Rockin'in Time

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Content: Rockin' in Time A Social History of Rock-and-Roll Canadian Edition David P. Szatmary University of Washington Lynsay Ripley Seneca College Toronto
To My Father and Mother David P. Szatmary
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Credits and acknowledgments for material borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within the text. Original edition published by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. This edition is authorized for sale only in Canada. If you purchased this book outside the United States or Canada, you should be aware that it has been imported without the approval of the publisher or the author. Copyright © 2015 Pearson Canada Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Canada Inc., Permissions Department, 26 Prince Andrew Place, Don Mills, Ontario, M3C 2T8, or fax your request to 416-447-3126, or submit a request to Permissions Requests at www.pearsoncanada.ca. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 [WC] Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Szatmary, David P., 1951-, author Rockin' in time / Szatmary, Ripley. -- Canadian edition. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-205-89542-7 1. rock music--United States--History and criticism. 2. Rock music--Social aspects--United States. I. Ripley, Lynsay, 1979-, author II. Title. III. Title: Rocking in time. ML3534.S996 2015 781.660973 C2013-904350-0
ISBN 978-0-205-89542-7
Contents
Acknowledgments ix Introduction xii
Chapter 1 Chapter 2
The Blues, Rock-and-Roll, and Racism 1 The Birth of the Blues 2 From the Rural South to the Urban North 3 Muddy Waters and Chicago R&B 6 The Wolf 8 Bo Diddley and Other Chess Discoveries 9 Modern Records: B. B. King, Elmore James, and John Lee Hooker 10 Other Independents 13 The R&B Market 14 From R&B to Rock-and-Roll: Little Richard and Chuck Berry 15 Social Change and Rock-and-Roll 18 Racist Backlash 21 The Music Industry Versus Rock-and-Roll 23 The Blanching of Rock 24 The Story of Arthur "Big Boy" Crudup 26 Notes 27 Elvis and Rockabilly 28 Rockabilly Roots 28 The Rockabilly Sound 30 Sun Records and Elvis 31 "The Killer" 35 "Blue Suede Shoes" 36
Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 iv Contents
Johnny Cash 38 The Sun Rockabilly Stable 38 The Decca Challenge 39 Rockabilly Sweeps the Nation 41 Rompin' Ronnie Hawkins 43 The Selling of Elvis Presley 44 Reactions Against the Presley Mania 47 Elvis Goes to Hollywood 50 Notes 53 The Teen Market: From Bandstand to Girl Groups 54 Lost Idols 54 The Booming Teen Market 56 Dick Clark and American Bandstand 56 Clark's Creations 59 The Payola Investigation 62 Don Kirshner Takes Charge 64 The Sounds on the Streets 65 The Girl Groups 66 The Dream 68 Surfboards and Hot Rods: California, Here We Come 70 Surfing U.S.A. 72 The Sound of the Surf 73 The Beach Boys 74 Jan and Dean 76 Drag City 77 The New Frontier 80 Songs of Protest 81 The Folk Revival 83 Civil Rights in a New Frontier 85 Bob Dylan: The Music of Protest 89 Joan Baez 91 The Singer-Activists 92 Dylan's Disenchantment 94 Folk Rock 97 Notes 100
Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9
Motown: The Sound of Integration Motown: The Early Years 101 Civil Rights in the Great Society 103 The Sound of Integration 104 The Supremes on the Assembly Line 106 The Motown Stable 109 Note 111
101
The British Invasion of North America: The Beatles 112 The Mods, the Rockers, and the Skiffle Craze 115 The Early Beatles 118 Manager Brian Epstein 119 The Toppermost of the Poppermost 120 The Beatles Invade North America 122 The Mersey Beat 126 The Guess Who 128 The Monkees 130 Notes 131
The British Blues Invasion and Garage Rock 132 British Blues and the Rolling Stones 132 The Stones Turn Raunchy 134 Success 135 The Who 138 The British Blues Onslaught 140 American Garage Rock 142 Note 146
Acid Rock 147 The Beats 147 The Re-Emergence of the Beats: The New York Connection 149 The Haight-Ashbury Scene 150 The Hippie Culture 152 Acid Rock: The Trip Begins 157 Rock-And-Roll Revolution 160 Counterculture in Canada 164 Psychedelic London 166 Contents v
The Decline and Fall of Hippiedom 167 Notes 169 Chapter 10 Fire from the Streets 170 Soul Music 174 Funk 179 Black Soul in White America 180 Chapter 11 Guitar Heroes and Heavy Metal Gods 183 Campus Unrest 183 Guitar Rage of Metal Pioneers 186 Heavy-Metal Thunder 192 Woodstock and the End of an Era 196 Notes 199 Chapter 12 Escaping into the Seventies 200 The CRTC and Canadian Content Regulations 200 Miles Ahead 201 Progressive Rock 205 Back to the Country 209 Seventies Folk 214 Notes 219 Chapter 13 The Era of Excess 220 The "Me" Decade 220 Elton John 223 Heavy-Metal Theatre 223 Art Pop in the Arena 229 Funk from Outer Space 230 Disco 233 Corporate Rock 237 Chapter 14 Punk Rock and the New Generation New York Punk 240 Canadian Punk 246 The Sex Pistols and British Punk 247 The British Punk Legion 251 Rock Against Racism 253 The Independent Labels 255
