Racial and ethnic groups

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Content: Racial and Ethnic Groups FIFTEENTH EDITION Richard T. Schaefer DePaul University
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Schaefer, Richard T., author. Title: Racial and ethnic groups / Richard T. Schaefer. Description: 15th edition. | Hoboken, N.J. : Pearson Higher Education, 2019. Identifiers: LCCN 2017029686 (print) | LCCN 2017030879 (ebook) | ISBN 9780134736525 (Revel) | ISBN 9780134732855 (hardcover) | ISBN 9780134736730 (softcover) Subjects: LCSH: Minorities--United States. | United States--Ethnic Relations. | United States--Race relations. | Prejudices--United States. Classification: LCC E184.A1 (ebook) | LCC E184.A1 S3 2019 (print) | DDC 305.800973--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017029686
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Student Edition: ISBN 10: 0-134-73285-5 ISBN 13: 978-0-134-73285-5 Books б la Carte Edition: ISBN 10: 0-134-73662-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-134-73662-4
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To my grandchildren, Matilda and Reuben, may they grow to flourish in our multicultural society
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Brief Contents
1 Exploring Race and Ethnicity
1
2 Prejudice31
3 Discrimination55
4 Immigration78
5 Ethnicity, Whiteness, and Religion 103
6 Native Americans:
The First Americans
132
7 African Americans
160
8 African Americans Today
181
9 Latinos: Growth and Diversity
200
10 Mexican Americans and
Puerto Ricans
219
11 Muslim and Arab Americans:
Diverse Minorities
238
12 Asian Pacific Americans:
An Array of Nationalities
258
13 Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans282
14 Jewish Americans: The Quest
to Maintain Identity
301
15 Women: The Oppressed Majority 322
16 Beyond the United States:
The Comparative Perspective
344
17 Overcoming Exclusion
364
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Contents
Featuresxiii
Prefacexv
About the Author
xxi
Part I Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Groups
1 Exploring Race and Ethnicity
1
How Are We Grouped?
4
Types of Minority Groups
6
RACIAL GROUPS 6·ETHNIC GROUPS 6
Speaking Out The Problem of the Color Line
7
RELIGIOUS GROUPS 7·GENDER GROUPS 8·OTHER SUBORDINATE GROUPS 8
The Social Construction of Race
8
Biological Meaning
8
ABSENCE OF PURE RACES 8·INTELLIGENCE TESTS 9
Race as a Social Construction
10
Biracial and Multiracial Identity: Who Am I?
11
Research Focus Multiracial Identity
12
Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity
13
Stratification by Class and Gender
13
Theoretical Perspectives
14
FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE 14·CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE15·LABELING THEORY 15
The Creation of Subordinate-Group Status
17
Migration17
Annexation18
Colonialism18
The Spectrum of Intergroup Status
19
The Consequences of Subordinate-Group Status
19
Extermination19
Expulsion20
Secession20 Segregation21
Fusion23
Assimilation24
The Pluralist Perspective
25
Resistance and Change
25
Intersectionality27
Conclusion28
Summary of Learning Objectives29·Key Terms30· Review Questions30·Critical Thinking30
2 Prejudice31
Prejudice and Discrimination
33
Merton's Typology
34
Research Focus Virtual Prejudice and Anti-Prejudice
34
White Privilege
35
Theories of Prejudice
36
Scapegoating Theory
36
Authoritarian Personality Theory
37
Exploitation Theory
37
Normative Approach
38
Stereotypes38
What Are Stereotypes?
38
Stereotyping in Action: Racial Profiling
39
Color-Blind Racism
40
The Mood of the Oppressed
41
Intergroup Hostility
43
Reducing Prejudice
45
Education45
Mass Media
46
Intergroup Contact: Avoidance Versus Friendship
47
THE SOCIAL DISTANCE SCALE 47·EQUAL STATUS CONTACT 48·AVOIDANCE VIA THE INTERNET 48
Corporate Response: Diversity Training
49
Speaking Out What Can I Do at Work?
50
Conclusion52
Summary: Prejudice53·Key Terms54· Review Questions54·Critical Thinking54
3 Discrimination55
Relative versus Absolute Deprivation
56
A Global View The Roma: A Thousand Years
of Discrimination
57
Hate Crimes
57
What Are Hate Crimes?
58
Why Do Hate Crimes Carry Harsher Penalties?
