Mobile commerce and wireless computing systems

Tags: self-assessment questions, Wireless business, Mobile Systems, Global Positioning Systems, Internet business model, mobile environments, Digital content Services, Mobile applications, operating System concepts, Short Message Service, mobile networking, pervasive Computing, wireless network security, wireless networks, mobile workforce, Personal Area Network, Network intruders, Biometrie Systems, Mobile collaboration, Wireless Local Area Network, Mobile network security, Appendix, Star topology, Mobile terminal, wireless Internet providers, Cellular radio networks, Mobile Internet, Wireless access points, Wireless Application Environment, 2.16.10 Network, Tbc Wireless Session Protocol, Wireless protocols, Group activities, Konfiguration, independent Computing, wireless environments, mobile devices, WAP site, Mobile wireless environments, Target devices, Wireless Transport Layer Security
Content: Mobile Commerce and Wireless Computing Systems Geoffrey Elliott and Nigel Phillips PEARSON Addison Wesley Harlow, England · London · New York - Boston · San Francisco · Toronto Sydney - Tokyo · Singapore · Hong Kong · Seoul - Taipei · New Delhi Cape Town · Madrid - Mexico City · Amsterdam · Munich - Paris · Milan
Contents Preface Aeknowledgements 1 Mobile commerce (M-commerce): definitions and context 1.1 Defining M-commerce 1.2 A short history of wirelcss Computing 1.2.1 First generation wireless communication 1.2.2 Sccond generation wireless communication 1.2.3 Third generation wirelcss communication 1.3 Diffusion of M-commerce innovation 1.4 Obstaeles to M-commerce 1.5 The Mobile Internet and mobile information assets 1.6 The untethered Mobile Internet 1.7 M-commcrce \-crsus E-commerce 1.8 The wireless world 1.9 Pervasive Computing Systems, theory and praetice 1.10 Trends in mobile and pervasive Computing 1.11 Applications of M-commerce 1.12 The trend towards mobile working 1.12.1 Wireless telemetry and wirelcss tclematics 1.12.2 Tracking and monitoring the mobile workforce 1.12.3 Customer-focused produets and Services 1.13 Effeetiveness and efficiency in mobile domains 1.14 The M-commerce Value Chain 1.15 Nctworked wireless business Systems 1.16 Bluetooth technology 1.17 Factors determining M-commeree innovation and adoption in the 2Ist Century 1.17.1 Fivc characteristics of innovation 1.17.2 The socio-tcchnical perspective of technology innovation and adoption 1.18 Conclusions Short sclf-assessmcnt questions and Group aetivity References and Bibliograph}'
vi l Contents
2 Commercial Communications and networks
2.1 Introduetion
2.2 T h e n a t u r e of c o m m e r c i a l c o m m u n i e a t i o n 2.3 Communieation and languaЈe eomplexitv 2.4 Information and meaninЈ
2.4.1 Information as Channel eapacity 2.4.2 Information as a m e a s u r e of variety
2.4.3 Information as a m c a n s of reduein« u n e e r t a i n n 2.4.4 Information as a m e a s u r e of an aftent's ability ' to estimate a parameter 2.5 Data and knowledge 2.6 Shared meaninЈ
2.7 Communieation and information theory 2./.1 Source
2.7.2 Transmitter 2.7.3 Channel 2.7.4 Noisc 2.7.55 Recei\'er 2.7.6 Destination 2.7.7 C h a n n e l s and transportat.I.o.n 2.°.9.2 Unbound medi; 2.10 Modulation and di^itization 2.10.1 Modulation 2.10.2 Digitization
2.11 Communieation network infrastruetures 2.12 Types of e h a n n e l 2.12.1 Circuit switching
2.12.2 Packet switchina
2.12.3 Protoeols and protoeol Stacks 2.13 The International standards Organization referenee Model
2.13.1 Application Layer
2.13.2 2.13.3 2.13.4 2.13.5
Prдsentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer
2.13.6 Data Link Layer 2.13.7 Physieal Layer
2.14 Transport Control Protoeol/Internet Protoeol (TCP/IP)
Contents : vii
2.15 (Communications network deviees
89
2.15.1 Transeei\'ers
89
2.15.2 Rcpeatcrs
89
2.15.3 Bridges
90
2.15.4 Hubs
90
2.15.5 Konters
90
2.15.6 Switches
90
2.15.7 Gateways
90
2.15.8 wireless Access Points
90
2.15.9 Mobile terminal
91