240
vi Contents
Right-Wing Reaction 257 The Decline of British Punk 257 Post-Punk Depression 259 The New Wave 262 Notes 264
Chapter 15 I Want My MTV 265 MTV and the Video Age 265 The New Romantics 266 MTV Goes Electro-Pop 269 MTV and Michaelmania 271 The Jackson Legacy 274 Pop Goes the Metal 277 Muchmusic: "The Nation's Music Station" 279 Notes 281
Chapter 16
The Promise of Rock-and-Roll Trickling Down with Ronald Reagan 282 The Boss 284 The Benefits 288 Children of the Sixties 290 Classic Rock and the Compact Disc 291 Country Boomers 293 Notes 298
282
Chapter 17 Back to the Future: The Rave Revolution 299 House and Techno 299 A Rave New World 301 Chillin' Out 304 The Dark Side of the Jungle 306
Chapter 18
The Generation X Blues The Hardcore Generation 310 Thrash Metal 316 Death Metal and Grindcore 321 The Industrial Revolution 323 Grunge 325 Notes 333
308
Contents vii
Chapter 19 Post-Grunge Party 334 Britpop 334 Alternative 338 Jam Bands 340 Notes 342 Chapter 20 The Hip-Hop Nation 343 The Old School 345 The Second Wave 349 Gangsta 351 Young, Gifted, and Black 353 New Jack Swing 356 The Return of Shaft 359 Notes 364 Chapter 21 Metal Gumbo: Rockin' in the TwentyFirst Century 365 Nu-Metal Pioneers 365 The Rap-Rock Explosion 367 Nu-Metal Anthems 371 Note 375 Chapter 22 Life in Wartime 376 Hot Times 376 Rock Against Bush 379 The Singer-Songwriters 384 Hip-Hop Pop Grows Up 386 Country Counter-Revolution 387 Chapter 23 The Age of the Internet 393 The Age of the Internet 393 The Download Mania 394 The Internet and Indie Rock 399 The Reinvention of the Music Industry 401 Notes 405 References 406 Index 412 viii Contents
Acknowledgments Eighth U.S. Edition Thanks to several people who helped me with this book: Bill Flanagan, Timothy Leary, Michael Batt, Jamie Steiwer, Peter Blecha, Chris Waterman, Charles Cross, Gene Stout, Jeff Taylor, Dave Wolter, Adam Bratman, Artur Sedov, Don Hood, Carl Krikorian, Rob Innes, Anthony Allen, Howie Wahlen, John Shannon, Gary June, Arnie Berger, Marty Jack Rosenblum, David Webb, Joe Moore, Dave Rispoli, Jerry Schilling, Keith John, Joel Druckman, W. Michael Weis, and Sonny Masso offered perceptive comments and constant help on various drafts of the text. I also thank Robert Palmer, Bob Guiccione, Jr., Alan Douglas, Mike Farrace, Gregg Vershay, and Bob Jeniker for their encouragement. Thanks to Gerald Barnett for finding the seven deadly typos in the fourth edition. I especially thank Stewart Stern, Richard Hell, Sebastian, Frank Kozik, Mark Arminski, Emek, and rapper Ed "Sugar Bear" Wells for their insights. Special thanks to Richard Carlin who did a masterful job editing this seventh edition. Obviously, none of those who provided assistance can be held responsible for the contents of this book. As in previous editions, I have others to thank. Jerry Kwiatkowski (Kaye) introduced me to the world of rock and prodded me to listen to everyone from Captain Beefheart to Eric Clapton. Mike Miller helped me explore the summer concert scene in Milwaukee. Ramona Wright, Neil Fligstein, Eileen Mortenson, Gail Fligstein, and Tom Speer did the same for me in Tucson and Seattle. On the East Coast, Dave Sharp fearlessly accompanied me on journeys to see Sid Vicious and explore the mantra of Root Boy Slim. I acknowledge former coworkers at Second Time Around Records in Seattle-- owners Wes and Barbara Geesman, Dan Johnson, Mike Schwartz, Michael Wellman, and Jim Rifleman--for adding to my understanding of rock music and the rock business. At the University of Arizona, Donald Weinstein graciously allowed me to teach a class on the social history of rock-and-roll, the beginnings of this book; Rick Venneri did the same at the University of Washington. Students in those classes added to my knowledge of rock music. Thanks to Dudley Johnson at the University of Washington for putting me in contact with Prentice Hall. I owe a special debt to Bob "Wildman" Campbell, the king of psychedelia, who spent many hours with me analyzing the lyrics of Larry Fischer, the nuances of Tibetan Buddhists chants, Bonzo Dog Band album covers, and the hidden meaning behind the grunts of Furious Pig. Besides reading and commenting on this manuscript, he