59
Institutional Discrimination
59
Discrimination Today
61
Discrimination Hits the Wallet
61
Eliminating Discrimination
63
Research Focus The Sharing Economy--Another Way
to Discriminate
65
Wealth Inequality: Discrimination's Legacy
66
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viiiContents
Environmental Justice
67
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
68
Affirmative Action Explained
69
The Legal Debate
69
Reverse Discrimination
71
Speaking Out The Conversation We're Not Having When
We Talk About Affirmative Action
72
The Glass Ceiling
73
Conclusion75
Summary of Learning Objectives76·Key Terms77· Review Questions77·Critical Thinking77
Part II Ethnic and Religious Sources of Conflict
4 Immigration78
Patterns of Immigration to the United States
79
The Early Immigrants
81
The Anti-Chinese Movement
82
Restrictionist Sentiment Increases
83
The National Origin System
83
The Immigration and Nationality Act
84
Contemporary Social Concerns
86
The Brain Drain
86
population growth
87
Mixed-Status Families
88
Language Barriers
88
Speaking Out My Parents Were Deported
89
The economic impact
91
Research Focus The Hispanic Dairyland
92
Illegal Immigration
93
Naturalization: The Path to Citizenship
95
A Global View Immigration and South Africa
96
The Global Economy and Immigration
97
Refugees98
Policies98
Concerns About the Refugee Program
99
Conclusion100
Summary of Learning Objectives101·Key Terms102· Review Questions102·Critical Thinking102
5 Ethnicity, Whiteness, and Religion 103
Unpacking Ethnicity
104
Studying Whiteness
105
Rediscovering Ethnicity
106
THE PRINCIPLE OF THIRD-GENERATION INTEREST 107 · THE ETHNIC PARADOX 107 · SYMBOLIC ETHNICITY 107
Speaking Out The Next Americans
108
The German Americans
109
Settlement Patterns
109
German Americans in the Twenty-First Century
110
The Irish Americans
111
Irish Immigration
111
Becoming White
112
The Contemporary Picture
113
The Italian Americans
114
Early Immigration
114
Constructing Identity
115
Research Focus Immigrants: Yesterday and Today
116
The Contemporary Picture
117
The Polish Americans
117
Early Immigration
118
Polonia118
The Contemporary Picture
119
Religious Pluralism
120
Diversity Among Roman Catholics
124
Diversity Among Protestants
124
Religion and the Courts
126
Company Exemptions
126
School Prayer
126
Secessionist Minorities
127
Creationism and Intelligent Design
128
Public Displays
128
Conclusion128
Summary of Learning Objectives130·Key Terms130· Review Questions131·Critical Thinking131
Part III Major Racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States
6 Native Americans:
The First Americans
132
European Contacts
134
Treaties and Warfare
136
THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT (1830) 137·THE ALLOTMENT ACT (1887) 137·THE INDIAN REORGANIZATION ACT (1934)137
A Global View Australia's Aboriginal People
138
Reservation Life and Federal Policies
139
Relations Across Boundaries The Hopi and Navajo Peoples140
Legal Claims
140
The Termination Act (1953)
141
The Employment Assistance Program
141
Collective Action
143
Protest Efforts
143
Solidarity and Powwows
144
American Indian Identity
146
Sovereignty146
Individual Identity
146
Speaking Out Kinship in Modern Times
147
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Contentsix
Native Americans Today
148
economic development
149
TOURISM149·CASINO GAMBLING150
Research Focus Economic Impact of Casino Gambling151
UNEMPLOYMENT152 Education152 Healthcare154
Religious and Spiritual Expression
154
Environment155
Conclusion156
Summary of Learning Objectives158·Key Terms159· Review Questions159·Critical Thinking159
7 African Americans
160
Slavery161
Slave Codes
162
The Attack on Slavery
163
Slavery's Aftermath
163
Relations Across Boundaries African Americans
and the American Indians
164
A Global View France Noire: Black France
165
The Legacy of Slavery
166
The Challenges and Accomplishments
of Black Leaders
166
The Politics of Accommodation
167
The Niagara Movement
167
Research Focus Sundown Towns, USA
169
Reemergence of Black Protests
169
The Civil Rights Movement
170
The Struggle to Desegregate Public Schools
171
civil disobedience
172
Speaking Out Olympic Athletes Who Took a Stand
173
The Urban Stage
174
Urban Violence and Oppression
174
Black Power and #BlackLivesMatter
175
The Religious Force
176
The New Immigration
177
Conclusion177
Summary of Learning Objectives179·Key Terms179· Review Questions179·Critical Thinking180
8 African Americans Today
181
Education182
The School Environment
182
Research Focus Acting White
184
Higher Education
185
The Economic Picture
186
The Black Middle Class
186
Employment187
Speaking Out Black Picket Fences
188
Family Life
189
Challenges to Family Stability
190
Strengths of African American Families
190
Housing191
Criminal Justice
192
Healthcare194
Politics196
Conclusion197
Summary of Learning Objectives198·Key Terms199· Review Questions199·Critical Thinking199
9 Latinos: Growth and Diversity
200
Latino Identity
203
Speaking Out Reconciling Two Identities
203
The Economic Picture
205
Education206
Research Focus English-language acquisition
207
The Political Presence
208
Religion209
Cuban Americans
211
Immigration211
The Current Picture
212
Central and South Americans
213
Immigration213
A Global View The Salvadoran Connection
215
The Current Picture
216
Conclusion216
Summary of Learning Objectives217·Key Terms218· Review Questions218·Critical Thinking218
10 Mexican Americans
and Puerto Ricans
219
The Mexican American Community Emerges
220
The Early Mexican American Experience
220
The Immigration Northward
221
Chбvez and the Farm Laborers
223
Mexican Americans Today
224
Relations Across Boundaries Immigrant Mexicans
and U.S.-Born Mexican Americans
224
The Borderlands
225
Research Focus Mexican Hometown Associations
226
Healthcare227
Family Life
227
Puerto Rico: The Island
228
Territorial Rule by the United States
229
Speaking Out Puerto Ricans Cannot Be Silenced
230
The Island Economy
231
Issues of Statehood and Self-Rule
232
Puerto Ricans Today
233
The Bridge Between the Island and the Mainland234
The Social Construction of Race
234
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xContents
Conclusion235 Summary of Learning Objectives236·Key Terms236· Review Questions237·Critical Thinking237
11 Muslim and Arab Americans:
Diverse Minorities
238
Identifying Arab, Muslim, and Middle Eastern Americans239
Arab Americans
241
Research Focus Self-Identifying as "Arab American"
243
Muslim Americans
244
Islam in the United States
244
Relations Across Boundaries Muslim, Arab,
and Jewish Americans
246
Black Muslims
246
Immigration to the United States
248
Islamophobia249
Speaking Out May America Be True to Her Dream
250
Contemporary Life in the United States
251
Family Life and Gender
252
Education252
Politics253
A Global View Muslims in France
254
Conclusion255
Summary of Learning Objectives256·Key Terms257· Review Questions257·Critical Thinking257
12 Asian Pacific Americans:
An Array of Nationalities
258
Overview of Asian Pacific Americans
260
Diversity260
Political Activity and Pan-Asian Identity
262
Is There a Model Minority?