2.16 Network topolojjies
91
2.16.1 Mesh topology
91
2.16.2 Bus topology
92
2.16.3 Star topology
92
2.16.4 Starbus
92
2.16.5 Ilierarchical star
93
2.16.6 Ring
93
2.16.7 Ad hoc wireless
94
2.16.8 Int'rastrueture wireless
94
2.16.9 Piconet
94
2.16.10 Network addrcsses
95
2.17 Conelusions
96
Short self-assessment questions and group activity
97
Ret'erenecs and Bibliograph}'
98
3 Wireless protocols: context and usage
101
3.1 Introduetion
103
3.2 Wireless eellular phonc networks
105
3.2.1 Ilistory and development of eellular radio
networks
106
3.2.2 Current and future eellular communieation
networks
109
?>.2.?> Cellular radio networks
113
3.2.4 Cellular mobility management
115
?>.2.5 Wireless operational t'eatures
116
3.3 The Wireless Applications Protocol (WAP)
117
3.4 WAP arehitecturc layers
122
3.4.1 The Wireless Application Environment (WAE)
layer
124
3.4.2 Tbc Wireless Session Protocol (WSP) layer
124
3.4.3 The Wireless Transaetion Protocol (WTP) layer 125
3.4.4 The Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS) 126
3.4.5 The Wireless Datamini Protocol (WDP) layer
126
VIII
Contents
3.5 WAP funetionality and adaptation 3.6 Service bearer adaptation 3.7 Comparison of wireless and vvired nctwork Internet protoeols 3.8 The Integration of WAP and TCP/IP witbin the OSI arehiteeture model 3.9 The .Mobile Internet 3.9.1 Mobile Internet netvvork Operators 3.9.2 Wireless Internet portal providers 3.10 The Mobile Internet - Services and produets 3.11 Other wireless Internet providers 3.12 A ease study of Mode 3.12.1 iMode serviee Operation 3.12.2 Charaeteristies of iMode 3.13 A comparison of WAP and iMode 3.14 WAP and iMode billing models 3.15 Conelusions Short self-assessment questions and Group activitv Reterences and Bibliography Wireless Programming for mobile devicescontext and usage
127 129 130 132 135 135 136 139 142 143 145 147 148 149 151 152 154 157
4.1 Introduction
4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5
The development and use of the xIITML WML and xIITML eonvergenee A comparison of WML and xIITML transmission protoeols Creating an Internet WAP site
159 161 162 164 165
4.^.1 Step 1 - Downloading an emulator
165
4.^.2 Step 2 - Creating and building the WAP
or xIITML site
4.^.3 Step 3 - Registering and Publishing a WAP site 4.6 Developing a basic WAP site using WMI 4.7 WML and WML Script
4.8 4.9
l]^V\
, a n « u s , ^ c b a s i c s - Clements and attributes
4.10 4.11
WML deck navigation - event and task handling Pusli and pull browsing WML option menus and variables
4.12 Passwords and seeurity in WML
4.13 Handling text formatting, tables and
images in WML
4.14 Capturing and sending information within the
WAP en\'ironmcnt 4.15 Application and web server access securitv
168 169 170 172 173 177 182 183 190 192 194 196
Contents I ix
4.16 WML Scripting within the WAP environment
196
4.16.1 Variables
197
4.16.2 Functions
199
4.16.3 Pragmas
199
4.17 WML Script libraries
201
4.18 WML Script Statements
202
4.19 WAP Site usability issues
205
4.20 Hosting WAP Sites
206
4.21 Conclusions
207
Short self-assessment questions and group activities
208
Referenees and Bibliograph}'
210
Appendix 4.1 Commonly used WML tags
211
Appendix 4.2 Commonly used HTML tags
215
5 Operating Systems: micro and macro devices
217
5.1 Introduetion
219
5.2 Target devices
219
5.3 Mobile-specitie operating Systems requirements
222
5.3.1 Wireless networking
222
5.3.2 Loeation independent Computing
223
5.3.3 Physical constraints of devices
223
5.3.4 Inereased levels of uncertainty in the
environment
223
5.3.5 Dit'ferenees in psyehologieal affordanee of
small devices
224
5.4 Operating Systems basics for wireless
understanding
224
5.5 Operating System abstractions
227
5.5.1 Systems proeesses
228
5.5.2 Multi-proeessing environments
228
5.5.3 Memory management
229
5.5.4 Virtual memory
231
5.6 Information protection and security
231
5.7 Scheduling and resouree management
232
5.8 Dividing to rule
234
5.9 Modern operating System concepts
236
5.9.1 The kernef
