Practical english usage

Tags: expressions, countable and uncountable nouns, irregular verbs, present tenses, verb form, English verb forms, complementation, text messages, grammar contractions, Practical English Usage, prepositional verbs, correspondence letters, Index Contents, word order, conjunctions, adverbs of manner, sentence structure, information structure, structures, Michael Swan, verb forms, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, comparative and superlative adjectives
Content: Michael Swan TAL 1SH SAGE Third Edition Oxford University PRESS
Contents summary
Page
Acknowledgments
vi
Introduction
viii-x
Contents Overview
xi-xvi
Language Terminology xvii-xxv
Don't say it:
130 common mistakes xxvi-xxix
Phonetic alphabet
xxx
Practical English usage
1-623
Index
624-658
page vii
Contents Overview
This overview gives a general picture of the topics covered in the book; it is not a complete guide to the contents. References are to entry numbers. To find information about a particular point, consult the Index on pages 624-658,
v p r1-, tense and aspect future 211-221 present tenses 461-466
ing form or Infinitive after remember, go on etc 299 ing and -ed forms used as adjectives (participles) 408-411
past simple and progressive 421-422 perfect verb forms 427 present perfect 455-460 past perfect 423-425 progressive (continuous) verb forms 470-472 past verb form with present or future meaning 426 tense simplification in subordinate clauses (present for future, past for would etc) 580 be, do, have and modal auxiliaries Auxiliary verbs 85 be 89-92 there is 587 do 158-162 have 234-239
verbs: other points active verb forms 10 passives 412-420 subjunctive 567 link verbs: be, seem, look etc 328 irregular verbs 304 verb complementation (what can follow a verb?) 606 verbs with two objects 610 verb + object + complement 607 two-part verbs: phrasal verbs 599; prepositional verbs 600 verbs of movement (she ran in etc) 608 turning verbs into nouns 598 older English verb forms 392
modal verbs 353-354 can and could 121-125 may and might 338-344 can, could, may and might compared 345 must 358-361 ought 403 should 518-521 should, ought and must compared 520 will 629 would 633
nouns Singular and plural 523-532 countable and uncountable nouns 148-149 gender (references to males and females) 222 piece- and group-words (a bar of chocolate, a bunch of flowers etc) 430 possessive 's 439-440 noun + noun 385-386
infinitives and participles infinitives 279-292 -ing forms 293-294 -ing forms used like nouns (gerunds) 295-298
complementation (what can follow a noun?) 384
page xi
To find the answer to a specific question, see the Index
Contents Overview
pronouns personal pronouns (1, me, you etc) 428-9 reflexive pronouns (myself etc) 493 each other and one another 171 indefinite pronouns (somebody, someone, anything etc) 548 interrogative which, what, who etc 622-624 one: substitute word (a big one etc) 395 possessives and demonstratives: see determiners relative who, whom, which, that etc 494-497 whoever, whatever etc 625 determiners (the, my, some, several etc) introduction 154 articles (al an and the) 61-70 possessives (my, mine etc) 441-443 demonstratives (this, that, these, Chose) 589-590 all 35-40 another and other(s) 54 any 55 any and every 56 both 110 each 169 each and every 170 every (one) 193 either 174 enough 187 half 231 less and fewer 320 least and fewest 318 (a) little and (a) few 329 [a1 lot 333 more 355 most 356 much and many 357 neither (of) 372 no, none and not a/any 376 so much and so many 542 some 546 some and any 547 too much and too many 596
adjectives position 12-14 order before nouns 15 complementation (what can follow an adjective?) 19 adjectives with and 16 adjectives without nouns 17 pronunciation of aged, naked etc 18 adverbs position 21-25 adverbs of manner and adjectives 26 adverbs or adjectives? confusing cases 27 adverb particles 20 comparison structures 135 as as; as much/many as 136 comparative and superlative Adjectives and Adverbs 137-141 PrPPOSitiOnS general introduction 448 at the ends of clauses 452 before conjunctions 453 before -ing forms 454 before and after particular words and expressions 449-450 prepositional verbs 600 expressions without prepositions 451 particular prepositions about and on 4 above and over 6 according to 8 across, over and through 9 along 45 (a)round and about 60 at/in and to 80 at, on and in: place 81 at, on and in: time 82 before and in front of 98 page xii