264
Educational Levels
264
Economic Status
265
Asian Indians
266
Immigration267
The Current Picture
267
Research Focus Arranged Marriages in America
268
Filipino Americans
269
Immigration Patterns
269
The Current Picture
270
Korean Americans
271
Historical Background
271
The Current Picture
271
Relations Across Boundaries Black and Korean Americans273
SouthEast Asian Americans
273
The Refugees
273
The Current Picture
274
Case Study: A Hmong Community
275
Hawai'i and Its People
276
Historical Background
276
The Sovereignty Movement
277
Speaking Out Recognizing Native Hawaiians
278
Conclusion279
Summary of Learning Objectives280·Key Terms280· Review Questions281·Critical Thinking281
13 Chinese Americans
and Japanese Americans
282
Chinese Americans: The Early Experience
283
Early Settlement Patterns
283
Chinatowns Today
284
ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE 285·SOCIAL PROBLEMS285
Contemporary Chinese Americans
287
Occupational Profile of Chinese Americans
287
Family Life
287
Research Focus Tiger Mothers
288
Japanese Americans: The Early Years
289
Early Immigration
289
The Wartime Evacuation
290
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 290·THE CAMPS292
Contemporary Japanese Americans
293
The Evacuation: What Does It Mean?
293
The Economic Picture
294
Family Life
295
Remnants of Prejudice and Discrimination
296
Speaking Out Statement on Liang Decision
297
Conclusion298
Summary of Learning Objectives299·Key Terms300· Review Questions300·Critical Thinking300
14 Jewish Americans: The Quest
to Maintain Identity
301
A Global View Argentina's Jewish Community
303
The Jewish People: Race, Religion, or
Ethnic Group?
303
Immigration of Jews to the United States
304
Anti-Semitism: Past and Present
306
Origins of Anti-Semitism
306
The Holocaust
307
U.S. Anti-Semitism: Past
308
Contemporary Anti-Semitism
309
INCIDENTS OF ANTI-SEMITISM 309·AMERICAN JEWS AND ISRAEL 310
Contemporary Position
310
Employment and Income
311
Education311
Political Activity
312
Religious Life
312
The Orthodox Tradition
313
Case Study: Daily Life of the Orthodox
314
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Contentsxi
Speaking Out The Neighborhood as a Moral
Obstacle Course
314
The Reform Tradition
315
Jewish Identity
316
Role of the Family
317
Research Focus Intermarriage: The Final Step
to Assimilation?
318
Role of Religion
318
Role of Cultural Heritage
319
Conclusion319
Summary of Learning Objectives321·Key Terms321· Review Questions321·Critical Thinking321
Part IV Other Patterns of Dominance
15 Women: The Oppressed Majority 322
Gender Roles
324
Sociological Perspectives
325
The Feminist Movement
325
Research Focus Men Doing Women's Work
326
The Suffrage Movement
326
The Women's Liberation Movement
327
Feminism Today
328
The Economic Picture
329
Sources of Discrimination
331
A Global View Gender Inequality in Japan
332
Sexual Harassment
335
Feminization of Poverty
335
Education336
Family Life
337
Childcare and Housework
337
The Abortion Issue
339
Speaking Out What Do Women and Men Want?
340
Political Activity
341
Conclusion342
Summary of Learning Objectives342·Key Terms343· Review Questions343·Critical Thinking343
16 Beyond the United States:
The Comparative Perspective
344
Brazil: Not a Racial Paradise
351
The "Racial Democracy" Illusion
352
The Brazilian Dilemma
352
Israel and the Palestinians
354
Arab­Israeli Conflicts
355
The Intifada
356
The Search for Solutions amid Violence
356
Republic of South Africa
357
The Legacy of Colonialism
358
Apartheid358
Speaking Out Africa, It Is Ours!
