservation trades, crafts, or services f ec Additional research to aid understanding and evaluating historic and archaeological property types f ec Designation of historic and archaeological properties f ec Adoption of, or updating of, land use planning related policies, plans, regulations, and procedures f ec School programs or curriculum introduced in schools f ec Databases of historic, archaeological, and other cultural resource types f ec Disaster preparedness and response plans for archaeological and historic properties and districts f ec Tax credits or grants for historic and archaeological properties f ec Design guidelines f ec Opportunity to review and comment on projects or plans that may affect historic and archaeological properties
Other (please specify)
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update Priorities 5. What should be a PRIORITY for the state's historic preservation community over the next 5 years? (Please select your TOP 5 priorities) f ec Increasing funding for grants to preserve archaeological and historic properties f ec Nominating endangered archaeological and historic properties to the National Register of Historic Places or Washington Heritage Register f ec Increasing training opportunities for persons interested in preservation trades, skills, services, and planning f ec Increasing public awareness of the benefits of protecting Washington's archaeological and historic properties f ec Working towards revision of state law to better protect historic and archaeological properties f ec Preserving publicly-owned archaeological and historic properties f ec Working with local jurisdictions towards adoption of development regulations, codes, design guidelines, and procedures that address protection of historic and archaeological properties f ec Broadening the participation of people from diverse background in preservation activities f ec Researching impacts of possible sea-level rise to archaeological and historic properties f ec Implementing new incentives for archaeological and historic property preservation f ec Research and promote the connections between historic preservation and environmental sustainability f ec Exploring ways to increase private sector
engagement in protection of archaeological and historic properties f ec Increasing surveys and inventories of archaeological and historic properties Other (please specify) Page 9
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update Historic Preservation Values
6. Please rank the following values associated with historic preservation in order of importance to you.
(Please note that you can click and drag the answer choices into an order from 1 to 5). Historic preservation helps recognize and protect places that are important to all Washington residents regardless of ethnicity, race, 6 or culture. 6 Archaeological and historic properties are important in educating both children and adults about our past. 6 Historic preservation is important in helping to shape the future of Washington and/or my community. 6 Archaeological and historic properties contribute to civic pride and quality of life in Washington State and/or my community. 6 Archaeological and historic properties are important to tourism in Washington State and/or my community.
7. How much do you agree or disagree with the following statements:
Local government officials recognize the benefits of protecting and preserving the architectural, historic, and cultural character of the community. The average person where I live recognizes the benefits of protecting and preserving the architectural, historic, and cultural character of the community. Information on preserving archaeological and historic properties is easily accessible.
nm l kj m l j j nm l kj
nm l kj
nm l kj
nm l kj
m l j
m l j
nm l kj
nm l kj
nm l kj
Strongly Disagree nm l kj m l nm l kj
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update Historic Preservation Plan 8. How familiar are you with the Washington State Historic Preservation Plan "Sustaining Communities through Historic Preservation"? (check one) m l j I'm very familiar with it and refer to it regularly m l j I'm fairly familiar with it and its focus areas m l j I'm somewhat familiar with it m l j I've heard of it m l j I didn't know that Washington had a state historic preservation plan 9. How do you see yourself as being involved with the state Historic Preservation Plan activities? (check all that apply) f ec Joining a preservation organization f ec Meeting with decision-makers f ec Donating to projects or organizations f ec Reviewing and commenting on state and/or local actions that affect historic preservation efforts f ec Researching and writing on topics that interest me f ec Seeking education, training, and employment in a preservation related skill, trade, or service f ec I am currently employed in historic preservation work Other (please specify) 10. Do you have ideas for how preservationists can better use new technologies to achieve preservation planning goals? 11. Who is not involved in historic preservation that should be? What is the best way to reach them? Page
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" Page
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update 12. What other comments would you like to share about future direction of historic preservation in Washington? What else should be considered in this strategic planning process? Page
Washington State Historic Preservation Plan 2014-2019 "Getting The Future Right" DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update Respondent Information *13. Which category best represents your perspective? (check one) m l j Tribal government m l j Federal agency m l j State agency m l j County government m l j City government m l j Other local government m l j University, college or other education institution m l j Historic property owner m l j Nonprofit organization m l j Preservation professional m l j Private citizen m l j Private business m l j Historic property developer m l j Certified Local Government m l j Main Street community m l j Consultant m l j Other (please specify)
*14. Where are you located?
Where are you located?
15. If you would like notification when the 2014 2019 Strategic Plan is ready for public review, please provide your preferred email address:
DAHP Statewide Historic Preservation Plan Update ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ! Thank you for completing this survey. We appreciate your input! Please visit the Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation's web page for more information about the planning efforts: http://www.dahp.wa.gov/2013-2018-statewide-plan 15