Polymer handbook

Tags: Maurice Morton Institute of Polymer Science, Polymer Handbook, Akron, Ohio, USA, University of Akron, literature, contributors, Universitat Osnabriick, polymer research, Kyoto University, Michigan Molecular Institute, polymer solutions, Central Research and Development Department, Spectroscopic data, polymer molecule, electronic data, Takamatsu, Kagawa, physical constants, USA Santos, FR Germany Tsunashima, M. Coca Cola Company, Japan Schrader, University of Washington, A. M. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena, FR Germany Rothe, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA Wunderlich, J. C. Chemical Engineering Department, Osaka, Japan, University of Texas at Austin, S. Fachlaboratorium, FR Germany Rule, technical literature, polymer molecules, Russian Federation Andrews, A. Abe, Copyright Clearance Center, Materials Engineering Department, Contributors Abe, E. A. Grulke, SONS, INC. New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto, acid-free paper, J. Wiesbaden, United States Copyright Act, Maurice Morton Institute of Polymers Science, Polymer Science, Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., IUPAC nomenclature, erroneous data, M. Department of Chemistry, Associate Editors, E. A. GRULKE Associate Editors, E. H. IMMERGUT, WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PUBLICATION, J. Brandrup, A. ABE D. R. BLOCH, polymer chemists, A. Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Germany Greenley, Akron, Ohio, USA Furuta, Yokkaichi, Mie, University of Queensland, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Japan Jenkins, University of Sussex, Lexington, Kentucky, USA, Japan, Fukui University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, USA Fink, Japan Synthetic Rubber Company Ltd., FR Germany Fink, Fraunhofer Institut, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Maurice Morton Institute and Department of Polymer Science, FR Germany Fouassier, National University of Singapore, University of Kentucky, Laboratoire de Chimie, Midland, Michigan, Japan Synthetic Rubber Company, A. Department of Macromolecular Science, School of Engineering Case Western University, A. D. School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science, Griffith University, Chemical Engineering Department, Osaka, Japan Nordmeier, FR Germany Nagai, Jr. Chemistry Division, R. A. College of William and Mary, Osnabriick FR Germany Ogo, The Dow Chemical Company, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA Quirk, Universitat Mainz, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, S. Plastics Technical Association, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, FR Germany Leonard, Materials Engineering, J. School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science, K. Department of Polymer Chemistry, E. Physikalische Chemie, Physikalische Chemie, FR Germany Peebles, Japan Orwoll, Naval Research Laboratory, Y. Research Institute for Solvothermal Technology, Ohio University
Content: POLYMER HANDBOOK FOURTH EDITION Editors J.BRANDRUP, E. H. IMMERGUT, and E. A. GRULKE Associate Editors A. ABE D. R. BLOCH A WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PUBLICATION JOHNWlLEY & SONS, INC. New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto
This book is printed on acid-free paper. @
Copyright © 1999 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Published simultaneously in Canada.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ @ WILEY.COM.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Puhlication Data:
Polymer Handbook / Editors: J. Brandrup, E. H. Immergut, and
E. A. Grulke;
Associate Editors, A. Abe, D. R. Bloch. - 4th ed.
p. cm.
"A Wiley-Interscience Publication."
Includes index.
ISBN 0-471-16628-6 (cloth : alk. paper)
1. Polymers--Tables. 2. Polymerization--Tables. I. Brandrup, J.
II. Immergut, E. H. III. Grulke, Eric A.
QD388.P65 1999
547.7-dc21
98-37261
Printed in the United States of America.