expanded my musical horizons with a series of demented tapes and letters, which twisted this book into shape. Such a debt can never be repaid. I thank my parents, Peter and Eunice, for instilling in me a love of music and the written word. My appreciation goes to my mother, who commented on the manuscript and gave me suggestions for a title. My daughter, Sara, brought me back to reality when I became overly absorbed in the manuscript and showed me that energy can be boundless. She provided needed guidance about music in the new century and gave me hope that rock-and-roll will never die. In the last several editions, she offered insightful comments about the newest music on the charts and provided invaluable research. Most of all, I thank my wife, Mary, for her love and companionship, her openness to all types of music, her editorial comments, and her indulgence of my vinyl and rockposter addictions. I could not have completed the eight editions of this book without her understanding, interest, encouragement, and love. --David P. Szatmary Credits All photographs are copyrighted by the photographer or company cited in the credit lines beneath each picture, all rights reserved. I thank the following individuals and companies for use of photos and help in finding them: Alligator Records, especially Bruce Iglauer; Peter Asher Management, with special help from Ira Koslow; Atlantic Records; Roberta Bayley; David Bowie; Capitol Records; Chrysalis Records; Columbia Records; Delmark Records and Bob Koester; Brian O'Neal at D.M.B.B. Entertainment; Alan Douglas and the staff at Are You Experienced?; Elektra Records; the Estate of Elvis Presley, especially Marc Magaliff; Don Everly; Cam Garrett; Richard Hell; Isolar Enterprises; Jeff Kleinsmith; Marilyn Laverty at Shore Fire; the Library of Congress; Living Blues Archival Collection, University of Mississippi Blues Archive; London Records; MCA Records; Q Prime; RCA Records, especially J. Matthew Van Ryn; Rush Artist Management; The Seattle Times; Sire Records; Beverly Rupe at Specialty Records; Chris Stamp; Sun Records; Virgin Records; and Warner Brothers Records. I especially thank Barbara Krohn of The Daily of the University of Washington for her help in locating photos. Special thanks to Frank Kozik, Mark Arminski, Emek, Jeral Tidwell, and Jeff Wood and Judy Gex at Drowning Creek for use of their posters. Every effort has been made to locate, identify, and properly credit photographers, songwriters, and song publishers. Any inadvertent omissions or errors will be corrected in future editions. --David P. Szatmary First Canadian Edition The Canadian author and publisher are grateful to Michelle Sartor and Nicole Habib for the strong support they have given this project. We owe special thanks to developmental editor Cheryl Finch for her assistance in preparing the manuscript for x Acknowledgments
publication. Tara Tovell deserves accolades for her fine copy-editing. We also thank Vastavikta Sharma for shepherding the text through production, as well as the team in Creative Services for their skilful design of the text. Lastly, we gratefully acknowledge the assistance of the following reviewers, whose comments helped shape the first Canadian edition of Rockin' in Time: David Bright, Niagara College; Kelsey Cowger, Dalhousie University; Terrance Cox, Brock University; Colleen Eccleston, University of Victoria; and Robbie J. MacKay, Queen's University. Acknowledgments xi
Introduction This book is a social history of rock-and-roll. It places an ever-changing rock music in the context of North American and, to some extent, British History from roughly 1940 to 2011. Rockin' in Time explains how rock-and-roll both reflected and influenced major social changes during the last eight decades. This first Canadian edition of the book also examines the impact of American and British music on Canadian society, as well as the role specific Canadian artists, songs, venues, and issues have played in the social history of rock-and-roll within and beyond Canada's borders. Among the many Canadian artists discussed in this context are Ronnie Hawkins, the Guess Who, Ashley MacIsaac, and Broken Social Scene. This book deals with rock music within broad social and cultural settings. Rather than present an encyclopedic compilation of the thousands of well-known and obscure bands that have played throughout the years, it examines rock-and-rollers who have reflected and sometimes changed the social fabric at a certain point in history. It does not focus on the many artists, some of our favourites, who never gained general popularity or who achieved commercial success with a sound that either reinvigorated an older style or who did not encapsulate the times. Rockin' in Time concentrates on the rock musicians who most fully mirrored the world around them and helped define an era. Within this framework, the first Canadian edition of Rockin' in Time profiles some important female artists from both sides of the border whose music contributed significantly to the social history of rock and roll, including Wanda Jackson, the first woman to record a rock-and-roll song; Buffy Sainte-Marie, whose protest songs brought attention to the plight of First Nations people; soul singer Shirley Matthews, who won the 1964 RPM Gold Leaf Award for female vocalist of the year; Shania Twain, who fused traditional country and hard rock sounds to broaden the experience of country audiences; and Alanis Morissette, the best-selling alternative rock artist of the 1990s. Rockin' in Time emphasizes several main themes, including the importance of African-American culture in the origins and development of rock music. The blues, originating with American slaves, provided the foundation for rock-and-roll. During the early 1950s, southern African Americans who had migrated to Chicago created an urbanized, electric rhythm and blues that preceded rock-and-roll and served as the breeding ground for pioneer rock-and-rollers such as Little Richard and Chuck Berry. African Americans continued to create new styles, such as the Motown sound, the soul explosion of the late 1960s, the disco beat in the next decade, and, most recently, hip hop.