Contents Overview
below, under, underneath and beneath 100 between and among 105 by: time 117 by and near 118 by (method, agent) and with (tools etc) 119 due to and owing to 166 during and for 167 during and in 168 for: purpose and cause 207 for, since, in and from: time 208 in and into, an and onto 269 in and to 270 in spite of 272 instead of 301 like and as: similarity, function 326 near (to) 365 opposite, facing and in front of 402 out of 404 through: time 592 until 602 up and down 603 with 631 conjunctions general conjunctions 510 sentence structure 511 particular conjunctions and 52 and after try, wait, go etc 53 as and though. special Word Order 71 as if and as though; like 74 as long as 75 as well as 78 because 94 before 97 both ... and 111 either or 175 how 252 immediately, the moment etc 267 it's time (that) 306 lest 321 neither nor 373 neither, nor and not either 374 not only ... 383 now (that) 387 once 394
so that and in order that 543 that-clauses 583 omission of that 584 unless 601 when and if 618 whether or ... 620 whether and if 621 Word order and sentence Organisation basic word order 509 inversion (verb before subject) 302-303 fronting (e.g. People like that 1 can't stand) 513 information structure 512 emphasis 184 various structures questions 480-486 question tags 487-488 negative structures 367-371 imperatives 268,323 (let) exclamations 195 direct speech: reporting verbs and word order 156 indirect speech (reported speech) 274-278 relatives (the person who ... etc): 494-498 whoever, whatever etc 625 if 256-265 preparatory it: 446-447 cleft sentences: what 1 need is a holiday 130; it was my secretary who... 131 ellipsis (leaving out words) 177-182 understanding complicated sentences 515 constructing text discourse markers (linking expressions) 157 paragraphs 406 repetition 500
nage xiii To find the answer to a specific question, see the Index >>
Contents Overview
correspondence letters 146 emails and text messages 147 spoken grammar contractions 143 spoken structures and tags 514 short answers (Yes, he can etc) 517 reply questions (Was it? Did you?) 484 special kinds of language abbreviations and acronyms 2 idioms, collocations and fixed expressions 255 politeness using questions 435 distancing verb forms 436 softening expressions 437 'social' language 545 varieties and styles of English American and British English 51 Standard English and dialects 308 correctness 309 spoken and Written English 310 formality 311 variation and change 312 abbreviated styles 1 headlines 240 slang 533 taboo words and swearwords 575 Topic areas age 32 dates 152 meals 347 measurements: `marked' and `unmarked' forms 350 names (Florence, Homer etc) 362 names and titles (Peter; A« Lewis) 363 nationalities, countries and regions 364 numbers 389 telephoning 578 telling the time 579 spelling and punctuation spelling 556-565 punctuation 473-479
pronunciation stress and rhythm 554 intonation 555 weak and strong forms 616 worc )uilding prefixes and suffixes 445 confusable words and expressions accept and agree 7 all right and alright 41 allow, permit and let 42 almost and nearly; practically 43 alone, lonely, lonesome and lone 44 also, as well and too 46-47 alternately and alternatively 48 although, though, but and however: contrast 49 altogether and all together 50 arise and rise 59 as, because, since and for 72 as, when and while: simultaneous events 73 at first and first 84 (a)wake and (a)waken 86 back and again 87 bath and bathe 88 beat and win 93 begin and start 99 beside and besides 101 besides, except and apart from 102 big, large and great 106 born and borne 108 borrow and lend 109 bring and take 112 bring up and educate 113 Britain, the United Kingdom, the British Isles and England 114 broad and wide 115 care: take care (of), care (about) and care for 127 changes (become, get, go, grow etc) 128 City and town 129 classic and classical 254 dose and shut 132 cloth and clothes 133 come and go 134 comic and comical 254
