examination, Kacie Grier, animal protection, aggressive dogs, gender differences, ISAZ, nature movement, Animal Medical Center, women and animals, biological determinism, Erika Friedmann, American University, Andrew Rowan, Cindy Somers, Animals and Nature, animal cruelty, Maureen Adams, W. Carolina University, Cambridge University, animals in the wild, Brandy Bourne, Susanne Abromaitis, research interests, Hunting the Wren, colorful pageant, melodious song, UK, World Small Animal Veterinary Association, Cedar Crest College, Tufts University, Anthony Podberscek, non-human animals, Lynette Hart, Susan Phillips Cohen, early 20th century, Temple University, animal rights, gender effects, feminist movement, Remembering Aline Kidd Lynette Hart, social cause, Myrna Milani, Interactions of Animals & Society, Humane Society of the United States, Animal Exploitation, dog, dogs, human behaviors, canine aggression, leadership status, J. American Veterinary Medical Association, Animal Geographies, Massachusetts Society for the Prevention, Cindy Wilson, Edinburgh University, Ohio State University, Theodore Roosevelt, American children's literature, Jeremy Bentham, Interaction of Animals and Society, domestic animals, animal protectionism, the animal protection movement, James Serpell, University of South Carolina, Emily Bronte, University of Pennsylvania, University of Minnesota
(GLWRU Jo Swabe (NL) $VVRFLDWH (GLWRU Penny Bernstein (USA) 4390398
Power, Money and Gender: Status hierarchies and the animal
protection movement in the United States Hal Herzog
Unlocking Pandora's Box: A practitioner's view of gender effects
in canine agression Myrna Milani
The Equality of Bodies: Animal Exploitation and Human Welfare
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Center for Animals in Society Lynette Hart
Center for the Interactions of Animals & Society James Serpell
Reviews of Ryder's The Political Animal; Lawrence's Hunting the
Wren; Stewart's Companion Animal Death and Wolch & Emel's
Plus, info on books Hot of the Presses and News from the Net
Remembering Aline Kidd Lynette Hart
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ISAZ 1999 Penny Bernstein
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Conference announcements galore
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Guidelines for conference & symposium organisers; special notice;
hTis being said, the visibility of wom$eUnWLaFs OiHntVell5ecHtFuaHlLaYnHdGpolitical figures within animal protection circles does not mirror their predominance at the grassroots level. Take, for
example, The animal rights
mAonivmemales'ntAPignOetnhWdeaUE, tnRhiet,epdMeSrOitoadNteicsEa. lYEtfhfAaietNhHaDusdeGsmoEneraNgneDddIEasaRntah:leyhzeodusteheorggeanndefor r
composition oSf TcoAnTtrUibSutHorIsEtRoA7R4CisHsuIEesSoAf NThDe TAHgeEndAaNpIuMbAlisLhePdRbOeTtwEeCeTnI1O9N84 and 1997.
Many of these issues featMureOdVaEpMroEfiNleToIrNinTteHrvEieUwNwITitEhDa pSrToAmTinEeSnt movement leader, and
we were interested in the gender of individuals featured in these articles. We also examined the gender of writers of letters to the edHitaorroalnddHtheerzaougthors of the books reviewed in these issues. Our resultDs ienpdaircttmedentthaotfwPshyilcehwoloomgye,nWmeaskteerunpCnaeraorlliyna80U%nivoefrAsigtyen, da readers and wrote 61% of the 652 letters to tCheulelodwitohre,et.hNeyCc2o8m7p2r3is,eUdSaAm. inority (40%) of authors of the 312 books reviewed in these issueEs.-mFuaritlh: ehre,[email protected]
wthcaun.ehdaulf of the profiles and interviews of
prominent activists (25 of 61) featured women.
AOnotthheerwihnodleex, wofoimnfelnueanrecemwoirtehicnonanceimrnaeldprotecmtieoenticnigrcolef sthceoImnetesrfnraotmionaarleAcesnsot cbioaotikononfotrhe
awniitmh athleritgrhetastmmeonvteomf eanntimbyalHs athroanldmGeuni.ther (199th8e).SHupispbreososkioAnnoimf ValivRisigehctsio:nHwisetorerywaonmden.
SNcuomperoofuas sRtaudiceaslhSaovceiadloMcuomvenmtendtgienncdluedres aI"nWAhnoti'vsivWisheoc"tioonf anidmMaleddeicfeanl sSec-ieancliestinof
1d4if3femreonvcerssiannpdusbhlaickaerttsitaumdeosngtotwhaeradntihmeaulsperotVecictitoonricaonmSmocuinetityy,.RAicghaainrd, wFroemncehn (w1e9r7e5u)nder
roefparneismenatlesd(e-.ogn.,lyEt3h5r%idgoef&theGplurcokm,i1n9e9n6t ;activisatsrgwuedrethwaotmVeicnt.orian women were attracted
Herzog, Betchart & Pittman, 1991; Kellert, to animal protection in greater numbers than
1996; Peek, Bell & Dunham, 1996), and
to any other social cause with the possible
GthesnedderiffaenrednMceoanreyfairly consistent across exception of the feminist movement. Thus,
were men employed by animal welfare/shelter organizations. They made an average of
slightly over $101,786 per year while their Peek, Bell, and Dunham (1996) recently
female counterparts averaged $48,555.
dismissed relational role explanations when it
(Note that IRS figures published in Animal comes to human/animal interactions. They
People include only those amounts that the individuals earned from their work with the organization. They may have had additional sources of income, and some executives may have received fringe benefits such as housing, food, or transportation allowances that were
prefer a structural model derived from feminist theory
, arguing that women identify with animals because of their "structural locations" within society -- both women and animals are victims of oppression inherent in a patriarchal culture.
not included on the Form 990s. While the I think that Peek, et. al's dismissal of gender
salary data presented here are based on
difference in relationship styles as a possible
means, the trends do not change when
explanation of gender differences in attitudes
medians are used in the analysis.)
toward animal is premature in that their
What accounts for this difference between the two types of organizations? Part of the reason may be the age of the organizations coupled with seniority-based executive compensation packages. While there are exceptions, animal rights and antivivisection groups such as People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and In Defense of Animals tend to have been formed more recently than the old line welfare groups such as the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Humane Society of the United States, and the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
argument rests on an extremely limited data set
(responses to several items on a national survey of attitudes toward a wide variety of social and political issues). They are correct, however, in pointing out that women and animals share a long history of exploitation in Western societies. Contemporary animal rights groups such as PETA are more likely to have their roots in 1960s radicalism than in Victorian animal protectionism. For example, Peter Singer began Animal Liberation by arguing that the animal rights movement was the logical consequence of the women's liberation movement.
Animals. One reason that male executives The data I have presented here suggest that
may make higher salaries than women is they animal protection organizations tend to show
have been in senior positions for longer
the sorts of gender inequities in status, power,
periods of time. In addition, some of the more and money characteristic of many social
established welfare-oriented groups have organizations. However, when push comes
considerably deeper pockets than their more to shove, the radical groups are indeed more
radical brethren. For example, the 1997
consistent with their roots in the movement
budget of the Humane Society of the Unites for economic and political justice for
States was 40 million dollars - four times that women - particularly as compared to
of PETA, the largest rights group.
moderate welfare and shelter organizations.
Discussion It is unclear why more women than men are drawn to the cause of animals. Several authors (e.g., Herzog, Betchart, & Pittman, 1991, Kellert, 1996), have suggested that the answer may lie in gender differences in factors such as nurturance and ethical orientation (e.g., caring versus justice). This view has been referred to as the "relational role" explanation of gender differences.
Elston, M. A. (1987). `Women and anti-vivisection in Victorian England, 1870-1900'. In N. A. Rupke (Ed.), Vivisection in Historical Perspective
. London: Routledge. (pp. 259-294) Ethridge, J. J. & Gluck, J. P. (1996). `Gender differences in attitudes toward animal research'. Ethics & Behavior, 6, 239-256. French, R. D. (1975). Antivivisection and medical science in Victorian society. Princeton, NJ
: Princeton University
Press. Galvin, S. L. & Herzog, H.A., Jr. (1998) `Attitudes
Average Salaries of Executives of Major Animal Protection Groups
$120,000 $100,000 $80,000 $60,000 $40,000 $20,000 $0
Females Males Rights/A-V Welfare/Shelter
and dispositional optimism of animal rights demonstrators'. Society and Animals, 6, 1-11. Guither, H. D. (1998). Animal rights: History and scope of a radical social movement. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Herzog, H. A., Jr. , Betchart, N. S., & Pittman, R. B. (1991) `Gender, sex role orientation and attitudes towards animals.' Anthrozoos, 4, 184-191. Jamison, W., & Lunch, W. (1992). `Rights of animals, perceptions of science, and political activism: Profile of American animal rights activists.' Science, Technology, & Human Values. 17, 438-458. Jasper, J. M., & Poulsen, J. D. (1995). `Recruiting strangers and friends: Moral shocks and social networks
in animal rights and anti-nuclear protests.' Social Problems, 42, 493-512. Kellert, S. R. (1996). The value of Life: Biological diversity and human society
. Washington, DC
: Island Press. Leder, S. E. (1987). `The controversy over animal experimentation in America, 1880-1914.' In N. A. Rupke (Ed.) Vivisection in historical perspective.. London: Routledge. (pp. 236-258). Peek, C. W, Bell, N. J., Dunham, C. C. (1996). `Gender, gender ideology and animal rights .' Gendadvocacyer & Society, 10, 464-478. Pifer, L., Shimizu, K., & Pifer, R. (1994). `Public attitudes toward animal research: Some international comparisons.' Society & Animals, 2, 95-114. Plous, S. (1998). `Signs of change within the animal rights movement: Results from a follow-up survey of activists.' Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112, 48-54. Richards, R. T. & Krannich, R. S. (1991) `The ideology of the animal rights movement and activists attitudes toward wildlife.' In R.E. McCabe (Ed.), Transactions of the Fifty-Sixth North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference. Washington, DC: Wildlife Management Institute. (pp. 363-371)
UNLOCKING PANDORA'S BOX: A PRACTITIONER'S VIEW OF GENDER EFFECTS IN CANINE AGGRESSION
Myrna Milani, B.S., D.V.M. HC 60 - Box 40, Unity Stage Road Charlestown, NH 03603-7706 E-mail: [email protected]
Among the many factors that contribute to Nonetheless, based on impressions gleaned
the creation, diagnosis, and treatment of
from a behavioral referral practice that
canine aggression, perhaps none plays a more consists of a majority of canine aggression
critical role than gender. Unfortunately, any cases, coupled with extensive independent
discussion of gender in traditional "problem- study of animal behavior and the human-
oriented" approach to canine aggression is animal bond, it would seem that an awareness
almost exclusively limited to the dog.
of gender effects would benefit those who
(Beaver, 1993; Borchalt, 1983; Dodman and work with aggressive animals and those who
Schuster, 1994; Manteca, 1998; Overall,
use dogs in animal-assisted education or
1997). Further undermining the collection of therapy programs. Not only does this
more comprehensive data on this subject, real knowledge increase one's ability to properly
or imagined social constraints and "political diagnose and treat canine aggression, it also
correctness" may inhibit both owners and aids in the selection and maintenance of
clinicians from discussing what role their behaviorally sound therapy animals.
own gender may play in the process.