359
The Era of Reconciliation and Moving On
360
Research Focus Intergroup Contact and South
Africa360
Conclusion361
Summary of Learning Objectives363·Key Terms363· Review Questions363·Critical Thinking363
17 Overcoming Exclusion
364
The Aged: A Social Minority
365
Who Are the Elderly?
366
Ageism366
Research Focus The Three Maxes
367
The Economic Picture
369
Advocacy Efforts by the Elderly
369
People with Disabilities: Moving On
370
Disability in Contemporary Society
371
Labeling People with Disabilities
372
Speaking Out My Journey into the Deaf World
372
Advocacy for Disability Rights
374
The LGBT Community: Coming Out
for Equality
376
Being Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, or Transgender
in the United States
376
Prejudice and Discrimination
378
Advocacy for LGBT Rights
379
Conclusion381
Summary of Learning Objectives382·Key Terms382· Review Questions382·Critical Thinking383
Mexico: Diversity South of the Border The Mexican Indian People and the Color Gradient The Status of Women Canada: Multiculturalism Up North The First Nations The Quйbйcois Immigration and Race
345 Glossary384 345 Bibliography389 347 348 Index415 348 349 350
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Features
Speaking Out · "Problem of the Color Line," by W. E. B. Du Bois (Chapter 1) · "What Can I Do at Work?" by Southern Poverty Law Center (Chapter 2) · "The Conversation We're Not Having When We Talk About Affirmative Action," by Gail Christopher (Chapter 3) · "My Parents Were Deported," by Diane Guerrero (Chapter 4) · "The Next Americans," by Tomбs Jimйnez (Chapter 5) · "Kinship in Modern Times," by Vi Waln (Chapter 6) · "Olympic Athletes Who Took a Stand," by David Davis (Chapter 7) · "Black Picket Fences," by Mary Pattillo (Chapter 8) · "Reconciling Two Identities," by Rosie Molinary (Chapter 9) · "Puerto Ricans Cannot Be Silenced," by Luis Gutierrez (Chapter 10) · "May America Be True to Her Dream," by Nihad Awad (Chapter 11) · "Recognizing Native Hawaiians," by Daniel Akaka (Chapter 12) · "Statement on Liang Decision," Japanese American Citizens League (Chapter 13) · "The Neighborhood as a Moral Obstacle Course," by Iddo Tavory (Chapter 14) · "What Do Women and Men Want?" by Kathleen Gerson (Chapter 15) · "Africa, It Is Ours!" by Nelson Mandela (Chapter 16) · "My Journey into the Deaf World," by Erik Olin Wright (Chapter 17) Relations Across Boundaries · The Hopi and Navajo Peoples (Chapter 6) · African Americans and the American Indians (Chapter 7)
· Immigrant Mexicans and U.S.-Born Mexicans (Chapter 10) · Muslim, Arab, and Jewish Americans (Chapter 11) · Black and Korean Americans (Chapter 12) A Global View · The Roma: A Thousand Years of Discrimination (Chapter 3) · Immigration and South Africa (Chapter 4) · Australia's Aboriginal People (Chapter 6) · France Noire: Black France (Chapter 7) · The Salvadoran Connection (Chapter 9) · Muslims in France (Chapter 11) · Argentina's Jewish Community (Chapter 14) · Gender Inequality in Japan (Chapter 15) Research Focus · Multiracial Identity (Chapter 1) · Virtual Prejudice and Anti-Prejudice (Chapter 2) · The Sharing Economy--Another Way to Discriminate (Chapter 3) · The Hispanic Dairyland (Chapter 4) · Immigrants: Yesterday and Today (Chapter 5) · Economic Impact of Casino Gambling (Chapter 6) · Sundown Towns, USA (Chapter 7) · Acting White (Chapter 8) · English-Language Acquisition (Chapter 9) · Mexican Hometown Associations (Chapter 10) · Self-Identifying as "Arab American" (Chapter 11) · Arranged Marriages in America (Chapter 12) · Tiger Mothers (Chapter 13) · Intermarriage: The Final Step to Assimilation? (Chapter 14) · Men Doing Women's Work (Chapter 15) · Intergroup Contact and South Africa (Chapter 16) · The Three Maxes (Chapter 17)
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Preface
T he first two decades of the twenty-first century have witnessed significant social changes. The Latino population in the United States is now larger than the African American population, with the Asian Pacific American population growing faster than either. Meanwhile, White non-Hispanic youth have become a numerical minority when compared to other racial and ethnic groups. Alongside these demographic changes, a series of events have underscored the diversity of the American people. People cheered on May 1, 2011, upon hearing that Osama bin Laden had been found and killed. However, many American Indian people were troubled to learn that the military had assigned the code name "Geronimo" to the infamous terrorist. The Chiricahua Apache of New Mexico were particularly disturbed to learn that their freedom fighter's name was used in this manner. Barack Obama, the son of an immigrant, became the first African American president, but Mr. Obama also recognizes other aspects of his ethnicity. On an official state visit to Ireland while president, he made a side trip to the village of Moneygall in County Offaly. His great-great-grandfather Falmouth Kearney, a shoemaker's son, came to the United States from County Offaly in 1850. Race and ethnicity are an important part of the national landscape and the national agenda. Forty years ago, when writing the first edition of this book, I noted that race is not a static phenomenon. Although race is always a part of the social reality, specific aspects of race and ethnicity change. In the first edition, I noted the presence of a new immigrant group, the Vietnamese, and described the early efforts to define affirmative action. Today, in an increasingly diverse society, we seek to describe the growing presence of Salvadorans, Haitians, Nigerians, Tongans, Somalis, Hmong, and Arab Americans in the United States. Specific issues may change over time, but they continue to play out against a backdrop of discrimination that is rooted in the social structure and changing composition of the population as influenced by immigration and reproduction patterns. In addition, the breakup of the Soviet Union and changes in Middle Eastern governments have made ethnic, language, and religious divisions even more significant sources of antagonism between and within nations. The old ideological debates about communism and capitalism have been replaced by emotional divisions over religious dogma and cultural traditions.