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Contributors
Abe, A. Tokyo Institute of Polytechnics, Atsugi, Japan Allegra, G. Dipartimento di Chimica del Politecnico, Milano, Italy Andreeva, L. N. Institute of High Molecular Weight Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation Andrews, R, J. Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA Bai, F. The Maurice Morton Institute of Polymer Science, Univeristy of Akron, Akron, USA Bareiss, R. E. editorial office, Macromolecular chemistry and Physics, Mainz, FR Germany Barrales-Rienda, J. M. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polfmeros, Madrid, Spain Bello, A. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polfmeros, Madrid, Spain Bello, P. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polfmeros, Madrid, Spain Bloch, D. R. Lakeshore Research, Racine, Wisconsin, USA Brandrup, J. Wiesbaden, FR Germany Calhoun, B. H. The Maurice Morton Institute of Polymers Science, University of Akron, Akron USA Casassa, E. F. Department of Chemistry, Carneagfe-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Cheng, S. Z. D. The Maurice Morton Institute of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA Chiu, F.-C. The Maurice Morton Institute of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA Cho, J. Polymer Science and Engineering Department, Dankook University, Seoul, South Korea Collins, E. A. Avon Lake, Ohio, USA Daniels, C. A. The Geon Company, Avon Lake, Ohio, USA DeLassus, P. T. The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, Texas, USA Dixon, K. W. Akzo Nobel Chemicals, Inc., Dobbs Ferry, New York, USA
Elias, H.-G. Michigan Molecular Institute, Midland, Michigan, USA Fink, G. Max-Planck-Institut fur Kohlenforschung, Miilheim an der Ruhr, FR Germany Fink, H.-P. Fraunhofer Institut fiir angewandte Polymerforschung, TeltowSeehof, FR Germany Fouassier, J. P. Laboratoire de Photochimie Generate, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Mulhouse, France Fu, Q. The Maurice Morton Institute and Department of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA Furuta, I. Japan Synthetic Rubber Company Ltd., Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan Ganster, J. Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research, TeltowSeehof, Germany Greenley, R. Z. Monsanto Corporation (retired), St. Louis, Missouri, USA Grulke, E. A. Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA Goh, S. H. Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore Guzman G. M. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologfa de Polfmeros, Madrid, Spain Hill, D. J. T. Department of Chemistry, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Australia Hiltner, A. Department of Macromolecular Science, School of Engineering Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Inomata, K. Department of Polymer Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan Iwama, M. Japan Synthetic Rubber Company Ltd., Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan Jenkins, A. D. School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, UK Jenkins, J. School of Chemistry, Physics and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Brighton, Sussex, UK
Johnson, M. Chemistry/Physics Library, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA Kamachi, M. Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen, Fukui, Japan Kerbow, D. L. DuPont Fluoroproducts, Wilmington, Delaware, USA Kimura, S.-L Japan Synthetic Rubber Company Ltd., Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan Korte, S. Zentrale Ferschung, Bayer AG, Leverkunsen, FR Germany Krause, S. Department of Chemistry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA Kurata, M. Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan Lechner, M. D. Physikalische Chemie, Universitat Osnabriick, Osnabriick, FR Germany Leonard, J. Department de Chimie and CERSIM, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada Li, F. The Maurice Morton Institute of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA Liggat, J. Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland Lindemann, M. Greenville, South Carolina, USA Luft, G. Institut fur Chemische Technologie, Technische Hochschule, Darmstadt, FR Germany Magill, J. H. School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA McKenna, T. F. Centre Nationale de Ia Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Chimie et Procedes de Polymerisation/Departement Genie des Procedes, Villeurbanne, France Mehta, R. H. Dupont Nylon, Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA Mettle, S. V. Dipartimento di Chimica del Politecnico, Milano, Italy Metanomski, W. V. Chemical Abstracts Service, Columbus, Ohio, USA Michielsen, S. School of Textile and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Miller, R. L. Michigan Molecular Institute, Midland, Michigan, USA Morita, Y. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki, Gunma-ken, Japan
Muck, K.-F. Ticona GmbH, Kelsterbach, FR Germany Nagai, S. Plastics Technical Association, Osaka, Japan Nordmeier, E. Physikalische Chemie, Universitat Osnabriick, Osnabriick FR Germany Ogo, Y. Research Institute for Solvothermal Technology, Hayashi, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan Orwoll, R. A. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, USA Pauly, S. Fachlaboratorium fur Permeationspriifung, Wiesbaden, FR Germany Peebles, L. H., Jr. Chemistry Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA Perera, M. C. S. Magnetic Resonance Facility, School of Science, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia Porzio, W. Instituto di Chimica delle Macromolecole del C.N.R., Milano, Italy Pyda, M. Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA Quirk, R. P. The Maurice Morton Institute of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA Riande, E. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros, Madrid, Spain Richter, W. J. Max-Planck-Institut fur Kohlenforschung, Miilheim an der Ruhr, FR Germany Rothe, M. University of UIm, UIm, FR Germany Rule, M. Coca Cola Company, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Salort, J. F. Madrid, Spain Salom, C. Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica, Madrid, Spain Sanchez, I. C. Chemical engineering Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA Santos, A. M. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena - FAENQUIL, Lorena, Sao Paulo, Brazil Schoff, C. K. PPG Industries, Allison Park, Pennsylvania, USA Schuld, N. Institut fur Physikalische Chemie, Universitat Mainz, Mainz, FR Germany