with teat selection shortly after birth and
Evolution rewards those species and
becomes more dynamic and complex as the
individuals whose behavioral and physical animals mature. More physically and
traits allow them to successfully reproduce with the least expenditure of energy, and much of the social behavior between members of the same and different species
mentally responsive animals claim the most readily accessible teats with the most milk. This increased nourishment, in turn, leads to faster growth and development, which further
arises from the differences between males cements these animals' edge over their litter
and females. Like females of many species, female dogs are born with a finite number of very energy-expensive eggs, compared to males who generate a renewable supply of
mates. However, whereas owners and others often see such pack structures as both fixed and dominated by the physically largest, most aggressive animals, such is not necessarily
energy-inexpensive sperm. This makes
the case. Both inter- and intraspecific pack
females a valuable, non-renewable resource for which the males, most of whom won't mate in the wild, compete. Both male and female dogs use a basic repertoire of bite behaviors to signal their authority, with the most gentle being that
structures may change over time; and because evolution rewards those who get the job done using the least amount of energy, those who accomplish this with the least show of aggression fare better than those who must use more.
used to move pups and the most
energetic being that reserved to
Canine Gender and Aggression
kill prey. Successful members of
both sexes develop what some
Domestic dogs automatically
ethologists refer to as the "tender-
incorporate us into their pack
macho" balance. Males whose
structures according to their
genes wind up in the gene pool
species rules, which deem that every
tend to be those macho/aggressive enough to pack must have a leader. Thus, if the owners
drive off competitors, attract females, and kill don't accept this responsibility, even the most
enough prey to survive and help feed any timid dog will feel forced to assume it.
young, but tender enough not to frighten or Clinical experience strongly suggests that
harm the female with which they hope to
aggressive dogs commonly respond in a
mate or the young which carry their genes. manner that supports one of two basic
Evolution favors discriminating females
human-canine pack structures, depending on
tender enough not to attack their mates or the animal's personality, past experience, and
young, but macho enough to repulse threats any physiological and behavioral cues it
to themselves and their young and to kill
receives from the owner(s). The first
enough prey to support themselves and their arrangement consists of reproductively
offspring. Evolution also favors those who capable boys and men at the top, the dog in
can accomplish all this plus communicate the second position, any reproductively
their sex, reproductive and social status with capable girls and women in third place, and
the most subtle, energy-conserving
children at the bottom, with boys moving up
behavioral and biochemical cues.
in position as they become sexually mature.
In such situations, biting dogs of both sexes
Establishing and protecting the territory is the more readily obey their male than female
strongest animal drive and that territory
owners, react more aggressively toward
includes the animal's mental as well as
strange men than women, and more
physical space. In social animals such as negatively toward adolescent boys than girls.
dogs, a stable pack structure represents the Moreover, these animals may show minimal
mental territory. Not surprisingly then, dogs or no signs of aggression when any adult
become part of a pack structure that begins male owner is present, but they'll respond
aggressively to perceived threats toward other centered pack will attack much more quickly
family/pack members in his absence.
and viciously than a young, confident,
In the second pack structure, the dog also sexually intact male pit bull in a humanviews any adult males in the household as its centered one.
subordinates/territory. In this situation, the
dog will insinuate itself between embracing couples, try to sit in the man's lap or constantly badger him for attention while more or less ignoring any women or young children
in the household. Because these animals take a proprietary view of all members of the family, they will respond aggressively to anyone that they consider a threat to their territory/owners.
Gender and the client In addition to routinely either coinciding with or violating what the aggressive dog perceives as the "right" pack structure, client gender influences may cause periodic flareups of canine aggression. Female owners of aggressive male dogs report that their pets appear more aggressive toward them during the period preceding their menses and during
Who a dog bites when is a function of the the menses itself, an effect that has been
dog's level of confidence and any
noticed with other species. Other women note
environmental cues. In general, though, we that previously benign pets of both sexes
can say that any time a dog holds a position become more "protective" when their owners
above the owner, that person is as apt to get became pregnant. Previously benign pets also
bitten as any stranger, albeit for far different may become more aggressive when a new
reasons. The stranger will be bitten because baby enters the household, an infant begins
that person represents a threat to the dog's walking, or an older child goes through
territory/owner. The owner will be bitten for puberty.
interfering with the dog's attempts to fulfil its leadership functions, just as the dog would discipline a subordinate canine for getting in the way.
At the male end of the spectrum, the emergence of the kinder, gentler male owner who prefers to be his dog's best friend rather than leader in the human-canine pack can
Because behavior drives physiology as much throw a major monkey wrench in the
as physiology drives behavior, even the
treatment of canine aggression because the
meekest spayed female may display
dog expects the man to be leader. While
characteristics, such as leg-lifting, more
educating all owners of aggressive dogs
commonly associated with intact males. The about the differences between dominance and
same also holds true for neutered males. In leadership remains the keystone of treating
fact, neutering an intact aggressive animal of all canine aggression, it becomes an
either sex in a human-centered pack may absolutely crucial first step when dealing
make the aggression worse unless the pack is with these kinder, gentle men. Unfortunately,
erroneously equating dominance (as in
For many owners, it comes as a surprise that winning the fight) with leadership is rampant
more naturally subordinate animals may
in western society and lies at the very heart of
display more aggression than more dominant competitive sports and Political Philosophy
ones. However, whereas the latter possess the Consequently boys and men often more
confidence to give warning growls or other readily accept the leadership-equals-
signals, dogs lacking the physical and/or
dominance concept as a basic reality, albeit
behavioral traits to confidently lead may skip one they themselves may have rejected - at
these preliminary ritualistic displays designed least in their relationship with their dogs -
to head off aggression and immediately go because they see it as too brutal or heavy-
into the attack mode. Consequently, a timid, handed. However, if any men in the
aged, neutered, female Pomeranian in a dog- household don't consistently communicate
leadership to the aggressive dog, this will
undermine the most committed responses necessary biochemical cues to fulfil this
from any women or children.
belief. Thus female owners who sense their
On the other hand, men who want to believe that dominance equals leadership and take a heavy-handed approach to the treatment of canine aggression might be able to teach the dog not to bite in their presence, but the dog most likely will continue biting in that person's absence.
male dog's antagonism during their menses may inadvertently cringe or shrink back in the dog's presence or use baby-talk in an attempt to placate the animal. Because these human behaviors signal submission, they reaffirm the relationship as a dog-centered pack. On the other hand, were the woman to attempt to portray a leadership status, she
However, while strictly hormonal owner
would need to do it with sufficient presence
signals undoubtedly can trigger aggressive that it would counteract the biochemical
canine behavior toward the owners or others, message her hormones are conveying. And
more commonly aggression results when while it would seem much easier to ask a man
owners give the animal mixed signals. For example, when Silky's owner croons to the dog lying on her chest, "I wuv my widdle baby and I'll take care of you forever," she
to "act like a man" relative to his dog, this may require that the owner make changes in his beliefs regarding love and leadership that will effect every level of his life.
may truly believe that she's telling her dog
she would die to protect him. However, her
whimpering tone and feminine status
Gender and the clinician
combined with the placement of the animal Because aggressive dogs typically don't
above her communicates just the opposite: recognize human leadership, they'll respond
That body language tells Silky that he's
differently to male and female clinicians, too.
responsible for her well-being. Because
Dogs who completely ignore or even
canine comprehension of sound, hormones, positively interact with a female clinician
and body language exceeds their
may act defensively toward a male one; dogs
understanding of English, Silky takes the who act nervous with a female clinician may
latter rather than the former message to heart. completely relax in the presence of a male.
Depending on how stable he is, that might Because of this, techniques that work well for
mean he only bites strangers, or only men, or a behaviorist or trainer of one sex may fail
anyone or anything he views as threat to his miserably in the hands of another.
owner. However, under these circumstances, Consequently, clinicians must guard against
he could just as easily bite his owner if she equating how the animal acts with them to
tried to interfere with his protection of her. how it acts with its owners. Similarly, if
If Silky receives such a subordinate mandate from a male owner, this blatant violation of natural law may cause the dog to become even more aggressive, and sometimes aberrantly so. One timid, small dog became so overwhelmed by his very large male owner's refusal to accept the leadership role that the frustrated animal bit the owner any time any one came to the door.
clients of only one sex or those representing only one age group bring the dog in, we must remember to ask how the dog acts with people of both sexes and all ages. Above all, we should not view any treatment regime as a fixed entity, but rather see it as a guide we can adapt to meet the specific needs of that particular dog and that particular owner in their particular environment.
Going back to the fact that behavior can drive physiology as well as vice versa, it seems
Within the realm of service and
safe to say that owners who harbor strong beliefs about who their dogs will and won't bite most likely supply their pets with the
therapy dogs, we must also use extreme caution when fostering a view of these animals as "protectors" of those
they're meant to serve. Subtle but critical pheromone studies in humans begin to catch
differences may exist between the behaviors up with those in animals, these much more
of those who view their therapy or service potent biochemicals could prove to be far
animals as valued assistants and those who greater behavioral mediators for canine and
view themselves as dependent on those
animals. The former favors the creation of a
human-centered pack and the latter a dog-
centered one. Compromised owners who
cede leadership of the human-canine pack with others' blessings may find that the
Beaver, B.V. (1993) `Profiles of dogs presented for aggression'. J. American Animal Hospital Association
resultant aggressive canine behavior
undermines rather than enhances the quality Borchalt, P.L. (1983) `Aggressive behavior of dogs
of their lives.
kept as companion animals: classification and
influence of sex, reproductive status, and breed.'
Applied Animal Ethology 10:45-61
Manteca, Xavier. (1998) `Animal Behavior Case of the
The reason no hard and fast male/female rules seem to apply to human-canine
Month'. J. American Veterinary Medical Association 213:616-619.
interactions most likely results because we're Dodman, NH Donnelly R, Shuster, L, et al. (1996)
dealing with something far more subtle than sexual chemistry, most likely that involving pheromones. Observations of the pack
`Use of fluoxetine to treat dominance aggression in dogs.' J. American Veterinary Medical Association; 209: 1585-1587.
structures formed by aggressive dogs and their homosexual owners strongly suggest that any male/female hormone correlations
Overall, Karen. (1997) `Canine Aggression'. Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Small Animals, Chicago: Mosby. pp 88-137.
are probably grossly simplistic. For all our
talk of gender, the fact remains that no good For additional information regarding pack structure,
biochemical definition of either maleness or hormonal, and pheromonal effects:
femaleness exists. Both males and females Grier, James W. and Burk, Theodore. (1992) Biology need male and female sex hormones: At what of Animal Behavior. Chicago: Mosby Year Book.
point does a male become a female or vice Drickamer, Lee, and Vessey, Stephen (1992) Animal
versa? Certainly observations of leader dogs Behavior: Mechanisms, Ecology, and Evolution.
and studies of successful men strongly
Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
suggest that testosterone or, more likely,
some pheromonal component of it,
Consequently, until we disengage "testosterone" from "male" and "oestrogen" from "female," political correctness will probably rule out studies that don't support a fixed gender stereotype. However, once
THE EQUALITY OF BODIES: ANIMAL EXPLOITATION AND HUMAN WELFARE
Josй Parry Department of Social Studies
, University of Luton Luton, Bedfordshire, LU1 3AF, UK e-mail: [email protected]
Humanitarianism: anti-cruelty and the was a way of intellectualising/theorising the
institutionalisation of compassion
profound belief of the humanitarians that
In England, the eighteenth century saw the suffering and cruelty should at the very least
rise of the great humanitarian movement. Its primary objectives were to reduce suffering, abolish cruelty and to institutionalise compassion. The movement comprised many groupings that learned to co-operate for
be diminished and where possible abolished. As a non-believer, Bentham rejected the idea of the immortal soul and of eternal life. For him, the mind and the body were one and could be understood in materialistic terms.
specific purposes without insisting upon ideological agreement. It included nonconformist Protestant sects and philosophical radicals. `Organised moral indignation' became the principal driving force of the movement and the mobilisation of public
Perfection must be sought in this world rather than in a non-existent next world. Since animals have bodies and are capable of suffering as are we humans, the idea of human uniqueness and the notion of the insuperable line separating man from `beast'
opinion its method.