The new musical styles many times coincided with and reflected the AfricanAmerican and black Canadian struggle for equality. The electric blues of Muddy Waters became popular amid the stirrings of the civil rights movement during the 1950s. During the early 1960s, as the movement for civil rights gained momentum, folk protesters such as Bob Dylan and Joan Baez sang paeans about the cause. In 1964 and 1965, as the U.S. Congress passed the most sweeping civil rights legislation since the Civil War, Motown artists topped the charts. When disgruntled, frustrated African Americans took to the streets later in the decade, soul artists such as Aretha Franklin gained respect. During the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, such hip-hoppers as Public Enemy rapped about inequality and renewed an interest in an African-American identity. As the civil rights struggle began to foster an awareness and acceptance of black culture, rock-and-roll became accessible to white teenagers. Teens such as Elvis Presley listened to late-night, rhythm-and-blues radio shows that started to challenge and break down racial barriers. Vancouver DJ Red Robinson took a decidedly colour blind approach to music, introducing R&B to a Canadian audience. During the 1960s, African-American performers such as the Ronettes, the Crystals, the Temptations, and the Supremes achieved mass popularity among both blacks and whites. Soon white artists were writing and performing for Motown; Torontonian R. Dean Taylor was the first white Motown artist to reach the top of the U.S. charts. By the 1980s, African-American entertainers such as Michael Jackson achieved superstar status, and during the next decade, rap filtered into the suburbs. Run­D.M.C. and the Beastie Boys combined rap and hard rock to appeal to black and white audiences, and Maestro Fresh Wes was instrumental in the development of hip hop in Canada. Throughout the last eight decades, rock music has helped integrate white and black North America. A dramatic population growth during the postwar era, the second theme of this book, provided the audience for rock-and-roll. After World War II, both North America and Great Britain experienced a tremendous baby boom. By the mid-1950s, the baby boomers had become an army of youngsters who demanded their own music. Along with their older brothers and sisters who had been born during the war, they latched on to the new rock-and-roll, idolizing a young, virile Elvis Presley who attracted hordes of postwar youth. Rock music appealed to and reflected the interests of the baby-boom generation until the early 1980s. The music of the Dick Clark era, the Brill Building songwriters, the Beach Boys, the Motown artists, and the early Beatles showed a preoccupation with dating, cars, high school, and teen love. As this generation matured and entered college or the workforce, the music scene became more serious and was dominated by the protest music of Bob Dylan and psychedelic bands that questioned basic tenets of North American society. The music became harsh and violent when college-age baby boomers were threatened by theVietnam War military draft and the prospect of fighting in an unpopular war. During the 1970s, after the war ended and when many of the college rebels landed lucrative jobs, glitter rock and disco exemplified the excessive, selfcentred behaviour of the boomers. During the 1980s, artists such as Bruce Springsteen, who matured with his audience and celebrated his fortieth birthday by the end of the decade, reflected a yearning for the 1960s' spirit of social change. The sons and daughters of the baby boom, born between 1965 and 1982 and called Generation X by the press, carried forward the rock-and-roll banner. Disaffected youths Introduction xiii