236
5.9.2 Multi-threading
237
5.9.3 Object-oriented programming
238
5.10 Operating Systems requirements for mobile devices
239
5.10.1 Wireless netvvorks and telephony
239
5.10.2 Processing power
240
5.10.3 Computing and eomputation
241
5.10.4 Mobile memory
241
5.10.5 Mobile network security
241
5.10.6 Multimedia
243
Contents
o.ll Mobile applications 5.11.1 vdard 5.11.2 vdalendar 5.11.3 Messaging 0.11.4 Subseriber Identity Module (SLM) 5.12 The Java \'irtual Maehine (JYM) 5.12.1 Java 2 Miero Edition 0.12.2 (Konfiguration and profile;0.12.3 Java Connected Deviee (Konfiguration (CDC) 0.12.4 Ja\-a Connected, Limited Device (Konfiguration (C(KDC) implementation 0.12.5 JavaPhone 5.12.6 JavaCard - smart eards ^.13 Mobile deviee operating svstems 5.13.1 PalmOS
5.13.2 Embedded Microsoft Windows
0.13.3 Svmbian
- i i /-1
·
o. 14 O o m p a n s o n s ot mobile deviee platforms
0.15 (Kondusions
Short self-assessment questions and Croup activities Referenees and P>ibliography
Personal area and mobile networking
6.1 Introduetion
6.2 The d e v e l o p m e n t of area networks
6.2.1 Personal Operating Space (POS)
6.2.2 Personal Area Networks (PAXs)
6.2.3 personal information applianees 6.3 Wireless-enabled domestie applianees
6.4 Environment eharaetcristies
6.4.1 Mobile wireless environments
6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4
Statie wireless environments Smart Spaces Biddable Spaces
6.5 Loeal Area Networks (LANs)
6.0.1 The network baekbone
6.5.2 Fibre Distrihuted Data Interface (FDDI)
6.5.3 E t h e r n e t 6.5.4 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
(Kollision Deteetion (CS.NLVCD) 6.6 Wireless Networks
6.6.1 Power, rдnge and data rate
6.6.2 IEEE 802.11b wireless Ethernet
-,,, "44 ^4S 246 ~>^ 247 249 250 250 251 251 251 252 252 -57 2260 262 263 ^,()\ 267 269 270 271 273 -Wo 276 27S 278 27(S -2>-79 279 ->-9 179 "^(S() 280 281 81 282
Contents
6.6.3 CSMA/CA 6.6.4 802.11a 6.6.5 IIiperLAN2 6.7 Personal area network intelligent gateways 6.8 Bluetooth teehnoloЈy 6.9 Bluetooth radio freqneney Channels 6.10 Bluetooth pieonets 6.10.1 Network master and slaves 6.10.2 Seatternets 6.11 Establishing and maintaining wireless eonnections 6.11.1 Wireless operating modes 6.11.2 Creating" network eonnections 6.12 The physieal eonnection 6.12.1 Time-slots 6.12.2 Frequeney-hopping 6.12.3 Seeurity 6.12.4 IEEE 802.15 6.13 Wireless survcillanee 6.14 Wireless Service diseovery and use 6.14.1 .11X1 6.14.2 Universal Flu« and l'lay (UPnP) 6.14.3 Salutation 6.15 Conclusions Short selt'-assessment ciuestions and (iroup aetivity Referenees and Bibliography Wireless applications: push and pull Services and produets
1.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13
Introduction WAP push and pull messaging The Short Message Service (SMS) SMS prieing Push profiling Profiling Cookies Base platt'orm Services 7.7.1 Digital content Services 7.7.2 Digital content produets M-eommeree Services for e o n s u m e r s Electronic cash (e-eash) Mobile electronic banking (e-banking) Mobile alerts Mobile gambling M - e o m m e r e e Services l'or business 7.13.1 Wireless business-to-business 7.13.2 Mobile collaboration 7.13.3 Wireless business-to-eonsumer
282 284 284 285 287 289 290 290 291 292 293 294 296 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 304 304 305 306 307 311 313 314 316 318 318 319 320 322 323 324 326 327 330 330 331 331 333 334
Contents