is undermined. A body is a body and because
every body is capable of suffering all bodies -
Although primarily pragmatic in approach whether animal or human - are equal.
humanitarianism had its intellectuals, one of Bentham's views are expressed in his famous
whom was Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). phrase about animals: `The question is not,
Bentham could arguably be regarded as one Can they reason? nor Can they talk? but, Can
of the seldom acknowledged `grandfathers' of the what came to be known as the modern academic discipline of social policy and administration. He saw himself as a critic of existing institutions, a legal reformer and promoter of legislation. His utilitarianism was a philosophy which assumed that social progress was possible and desirable. According to Bentham, this could be achieved through rational analysis, scrutiny of existing institutions and the development of practical policies. Bentham espoused a sensationalist, psychological doctrine which asserted that
they suffer ?' (Burns and Hart 1970: 283). The anti-slavery movement was the first and certainly the most momentous of the movements which emerged under the umbrella of humanitarianism. It argued that institutionalised cruelty, namely the enslavement of people's bodies, should be abolished. This necessarily involved a process of rolling back and setting strict limits to commodification and the operation of market forces. The supporters of antislavery, however, were in disagreement about the methods of achieving their objective. Some argued for the abolition of the slave
the behaviour of bodies was governed by the twin masters of pain and pleasure. Morality and social policy, he believed, could best be judged in terms of the maximisation of
trade and the institution of slavery at one stroke, while others proposed a more incremental approach. In the end the abolition of slavery was a two stage process. The British Parliament
pleasure (utility) and the minimisation of pain. This doctrine
abolished the slave trade in 1807 and the institution of slavery (freeing those
of the anti-slavery movement led to other humanitarianism in general, and humanitarian agitations being consciously planned on the science in particular, in favour of humanist same model. This included the anti-cruelty to anthropocentric science and vivisection. animals movement.
Not only were there similarities in the
The animal body
motivation and methods of anti-slavery and Two pieces of legislation enacted in the
the anti-cruelty to animals movements, there nineteenth century illustrate the
were important differences. Theoretically and humanitarians concern with the suffering
historically the issues are very complex and body: the Act to Prevent Cruel and Improper
can only be touched on here. The anti-slavery Treatment of Cattle (1822) and the Anatomy
movement was supported by humanists, who, Act (1832). The 1822 Act was the first
like certain Christians, defended the doctrine notable success of the anti-cruelty to animals
of human uniqueness and human superiority. lobby and the first national animal welfare
In contrast, the humanitarians had an
legislation to be passed under a democratic
inclusive attitude towards animals and
accepted the idea of the indivisibility of compassion. It is important here to distinguish between humanism and humanitarianism. The former gives primary moral value to humans and as Ted Benton says `humanism = anthropocentrism' (1988: 4-18). The term `anthro-pocentrism' only appeared in The Oxford English Dictionary in 1863, though the underlying distinction was age-old. Anthropocentrism was coined during the period of fierce debate following the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species, in 1859.
This led to the formation of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1824 and a private force of constables to enforce it. It marked the moment when the personalised and charismatic leadership of Richard Martin, who was responsible for the 1822 Act, was transformed into the beginnings of a permanent legal-rational organisation against animal cruelty. Many notable figures donated or subscribed to the society (including Bentham) on which Queen Victoria conferred the prefix `Royal' in 1840 .
Darwin may be best understood as the last
great representative of a long tradition of
British humanitarian liberal professionals - The Anatomy Act and the regulation of
including priests, lawyers and many doctors - human dissection
who played an influential role in the
As a law reformer it is not surprising to learn
leadership of British science and society. The that Bentham was one of the leading figures
doctrines of common origins, natural
in the movement which led to the Anatomy
selection and evolution undermined God's Act of 1832. In Britain, in his day, there was
special act of creation and brought into being increasing public agitation about the trade in
that simplified cartoon character - the ape as stolen corpses. This trade was principally
ancestor. Darwin assaulted the insuperable associated with the acquisition of bodies for
line by showing that we are all animals now. dissection in anatomy and art schools. Due to
This was unacceptable and insulting to
the shortage of bodies an illicit trade grew up.
Christianity. Paradoxically, Darwin's
The body snatchers or `resurrection men', as
humanitarian inclusiveness of the animals they were called, stole newly buried bodies
was rejected unwittingly by T.H. Huxley who
was his greatest champion. Although Huxley, dubbed the high priest of science, admired Darwin to the point of hero worship and adopted him as his mentor, his own career marked a sharp break with
1 ` The earliest substantial `attempt to secure some kind of protection for animals occurred in the USA when the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony passed their `Body of Liberties' . This was the work of an Englishman, Nathanial Ward, a barrister educated in Cambridge who emigrated to New England in 1634. Accepted by the General Court of Massachusetts in 1641, the Body of Liberties included a section on animals' (Brooman and Legge 1997: 39).
from the grave for sale to the anatomists. donate their bodies. Most of them
Ordinary people, however, were loathed to undoubtedly held the view that dissection
sell their bodies of their dead relatives to the was a `fate worse than death'. The phrase
anatomists. Christian belief
s about the
derived from the fact that hanged criminals
resurrection of the body were carried into could be condemned to the extra and
popular culture. It was thought necessary to exemplary punishment of dissection - the so-
keep the bones and dust of the individual called double indemnity. Reform of the Poor
together lest resurrection be prevented at the Law provided exactly the opportunity to
last trump. Surgeons argued that, if medicine acquire corpses of the destitute from the
were to progress, it would be necessary to workhouses by compulsion for dissection,
find a balance between adverse popular
where permission would not otherwise have
sentiment, clinical detachment and
been voluntarily given.
commercialism. Bentham advocated a
The 1832 Anatomy Act permitted those
voluntaristic approach to the acquisition of bodies for dissection. He thought that intellectuals, professionals and enlightened members of the upper classes ought to take a lead by offering their own mortal remains for
having lawful custody of dead bodies to donate them for dissection The masters of poorhouses and hospitals could cut expenditure on pauper funerals by donating the bodies of patients too poor to provide for
dissection. He requested in his Will that a public dissection of his own body be carried
their own burial (ibid.: 3).
out by his personal doctor and close friend,
Southwood Smith, who would also give a The discourses of dissection and vivisection
public lecture. Bentham saw himself as
The Anatomy Act had a significant impact on
taking a lead in the voluntary supply of
legal, medical and popular discourse. The
bodies for medical education.
word dissection, for example, had come into
Bentham died in the year of the passage of use in the late sixteenth and seventeenth
the Anatomy Act and the Act's harsh
centuries and its application was not
character is wrongly attributed to him. But restricted to the dead, but included the
this does Bentham an injustice. If guilty party `dissection' of living bodies : humans,
there be, it is probably Edwin Chadwick - animals and plants. As Samuel Johnson wrote
Bentham's former secretary who saw the Bill in 1758:
through Parliament - who is to blame. Bentham was opposed to compulsion. It was Chadwick, to whom Bentham acted as
Among the inferior professors of medical knowledge is a race of wretches, whose lives are only varied by varieties of cruelty.. I know not that by living dissections [italics JP] any discovery has been made by which a single
mentor, who was behind the conscription of cadavers from among the destitute poor.
malady is more easily cured...(quoted in French 1975: 16-17)
Chadwick understood that Bentham's
With the passing of the Anatomy Act the
`voluntarism' was not yet practical politics. term dissection was narrowed and fixed so as
But if pain were to be minimised and utility to refer only to operations on the dead human
maximised dissection should be practised on cadaver. Any other meaning was
the insensible dead and never on the living. marginalised and attention was drawn away
Who then would provide subjects for anatomical inquiry: from the fact that the Act in practice the living or the dead, the rich or the poor [and one might protected neither living humans or animals
add the sick or the healthy]. A public choice must be made: allow the dissection of the dead or accept that surgeons will otherwise be driven to obtain knowledge by practising on the living. [JP. italics] (Richardson and Hurwitz 1987: 2).
from vivisection. When Southwood Smith wrote that if access were not given to surgeons to practise dissection on the dead they would most assuredly practise on the
Contrary to Bentham's hope members of the living, he was fully aware that vivisection professional classes did not rush forward to was already a common practice among medical men. Indeed, vivisection was part of
the age-old practice of surgery rather than an services were directed to the satisfaction of
innovation that would otherwise be shortly human requirements for meat, milk, hides,
introduced. The great humanitarian reformers wool and other animal products. Under
who aimed to minimise or abolish cruelty, pressure of total war
state subsidisation of
whether to humans or animals, soon realised animal production
, on the one hand, and the
that they rooted in systematic vivisection. regulation of animal health, on the other,
The discovery of anaesthesia seemed to offer became state key activities. During the
everything that humanitarianism could desire; Second World War the supply and
it could not achieve their goals until
distribution of food was regulated by the
vivisection had been dealt with. The
Ministry of Food under a national system of
Anatomy Act did not regulate animal
dissection which was, in any case, carried on The birth of the laboratory - particularly the
by butchers everyday.
experimental laboratory - brought into the
The 1822 Act was extended several times so world a new transforming institution, but one
that its scope was thought to be very wide. which was tainted by cruelty. The forward
The `Norwich case' in 1874 proved that it march of humanitarian compassion was
was not wide enough. It brought many people slowed. The lab became exceedingly
to the conclusion that fresh legislation
influential as a new model of science during
directed specifically at vivisection was
the mid and late nineteenth century. There
needed. This case, together with other
were important leads and lags in the timing of
frightful incidents of cruel vivisection in
the development of laboratory science as
France and Italy, led to organised anti-
between Britain, the USA and continental
vivisection campaigns. The principal
countries. France and Germany were
campaigner was Frances Power Cobbe. The especially well ahead in the development of
Cruelty to Animals Act 1876 was promoted laboratory science in general, and vivisection
specifically to abolish vivisection, but was in particular. This was in part because of their
turned round by the new science lobby and anthropocentric humanist rather than
ended up institutionalising cruelty. Science humanitarian stance. In the 1870s we may
and the state came to have a mutual interest chart the growth of laboratory science in
in the product of the laboratory eliminated Britain by reference to the rise of state
pain. On the other hand, operations could be funding. Small at first, funding for science
conducted on living human and animal
was to grow massively under the threat of
bodies not just for the immediate purpose to war and war itself.
help the suffering individual but also for
The new alliance between laboratory science
experimentation. It seemed now that
and the state centred on the use of animals.
experimentation could be justified. The `dark From 1876 onwards the balance of power
face of science' was shortly to be revealed. shifted decisively. Prior to this, the state
seemed relatively indifferent as between
The rise of the anthropocentric state
humanitarian anti-vivisectionists' interests,
The Cruelty to Animals Act played a key role in the transition to a formalised anthropocentric state. Animal experiments and animal tests were for the first time institutionalised under statute. Likewise systems for managing animal health in agriculture were also being set up under the supervision of the emerging veterinary profession
. Animal health was not the prime objective. In moral and political terms these
on the one hand, and those of animal experimenters, on the other. Thereafter, the state saw its interests best served by an alliance with science. Traditional latent anthropocentric values inevitably became manifested and institutionalised in the workings of the state. Science became - and remained - the powerful insider, while the humanitarian anti-vivisection movement emerged from the struggles of 1876 as the
outsider. In consequence the conflict between transfusion depended upon animal
the two protagonists was greatly intensified. experimentation and animal testing.
War entrenched vivisection because it was Embedded in the discourse of blood
deemed to be vital to national survival and reaffirmed more deeply the anthropocentrism of the state. War and preparations for war, as Richard Titmuss pointed out, fostered the growth of the state in Britain. War brought
transfusion is the term `rhesus factor', which is testament both to the use of the rhesus monkey in animal experiments and - whether consciously or not - an indicator of anthropocentric values in medical science and
suffering but also, paradoxically, a powerful sense of bonding and community. It also promoted the more intensive use of animals for food production and industrialised the scale of animal experimentation.
social policy. Titmuss's altruistic principle so far as anti-vivisectionists were concerned, was flawed because its universalism was not universal enough; it did not extend to animals. The anthropocentrism of the blood
transfusion service rested on the fact that the
blood gift was only between humans.