born on the cusp of the new generation created a stinging punk rock to vent their emotions. A few years later, the first true Gen Xers found their music on video-friendly mediums like MTV and MuchMusic. As they grew older, Generation X confronted sobering social conditions with hardcore punk, thrash, death metal, industrial, grunge, and rap. During a brief respite of their woes, they turned to Britpop, alternative, and jam bands. By the late 1990s, a third generation of youth, born between 1983 and 2001 and referred to as the Baby Boom Echo or the Millennials, demanded their own music. This group equalled the baby boomers in sheer numbers and buying power. In addition to the last strains of hip hop, they flocked to hard sounds of metal as well as socially conscious singer-songwriters. By 2011, amid a conservative upheaval in the United States, many listened to the traditional message of a new country rock. The roller-coaster economic times during the post­World War II era serve as a third focus of this book. A favourable economic climate initially allowed rock to flourish among the baby-boom generation. Compared to the preceding generation, which had been raised during the most severe economic depression of the twentieth century, the baby boomers in North America lived in relative affluence. In the 1950s and early 1960s, many youths had allowances that enabled them to purchase the latest rock records and buy tickets to see their favourite heartthrobs. During the next fifteen years, unparalleled prosperity allowed youths to consider the alternatives of hippiedom, and led to cultural excesses and booming record sales during the 1970s. When the economic scene began to worsen during the mid to late 1970s in Britain, youths created the sneering protest of punk that reflected the harsh economic realities of the dole. At the same time and through most of the 1980s and early 1990s, North American youths, who had few career prospects and little family stability, played shattering hardcore punk, a pounding industrial sound, bleak grunge music, a growling death metal, and a confrontational rap. In the mid-1990s, when the economy brightened for several years on both sides of the Atlantic, teens turned to a bouncy, danceable Britpop, alternative music, and jam bands. From 2008 to the present, as the worldwide economy settled into one of the worst recessions in 100 years, youths began to listen to a country rock that preached a conservative message of tractors, tailgate parties, and the American flag. Advances in technology shaped the sound of rock-and-roll and provide another framework for Rockin' in Time. The solid-body electric guitar, developed and popularized during the 1950s by Les Paul and Leo Fender, gave rock its distinctive sound. Mass-produced electric guitars like Fender's Telecaster, appearing in 1951, and the Stratocaster, first marketed three years later, enabled blues musicians and later white teens to capture the electric sound of the city and the passion of youth. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, guitar gods plugged into a wide array of electronic devices such as the distortion box and the wah-wah pedal to deliver a slashing, menacing heavy metal. Later technologies such as the synthesizer, the sequencer, and the sampler allowed musicians to embellish and reshape rock-and-roll into different genres. Several technological breakthroughs helped popularize rock-and-roll, making it easily and inexpensively accessible. Television brought, and still brings, rock to teens in their homes--Elvis Presley and the Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show, Dick Clark's American Bandstand, Shindig in the 1960s, and music stations like MTV and MuchMusic as of the 1980s. In Britain, television programs like Thank Your Lucky Stars, Ready xiv Introduction
Steady Go!, and Juke Box Jury played the same role. The portable transistor radio, the portable cassette tape player-recorder, the portable CD player, and, most recently, the iPod provided teens the opportunity to listen to their favourite songs in the privacy of their rooms, at school, or on the streets. The inexpensive 45-rpm record, introduced in 1949 by RCA, allowed youths to purchase the latest hits and replaced the more brittle shellac 78-rpm record. Starting in the mid-1960s, such rock music as the experimental psychedelic sound fully utilized the more extended format of the long-play, 12-inch, 331/3-rpm record, which Columbia had invented in 1948. The LP became the dominant medium for rock music until the laser-powered compact disc became commercially available in October 1982. Advances in the quality of sound, such as high fidelity, stereo, and component stereo systems, brought the immediacy of the performance to the home and enhanced the rock experience. By the 1990s, the internet enabled youths to listen, trade, download, and burn their favourite music, and learn about new bands. The increasing popularity of rock music has been entwined with the development of the music industry, another feature of this book. Rock-and-roll has always been a business. At first, small, independent companies such as Chess, Sun, Modern, and King recorded and delivered to the public a commercially untested rock. As it became more popular among teens, rock-and-roll began to interest major record companies such as RCA, Decca, and Capitol, which in the 1960s dominated the field. By the 1970s, the major companies aggressively marketed