New to the Fifteenth Edition The fifteenth edition of Racial and Ethnic Groups continues to take full advantage of the most recent data releases from the U.S. Census Bureau through the annual American Community Survey (ACS). The ACS allows each new edition of the text to include updated information (without the ACS, data would be updated only once a decade, based on the results of the ten-year census). Thanks to the ACS, readers will find updated and revised tables, figures, maps, and Internet sources throughout the fifteenth edition. As one example of the thorough updating, we note that over 25 percent of the 1,560 references are new to this edition. Learning Objectives appear at the beginning of each chapter; these objectives correspond with the numbered Summary of Learning Objectives at the end of each chapter. Each Learning Objective corresponds to a major heading in the text, providing students with a built-in road map and study plan for each chapter. Relevant scholarly findings in a variety of disciplines, including economics, anthropology, social psychology, and communication sciences, are incorporated throughout the book. A Speaking Out feature appears in every chapter. These selections provide firsthand commentaries on race and ethnicity in America, helping us appreciate racial and ethnic groups' responses to prejudice and other challenges. The Speaking Out features include excerpts written or spoken by highly regarded members of racial and ethnic groups, including W. E. B. DuBois, Mary Pattillo, Tomбs R. Jimйnez, and Nelson Mandela. New Key Terms in the fifteenth edition include blood quantum, casual Islamophobia, colorism, daughter effect, eugenics, intersectionality, microaggressions, sanctuary cities, and sharing economy. Instructors who have taught from earlier editions of this book will see an increased effort to reintroduce key terms throughout the book in an effort to make them a part of the reader's working vocabulary. Along with the Speaking Out feature, the Research Focus and Global View boxes offer new insights into the ever-changing nature of race and ethnicity. Twelve of these features are new to the fifteenth edition. The fifteenth edition adds a new feature, Relations Across Boundaries, which describe the interactions between racial, ethnic, and religious groups. This new feature helps readers understand that social relationships in the United States are not necessarily defined and dominated by
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xviPreface
white Americans. The Relations Across Boundaries feature is intended to create a dialogue between the student reader and the material in this book. The Spectrum of Intergroup Relations appears in sixteen of the chapters. The Spectrum at the end of the final chapter serves as a summary of the observations made throughout the textbook. The fifteenth edition includes entirely new sections on contemporary issues related to refugees, the sharing economy and discrimination, ongoing discussions of policy changes for the "DREAMers," and environmental justice and the water system of Flint, Michigan. Chapter-by-Chapter Changes As with all previous editions, every line, every source, and every number has been checked for its currency. The goal of Racial and Ethnic Groups has always been to provide the most current information possible to document patterns in intergroup relations both in the United States and abroad. The following list details the major changes in each chapter. Chapter 1, Exploring Race and Ethnicity · New opening examples · Latest American Community Survey 2014­2015 data update all statistics in the chapter · Expulsion example of Muslim and Nepali-speaking Bhutanese; also noted in their resettling in Manchester, New Hampshire, in chapter opening example · 2014 report on trends in school segregation · Resistance example added of #BlackLivesMatter movement · Intersectionality coverage moved forward from Chapter 15 and expanded to include language spoken and critiques of this approach to social inequality · Key Terms added: colorism, eugenics, Eurocentrism, intersectionality Chapter 2, Prejudice · New figure on the rise of hate groups · Latest census data update all income and wealth statistics · White privilege illustrated by recent study of bus drivers granting or not granting free bus rides · Latest reports on racial profiling in traffic stops and New York City ending surveillance program in Muslim neighborhoods
· Recent data on minority representation on television and in motion pictures · New Speaking Out feature: "What Can I Do at Work?" · Updated figure on foreign-born workers · Key Term added: microaggressions Chapter 3, Discrimination · New material on restricting voting rights through banning ex-felons and requiring photo ID · Latest data on income and wealth by race, ethnicity, and gender · Research Focus feature: The Sharing Economy-- Another Way to Discriminate · The water supply in Flint, Michigan, as an example of the need for environmental justice · 2016 Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin Supreme Court decision · Impact of the Great Recession on Black home ownership · Key Term added: sharing economy Chapter 4, Immigration · New opener describing immigration in three towns · Two figures and map on immigration updated through 2015 · New Speaking Out feature: "My Parents Were Deported," by Diane Guerrero · Proposed "DREAMers" policy outlined · Updated table on immigration benefits and concerns · New cartoon on immigration reform · Expanded section on refugees · Table on refugees updated to 2015 and contrasted with 2005 · Specific suggestions on how one can help refugees · Key Term added: sanctuary city Chapter 5, Ethnicity, Whiteness, and Religion · Chapter title rephrased to reflect emphasis on concept of Whiteness · Initial section "Unpacking Ethnicity" reorganized · New table on religious groups and political party affiliations · Impact of recent immigration on Roman Catholicism and Protestantism in the United States · New section on company exemptions within discus- sion of the courts and religion