7.14 Wireless Internet business model /. 1 .-> Mobility and loeation 7.L-..1 Global Positioning Systems (GPSs) 7.15.2 Mobile network loeation /.15.3 Loeation triangulation /.16 Mobile systems thinking 7.1/ Wireless business applieations 7.17.1 Statie mobile environments 7.17.2 Loeation-response mobile environments 7.17.3 Dedieated-embedded mobile environments /.17.4 Wireless Systems Connectivity 7.1/.5 Wireless Systems flexibility 7.18 The economics of wireless Internet data 7.19 Mobile Multimedia Portals (MMPs) 7.20 Gonclusions Short self-assessment questions and Group activity References and Bibliographv Appendix 7.1 SMS te.xting 8 Pervasive and embedded mobile Systems 8.1 Defining pervasive Computing 8.2 Technologies vvithin the pervasive Computing domain 8.3 Netvvorked pervasive Computing «.3.1 First gencration pervasive Computing 8.3.2 Seeond gencration pervasive Computing (and beyond) 8.4 Embedded Systems ergonomies 8.5 Wearable Computing 8.6 Biometrie Systems 8.6.1 Fingerprints 8.6.2 Hand geometry 8.6.3 Facial features 8.6.4 Eye features 8.6.5 Voiee features 8.6.6 Signature features 8. / Biometrie issues and Systems securitv 8.8 Biometrie Systems applieations 8.9 Biometrie systems integration 8.10 Digital signatures 8.11 Automobile telematics and vehicle telemetrv 8.12 In-vehicle user Interfaces and applieations 8.12.1 Voicc-aetivated interfaces 8.12.2 Internet applieations 8.13 Universal Information Appliances (UIAs) 8.14 Obstacles in pervasive Computing
335 338 338 340 \41 ^ 345 345 345 346 346 348 353 356 157 359 361 363 365 368 370 37! 372 373 374 380 381 381 382 382 382 383 383 386 388 389 yn 393 394 394 397 399
Contents , xiii
(S.15 Conelusions
400
Short self-assessment questions and Group aetivity
401
Ret'erenees and Bibliograph}'
403
Appendix 8.1: MKMS - Big Ideas for Small Devices
404
9 Security in a mobile world
409
9.1 Introduetion
411
9.2 Aspeets of seeuritv
412
9.2.1 General seeuritv issues
413
9.2.2 Genenil seeuritv threats
413
9.2.3 Mundane threats
414
9.2.4 Poliey
415
9.3 Wireless network security
415
9.3.1 Network environments
415
9.3.2 Communieation Channel threats
416
9.3.3 Misappropriation and misuse threats
418
9.4 Aeeess eontrol
418
9.5 Kncryption
420
9.5.1 Codes
421
9.5.2 Code breaking
422
9.6 The Diffie-IIellman key agreement method
424
9.7 Seeuritv aspeets of wireless networks
425
9.8 Wide area wireless network security - 3G
426
9.8.1 User domain roles
428
9.8.2 Infrastrueture domain roles
429
9.8.3 Network traffie
430
9.8.4 Network intruders
430
9.8.5 Off-line parties
430
9.8.6 Mobile terminals and UICC
430
9.8.7 Radio interface
431
9.8.8 Wired interl'aees
431
9.8.9 Home environments and users
432
9.8.10 Rcquirenients to reduee or avoid vulnerabilitics 432
9.9 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) security teatures 433
9.9.1 IKEE 802.11b
434
9.9.2 Service Set Identifier (SSID)
435
9.9.3 The authentieation protoeol
436
9.9.4 Wired Equivalent Privaey (WEP)
437
9.10 Bluetooth and Personal Area Network (PAN) security
438
9.10.1 Ad hoc network vulnerabilitics
439
9.11 Bluetooth baseband seeuritv
440
9.12 Bluetooth security profiles
443
9.13 The headset seeuritv model
444
9.14 Seeuring small deviees
447
9.15 Conelusions
448
Short selt'-assessment questions and Group aetivity
449
Ret'erenees and Bibliograph}'
450
xiv ! Contents
10 Enabling the mobile workforce: extending enterprise applications
10.1 The agile and mobile workforce 10.2 Supporting the mobile workforce 10.2.1 Device and teehnology maintenanee 10.2.2 Integrating killer apps 10.2.3 The cost of mobile worker aecess 10.3 Mobile Systems development 10.4 Issues in M-eommeree 10.5 Privaey 10.6 Social, ethieal and legal issues 10.7 Ethieal business bchaviour 10.8 Ethieal issues
10.9 Ethieal dilemmas in wireless business Systems 10.10 R10ig.1h0ts.1anDd udtuietsies, and Privileges and responsibilities 10.10.2 Rights 10.10.3 Privileges 10.10.4 Responsibilities 10.11 Trust and control 10.11.1 Confidentialitv
10.11.2 Freedom and eapabilities
10.11.3 Freedom from eonstraint
10.11.4 Freedom to partieipate
10.12 Surveillanee
10.13 Data protection
10.13.1 Data protection principles
10.13.2 Monitoring at work
10.14 Impaet analysis using a real-world Case Study
10.15 Conelusions
'
Ol
'
Short selt-asscssment questions
Refcrcnces and Hibliography
Appendix 10.1 Impaet analysis using a real-world
case studv
M-commeree glossarv Index
431 455 457 457 458 459 46() 462 463 463 465 AS / 467 468 468 469 469 469 470 471 479 47 -> 471 474 47475 477 4SI ,,,-. 4More Information ein be found at: www.booksites.net/elliottpliillips