page xiv
Contents Overview
continual(ly) and continuous(ly) 142 dead, died and death 153 east and eastern, north and northern etc 172 economic and economical 254 efficient and effective 173 electric and electrical 254 end and finish: verbs 185 especial(ly) and special(ly) 188 except and except for 194 expect, hope, wait and look forward 196 experiment and experience 197 fairly, quite, rather and pretty: adverbs of degree 199 far and a long way 200 farther and further 201 female and feminine; male and masculine 203 finally, at last, in the end and at the end 204 fit and suit 206 forget and leave 209 fun and funny 210 get and go: movement 225 hear and listen (to) 241 here and there 245 high and tall 246 hire, rent and let 247 historic and historical 254 holiday and holidays 248 how and what like? 253 ill and sick 266 in case and if 271 its and it's 305 last, the last, the latest 314 later and in 315 lay and lie 316 long and (for) a long time 330 lose and loose 332 loudly and aloud 334 magic and magical 254 maybe and perhaps 346 next and the next; nearest 375 no more, not any more, no longer 379 not and no 382 opportunity and possibility 400 play and game 432 politic and political 254 politics and policy 438 price and prize 468 principal and principle 469
road and street 502 say and teil 504 sensible and sensitive 508 shade and shadow 516 small and little 534 so (conjunction) and then 537 some time, sometime and sometimes 549 soon, early and quickly 550 such and so 569 speak and talk 553 thankful and grateful 582 travel, journey, trip and voyage 597 whose and who's 627 other words and expressions [be] able to 3 actual(ly) 11 afraid 28 after: adverb 29 after: conjunction 30 after all 31 ago 33 alike 34 any (any better etc) 57 appear 58 as: structures 581 as such 76 as usual 77 ask 79 at all 83 before: adverb 96 bet 103 better 104 [a] bit 107 but meaning 'except' 116 call 120 can't help 126 contrary 144 control 145 country 150 dare 151 different 155 divorce 337 doubt 163 dress 164 drown 165 elder and eldest 176 eise 183 enjoy 186 even 189 eventual(ly) 190
page xv To find the answer to a specific question, see the Index
Contents Overview
ever 191 ever so, ever such 192 explain 198 feel 202 finished 205 first (this is the first ... etc): tenses 591 get: meanings and structures 223-224 give with action-nouns 226 go/come for a ... 227 go/come ...ing 228 gone with be 229 had better 230 happen to ... 232 hardly, scarcely and no sooner 233 hear, see etc + object + verb form 242 hear, see etc with that-clause 243 help 244 home 249 hope 250 hopefully 251 indeed 273 just 307 know 313 last (this is the last ... etc): tenses 591 learn 317 left 319 let: 322-323 life: countable or uncountable 324 like: verb 325 likely 327 look 331 make: 335-336 marry 337 mean 348 means 349 mind (do you mind etc) 351 miss 352 need 366 no (no better etc) 57 no doubt 377 no matter 378 nowadays 388 of course 390 often 391 once; adverb 393 only: focusing adverb 398 open 399 opposite (adjective): position 401 own 405 part 407 place (a place to live, etc) 431
please and thank you 433 point of view 434 prefer 444 presently 467 quite 489 rather 490-491 reason 492 remind 499 [the] rest 501 [the] same 503 see 505 see, look (at) and watch 506 seem 507 smell 535 since: tenses 522 so: adverb meaning 'like this/that' 536 so: degree adverb (so tired, so fast) 538 so (and not) with hope, believe etc 539 so with say and teil 540 so-and-so; so-so 544 sort of, kind of and type of 551 sound 552 still, yet and already: time 566 such 568 suggest 570 suppose, supposing and what if 571 supposed to 572 surely 573 sympathetic 574 take: time 576 taste 577 than: structures 581 the matter (with) 585 there 586 think 588 time 593 tonight 594 too 595 used to 604 [be] used to ...ing 605 very and very much 611 wait 612 want 613 -wards 614 way 615 well 617 where (to) 619 why and why not 628 wish: tenses 630 worth 632 yes and no 634 page xvi

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