Modern control systems

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Content: Modern control systems Twelfth Edition Richard C. Dorf University of California, Davis Robert H. Bishop Marquette University PEARSON Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo
Contents
Preface 11 About the Authors 22
1 CHAPTER Introduction to control systems 23 1.1 Introduction 24 1.2 Brief History of Automatic Control 27 1.3 Examples of Control Systems 32 1.4 engineering design 39 1.5 Control system design 40 1.6 Mechatronic Systems 43 1.7 Green Engineering 47 1.8 The Future Evolution of Control Systems 49 1.9 design examples 50 1.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 54 1.11 Summary 56 Skills Check 57 · Exercises 59 · Problems 61 · Advanced Problems 66 · Design Problems 68 · Terms and Concepts 70
2 CHAPTER mathematical models of Systems 71
2.1 Introduction 72
2.2 differential equations of Physical Systems 72
2.3 Linear Approximations of Physical Systems 77
2.4 The Laplace Transform 80
2.5 The transfer function of linear systems 87
2.6 Block diagram Models 101
2.7 Signal-Flow Graph Models 106
2.8 Design Examples 112
2.9 The Simulation of Systems Using Control Design Software 135
2.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 150
2.11 Summary 152
Skills Check 153 · Exercises 157 · Problems 163 · Advanced Problems 175 · Design Problems 177 · Computer Problems 179
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Terms and Concepts 181
3 CHAPTER State Variable Models 183 3.1 Introduction 184 3.2 The state variables of a Dynamic System 184 5
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Contents
3.3 The State Differential Equation 188 3.4 Signal-Flow Graph and Block Diagram Models 193 3.5 Alternative Signal-Flow Graph and Block Diagram Models 204 3.6 The Transfer Function from the State Equation 209 3.7 The Time Response and the State Transition Matrix 211 3.8 Design Examples 215 3.9 Analysis of State Variable Models Using Control Design Software 228 3.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 231 3.11 Summary 235 Skills Check 236 · Exercises 239 · Problems 242 · Advanced Problems 249 · Design Problems 252 · Computer Problems 253 · Terms and Concepts 254
4 CHAPTER Feedback Control System Characteristics 256 4.1 Introduction 257 4.2 Error Signal Analysis 259 4.3 Sensitivity of Control Systems to Parameter Variations 261 4.4 Disturbance Signals in a Feedback Control System 264 4.5 Control of the Transient Response 269 4.6 Steady-State Error 272 4.7 The Cost of Feedback 275 4.8 Design Examples 276 4.9 Control System Characteristics Using Control Design Software 290 4.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 295 4.11 Summary 299 Skills Check 301 · Exercises 305 · Problems 309 · Advanced Problems 315 · Design Problems 318 · Computer Problems 322 Terms and Concepts 325
CHAPTER 5 The Performance of Feedback Control Systems 326 5.1 Introduction 327 5.2 Test Input Signals 327 5.3 Performance of Second-Order Systems 330 5.4 Effects of a Third Pole and a Zero an the Second-Order System Response 336 5.5 The s-Plane Root Location and the Transient Response 342 5.6 The Steady-State Error of Feedback Control Systems 344 5.7 Performance Indices 352 5.8 The Simplification of Linear Systems 361 5.9 Design Examples 364 5.10 System Performance Using Control Design Software 378 5.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 382
Contents
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5.12 Summary 386 Skills Check 386 · Exercises 390 · Problems 393 · Advanced Problems 399 · Design Problems 401 · Computer Problems 404 · Terms and Concepts 406
6 CHAPTER The Stability of Linear Feedback Systems 408
6.1 The Concept of Stability 409
6.2 The Routh--Hurwitz Stability Criterion 413
6.3 The Relative Stability of Feedback Control Systems 421
6.4 The Stability of State Variable Systems 423
6.5 Design Examples 426
6.6 System Stability Using Control Design Software 435
6.7 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 443
6.8 Summary 446
Skills Check 447 · Exercises 450 · Problems 452 · Advanced Problems 457 · Design Problems 460 · Computer Problems 462
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Terms and Concepts 464
7 CHAPTER The Root Locus Method 465 7.1 Introduction 466 7.2 The Root Locus Concept 466 7.3 The Root Locus Procedure 471 7.4 Parameter Design by the Root Locus Method 489 7.5 Sensitivity and the Root Locus 495 7.6 PID Controllers 502 7.7 Negative Gain Root Locus 514 7.8 Design Examples 518 7.9 The Root Locus Using Control Design Software 532 7.10 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 538 7.11 Summary 540 Skills Check 544 · Exercises 548 · Problems 552 · Advanced Problems 561 · Design Problems 565 · Computer Problems 571 · Terms and Concepts 573
8 CHAPTER Frequency Response Methods 575
