Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean, LM Burke, J Maidens, M Spalding, P Kramer, E Green

Tags: World Resources Institute, Suzie Greenhalgh, Coral Reefs, Hillary Nobles, World Bank, Caribbean, International Coral Reef Action Network, Caribbean Environment, GEF Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, Mark Spalding, Philip Kramer, Design Lomangino Studio Inc., Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, U.S. Agency for International Development, Uwe Deichmann, Nelson Andrade, Library of Congress Control Number, Marine Protected Areas, Map, Caribbean coral reefs, Coral Bleaching Observations, Caribbean Region, WRI publications, Henry Foundation, LAURETTA BURKE, Edmund Green, World Fish Center, coral bleaching, United Nations Foundation, Belize Coastal Zone Management Institute, Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting, Public awareness, reef health, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, sustainable management, Kathleen Sullivan Seeley, Munson Foundation, Edith Munson Foundation, NOAA, Serge Andr�ou�, Environmental Defense, Christine Kranenburg, The Reefs, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Steven Menard
Content: Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean LAURETTA BURKE | JONATHAN MAIDENS Contributing Authors: Mark Spalding, Philip Kramer, Edmund Green, Suzie Greenhalgh, Hillary Nobles, Johnathan Kool World Resources Institute WASHINGTON, DC
Hyacinth Billings Publications Director Cover Photo French Anglefish by Wolcott Henry© Inside Front Cover Photo Staghorn Coral by Toni Parras Report Series Design Lomangino Studio Inc. Layout of Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean Maggie Powell No photograph in this report may be used in another work without written permission from the photographer. Each World Resources Institute report represents a timely, scholarly treatment of a subject of public concern. WRI takes responsibility for choosing the study topics and guaranteeing its authors and researchers freedom of inquiry. It also solicits and responds to the guidance of Advisory Panels and expert reviewers. Unless otherwise stated, however, all the interpretation and findings set forth in WRI publications are those of the authors. Copyright © 2004 World Resources Institute. All rights reserved. ISBN 1-56973-567-0 Library of Congress Control Number: 2004113031 Printed in the United States of America on chlorine-free paper with recycled content of 50%, 30% of which is post-consumer.
Contents
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Purpose and Goal of Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Methods and Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Key Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Conclusions and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 About the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 CHAPTER 2. PROJECT APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Threat Analysis Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Limitations of the Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 CHAPTER 3. THREATS TO REEFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Coastal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Sedimentation and Pollution from Inland Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Marine-Based Sources of Threat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Overfishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 climate change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Integrating Threats: The Reefs at Risk Threat Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 CHAPTER 4. STATUS OF CARIBBEAN CORAL REEFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Bahamian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Greater Antilles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Eastern Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Southern Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 Southwestern Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Western Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Gulf of Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Bermuda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 CHAPTER 5. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF CORAL REEF DEGRADATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Purpose and Methods for Valuing Coral Reef Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Fisheries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Tourism and Recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Shoreline Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Other Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Areas for Future Research and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
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APPENDIX A. PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC STATISTICS FOR THE CARIBBEAN REGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
APPENDIX B. DATA SOURCES USED IN THE REEFS AT RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN THREAT ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
APPENDIX C. INFORMATION ACTIVITIES IN THE CARIBBEAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
ACRONYMS AND GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
BOXES Box 1. Box 2. Box 3. MAPS Map 1. Map 2. Map 3. Map 4. Map 5. Map 6. Map 7. Map 8. Map 9. Map 10. FIGURES Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. TABLES Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6.