The welfare state
Humanist values (humans only) appeared to
From the 1920s onwards the discourse of science to conform strictly to the facts of
welfare came to displace that of
humanitarianism, both for humans and animals. The phrase `animal welfare' was introduced at about the same time as welfare was applied to humans. Humanitarian discourse has continued to dominate to the present day in the sphere of international relations. In the domestic sphere it has flourished to a far greater extent in the USA
Bentham's hope that one day the insuperable line between humans and animals would be overcome seemed far from realisation. The struggle of the anti-cruelty to animals campaigners would have to wait until the 1960s and beyond for a new resurrection, and another attack upon the insuperable line.
than in Britain. This is exemplified by the name of the Humane Society of the United References
Benton, T. (1988) `Humanism= Speciesism. Marx on
It was in Britain in the1930s that the terms `welfare' and `state' were linked as a way of promoting the democracies over against the fascist dictatorships and welfare began to be associated with the state rather than being a free-standing concept. Although William
Human and Animals.' Radical Philosophy, Vol. 50, Autumn, pp. 4-18. Brooman, S. and Legge, D. (1997) Law Relating to Animals. London: Cavendish Printing. Burns, J.H. and Hart, H.L.A. (1970) Jeremy Bentham , An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. London: University of London.
Beveridge preferred the term `social service French, R. D. (1975) Antivivisection and Medical
state' it was his wartime report (1942) that Science in Victorian Society. Princeton: Princeton
led to the title `welfare state' being adopted University Press.
and implemented in Labour's reforms after Richardson, R. and Hurwitz, B. (1987) `Jeremy
the end of the Second World War. In The Gift Bentham's Self-Image: An Exemplary Bequest for Relationship, Titmuss saw blood and blood Dissection.' British Medical Journal, 357, pp. 1-10.
transfusion on a non-commercial basis as representating the ideal of equality
Titmuss, R. (1970) The Gift Relationship. From Human Blood to Social Policy. London: George Allen and Unwin.
underlying the National Health Service,
the flagship of the new welfare state
* This article is based on the chapter written by the
in post-war Britain. From the point of view of antivivisectionists, however, the altruism of the gift relationship was tarnished because blood
author (and her late partner Professor Noel Parry), which appears in Ellis, K. and Dean, H. (1999) Social Policy and the Body: Transitions in Corporeal Discourse. London: Macmillan. The USA co-edition will be available from St Martin's in November/December.
&HQWUHV RI 5HVHDUFK THE CENTER FOR ANIMALS IN SOCIETY School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis CA 95616, USA http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/animals_in_society/main.htm
Formal planning for the Center for Animals in Society individuals contemplating a possible euthanasia or
(CAS) began in 1984, and the CAS was formally
grieving an animal's death.
established in 1985 (originally as the Human-Animal Program). A faculty committee from the School of Veterinary Medicine recommended that the CAS develop a strong research program within the area of human-animal interactions and contribute to the education of veterinary students and continuing education for veterinary professionals.
Lynette Hart was founding director of the CAS; she served in this role until September 1999. With the growing importance of human-animal interactions in veterinary medicine, the School of Veterinary Medicine this year selected animals in society as one of its four priority areas. Donald Klingborg, Assistant Dean for Public Programs, is now acting director, and
For its role in research, the CAS has focused especially is spearheading a study of new opportunities for the
on the socializing effects of animals for people, the CAS. Dr. Lee Zasloff joined the CAS in 1991,
grief and bereavement associated with pet loss and the bringing a special expertise with psychological
changing role of pets in society. A pivotal keystone of instruments. She has led various research studies and
the Center's work has been to better understand the collaborations that reflect her particular interest in cats.
social and health-related contributions of animals to Research productivity also benefitted from the efforts
people, and the basis of attachment to companion
of Aline and Robert Kidd, pioneers in the field of
animals, since this knowledge can play a central role in human-animal interactions who joined the CAS in
people placing a greater value on animals and
1992. In one large collaborative project, Phil Kass as
understanding their importance.
principal investigator conducted a major study on the
Recent and current studies concern the effects for at-risk children of structured experiences in training dogs, people's unique relationships with both cats and dogs, special relationships of people with assistance and other working dogs, and factors that prolong the quality of life of aging animals.
causes of pet relinquishment in Sacramento, a study funded by the National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy and the California Council for Companion Animal Advocates. Another significant aspect was the development of bibliographic tools in human-animal interactions, a project that was headed by part-time health science librarian David Anderson.
With the growing importance of companion animals, He also privately serves as editor of Humans & Other
client relations has become a more crucial aspect of Species, a quarterly review of the field of
veterinary practice. The primary service role of the human-animal interactions.
CAS has been in the area of pet loss, including guiding the establishment in 1985 of the first pet loss support group sponsored by a veterinary association (Sacramento Valley Veterinary Medical Association). This association continues to sponsor the bi-monthly pet loss support group. With growing demand from the public for assistance with pet loss, then-CAS staff member Bonnie Mader and veterinary student Kelly Palm developed the first Pet Loss Support Hotline in 1989, staffed by SVM students. The students can participate either as volunteers, or can sign up for instructional course credit. The support group and
On the UC Davis campus the CAS is recognized as a resource on human-animal interactions that provides lectures in several courses. The director offers one or more courses each year that are open to veterinary, upper division, and graduate students. Since its inception, CAS has mentored undergraduates, graduate students, and veterinary students seeking to conduct research in human-animal interactions. Some funding is available to veterinary students for projects in human-animal interactions from campus and other sources.
hotline became the models for similar activities in
A new arm of the CAS, the Companion Animal
other parts of the United States.
Behavior Program, was established in 1996 by Ben
Since 1995, the Pet Loss Support Hotline has been self-supporting, and located at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital with Bonnie Mader as coordinator. A recent development at the SVM in pet loss is the new Rainbow Room at the Veterinary Medical Teaching
Hart to emphasize research and public outreach in clinical aspects
of companion animal behavior. This Program emphasizes clinical research, including the behavior of aging dogs and cats that incorporates the animal's relationship with the human companion.
Hospital, a comfortable environment especially for
Lynette Hart, Director
THE CENTER FOR THE INTERACTIONS OF ANIMALS AND SOCIETY School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6044 http://www.vet.upenn.edu/cias/
The Center for the Interaction of Animals and Society particular emphasis on the extraordinary role of
(CIAS) was re-established in 1997 to provide an arena animals in medieval and early modern witchcraft
for addressing the many practical and moral issues beliefs and prosecutions; a topic that has been ignored
arising from the interactions of animals and society. by historians despite the the vast scholarly literature
CIAS offers a multi-disciplinary and scholarly forum pertaining to other aspects of the European witch
for research, education, and public service programs hunts. Some of this work was supported by a visiting
concerned with all aspects of the interactions of
fellowship award to Dr. James Serpell from the Shelby
animals and society.
Cullom Davis Center for Historical Studies, Princeton
Its aims are: (1) to study the effects of relationships University.
with animals on the health and quality of life of people
at different stages of the life cycle, (2) to investigate Cultural influences on the treatment of
the evolution and development of human attitudes to non-humans, (3) to explore the impact of our use of
animals for companionship, research, food,
CIAS recently embarked on a study of cultural
recreation, etc on their behavior and welfare, and (4) influences on the treatment of stray dogs in Taiwan. In
to use the knowledge gained from this work both to many developing countries
, the population of unowned
enhance human well-being, and to promote the
and free-roaming companion animals has reached
humane use and treatment of animals in
overwhelming proportions. The welfare of these
animals is severely at risk, and, generally
speaking, little or no established infrastructure
exists in situ to tackle the problem in a
Current Research at CIAS
rational and humane way. As part of a larger
Behavioral development in dogs. Two major studies focus on the behavioral development of dogs. In collaboration withThe Seeing Eye Inc. of Morristown, NJ, CIAS is conducting a study of guide dogs that aims: (a) to develop reliable, standardised methods for evaluating the temperament and behavior of dogs early in their development, and (b) to identify incipient behavior problems as early as possible and determine their
program of research into the causes of, and Possible Solutions
to, the welfare problems of companion animals in developing countries, this project represents a pilot investigation of a particularly urgent `test case' scenario in South East Asia
(Taiwan), that may serve as a model for future studies and programs in other areas of the world. The research is funded by a grant from the Humane Society of the United States.
genetic and/or environmental origins. In another parallel study we are investigating the effects of early Other activities
aversive experience on the development of behavior CIAS is currently organizing and hosting a three-year
problems in pet dogs. This study will follow up the seminar on "Human Relations with Animals and the
results of previous work which demonstrated a
Natural World". The uniquely interdisciplinary nature
relationship between certain distressing events and of the field of human-animal interactions provides
experiences in early development (6-16 weeks), such unusual opportunities for productive cross-fertilization
as routine veterinary procedures, and the prevalence of both within and between a wide range of different
adult behavior problems. The specific aim will be to applied and basic research domains, and the Seminar is
improve veterinary care and husbandry procedures for designed to promote this sort of exchange. Five
puppies at this vulnerable age and, by doing so, to
conferences have already been held as part of the
reduce the prevalence of behavior problems in the pet Seminar, and three more are scheduled for the coming
dog population. The work is ongoing, and has been year. Details of past and future conferences are
supported by two separate private foundations.
available on the CIAS website.
Animals and religion.
This project focuses on the historical importance of James A. Serpell, Director animals in the evolution of religious ideologies, with
%RRN 5HYLHZV The Political Animal: The Conquest of Speciesism Richard D. Ryder, 1998. McFarland & Co., Inc., Publishers, 147 pages.
This short and easy-to-read book certainly isn't A is to be treated differently from B, the
short on conveying information on numerous justification must be in terms of A's individual
important and timely issues. Essentially, The characteristics and B's individual characteristics.
Political Animal is a review of the notion of
Treating them differently cannot be justified by
speciesism (a term coined by Ryder in 1970; see pointing out that one or the other is a member of
Ryder 1998) discussed in the contexts of the
some preferred group, not even the `group' of
history and science of the animal welfare
human beings." On this account careful attention
movement and Ryder's notion of painism.
must be paid to individual variations in behavior
Painism is basically "the concern for the pain and within species.
distress of others . . . which is extended to any painient thing (sic) regardless of its sex, class, race, nationality or species." (p. 45). According to Ryder, "Pain is pain regardless of who or what (sic) experiences it." I think Ryder would be better off using words other than "thing" or "what" to refer to painient individuals (or organisms or animals), unless he wants to consider the possibility of painism in inanimate objects such as computers (which he does, personal communication, 1 July 1999).
Speciesists also often use such words as "higher" and "lower" to refer to different groups of animals, but the use of such words and activities such as ranking species by drawing lines to place different groups of animals "above" and "below" others are extremely misleading because they fail to take into account the lives and worlds of the animals themselves. Speciesism also can ignore evolutionary continuity. Furthermore, deciding which among the criteria that are used to place species in some hierarchical order are morally
In The Political Animal, Ryder's goal (as it has relevant, and how evaluation of these criteria are
been for a long time) is to overcome resistance to to be made, present serious problems even if one
speciesism. He has worked tirelessly to achieve were able to argue convincingly for the use of a
this easily justified goal. In the context of animal single scale. Usually, when deciding about the
use, speciesists make decisions about how
types of treatment to which animals can be
humans are permitted to treat other animals based exposed, speciesism is narrowly used to mean
on an individual's species membership (for
"primatocentrism" or "humanism", and human
example, all and only humans or all and only
superiority is often implied in speciesist
mammals might constitute protected groups)
arguments. However, individuals representing
rather than on that animal's individual
many other species experience pain and suffering
characteristics (Bekoff 1998). Nonspeciesists, in (physically and psychologically), even if these are
contrast to speciesists, use individual
not the same sorts of pain and suffering that is
characteristics to make moral decisions
experienced by humans, or even other
about animal use and are concerned with
animals, including members of the same
how individual animals are viewed and
treated. Rachels' (1990) notion of moral individualism is based on the following argument (pp. 173-174): "If
There are many gems in this book. Let me offer two to whet your appetite for what awaits when you pick up this book.