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Chapter 6, Native Americans: The First Americans · Opener includes controversy over Navajo president election · Table of major tribal languages updated · New cartoon on indigenous people welcoming Europeans · Table on largest American Indian groupings · Snapshot table of major social indicators updated · Role of blood quantum in American Indian identity · New Speaking Out feature: "Kinship in Modern Times," by Vi Waln · New Research Focus feature: Economic Impact of Casino Gambling · New cartoon on casino gambling · New Relations Across Boundaries feature: Hopi and Navajo Peoples · Continuing environmental controversy of the Dakota Access Pipeline · Key Term added: blood quantum Chapter 7, African Americans · LaCrosse, Wisconsin, as a sundown town in chapter opener · Virginia city confronts on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day observance of General Lee's and General Jackson's birthdays · Updating to 2015 of U.S. map of proportion of African Americans and figure on religious composition · Similarity between Black Power and #BlackLivesMatter movements · New Relations Across Boundaries feature: African Americans and American Indians · New Speaking Out feature: "Olympic Athletes Who Took a Stand," by David Davis Chapter 8, African Americans Today · New Speaking Out feature: "Black Picket Fences," by Mary Pattillo · Research Focus: "Acting White" within new section "The School Environment" · New figure comparing Black and White educational levels · "Criminal Justice" section now includes references to "incarceration nation" and #BlackLivesMatter
· Study documenting drops in 911 calls following violent police­Black suspect encounters · Updated data in figures on family composition and voter turnout · Updated figure of Black­White voter turnout comparison over time · Efforts to weaken the Voting Rights Act · Key Term color-blind racism revisited to describe voting restrictions Chapter 9, Latinos: Growth and Diversity · Table on most common surnames in the United States · Issue of Afro-Latinos and colorism · "Education" section now includes historical perspec- tive, school segregation, and tracking · Updated figure comparing Hispanics versus White non-Hispanics going to college · Updated map on Latino population by state · Mobilization of Latinos over immigration issues 2006­ 2007 and 2016­2017 · New cartoon on U.S.­Cuba relations · Religious affiliations of Hispanics versus total population · New Speaking Out feature: "Reconciling Two Identities," by Rosie Molinary · Key Terms revisited: colorism and de jure segregation Chapter 10, Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans · Reorganized to improve flow from historical to contemporary material · Lynching of Mexican Americans, 1848­1920 · Elaboration of ethnic paradox in healthcare · Economic collapse in contemporary Puerto Rico · Table statistically comparing United States and Puerto Rico · New Research Focus feature on Mexican hometown associations · New Relations Across Boundaries feature: Immigrant Mexicans and U.S.-Born Mexican Americans · New cartoon on congressional indifference toward Puerto Rico's economic problems · Key Terms revisited: colorism and ethnic paradox
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Chapter 11, Muslim and Arab Americans: Diverse Minorities · Chapter opener describing Muslims in Bellevue, Washington · Section distinguishing the terms Middle Eastern, Muslim, and Arab · World map updated to show Middle East countries · U.S. map updated to show most recent data on Arab American population · 2016 Muslim political party preferences · 2016­2017 proposals on Muslim immigration · Figure on Arab American household income data · New Relations Across Boundaries feature on Muslim, Arab, and Jewish Americans · New Speaking Out feature: "May America Be True to Her Dream," by Nihad Awad · Muslim Americans adjusting to college in the United States · Key Term added: casual Islamophobia; revisited: ethno- centrism, nativism, and xenophobia Chapter 12, Asian Pacific Americans: An Array of Nationalities · Chapter reworked to clarify differences among Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) · Significance of H-IB visas for APAs · Table listing Asian Pacific American groups · Updated figure and maps on Asian Pacific Americans · Given increased hostility, United States being reconsid- ered as a favorable destination by people in India · New Relations Across Boundaries feature: Black and Korean Americans · Review of studies on arranged versus love-based marriages · Updated figure on APAs in Hawai'i · Key Terms revisited: affirmative action, brain drain, color- blind racism, marginality Chapter 13, Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans · Research on the accuracy of the Tiger Mother model among Asian Americans · Role of color-blind racism in acceptance of model-minority myth · New Speaking Out feature: "Statement on Liang Decision," by Japanese American Citizens League
· Emergence of Chinese outside of old Chinatowns · Closer look at the "No, No" internees · Four factors explaining persistence of anti­Asian American prejudice · Speaking Out: "Anti-Bullying," by Mike Honda · Key Terms revisited: familism, microaggression, principle of third-generation interest, xenophobia Chapter 14, Jewish Americans: The Quest to Maintain Identity · Efforts by temples to recruit Jews · National and world maps of Jewish population up- dated to 2017 · Figure on anti-Semitic incidents updated with 2016 report · Section titled "Case Study: Daily Life of the Orthodox" · New Speaking Out feature: "The Neighborhood as a Moral Obstacle Course," by Iddo Tavory · Key Term revisited: familism Chapter 15, Women: The Oppressed Majority · Data on women CEOs and high earners in S&P 500 in chapter opener · All tables and figures updated · Research Focus: Men Doing Women's Work · Issue of race in the feminist movement and the 2017 Women's March · Updated figure on women's labor-force participation in selected countries · Updated figure on ratio of women's to men's earnings in selected occupations · Updated figure on income by sex, holding education constant · Update figure on Labor Department data on allocation of housework between men and women · Key Terms reintroduced: blaming the victim, glass escala- tor, intersectionality · Key Term added: daughter effect Chapter 16, Beyond the United States: The Comparative Perspective · Updated table comparing four nations · Canadian First Nations protest of pipelines · Unlikelihood of the two-state solution for Israel and Palestine