Caribbean Coral Reefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Jamaica's Reefs: Back from the Brink? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 MARINE Protected areaS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 The Caribbean Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Reefs Threatened by Coastal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Agricultural Lands by Slope Category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Reefs Threatened by Sedimentation and Pollution from Inland Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Reefs Threatened by Marine-Based Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Reefs Threatened by Overfishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Coral Bleaching Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Coral Disease Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Integrated Threat - The Reefs at Risk Threat Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Caribbean Sub-Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Number of Reported Bleaching Observations by Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Reefs at Risk by Category of Threat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Sub-Regions by Reefs at Risk Threat Index and Reef Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Reefs at Risk Analysis Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Reefs Threatened by Human Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Estimated Economic Value of Fisheries Production in the Caribbean: Healthy Reefs versus Reefs Degraded by 2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Estimated Economic Value of Coral Reef-Related Tourism in the Caribbean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Range of Estimated Economic Values of Shoreline Protection Services Provided by Healthy Coral Reefs in the Caribbean in 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Summary of Estimated Values of Selected Goods and Services Derived from Coral Reefs in the Caribbean (2000) and Estimated Potential Losses Due to Coral Reef Degradation (by 2015 and 2050) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
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Foreword The Caribbean region is endowed with a wealth of coastal and marine resources, including a wonderful multitude of unique plants and animals. Most Caribbean countries depend on the sea for the goods and services it provides. Reef fisheries are a vital source of protein for millions of people in the region and a source of employment for hundreds of thousands of full- and part-time fishers. Over 116 million people live within 100 km of the Caribbean coast and over 25 million tourists a year visit the Caribbean, almost all of whom spend the majority of their time in coastal areas. Tourism revenue alone brings in over US$25 billion a year to the region. There is growing concern, however, that the accelerating degradation and loss of these resources would result in significant hardship for coastal populations, nations, and economies. This report identifies nearly two-thirds of the region's reefs to be directly threatened by human activities, and estimates future economic losses from diminished coral reef fisheries, dive tourism and shoreline protection services at between US$350 ­ US$870 million per year. Coral reefs are extremely important to the economies of Caribbean countries today, and they are the capital stock for future economic and political security. Ensuring the vitality of coral reefs and their ability to continue providing benefits to society and economies is critically important, but there is much we do not know about these resources. Until now, a comprehensive assessment of Caribbean coral reefs, including their location and threats, has never been undertaken. Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean seeks to analyze the full range of threats to these unique ecosystems as well as to orient the region's policy-makers toward potential opportunities for capturing greater benefit from their sustainable use. Because coral reefs do not conform to national boundaries, protecting and restoring them can only be achieved through collaboration among nations and organizations. In fact, this report would not have been possible without the many partners, organizations, and individuals in the region who came together with the sole purpose of making sure that this analysis was accurate and represented the needs and priorities of the region. We deeply appreciate their support and that of those agencies that kindly provided funds for this analysis. Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean is an integral part of the work of the World Resources Institute, the International Coral Reef Action Network (ICRAN), and the UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme (CEP) in the Wider Caribbean. We hope that the report will serve as a valuable tool for governments and environmental organizations in the region to better understand the growing threats affecting the marine environment of the Caribbean and to identify priorities and sites for immediate action.
JONATHAN LASH President World Resources Institute
KRISTIAN TELEKI Executive Director International Coral Reef Action Network