Considering why some people do the horrible resolution.
things that they do to other animals, Ryder writes (p. 51): "The simple truth is that we exploit the other animals and cause them suffering because we are more powerful than they are. Does that mean that if aliens land on Earth and turn out to be far more powerful than us we would let them, without argument, chase and kill us for sport, experiment on us or breed us in factory farms and turn us into tasty humanburgers? Would we accept their explanation that it is perfectly moral for them to do all these things because we are not members of their species?" These are good question that aren't going to go away by flippant hand-waving.
To sum up, I highly recommend this book to all people interested in how humans use and abuse other animals in a wide variety of activities (e.g. for food, amusement, entertainment, research, and teaching). Clearly, "we" versus "them" dualisms don't work. The dualism doesn't work in speciesistic views of "animals" versus "humans" and also is counterproductive when opponents in debates about animal use portray one another in this manner. It is the similarities rather than the differences between humans and other animals that drives much animals use in which animals' lives are compromised. If "they" who are used are so much like "us", then much more work
Ryder also lists animal exploiter's excuses (p. needs to be done to justify certain practices. We
62). These include: 1. The animal does not feel need to appreciate our common moral status and
(much) pain. 2. Huge benefits to humans will enter into intimate and reciprocal relationships
certainly ensue. 3. Animals are different from with all beings in this more-than-human world
humans. 4. This is my job; I just do what others (Abram 1996).
tell me to do. 5. If I did not do it then someone else would do it, perhaps more cruelly. 6. There
are much greater evils in the world than this. 7. Abram D. (1996). The spell of the sensuous:
The animal welfarist does not understand the
Perception and language in a more-than human world.
subtleties of what is being done. 8. Animal rights New York, Pantheon Books.
campaigners are terrorists. 9. It is right to exploit Bekoff, M. (1998) `Resisting speciesism and
other species because it is natural to do so. 10. expanding the community of equals." BioScience, 48,
Animals kill and exploit each other, so humans 638-641.
are entitled to do likewise. Ryder concludes that Rachels J. (1990) Created from animals: The moral "None of these excuses stand (sic) up to rational implications of Darwinism. New York, Oxford
analysis." Once again, each of these points raises University Press.
numerous issues that could be discussed in undergraduate and graduate classes and among practicing professionals. Indeed, each has been the topic of lengthy essays and books, and there
Ryder, RD. (1998). `Speciesism.' In Bekoff, M, (ed.) Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Publishing Group. Page 320.
still isn't universal consensus about their
Animal Geographies: Place, Politics and Identity in the Nature-Culture Borderlands. Eds. Jennifer Wolch and Jody Emel, 1998. Verso: London/New York. 240 Pages.
This is an interesting collection of thirteen chapters by different authors exploring humananimal interactions from a geographic perspective. The editors open the volume with a jointly-authored chapter entitled "Witnessing the animal movement" that looks at such issues as food animal economies, habitat loss, the trade in wild animals, biotechnology, and the attention paid to animals by modernist and post-modernist schools of thought. The authors have an interesting take on the topic that is well worth reading although there are a
few errors (the one citation to my work refers to the wrong book altogether) and sweeping generalizations. The other chapters were all interesting and well worth reading. I particularly enjoyed Jody Emel's analysis of wolf-hunting and the masculine image, Robbins' analysis of the place of meat in Indian culture and Ufkes' analysis of the changing face of pork production. The volume is definitely worth a place on the bookshelf of any reader of this newsletter. Andrew Rowan Senior Vice President, Humane Society of the U.S
HEnuvnirotnimenngtal, PtohpuelatiWonr, aendnO:rgaTnirsmaicnBsiofloogyrmation of Bird into Symbol UEnliizvearbsiettyhofACtowlooroaddoL, awrence, 1997. Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press. 234 Pages.
Boulder, Colorado 80309-0334 ,USA
When it comes to folklore and related subjects, ceremony is often continued in a relatively
the sort of mental distance expected in other
secular context. The killing is replaced by feeding
fields becomes very problematic. We now think the wren or else using an effigy. The celebration
of the Brothers Grimm less as folklorists than seems to constantly accumulate new meanings
folk, since they extensively altered their fairy over the centuries without ever fully dispensing
tales from the Oral Tradition
. Many eminent
with the older ones.
authors from Bachofen to Joseph Campbell have
written eloquently about myth, yet it is hard to One problem is how to explain the discontinuity
say whether they were elucidating or creating it. between the veneration of the wren during other
No matter how conscientious scholars may be, seasons and the barbaric killing and display of the
writing about archaic ceremonies and beliefs is a wren in winter. A few explanations are offered. It
way or reliving them. There is a largely
is part of a reversal of relationships that
unrecognized genre of writings, which center on accompanies festival like the Roman Saturnalia,
particular animals, from spiders to elephants.
where masters wait on slaves and a fool is made
Totemism is, to a large extent, both the subject king. It is a sacrifice, intended to restore life to
and inspiration of these books.
the dying land. The ceremonies are varied and
complex as they are colorful. No explanation
This lovely volume is a welcome addition to the resonates easily with contemporary people, so
genre. The wren, subject of this book, is a tiny this is finally left a mystery. It leads us, however,
bird with a remarkably loud and melodious song. into the challenging task of imagining different,
Since ancient times, it has been known as "the and perhaps more harmonious, relationships
king of the fence" or even "king of birds." It is between humanity and the natural world.
one of the relatively few animals that seem to
constantly attract the attention of storytellers, and While the descriptions and analysis are
it plays a role in mythologies from Greece to pre- reasonably dispassionate, this book is clearly
Columbian America. Hunting the Wren brings inspired by a love of both the wren and the
together a vast amount of lore from many eras British countryside. Reviews generally take the
and cultures. The primary focus of the study,
design of a book for granted, but this one is
however, is on the British Isles. There, among attractive enough to merit special comment. The
rural people, the wren is traditionally protected jacket shows an elegantly simple picture of a
for most of the year but hunted and brutally killed wren perched on a sprig of holly. The pages
during the Christmas season. Then the wren is contain many lively illustrations of folk
often impaled and paraded through town in a
ceremonies, birds and landscapes. This book
colorful pageant, accompanied by song and
would make a wonderful Christmas present for
The author describes the ceremonies in detail. They go back to at least the time of the druids. They were Christianized by associating the wren with St. Stephen, the first martyr of Christianity. Today, the
Boria Sax 25 Franklin Avenue, 2F White Plains, NY 10601, USA E-mail: [email protected]
Urgent Request! In recent years, ISAZ has struggled to assemble a database of members' e-mail addresses and research interests. However, we can only do this with your help! You are, therefore, kindly requested to send Debbie Wells, our new Membership Secretary, a brief e-mail message, summarising your current research activities and interests, key publications, institutional affiliation, current e-mail address and, if applicable, URL. So... what are you waiting for? Turn on your PC and get tapping away at your keyboard now! You can drop her an electronic message at [email protected]
For her full postal address, see the list of new Council members and Officers at the back of this newsletter.
This short and easy-to-read boCokocmerptaainnliyoinsnA't nshimortaolnDceoantvheying information on numerous important and Atimperlaycitsicsuael sa.nEdscsoemntpiarlleyh,eTnhseivPeogluitiidcaelfAornivmeatel risinaarreyvpierwacotfictehe notion of speciesism (aMtearmy Fc.oSintedwabryt,R1y9d9e9r. iOnx1f9o7rd0,; BseuettRerywdoert1h9-H98e)indeimscaunsnse.1d8i8npthageecso. ntexts of the
history and science of the animal welfare movement and Ryder's notion of painism. Painism
is basically "the concern for the pain and distress of others . . . which is extended to any pAMaawdacadiacnriiytoitieeorSdndnttiegtnwtoughiaadirtnneotg'y,sRwp(bsryhoiadicocce)kthirrc,iIese"gcaPloaibanmrrdisanuildrceyiehss.rsnIpatoeanwefidneiisetllsrsdeehsagneentalxipdra,dllcloelnasgss-so, frlttawoehcaemehrmn,oa.snkoAahertoidcwwohifnehftacioaclktuiplt(ilrystsotidvoccei)rodcesveispxegirepouscneitidsreh,iaseewn.np"cictre(haeptcoso.tuiic4ctt.la5p"ile)r.neaIstssspthuetrricnyitssikinnoggf Rveytedreinrawryouprldacbtiecebsettotedreoalffskuislfinugllywwoirtdhs other thaenut"htahniansgia":owrh"awt whailtl"htaoprpeefne,rwtoheprea,inwiehnent , who ienvderivydidauyailsssu(eosr aosrsgoacniaitsemdswoitrhaanniimmaallsd),eautnhl.ess hewwillabnetsptroesceontnsainddesrothoen.pTohsesipbriolistyanodfcpoanisniosfm in inanimate objects such as computers (which hhoemdeoevsis,itpsearsreondaislccuossmedm. uAnttiecnattiioonn,is1pJauidlyto 1M9a9r9y)S. tewart is a veterinary surgeon and founder details such as owner involvement and the
member of the Society for Companion Animal respectful handling of bodies afterwards. The
ISntuTdhiees.PSohleitbiceaglinAsnbiymeaxlp, lRaiyndinegr'ws hgyoathli(sabsoiot khasvbaelueen ofof rcoanldoonlegntciemcea)rdis,tcolioevnterlictoermateure and
risesniesetdaendc.eSthoesapcekcnioewsilsemdg. eHs tehehapsotwenotriakled tirelespselyt ltoossacsuhpiepvoerttghriosuepassailrye djuissctuifsiseedd.gAoaslh. oIrnt the
cporonbtleexmt socfaaunsiemd ablyutshee,ssepleecctiieosnisptrsocmeasskeanddecisionsescatiboonudtehaolswwhituhmthaenesuathreanpaesriamoitftehdortsoest,rewahtich oedthuecrataionnimofalvsetbsaisnetdheonUKan, pinodinivtiindguoaul'tsthsepecies mmeamnybveertsshwipil(lffoinrdexusaemfupll.e, all and only hscuamrcaitnysoofrtiamlleaanlldowonedlyomr aavmaimlaabllse mfoirgtheatcchoinngstitute protected groups) rather than on that aconmimmaul'nsiciantdioinvisdkuiallls,cehxaprlaocrtaetrioisntiocfsi(dBeaesk,oafnfd1998T)h.eNauotnhsopr ethceienstiasltkss, ianbocuotntthreasrtolteo osfptehceiesists, uwtShsteieetwhwianihrddoteiwsrveictdisonuntdahteilevxcsitdhcs eauonrafaellcibaftyneeriaemixnstpdaillcoossurairtnrosegemlavvsieaepskwe.ecetmsdooafrnatdhl edtreecveeaixmetspteipedoerar.intinhesaRinsracayibneco,tgheugeawitlmvsiati'nhnin(goi1mu"t9thva9aebl0mleiuc)dsopanemteoiranitmnngiogdi"snstoahiovroeeefnrcmc-lteiooeomnngrcotar'ietlseirovnneeadal.nd ihnudmivaind-aunailmisaml bisonbda;siendpoanrtitchuelafro, lwlohwatinmgakaersgumeSnpt e(cpipal. m17e3n-ti1o7n4i)s: m"IafdAe oifsdtoisabbeletdreoawtenders, dceifrftaeirnenpteltys sfrpoecmiaBl. ,Tthhies mjuasytifbiecabtyiovnirmtuue sotfbtheeiinr taesrsmisstaonfceAa'nsiminadlsivaindduaplecohplaerawcittehrliastnigcusaagned Blo'nsgeinvditiyv,isdhuaarledcheaxrpaecrtieenricsetsicosr. bTyrtehaetiirng them didffifefriecunlttliyescaornnpoerttibneenjut sretilfigieiodubsyanpdocinutlitnugralout trheparteosennetionrgtahelinokthweirthisaalomstelmovbeedr of some preferred grobuepli,enfso.t even the `group' of human
boneein. gSsh.e" dOiscnutshsiess aacspcoecutnstocfareful attention must be paid to individual variations in behavior
wcoimthminunspiceactioens.that are vitally
A whole section is devoted to the subject
important in general practice, such as
of children and pet loss, giving the reader
Slispteecniiensgisstksilalsl,sohoowftteonimuspearstuch words as "higher" and "lmoworeeru"ntdoerrsetfaenrdtiongdoifffehroewntcghirlodurepns ooff ainnfiomrmalast,iobnuat ntdhehouwsetoofshsuowchrewsoperdcts and activities such avsarraionuksinaggesspgercieievse,baynddreaxwplianignilningehsotwo ptolwacaerddsifcfheirldernetngarnodupadsuoltfsa. nSihme als "above" and "below" aodthueltrsscaarneheexlptr.emely misleading bScrodthefreepemiacatetseaichcnirutihidufesaiosaselrditttsiht'hiohmstaesnetproywaeeawtlarfisedtanmoheieualrrccsy,tataeohsrbndoeaet,tiatighttotkhhnoieesepnolifeieranmiseurcttstpoyeehtovaaeasrnonnptcaacdlceunsoocisttuaiuieteonnonstnstehiairttanrihwvnyesiditoctlylheoim.vneetsihnaiuLvhenoeiardttwasyetrwr.lctiyonhoF,airmturchlydraietnslphaiormeouarrfticdhmsttoeeihocrreterhaa.eaecr,Snmkedhin,mmeeowcwgoaiiidlrltvseahiednltsplhggyapeerwsrrmtaeithccslheuiteeicvlclahsvaartelnraresatmes,.dfseavoerninscedgneocfotehne how evaluation of these criteria are to be made,toprdeisffeinctulstesriitouuatsiopnrso,balnexmiosuesvcelineniftso, nanedwsetarfef aI blilkeetmo aanryguoef Scotenwvainrtc'sinpgrlayctfiocarltihdeeauss.eTohefsae singlaensdcmalaen.agUesmueanlltyp,rwobhleemn sd.eciding about the tinycpleusdeofaltlroewatinmgeenxtttroa twimheicfhoraenuimthaanlsasciaan be exposed, speciesism is narrowly used to mean "cponrismulatatoticoenns,trciosnmd"ucotrin"ghtuhmesaeniinsma ,q"uaientdrohoumman sTuhpeearpiopreintydiicsesofgtievne aimupselifeudl linst sopfeecxipeescistet d
awrigthuma leanrtgse. mHaot ownetvheer,flionodriv(pidetuaanlsd roewpnresremnatiyng amnaimnyalolitfheesrpasnpse,caidedsreexsspeesraienndcfeurptahienr raenadding.