Seferis, J. C. Chemical Engineering Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA Seguchi, T. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki, Gunma-ken, Japan Schrader, D. The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan, USA Sperati, C. A. Chemical Engineering Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA Steinmeier, D. G. Physikalische Chemie, Universitat Osnabriick, Osnabruck, FR Germany Tsunashima, Y. Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto, Japan Tsvetkov, N. V. Institute of High Molecular Weight Compounds, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation Tsvetkov, V. N. Institute of High Molecular Weight Compounds, Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation Ueda, A. Osaka Municipal Technical Research Institute, Morinomiya, Joto-ku, Osaka, Japan
Wagener, K. B. Department of Chemistry and Center for Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA Whiteman, N. F. The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, Texas, USA Witenhafer, D. E. Dublin, Ohio, USA Wolf, B. A. Institut fur Physikalische Chemie, Universitat Mainz, Mainz, FR Germany Wu, S. E. I. DuPont de Nemours, Central Research and development Department, Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware Wunderlich, B. Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA Wunderlich, W. ROHM GmbH, Darmstadt, FR Germany Yamada, B. Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka, Japan Zhu, L. The Maurice Morton Institute of Polymer Science, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA
Preface
The purpose of the Polymer Handbook is to bring together the data and constants needed in theoretical and experimental polymer research. All polymer researchers have experienced the frustration of searching for data in the everexpanding polymer literature and know the difficulties involved in trying to locate a particular constant that is buried in a long journal article. The contributors to this Handbook have taken on the arduous task of searching the literature and compiling the data and constants that polymer chemists, polymer physicists, and polymer engineers are likely to need. The 520 and odd tables in this Handbook are divided into eight sections. The first lists the IUPAC nomenclature rules for polymers and the International System of Units. Although several naming conventions exist in the technical literature, IUPAC names permit a consistent listing of all polymers. Section II contains data and constants needed for polymer synthesis, kinetic mechanisms, and thermodynamic studies of polymerization and depolymerization reactions. Sections III and IV contain physical constants of monomers, solvents, and oligomers. Section V lists the physical constants of many important commercial polymers. Section VI and VII cover the solid state properties of polymers and the properties of polymer solutions. Section VIII of the Handbook lists the commonly used abbreviations or acronyms for polymers and Chemical Abstract Registry Numbers, and gives suggestions for electronic data searching for polymer information. This section should also be consulted in the few cases where contributors have not used IUPAC nomenclature. As in the previous editions, the Polymer Handbook concentrates on synthetic polymers, poly(saccharides) and derivatives, and oligomers. Few data on biopolymers are included. Spectroscopic data as well as data needed by engineers and designers, such as mechanical and rheological data, are minimized, since many excellent compilations exist elsewhere. Only fundamental constants and parameters that refer to the polymer molecule, that describe the solid state of polymer molecules, or that describe polymer solutions, were compiled. Constants that depend on processing conditions or on sample history were not emphasized, as they can be found in existing plastics handbooks and encyclopedias.
A critical evaluation of the values published in the literature was not attempted, since such a task would have required an inordinate amount of time and a sizable staff. Therefore, the users of this Handbook should consult the original literature for details when in doubt about the validity of any data. (The authors of the individual tables were nevertheless requested to eliminate obviously erroneous data from otherwise complete compilations.) The Fourth Edition revisions have focused on data generated in the ten years since the publication of the Third Edition. Therefore, a completely revised Polymer Handbook has been prepared. We have added new tables and incorporated a large amount of new data into existing tables. As a result, the Fourth Edition contains approximately twenty-five percent more data, and the number of pages has increased from about 1850 in the Third Edition to about 2250. We hope that this new edition will be as useful to the polymer research community as the three earlier editions and that many of the Polymer Handbook's previous users will also obtain the Fourth Edition for their laboratory and library. The publisher plans a CD-ROM for the Polymer Handbook in the near future. We would be grateful if our contributors and users send us any new data they accumulate in the course of their research, and any errors, misprints, omissions and other flaws. We will pass on such data to the publisher, for the polymer database, and for future editions of this Handbook. We would like to thank all of the contributors to the Polymer Handbook for their help and continued patience. The staff at John Wiley, especially Carla Fjerstad, Shirley Thomas, and Jacqueline Kroschwitz, have provided excellent help and support in getting all the work done. We hope that the outstanding efforts of all these people will find due appreciation among the users of this Handbook.
July, 1998
J. Brandrup E. H. Immergut E. A. Grulke A. Abe D. R. Bloch

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