NELSON ANDRADE Coordinator UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme
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PHOTO: WOLCOTT HENRY ©
Preface Since the age of seven, when my father threw me overboard, I have been observing coral reefs through a dive mask. I have marveled at the beauty, biological diversity, and productivity of coral reefs and have seen how important they are to the local people who depend on them for food, income, recreation, and spiritual enrichment. I have also seen how human activity has undermined the health and vitality of reefs. The coral reefs I observed in the 1940s are totally different today. Sadly, none has changed for the better. When I think of coral reef ecology, the concepts of connection and interdependence come to mind. Corals have their symbiotic algal partners, while "cleaner fish" have their clients. Landscape management relates directly to sediment and nutrient delivery and to reef health, while energy use and carbon dioxide emissions link to global warming and coral bleaching. The historical over-harvesting of large animals has impaired reef vitality. Public awareness is essential for sustainable reef management. These are just some of the examples that underscore the vital connections in time and space that affect coral reefs. The tragic decline in reef health is due to human insult, and their restoration likewise depends on human action. I am pleased to see that Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean addresses these connections and calls attention to the importance of people in the equation of reef health and restoration. The involvement of multiple partner organizations ensures that this report reflects the many facets of reef assessment and management, and will be widely used. Predictably, I totally concur with the need for greater public awareness. It is my view that without public support, rational and sustainable management will not occur. I am often told that our television shows were instrumental in inspiring many of our present ocean experts to pursue a career in ocean sciences. Of course, awareness is not action. Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean clearly outlines the critical steps required for building capacity and improving management. The focus on socioeconomic issues is crucial to ensuring that future generations will continue to benefit from coral reefs. Ultimately, our challenge is not to manage reefs: it is to manage ourselves. I applaud the World Resources Institute for its admirable work to protect coral reefs, a priceless natural treasure. JEAN-MICHEL COUSTEAU | Ocean Futures Society
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Acknowledgments
The Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean project would not have been possible without the encouragement and financial support provided by the United Nations Foundation, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the United Nations Environment Programme - Caribbean Environment Programme, the U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Curtis and Edith Munson Foundation, the Henry Foundation, the World Bank / GEF Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System Project, the National Center for Caribbean Coral Reef Research, the Nature Conservancy, Environmental Defense, and the World Fish Center. The Reefs at Risk project is part of the International Coral Reef Action Network, a collaboration developed to reverse the decline of the world's coral reefs. (See inside back cover.) The World Resources Institute gratefully acknowledges the many partners and colleagues who contributed to this project. (See inside front cover for full institutional names.) We thank Philip Kramer (TNC) and Robert Ginsburg (AGRRA) for the provision of AGRRA data and guidance with the threat analysis; Mark Spalding (University of Cambridge) for sharing his knowledge of Caribbean coral reefs; Hillary Nobles (IRF) for compiling information on coral reef condition; Serge Andrйfouлt (Institut de Recherche pour le Dйveloppement) and Christine Kranenburg (USF) for coral reef maps; Jennifer Gebelein (FIU), Steve Rohmann and Aurelie Shapiro (NOAA) for land cover classifications; Ed Green, Corinna Ravilious, Emily Corcoran, Michelle Taylor, and Ed McManus (UNEP-WCMC) for providing maps of coral reefs and marine protected areas; Al Strong, William Skirving, Scott Baron and Andrew Barton (NOAA) for information on warming seas; Melanie McField (WWF) for reviewing the watershed model; Johnathan Kool (NCORE), Steven Menard, and Janet Nackoney (WRI) for support on GIS; John McManus, Cara Dickman, and NCORE staff, Marilyn Brandt, Wade Cooper, and Aletta Yniguez for organizing the project workshop; Ian Gillett (Belize Coastal