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6
Introduction 576 Frequency Response Plots 578 Frequency Response Measurements 599 Performance Specifications in the Frequency Domain 601 Log Magnitude and Phase Diagrams 604 Design Examples 605
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Contents
8.7 Frequency Response Methods Using Control Design Software 618 8.8 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 624 8.9 Summary 625 Skills Check 630 · Exercises 635 · Problems 638 · Advanced Problems 648 · Design Problems 650 · Computer Problems 653 · Terms and Concepts 655
9 CHAPTER Stability in the Frequency Domain 656 9.1 Introduction 657 9.2 Mapping Contours in the s-Plane 658 9.3 The Nyquist Criterion 664 9.4 Relative Stability and the Nyquist Criterion 675 9.5 Time-Domain Performance Criteria in the Frequency Domain 683 9.6 System Bandwidth 690 9.7 The Stability of Control Systems with Time Delays 690 9.8 Design Examples 695 9.9 PID Controllers in the Frequency Domain 713 9.10 Stability in the Frequency Domain Using Control Design Software 714 9.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 722 9.12 Summary 725 Skills Check 733 · Exercises 737 · Problems 743 · Advanced Problems 753 · Design Problems 757 · Computer Problems 762 · Terms and Concepts 764
10 CHAPTER The Design of Feedback Control Systems 765 10.1 Introduction 766 10.2 Approaches to System Design 767 10.3 Cascade Compensation Networks 769 10.4 Phase-Lead Design Using the Bode Diagram 773 10.5 Phase-Lead Design Using the Root Locus 779 10.6 System Design Using Integration Networks 786 10.7 Phase-Lag Design Using the Root Locus 789 10.8 Phase-Lag Design Using the Bode Diagram 794 10.9 Design an the Bode Diagram Using analytical methods 798 10.10 Systems with a Prefilter 800 10.11 Design for Deadbeat Response 803 10.12 Design Examples 805 10.13 System Design Using Control Design Software 818 10.14 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 824 10.15 Summary 826 Skills Check 828 · Exercises 832 · Problems 836 · Advanced Problems 845 · Design Problems 848 · Computer Problems 853 · Terms and Concepts 855
Contents
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CHAPTER 11 The Design of State Variable Feedback Systems 856
11.1 Introduction 857 11.2 Controllability and Observability 857 11.3 Full-State Feedback Control Design 863 11.4 Observer Design 869 11.5 Integrated Full-State Feedback and Observer 873 11.6 Reference Inputs 879 11.7 optimal control Systems 881 11.8 Internal Model Design 891 11.9 Design Examples 895 11.10 State Variable Design Using Control Design Software 904 11.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 910 11.12 Summary 912 Skills Check 912 · Exercises 916 · Problems 918 · Advanced Problems 922 · Design Problems 925 · Computer Problems 928 · Terms and Concepts 930
12 CHAPTER Robust Control Systems 932 12.1 Introduction 933 12.2 Robust Control Systems and System Sensitivity 934 12.3 Analysis of Robustness 938 12.4 Systems with Uncertain Parameters 940 12.5 The Design of Robust Control Systems 942 12.6 The Design of Robust PID-Controlled Systems 948 12.7 The Robust Internal Model Control System 954 12.8 Design Examples 957 12.9 The Pseudo-Quantitative Feedback System 974 12.10 Robust Control Systems Using Control Design Software 975 12.11 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 980 12.12 Summary 982 Skills Check 983 · Exercises 987 · Problems 989 · Advanced Problems 993 · Design Problems 996 · Computer Problems 1002 · Terms and Concepts 1004
CHAPTER 13 Digital Control Systems 1006 13.1 Introduction 1007 13.2 Digital Computer Control System Applications 1007 13.3 Sampled-Data Systems 1009 13.4 The z-Transform 1012 13.5 Closed-Loop Feedback Sampled-Data Systems 1017
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Contents
13.6 Performance of a Sampled-Data, Second-Order System 1021 13.7 Closed-Loop Systems with Digital Computer Compensation 1023 13.8 The Root Locus of Digital Control Systems 1026 13.9 Implementation of Digital Controllers 1030 13.10 Design Examples 1031 13.11 Digital Control Systems Using Control Design Software 1040 13.12 Sequential Design Example: Disk Drive Read System 1045 13.13 Summary 1047 Skills Check 1047 · Exercises 1051 · Problems 1053 · Advanced Problems 1055 · Design Problems 1056 · Computer Problems 1058 · Terms and Concepts 1059
A APPENDIX MATLAB Basics 1060 References 1078 Index 1093
dr.), Web resources B APPENDIX MathScript RT Module Basics C APPENDIX Symbols, Units, and conversion factors D APPENDIX Laplace Transform Pairs E APPENDIX An Introduction to Matrix Algebra F APPENDIX Decibel Conversion G APPENDIX complex numbers H APPENDIX z-Transform Pairs Preface I APPENDIX Discrete-Time Evaluation of the Time Response

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