sfeueflfemroinreg r(eplahxyesdicaatllfyloaorndlevpeslytchhaonlongcaatlalyb)le,)evenMifythonelsye carrieticniosmt tohfetshaismbeoosokritsstohaftptahienliasnt d
saundffewrainysg itnhwathiischexvpareiroiuesncperadcbtiycehmuemmabnesr,socranevecnooutlhdebreamniomreaclso,minpcreluhdeninsigvem, eanmdbdeoressonfotthgeive
shaemlpemsapkeectihees.euthanasia process as smooth and details of some work referred to in the text.
stress-free as possible for all concerned. The
However, as the well-known and respected
Tauhtehroer eaxreplmainasnythgeegmriesviinngthpirsobcoesoski.n Lfueltl amned offeprstywchoiatotriwsthCeot lyinouMruarprapyetPitaerkfeosrswtahteast ianwhaisits wsuhgegnesytsowuapyisckinuwphtihcihspbroacotkic.eCmoenmsbideersricnagn why fsoormeweopredoepnldeodrsointghethheobroroibkl,eMthairnygSstethwaatrtt'hsey dasatoulnosopiomtpcoeooaxrmoltpstptlhahaleieennrxidrsaocwcnrlaiihdmeuynisfatafeslinsctwd,uhhRlehtemoyfnwodrasenauprfrcawfalneicriertminiitcnetae'gslsmd(bgpieere.imcse5a.fbu1Sem)shr:easey"twTobeheeardavsenoeimtwmienrpnodi-lniertsaoeprt-yrpeeuanoutrswhntahdbeiesalrerpfgtupghrlruaaotdithdauwceaahntefeoatsernhxaadepnnysdlyooaouvirttneehttd.eherraeDidpnoovratoierhcfyseeesttrmehsaiaaomtkn,ealist mdeeaal nwtithha,tainfdawliehnerselatonfdinodnhEelaprtfhorasnudchtucrlnieontust. toinbveolfvaerdmwoirthe hpuomwaenr-faunlitmhaalninutserwacetiwonosu. ld let them, without argument, chase and kill us for sport, experiment on us or breed us in factory
fTahremnsexatnsdectutironnudsisicnutsosetsastthye heummotaionnbaulragnedrs? WoCualrdowlineeaBcocwepetr tBhVeiMr e&xSplManRaCtiVoSn tDhiapt it is prearcfetictallyimmpolricaaltfionrsthoef meuthoadnaosaial.l Tthheesreeathdienrgs bCecAaBuCse we are not members of their species?"
These are good question that aren't going to go away by flippant hand-waving.
+RW 2II WKH 3UHVVHV
Understanding Dogs: Living and Working with Canine Companions Clinton R. Sanders (1999) Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-690-5
What does your dog mean to you, and what do you mean to your dog?
In Understanding Dogs, Clinton R. Sanders explores the day-to-day experience of living and
working with canine companions. Based on a decade of research in obedience classes, veterinary
offices, and guide dog training schools, Sanders examines how dog owners come to understand their
animals as thinking, emotional individuals - and explains how dogs serve as social facilitators as well
as adornments to personal identity. Sanders shows dog owners how - while we try to teach and shape
our dog's behaviour - they often teach us how to more thoughtfully enjoy physical warmth, a
nourishing meal, a walk in the woods, or the simple joys of the immediate moment. The book is part
of the series Animals, Culture and Society, edited by Clinton R. Sanders and Arnold Arluke, and is
available in both paper and hardback
Child Abuse, Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: Linking the Circles of Compassion for Prevention and Intervention Edited by Frank Ascione & Phil Arkow (1999) West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press. ISBN: 1-55753-143-9 Evidence is mounting that animal abuse, frequently embedded in families scarred by domestic violence and child abuse and neglect
, often predicts the potential for other violent acts. As early intervention is critical in the prevention and reduction of aggression, this book encourages researchers and professionals to recognize animal abuse as a significant problem and a human publichealth issue that should be included as a curriculum topic in training. The book is an interdisciplinary sourcebook of original essays that examines the relations between animal maltreatment and human interpersonal violence, expands the scope of research in this growing area, and provides practical assessment and documentation strategies to help professionals confronting violence do their jobs better by attending to these connections. This book brings together, for the first time, all of the leaders in this emerging field. They examine contemporary research and programmatic issues, encourage cross-disciplinary interactions, and describe innovative programs in the field today. The book also includes vivid first-person accounts from "survivors" whose experiences included animal maltreatment among other forms of family violence. As an outgrowth of the Latham Foundation's 1995 training manual, Breaking the Cycles of Violence, this book is a historic step in helping professionals from these disciplines, as well as the general public, recognize the cyclical and insidious nature of family violence. It provides training in recognizing peripheral forms of family violence outside a families immediate purview. It encourages cross-disciplinary prevention and intervention strategies with an ultimate goal of reducing the levels of violence which is of such great societal and cultural concern today.
Animals on the Agenda
Ryder also lists animaQl uexesptlioointesra'sboeuxtcuAsneism(pal.s6f2o)r. TThheeosleoginycalunddeE: t1h.iTcshe animal does not
feel (much) pain. E2.dHiteudgebybeAnnedfriteswtoLihnuzmeyanasndwDillocreortthayinYlyamenasmuoet.o3(.1A9n9i8m) als are different
from humans.C4h.aTmhpiasigisnm, IyLj:oUbn; iIvjeursstitdyoowf hIlalitnootihsePrsretsesll. mISeBtNo d0o-2. 52. -I0f6I7d6id1-n4ot do it then
someone else would do it, perhaps more cruelly. 6. There are much greater evils in the
wThoirsldentchyacnlotpheids.ic7v.oTluhmeeainsitmhealmwoestlfcaormispt rdeohenssnivoet cuonldleecrtsitoannodftohreigsiunabltlsettuideisesofonwahnaitmiaslsbeainndg
dthoenoelo.g8y.eAvenrimpuabllirsihgehdt.sCcoanmtrpibauigtonresrsfraorme bteorthrosriidsetss.of9t.hIet Aistrlaignthitc ttoacekxleplfouintdoatmheenrtsapl eqcuieesstions
babeocuatutsheeoitloisgynaatnudrahlotwo idt oisspou.t i1n0to. Aprnaicmticaels. Dkiollaannimdaelsxphaloviet iemamchorottahlesro,uslso?hDuomesanCsharirset'esntitled
rtoecdooncliilkinegwwisoer.k Rinycdluedrecaonnicmlualdse?sCtohnattri"bNutoonrse aodfdtrheesssetheexsceuissseusesstaannddm(soirce) iunpthtoe croatnitoenxat lof
sacnraiplytusrias.l"peOrsnpceectaivgeasi,nt,heeaCchhriosftiathnetsreadpitoioinnt,shrisatiosreiscanludmisepruoteuss, aisnsduoebsltihgaattiocnosutldo abneimdiaslcs.uAsssed in
othfeidireraessaoblouutitoann.imals that are hugely
detrimental to their status and
welfare. This important volume argues
that it is time for a change.