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· Trevor Noah and apartheid · Key Term revisited: colorism Chapter 17: Overcoming Exclusion · Updated figures: Actual and Projected Growth of the Elderly Population and Changes in Minority School Population through 2022 · AARP position on 2017 healthcare reform proposals · Revision of list of famous people with disabilities · Updated look at LGBT people in television · Results of 2013 national survey on gays and lesbians · Issues facing transgender people · Key Term revisited: microaggression Complete Coverage in Four Parts Any constructive discussion of racial and ethnic minorities must do more than merely describe events. Part I, "Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Groups," includes the relevant theories and operational definitions that ground the study of race and ethnic relations in the social sciences. Specifically, the text presents the functionalist, conflict, and labeling theories of sociology in relation to the study of race and ethnicity. It examines the relationship between subordinate groups and the study of stratification. The text also introduces reference group theory from psychology. The extensive treatment of prejudice and discrimination covers anti-White prejudice as well as the more familiar topic of bigotry aimed at subordinate groups. Discrimination is analyzed from an economic perspective, including the latest efforts to document discrimination in environmental issues (such as the location of toxic waste facilities) and the move to dismantle affirmative action. Part I also discusses the important topics of intersectionality and the matrix of domination. In Part II, "Ethnic and Religious Sources of Conflict," we examine some often-ignored sources of intergroup conflict in the United States: specifically, White ethnic groups and religious minorities. Diversity in the United States is readily apparent when we look at the ethnic and religious groups that have resulted from waves of immigration. Refugees, now primarily from the Middle East and Central America, also continue to raise major issues. All students need to be familiar with the past to understand present forms of discrimination and subordination. Part III, "Major Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups in the United States," explains both the history and the contemporary status of Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Arab and Muslim Americans, Asian Pacific Americans, and Jews in the United States. Social
institutions such as education, economy, family, housing, the criminal justice system, healthcare, and politics are discussed with respect to each of the subordinate groups. Institutional discrimination, rather than individual action, is often the source of conflict between the subordinate and dominant elements in the United States. Part IV, "Other Patterns of Dominance," includes topics related to American racial and ethnic relations. The text recognizes, as Gunnar Myrdal and Helen Mayer Hacker have recognized, that social and institutional relationships between women and men resemble those between Blacks and Whites. Therefore, this book considers women as a subordinate group. Key topics of debate when the first edition of Racial and Ethnic Groups was published almost 30 years ago, including equal rights for women and abortion, show no sign of resolution. Perhaps we can best comprehend intergroup conflict in the United States by comparing it with the ethnic hostilities in other nations. The similarities and differences between the United States and other societies are striking. In Part IV, the text examines the tensions in Mexico, Brazil, Israel, Palestine, and South Africa to document further the diversity of intergroup conflict. The final chapter highlights other excluded groups: the aged, people with disabilities, gay men, lesbians, bisexual people, and transgender people. This chapter also includes a concluding section that ties together the forces of dominance and subordination and the persistence of inequality that are the subject of this book. Features to Aid Students Several features are included in the text to facilitate student learning. Learning Objectives at the start of each chapter provide a road map for previewing and mastering chapter content, and an introductory section alerts students to important issues and topics to be addressed in the chapter. Periodically throughout the book, the Spectrum of Intergroup Relations, first presented in Chapter 1, is repeated to reinforce major concepts while addressing the unique social circumstances of individual racial and ethnic groups. Each chapter ends with a Conclusion and a Summary of Learning Objectives. Key Terms are highlighted in boldface when they are introduced and are listed again at the end of each chapter. This edition also includes Review Questions and Critical Thinking Questions at the end of each chapter. The Review Questions test students on their understanding of the chapter's major points; the Critical Thinking Questions encourage students to think more deeply about some of the major issues raised in the chapter. An extensive illustration program, which includes maps and political cartoons, expands the text discussion and provokes thought. An end-of-book Glossary provides definitions of Key Terms.