Zone Management Institute), Julie Robinson (NASA), and Kathleen Sullivan Seeley (UM) for satellite images and coral reef maps; Bruce Potter (IRF) for sharing information throughout the Caribbean community; Rich Iovanna (U.S. environmental protection Agency) for assisting with validation of the threat model; Mahfuz Ahmed and Chiew Kieok Chong (World Fish), Suzanne Garrett (UM), Bob Leeworthy (NOAA), Suzie Greenhalgh and Siet Meijer (WRI), and Herman Cesar (Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting) for data, ideas, guidance, and review of the economic valuation; Dulce Linton and George Warner (UWI) for coral data and expert review; Clive Wilkinson (GCRMN) for providing links to the network; Uwe Deichmann (World Bank) for plume module implementation; Gregor Hodgson and Craig Shuman (Reef Check) for their data; Alessandra Vanzella-Khouri, Luc StPierre, Malden Miller, Nelson Andrade (UNEP-CEP), and Kristian Teleki and Alison Glass (ICRAN) for their guidance and support; and Barbara Best, Laura Cornwell (USAID), and Angel Braestrup (Munson Foundation) for their steadfast encouragement. In addition to many of those already mentioned, the following people provided valuable input through participation in the Reefs at Risk threat analysis workshop (October 2002 in Miami): Oscar Alvarez (ICRAN-MAR Project), Billy Causey (Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary), Richard Curry (Biscayne National Park), Jaime GarzonFerreira (Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas y Costeras), Hector Guzmann (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute), Milton Haughton (CARICOM Fisheries Unit), Noel Jacobs (MBRS), Michelle Libby (TNC), Brian Luckhurst (Bermuda Fisheries), Liana McManus (RSMAS), Peter Murray (OECS Natural Resources Management Unit), Jamie Oliver (World Fish), Hazel Oxenford (UWI), Caroline Rogers (USGS), Luc St. Pierre (UNEP/CEP), Elizabeth Taylor (CORALINA), and Ernesto Weil (University of Puerto Rico). Many people provided input on the analysis of overfishing including: Richard Appledorn (University of Puerto Rico), Julio Baisre (Ministry of the Fishing Industry of
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Cuba), Daniel Matos-Caraballo (Fisheries Research Laboratory, Puerto Rico DNER), Bob Glazer (Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission), Paul Hoetjes (Dept. of Public Health and Environment, Netherlands Antilles), Barbara Kojis (Division of Fish and Wildlife, USVI DPNR), Craig Lilyestrom (Marine Resources Division, Puerto Rico DNER), Ken Lindeman (ED), Robin Mahon (Independent), John Munro (World Fish), Richard Nemeth (University of the Virgin Islands), Christy Pattengill-Semmens (REEF), Juan Posada (Universidad Simуn Bolнvar), Lionel Reynal (Institut Franзais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer), and Mike Smith (Conservation International). invaluable assistance with data and review of information on marine protected areas was provided by Carola Borja (Conservation International), Julia Brownlee (NOAA), Phillippe Bush (Dept. of Environment, Cayman Islands), Reinaldo Estrada (Centro Nacional de Areas Protegidas, Cuba), Jose L. Gerhartz (UWI Center for Environment and Development), Mike Mascia (USEPA), Jeannette Mateo (TNC), Kalli de Meyer (Coral resource management), and Kim Thurlow (TNC). We would like to thank the following formal reviewers of the report who provided valuable comments on the manuscript and maps: Jorge Cortйs (Universidad de Costa Rica), George Warner (UWI), Herman Cesar (Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting), Georgina Bustamante (Independent), Kristian Teleki (ICRAN), John McManus (NCORE), and Philip Kramer (TNC). Internal reviewers from WRI include Marta Miranda, Yumiko Kura, Suzie Greenhalgh, Jonathan Pershing, Steve Cox, and AnnMarie DeRose. Special thanks to Dan Tunstall and David Jhirad for their many reviews of the draft and steady encouragement, and to Gayle Coolidge for her skillful management of the review process. The following people reviewed specific parts of the text, provided data or general support: Richard Murphy (Ocean Futures Society); Bente Christensen (InterAmerican Development Bank); Pedro Alcolado (Institute of Oceanology, Cuba); Arthur Paterson, Roger Griffis, and
Andy Bruckner (NOAA); Marea Hatziolos (World Bank); Daniel Prager (WRI); Marc Rammelare (National Environment and Planning Agency, Jamaica); Mercedes Silva (Caribbean Tourism Organization); Toby Gardner (University of East Anglia); Gillian Cambers (University of Puerto Rico); Steve Schill, Annette Huggins, and Tony Chatwin (TNC); Douglas Beard and Dan Phillips (USGS); Dan Zimble (ESRI); Ken Kassem (Independent); Anita Daley (Independent); Tom Laughlin, Nancy Daves, and Elizabeth McLanahan (NOAA); and Dick Wilbur (Department of State). Many other staff at WRI contributed to this project through publication, Financial Management, and outreach assistance including Adlai Amor, Beth Bahs-Ahern, Hyacinth Billings, Peter Denton, Chris Elias, Paul Mackie, Greg Mock, Georgia Moyka, and Elsie Vйlez-Whited. Special thanks to Camila Bonifaz for cheerful support throughout the project. The report was edited by Kathleen Lynch and Karen Holmes. Many thanks for the valuable proofreading by Jo Tunstall and Elizabeth Selig. The report was embellished through the layout by Maggie Powell and the beautiful photographs provided by Wolcott Henry, Toni Parras, Krishna Desai, Mark Spalding, Andy Bruckner, and Ed Green. LB / JM
PHOTO: WOLCOTT HENRY©
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REEFS AT RISK IN THE CARIBBEAN

LM Burke, J Maidens, M Spalding, P Kramer, E Green

File: reefs-at-risk-in-the-caribbean.pdf
Title: WRI_Reefs-front_01-16.qxd
Author: LM Burke, J Maidens, M Spalding, P Kramer, E Green
Author: mp
Published: Thu Sep 16 20:24:00 2004
Pages: 8
File size: 0.15 Mb


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