To sum up, I highly recommend this book to all people interested in how humans use and
abuse other animals in a wide variety of activities (e.g. for food, amusement, entertainment,
research, and teaching). Clearly, "we" versus "them" dualisms don't work. The dualism
dcoouesnnte'trpwroodrkucitnivsepewchieesnisotipcpvoineewnsts1oifHn"ZdaenVbimaItUaelRss"PabvoeWurKstuHasn1"imhHuaWml uasnes"poanrtdraaylsooneisanother in this
mtuprhTdhetisrhtsaacaepicntiscd:up/ntdr/sriaweecrsorciriwecevo.eswaenn.slI.stToootlrWynmfehimesleteuleahsuitsctethAnctiah.oephecbnnosealsiliymsdmnisimchkhi/thcmaieeoipooldl"massalaou-llrmpwisSgisstpi,utouiic"rtenicsahesstiielctheiyaraintie/aalnnyatnlttednheLwbnimesmdeoihorseiuaucnitdtclcrihgsohhf-acsslooonoamrigcmnntioiiehcmtmrtaehyeloiadswlnismfo'mfrptfreoooelokoirqlrvltleruiehnotena-eeiewscltcsehlatesaidtealstshrdstanvee,bt-ittsueichehoniwsoatmuswbtmsmatprepneuelpaayedxdcrrnnptotofeiiorowncmhnelineultspoiosessmatr.wreeonlddadittnjsn.ohu(tsbAnesoIetafUtbiihnrfn"rReyedattshLimlpcmoieseebtytacr1h.e"ttt9elfTaeouwr9iownal6ahnos)naoud.finbmaadslraclerlisbe study of the relationship between humans and http://www.onelist.com/subscribe/animals-society
implications of humans' relationship to other
Alternatively, you can send a blank email to: [email protected]
aIfndyolaunhgauvageeainnyaomthoerre-qthuaensthiounmsancownocreldrn. iNnegwthe list, please email Michael Schmitt, the list
tBoeokloffof,rMdi.s(c1u9s9s8i)on`Roefsitshtiengscshpoeclaierslyismissaunedsexpanding tmheodcoemramtourn, iatyt:omf esqcuhamlsi.t"[email protected]
,u48, 638-641. concerning the relationship between humans and oRtahcehrelasnJi.m(1a9ls9.0) Created from animals: The moral implicationTs ohfeDLarawthinaismm.FNoewunYdoarkti,oOnxfOornd-Ulinnieversity
PProessssi.ble topics might include, but certainly are
involved in human use of other animals, the
promoted respect for all life through education.
pMsayrcchBoleokgoyffof animal protection activists, etc. The Latham Letter, for example, regularly
TEnhveirloisntmisenatlaslo, Phoeplpuflautliofon,raindfoOrmrgianngissmuibcsBciroibloegrys publishes on issues relating to the human-animal
oUfnriveelersviatyntofcConofloerraendoces, meeting, or new
The Latham Foundation, however, also acts as a
clearinghouse for information on the human-
Given that the Animals-Society list is not an animal protection list, the moderator has
companion animal bond, animal-assisted therapy, and also the connections between child and
requested that people refrain from sending
animal abuse and other forms of violence.
messages encouraging list members to become
active in animal protection issues. It is also
It offers a wide selection of reprinted (hardcopy)
Request for Help! Suhendan Karauz writes: "I am a field biologist, studying ornithology (bird science) in Turkey's wildlife. Nowadays, I am researching the subject of `How nature sounds affect human psychology'".
Remembering Aline Kidd November 28, 1922- July 30, 1999
Pioneering in the field of human-animal interactions and collaborating with her husband Robert Kidd, Aline Kidd built her work around her love for children and animals. Her seminal research demonstrated the significant role of pets in the human life cycle. Her work clearly demonstrated that many people of all ages have a strong interest in a wide range of species of animals. Her work revealed the significance of
animal interactions for twenty years, right up through 1999. In addition to a large number of research paper
s, the Drs. Kidd in 1987 challenged the field to develop a theoretical framework by suggesting a variety of models that might provide a unified theory. Their paper, "Seeking a Theory of the Human/Companion Animal Bond," was used as a target manuscript for commentary from several other writers.
the family context and the person's past
Aline Kidd mentored numerous students from a
experience in affecting current involvement with variety of institutions and was always willing to
animals, including in volunteering to help with provide assistance. She believed in the
wildlife or in zoos. She explored the responses of importance of making her work available to a
children to live and toy animals, the role of pets wider audience. To accomplish this, she
in mental and physical health throughout the
established a special relationship with the Latham
lifespan, and the effects of childhood pet
Foundation and throughout her career prepared a
ownership on adult attitudes toward animals. Also popular version of each study for publication in
concerned about people's failed relationships
The Latham Letter. She willingly shared her
with companion animals, she completed two early enthusiasm for the field in making presentations
studies revealing some risk factors
to various groups and conferences.
with relinquishment of animals.
Following her retirement from Mills College,
Indeed, the number of topics she addressed in her Aline Kidd affiliated with the Center for Animals
studies is so large that it can seem that she has in Society at the University of California, Davis.
published the first paper dealing with most
There she was an active collaborator and
aspects of human-animal interactions, and could participated each year in the course, Human-
easily justify her being termed the mother of the Animal Interactions: Benefits and Issues. During
field, along with a few outstanding fathers, such these years her research focused on birds and fish
as Leo Bustad, the McCulloch brothers, Aaron as companion animals, the role of pets in the lives
Katcher, and Alan Beck. Aline Kidd completed a of homeless people, the past experience with
Masters in Clinical Psychology at the University animals of volunteers in facilities for wild
of Michigan in 1945. Following an interruption to animals, and (with Lee Zasloff) the protective
care for three children, she completed a PhD in role of pets against loneliness for women living
1960 at the University of Arizona. Throughout alone.
her career she interspersed professorial teaching
and research with clinical practice as a
She regularly presented papers at conferences of
psychologist. Her primary academic home was the International Society
of Anthrozoology and Mills College, from 1967 until her retirement as served on advisory panels for three national
Professor in 1992. Although she began publishing organizations. In recognition of her pioneering
scientific work in 1962, she discovered her
work in the field of human-animal interactions,
unique niche in 1980 with a paper, "Personality she received the Boris Levinson Memorial
Characteristics and Preferences in Pet
Research Award in 1989, and with her husband
Ownership," jointly authored with her husband, was presented an International Society for
Reverend Robert Kidd. Subsequently, the
Anthrozoology award in 1995. Dr. Kidd will be
pioneering Kidds jointly published at least two remembered for her extraordinary vitality and
refereed papers each year in the area of human- enthusiasm for the field of human-animal
*UHHWLQJV IURP 0HHWLQJV
ISAZ 99, CIAS, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, 4th-5th June 1999
The annual meeting this year was hosted by the Center societies, he noted, and hold positions of power in
for the Interaction of Animals and Society. The theme, these groups. However, men seem to be given more
Men, Women, and Animals: The Influence of
influence (profiled more, included more often in
Gender on Our Relations with Animals and Nature encyclopedia articles) and get paid more, especially in
allowed for a wide-ranging group of presentations. In older, more established animal welfare groups. In the
the first session, chaired by Andrew Rowan (HSUS), end, it is difficult to answer the question at this point
several speakers talked about the conflicting views of are women more caring and nurturing? Are they
animals in late 19th and early 20th Century America
. interested because they feel oppressed too? Are
Kacie Grier (University of South Carolina) provided women more likely to express moral shock? We await
important context to the current discussions of how Hal's next study for answers!
society views animals by presenting information about Corwin Kruse (University of Minnesota) followed this
how Victorian views shaped ideas of gender identity and the relationship between humans and animals in the 19th century. Bernard Unti (American University, Washington, D.C.) followed this with a discussion of the conflict between the masculine "strenuous life", advocated by Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century, and the extension of "humane sympathy"
with a discussion of data from the General Social Survey of 1994, which showed clear differences in male and female beliefs about nature and the role of animals. Jane Harris (Edinburgh University) then examined the predominance of women in the successful animal rights movement in England, and the fact that over 2/3 of these women are vegetarians.
from domestic animals to animals in the wild at that Through interviews, she gathered data that suggest
time, a more "feminine" approach. Although
women in the movement seek a vegetarian diet as
Roosevelt was an important advocate for land
"both a political action in defense of animals and a
preservation, his intent was more to preserve hunting political statement by and about the lived experience
refuges than to simply preserve homes for animals. Monique Bourque (University of Pennsylvania) highlighted the "nature movement" in American children's literature in the early 20th century, a movement that sought to avoid the dry, technical
of women". Lynda Birke (University of Lancaster, UK) followed with an examination of modern feminism and its negative relationship to non-human animals. She argued that by rejecting "biological determinism", feminists have found themselves in the
writing of "scientists" and instead involve children in a position of trying to distance themselves from animals, "sympathetic attitude toward nature". However, many leaving animals in a negative light "they represent
of the books sought to utilize insects, particularly
what we don't like in ourselves" our biological
social insects, as a model for behavior in the human, nature. She argued that feminists must move beyond
middle-class family of the time.
this construct, which views animals as "merely
Two more speakers dealt with the role of animals in biological", to one in which both women and animals
culture and literature. Both Brandy Bourne (University are viewed as more complete and valuable, and
of North Carolina
) and Maureen Adams (University of "biology" is seen as a good word, not a negative one.
San Francisco) provided unusual perspectives. Brandy Little research has examined animal attitudes in
examined the conflict among the Shakers over vegetarianism vs meat-eating. Rather than simply
eastern religions, such as Hinduism. Susanne Abromaitis (Cedar Crest College) compared attitudes
being a debate about healthy diet, the discussion
of practicing Hindus and Protestants in local churches.
threatened to split the group and caused examination She found differences by religion, gender, and diet
of such basic questions as "what it means to be
(vegetarian vs meat-eating). Female Hindus showed
human", and "what and who is an animal". Maureen the most positive attitude
s toward animals, followed
discussed the role of dogs in Emily Bronte's life and by female Protestants, male Hindus, and male writings. She painted a vivid picture of the important Protestants. Hindu teachings of reverence for animals, role of Keeper, a beloved mastiff, in Bronte's life, and coupled with positive female responses to animals,
the insights this gave Bronte into the valuable role of affected attitudes.
animals as companions and guardians. Many of us had Consuelo Fuentes finished up this session with an
tears in our eyes as she described the close bond and examination of "hybridity", the blending of human and
its important effects, and the response of Keeper to animal, masculine and feminine, good and evil, in
Bronte's early death.
various Latin American
writings. This literature
The afternoon session, chaired by Lynette Hart (UC, explores the complex relationships between gender,
Davis), focused more directly on gender issues. Hal Herzog (W. Carolina University) asked "Why are so many animal activists women?" Women tend to be in grassroots groups rather than more established
culture, and animals. It allows us to examine the ancient human fear of human-animal hybrids (e.g. Satan as half-goat/half-man) that has been reawakened by recent developments in biomedicine (e.g.
xenotransplantation and cloning).
(Cambridge University), examined gender effects in
Saturday's morning session, chaired by Kacie Grier, social situations and in health-care settings. Myrna
began with an examination of gender differences in Milani (DVM) looked at gender issues involved in
animal cruelty by Randy Lockwood (HSUS). As
canine aggression, with particular focus on the
usual, this discussion was somewhat distressing, as we importance of pheromones. She emphasized the need
learned about gender influences on the range of animal for studies of pheromonal chemistry, rather than
suffering, from hoarding of animals (e.g. 100 in a
simply looking at "male/female sexual chemistry".
house) to simple neglect, to "organized" abuse (e.g. Matthew Chin and colleagues (Central Florida),
blood sports such as dog-fighting), to intentional harm examined the way men and women undergraduates
and torture. Men seem to be more likely to engage in intentional cruelty, while women tend to hoard animals, among other findings. Susan Phillips Cohen (The Animal Medical Center) examined gender and the role of pets in urban families by surveying clients who came to this large veterinary hospital. Her
addressed and interacted with a "stranger" cat in a "test" room. They found gender differences in attitudes toward animals, but no strong gender differences in speech directed toward the stranger cat. The verbal and nonverbal signals used by the participants, and the responses of the cat, will form the
questionnaire showed important differences between basis for future studies.
men and women in attitudes toward pets as "part of the Cindy Wilson (Uniformed Services University of
family". However, follow-up interviews in the home Health Sciences) and Erika Friedmann (Brooklyn
demonstrated that witnessing the actual behavior in College) each examined gender, animals, and health.
context can often reveal much more about
Cindy reported on one part of a large study of major
relationships than can answers on paper (e.g. men who factors affecting the health, quality of life, and work
say they are not very attached to an animal, but clearly performance of military and civilian caregivers
demonstrate attachment when they are observed
(mostly involved in elderly care). Erika revisited the
interacting with the pet naturally in the home).
health-benefit literature, noting that there are often
Ron Baenninger and colleagues (Temple University, differences in the health benefits gained by men vs Philadelphia, PA), and Cindy Somers and colleagues women with respect to pets. These differences suggest (Ohio State University
) examined how people think that future research should include gender as an about animals in different contexts. Ron and his group important part of the design. Penny Bernstein finished
looked at the connotative meanings of animal names. the conference with an examination of how animals
For example, what sets of terms (beautiful/ugly, ferocious/peaceful) people assigned to "canaries" vs "crocodiles". Cindy's group explored zoo educators' beliefs in animal mind. Elizabeth Lawrence (Tufts University) brought her unique perspective to bear in an examination of the historical role of women in
used in pet therapy affect social behavior in long-term care facilities. She found that animals in this setting can increase overall rates of social behavior, may provide longer, more meaningful contacts, and increase initiation of social behavior by patients, both alert and semi-alert. A final discussion session and
veterinary medicine and the affect an increase in
reception finished out an intresting two days. As
women veterinarians may have on the profession. The last session, chaired by Anthony Podberscek
always, the range of papers and disciplines stimulated new thoughts about the human-animal relationship.