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RevelTM Educational Technology designed for the way today's students read, think, and learn When students are engaged deeply, they learn more effectively and perform better in their courses. This simple fact inspired the creation of Revel: an interactive learning experience designed for the way today's students read, think, and learn. Built in collaboration with educators and students nationwide, Revel is a fully digital and highly engaging way to deliver respected Pearson content. Revel enlivens course content with media interactives and assessments--integrated directly within the authors' narrative--that provide opportunities for students to read, practice, and study in one continuous experience. This interactive educational technology boosts student engagement, which leads to better understanding of concepts and improved performance throughout the course. Learn more about Revel http://www.pearsonhighered.com/revel Ancillary Materials This book is accompanied by an extensive learning package to enhance the experience of instructors and students.
features of MyTest include random generation of test questions, creation of alternate versions of the same test, scrambling question sequence, and test preview before printing. For easy access, this software is available at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc. POWERPOINT PRESENTATIONSThe PowerPoint presentations are informed by instructional and design theory. You have the option in every chapter of choosing from Lecture and Illustration (figures, maps, and images) PowerPoints. The Lecture PowerPoint slides follow the chapter outline and feature images from the textbook integrated with the text. They are available to adopters via www.pearsonhighered.com. Acknowledgments The fifteenth edition was improved by the suggestions of: Tonja Conerly, San Jacinto College ­ South Catherine Felton, Central Piedmont community college Rebecca Hornung, Carthage College Lori Lundell, Purdue University Andrea L. Moore, Sacramento State University Alicia M. Raia-Hawrylak, Rutgers University
INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL AND TEST BANK Each chapter in the Instructor's Manual offers a variety of resources: Chapter Summary, Chapter Outline, Learning Objectives, Critical Thinking Questions, Activities for Classroom Participation, Key Terms, Suggested Readings, and Suggested Films. Designed to make your lectures more effective and to save preparation time, this extensive resource gathers useful activities and strategies for teaching your course. Also included in this manual is a test bank offering multiple-choice, true/false, fill-in-the-blank, and/or essay questions for each chapter. The Instructor's Manual and Test Bank are available to adopters at www.pearsonhighered.com/irc.
I would also like to thank my publishers at Pearson, Billy Grieco and Jeff Marshall, for assisting in the production of this fifteenth edition. Development Editor Steven Rigolosi has drawn on his experience to strengthen this book further and adapt the manuscript to the many digital formats that are available now to the reader. My appreciation also extends to Editor-in-Chief Dickson Musslewhite for his encouragement and support for my textbooks on race and ethnicity. The truly exciting challenge of writing and researching has always been for me an enriching experience, mostly because of the supportive home I share with my wife, Sandy. She knows so well my appreciation and gratitude, now as in the past and in the future.
MYTEST This computerized software allows instructors to create their own exams, to edit any or all of the existing test questions, and to add new questions. Other special
Richard T. Schaefer [email protected]
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About the Author
Richard T. Schaefer grew up in Chicago at a time when neighborhoods were going through transitions in ethnic and racial composition. He found himself increasingly intrigued by what was happening, how people were reacting, and how these changes were affecting neighborhoods and people's jobs. In high school, he took a course in sociology. His interest in social issues caused him to gravitate to more sociology courses at Northwestern University, where he eventually received a B.A. in sociology. "Originally as an undergraduate I thought I would go on to law school and become a lawyer. But after taking a few sociology courses, I found myself wanting to learn more about what sociologists studied and was fascinated by the kinds of questions they raised," Dr. Schaefer says. "Perhaps most fascinating and, to me, relevant to the 1960s was the intersection of race, gender, and social class." This interest led him to obtain his M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. Dr. Schaefer's continuing interest in race relations led him to write his master's thesis on the membership of the Ku Klux Klan and his doctoral thesis on racial prejudice and race relations in Great Britain. Dr. Schaefer went on to become a professor of sociology. He has taught sociology and courses on multi-
culturalism for 30 years. He has been invited to give special presentations on racial and ethnic diversity to students and faculty in Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. Dr. Schaefer is the author of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the USA (Pearson, 2014) and Race and Ethnicity in the United States, ninth edition (Pearson, 2019). He is the general editor of the three-volume Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society (2008). He is also the author of the twelfth edition of Sociology: A Brief Introduction (2017), the fourth edition of Sociology: A Modular Approach (2015), and the seventh edition of Sociology Matters (2018). He coauthored with William Zellner the ninth edition of Extraordinary Groups (2015). His books have been translated into Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, and Spanish, as well as adapted for use in Canadian colleges. His articles and book reviews have appeared in many journals, including American Journal of Sociology, Phylon: A Review of Race and Culture, Contemporary Sociology, Sociology and Social Research, Sociological Quarterly, and Teaching Sociology. He served as president of the Midwest Sociological Society from 1994 to 1995. In recognition of his achievements in undergraduate teaching, he was named Vincent de Paul Professor of Sociology in 2004.
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