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ISAZ 2000 Amsterdam, The Netherlands 25th April 2000 "Issues in Companion Animal Welfare" The International Society for Anthrozoology (ISAZ) invites the submission of abstracts for its 2000 Annual Conference
in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. This will be a satellite meeting to the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Congress. The conference theme - "Issues in Companion Animal Welfare"- is intended to be broad, and will allow discussion of behaviour problems, dog/cat population management, animal abuse, training issues etc. The keynote speaker will be Bernard Rollin. The WSAVA Congress will also hold a one-day symposium on the 26th April on human-animal interactions.
Although preference will be given to abstracts related to the main conference theme, abstracts dealing with any aspect of human-animal relationships are also welcome. Abstracts must arrive by December 1st, 1999. For further details and guidelines for the submission of abstracts, send fax or e-mail inquiry to dr.Nienke Endenburg: fax (0)30-2518126: e-mail: n. [email protected]
Thresholds of Identity in Human and Animal Relationships 10th - 11th March 2000 At the University of California, Santa Barbara, a small group of scholars from several different academic disciplines has formed a discussion group, which focuses on the cultural, philosophical and scientific
Iaspects of the relationships between human and non- to explore the questions about the nature of the
human animals. Its goals are 1) to encourage research designation `animal', and how humans have been
on relevant topics, 2) to foster dialogue among group conceived physiologically and psychologically in
members, and 3) to extend opportunities for learning relation to them?
and dialogue to the campus community. In February For further details, please contact Ms. Becky Fitt, at
1999, a successful interdisciplinary colloquium was the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine,
organized, which attracted participants from
University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ. Email:
throughout the US. A second colloquium is planned
for March 10 and 11, 2000. It will provide a friendly
forum for the presentation of research on the topic of
at the End of the Century
"Thresholds of Identity in Human-Animal
April 13th -15th, 2000
Relationships". The purpose of the colloquium is to bring people together to share ideas and knowledge. Work in any relevant field or discipline is welcome. Each participant will be given 20 minutes for a
By tracing how animals have been represented in different contexts, in different practices, and by different disciplines over the course of the last hundred years, this conference will explore the connections
presentation. Interested scholars are invited to submit a between our understandings of animals and the
300 word abstract by November 15, 1999, to Professor historical and cultural conditions in which those
Jo-Ann Shelton, Environmental Studies Program,
understandings have been formed. The conference will
University of California, Santa Barbara 93106. E-mail: move from discussions of the material presence of
animals - studies, for example, of the changing place
Animals, Vets and Vermin
of animals in urban spaces and modern sensibilities to explorations of how contemporary media culture is
in Medical History
shaping our fundamental cultural expectations of
28th - 30th April 2000
animals, of ourselves, and of our environments.
This is the first of a series of proposed conferences at Special Guest Speaker: Jane Goodall
the Wellcome Unit, UEA, on the theme of the
For more information, please contact: Nigel Rothfels
interactions between animals and humans in health and and Andrew Isenberg (Conference Organizers), Center
disease. One of its objects is to explore the shifting for Twentieth Century Studies, University of
boundaries between animals and humans as told
Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI
through changing cultural perceptions and scientific 53201 USA; tel: 414-229-4141; fax: 414-229-5964;
understandings of animal diseases. How in different email: [email protected]
cultural contexts from antiquity to the present have the
lines been drawn between animals benign and lethal, pet or pest, edible and awful, or between those to be consumed or not at the dinner table or in the research lab, or between those permissible or impermissible in the home or on the farm? Thus the object of the conference is not only to contextualize fears of animal disease over time, but also, to lay out the different ways in which animals have been seen as beneficial sources of disease prevention, as for example, as suppliers of calf lymph, hormones, or emotional therapy. The conference will also be looking at how the professional interests of doctors and veterinarians have been shaped and, in turn perhaps, shaped public understandings of animals and animal products in relation to health and disease. Among other questions we hope to take up are how theories of disease have altered the human/animal relationship and attitudes to the consumption of animal products? Have animal rights and anti-vivisection lobbies exploited fears of disease transmission? What have been the roles of different religious, theological, and philosophical constituencies? From whom have politicians taken
ASAB Winter Meeting 2nd - 3rd December 1999 Entitled Evolution of Mind, this ASAB meeting will be held at the Zoological Society of London Meeting Rooms, London Zoo, Regent's Park, London, UK. The aim of the meeting is to bring together scientists from the fields of animal behaviour, psychology and philosophy, working on a variety of animal species, to discuss the 'Evolution of Mind'. Oral presentations will explore issues such as whether animals engage in forward planning and social learning, whether they can label objects and social relation
ships and whether they possess a 'Theory of Mind'. Species as diverse as jumping spiders, ravens, dolphins and chimpanzees will be considered. Theory of Mind abilities in autistic humans and young children will also be discussed, as well as comparative issues relating to the Evolution of Mind.For further details, please contact: Dr Karen McComb, Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences
, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK; fax: +44 (0)1273-678611;
advice or been advised? How and why have their
email: [email protected]
, or Stuart Semple,
policy responses differed? What have been the
Institute of Zoology, Regent's Park, London NW1
relations between science, medicine, government and 4RY, UK; fax: +44-(0)171-483-2237; e-mail: stuart.
industry over animal production and[email protected]
consumption? Finally, the conference hopes
Animal Behaviour Society
following general symposium entitled
5th - 9th August 2000
Archaeozoology: Human-Animal Interactions as a
The ABS annual meeting will be held in Atlanta, GA, co-hosted by Morehouse College and ZooAtlanta. Along with contributed talks and posters, the meetings will include special symposia on `Dispersal Behavior' and invited papers on `Comparisons between Primates
Tool for Present and Future Action. For further information on - or to register for - this event, visit the following web site: http://www.ims.usm.edu/~musweb/icz_xviii/ icz_home.html
and Cetaceans'. Plenary speakers include conservation
biologist, Dee Boersma, applied behaviorists, and
The ISAZ conference in 2001 will be scheduled
others. For further information, please visit their web- consecutively on the UC Davis campus with ISAE
site: http://www.animalbehavior.org/ABS/Program/ (International Society for Applied Ethology). The
ISAZ program will focus on human-animal conflict,
XVIIIth International Congress of Zoology while ISAE will include companion animal welfare as
28th August -2nd September 2000.
one of its themes. A joint social function is anticipated
The XVIIIth (New) International Congress of Zoology as ISAE is concluding and ISAZ begins. Although the
will be held in Athens, Greece on the theme of The dates are not yet set with the campus, an effort will be
New Panorama of Animal Evolution.
made to schedule the meetings in July, but not during
ISAZ members may particularly be interested in the July 14-18 when two other major meetings will occur.
2IILFLDO ,6$= %XVLQHVV
Guidelines for ISAZ Conference and Symposium Organisers 1 Council approval for the topic of the conference should be obtained via the Secretary. Please contact the Secretary prior to organising the conference, outlining the topic, expected costs, registration fees, etc. Council approval (as well as confirmation) is needed for underwriting finances. Council reserves the right to co-opt one of its members on to the conference organising committee. 2 Keep full accounts: Expenses/out-goings (inc. hire of hall, publicity abstract book production, etc.). Incomings (sponsorship, registration fees). 3 When the conference is over, please send a copy of the accounts, documented by receipts wherever possible, to the ISAZ Treasurer. All profits must go to ISAZ; shortfalls will be underwritten by ISAZ. However, every attempt should be made to at least break even. Final accounts should be received by the Treasurer not later than 2 months after the end of the conference. A list of attendees should be forwarded to the Membership Secretary. 4 ISAZ members should be able to attend ISAZ conferences for between one half and two-thirds the registration fee for non-ISAZ members. 5 Conference participants should be invited to complete a conference evaluation form before leaving the conference. A summary of the results of these evaluations should be sent to the Council no later than three months after the end of the conference. Specific comments on individual speakers should be sent only to the speakers themselves. 6 Outside sponsorship for a conference, or for specific speakers at a conference, should be sought whenever possible. This, however, is the responsibility of the conference organisers, and not the Society 's Treasurer. Details of all donations and sponsorship offers should be sent to the Secretary of ISAZ, and reviewed by Council, prior to formal acceptance. NB: Examples of Conference Evaluation Forms can be obtained from the ISAZ Secretary.
Special Notice During the last council meeting, the subject of where the ISAZ 2002 conference should be held came under discussion. At present, no firm decisions have been made as to exactly where this meeting should take place. However, it was determined that ISAZ 2002 should be held somewhere in Europe. If any of you ISAZ members out there have any ideas or suggestions with regard to where this meeting could convene (possibly as a satellite symposium of a larger international congress), please contact James Serpell. E-mail: [email protected]
(see overleaf for his full postal address).
ISAZ Council Members (Elected at the ISAZ Annual General Meeting, Philadelphia, 4th June 1999)
President: Lynette Hart Center for Animals in Society School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA Secretary: Dr. James Serpell School of Veterinary Medicine University of Pennsylvania Dept. of Clinical Studies 3850 Spruce Street Philadelphia PA 19104, USA Membership Secretary/Treasurer:
Dr. Debbie Wells School of Psychology Queen's University of Belfast Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland
Newsletter Editor: Dr. Joanna Swabe ASSR, University of Amsterdam Oude Hoogstraat 24 1012 CE Amsterdam, The Netherlands Associate Editor: Dr. Penny Bernstein Kent State University Stark Campus, 6000 Frank Avenue Canton, OH 44720, USA
Ordinary Members of Council
Dr. Arnold Arluke Department of Sociology Northeastern University Boston, MA 02132, USA Prof. Erika Friedmann Dept. of Health & Nutrition Sciences Brooklyn College City University of New York Brooklyn, New York NY 11210, USA Dr. Katherine Grier Department of History University of South Carolina Columbia, SC 29205, USA Dr. Nienke Endenburg University of Utrecht Yalelaan 8 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands Dr. Debbie Goodwin Anthrozoology Institute School of Biological Sciences University of Southampton
Southampton SO16 7PX, UK Dr. Andrew Rowan
Humane Society of the United States 2100 L Street, NW Washington, DC 20037, USA Dr. Anthony Podberscek Dept. of Clinical Veterinary Medicine University of Cambridge
Madingley Road Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK Dr. Dennis Turner I.E.T. Vorderi Siten 30 CH-8816 Hirzel, Switzerland Dr. R. Lee Zasloff Center for Animals in Society School of Veterinary Medicine University of California Davis, CA 95616, USA
COPY DEADLINE The ISAZ Newletter is published twice a year: May & November. The deadline for the acceptance of material for inclusion in the May 2000 issue will be I5th April 2000. All material should be sent, preferably in electronic form, to Dr. Jo Swabe. E-mail: [email protected]
(see above for her full postal address). The ISAZ Newsletter is printed on 100% recycled paper