their product and consolidated ranks to increase profits and successfully create an industry more profitable than network television and professional sports. In 1978, as the majors experienced a decline in sales, independent labels again arose to release new rock styles such as punk, rap, grunge, and techno. At the end of the 1980s and 1990s, the major companies reasserted their dominance of the record industry, buoyed by the signing of new acts that had been tested by the independents and by the introduction of the compact disc, which lured many record buyers to purchase their favourite music in a different, more expensive format. As the new century unfolded, the major record labels confronted and protested against the internet, which created a fundamentally new business model for the music industry by allowing musicians to release and distribute their music inexpensively to a worldwide audience without an intermediary. By the early 1970s, the Canadian Radio and Television Commission (CRTC) was concerned that Canadian broadcasters were merely channels for American "entertainment factories." In January 1971, the Canadian Content Regulations were implemented, mandating that most Canadian stations had to play a minimum of 30 percent Canadian content. Designed to increase exposure of Canadian musical performers, lyricists, and composers to Canadian audiences, the CanCon Regulations transformed the music industry in Canada as bands like Crowbar, April Wine, and Chilliwack received more airplay and became national successes on the charts. Though a business, rock music has engendered and has been defined by rebellion, which manifested itself through a series of overlapping subcultures. Youths used rockand-roll as a way to band together and feel part of a shared experience. As Bruce Springsteen mentioned about his own background, rock music "provided me with a community, filled with people, and brothers and sisters who I didn't know, but who I knew were out there. We had this enormous thing in common, this `thing' that initially felt like a secret. Music always provided that home for me, a home where my spirit could wander." Introduction xv
During the last eight decades, identifiable rock-and-roll communities took on specific characteristics and styles. Fuelled by uncontrolled hormones, rockabilly greasers in the 1950s and early 1960s challenged their parents by wearing sideburns and long greased-back hair and by driving fast hot rods. Their girlfriends sported tight sweaters, ratted hair, and pedal-pusher slacks and screamed to the hip-shaking gyrations of Elvis Presley. In the 1960s, conservatively dressed, college-aged folkniks directed their frustration and anger at racial and social injustice, taking freedom rides to the South and protesting against nuclear arms. A few years later, the hippies flaunted wild, vibrant clothing, the mind-expanding possibilities of LSD, sexual freedom, and a disdain for a warmongering capitalism, which they expressed in their swirling psychedelic poster art. In the next decade, the rock lifestyle changed once again, as some baby boomers crammed into stadium concerts to collectively celebrate sexually ambiguous, theatrical, and extravagant superstars. A few years later, women wore flowing, revealing dresses and men favoured gold medallions and unbuttoned silk shirts as they discoed to the steady beats of DJs. During the late 1970s, angry rock subcultures emerged. Sneering British punks grew spiked hair, wore ripped, safety-pinned T-shirts, and pogoed straight up and down, lashing out against economic, gender, and racial inequities. In North America, some youths created a slam-dancing, Mohawked hardcore punk. Around the same time, a hip-hop subculture started that unabashedly condemned racial prejudice and its effects on African Americans in the inner cities, highlighting the racial injustice that the civil rights movement of the sixties had not erased. Within a decade and into the new century, the inner-city b-boy subculture had spread to the white suburbs, where gun-toting male teens looked for ho's and wore Adidas, saggy pants, baseball caps (preferably New York Yankees) turned backward, loose T-shirts, and, depending upon the year, gold chains. In the 1980s and 1990s, Generation X youth voiced a passionate frustration and despair through a series of subcultures that included a gothic-looking industrial style; a long-haired, leather-jacketed thrash and death metal; and the self-described "loser" community of grunge, which adopted the idealized look of the working class: longish, uncombed hair, faded blue jeans, Doc Marten boots, and T-shirts. Other Generation Xers faced their problems differently by refashioning the hippie lifestyle for the nineties. Joining together at updated love-ins called raves, they favoured Ecstasy over LSD, put on their smiley faces, and hugged their fellow techno-travellers as demonstrations of peace in a war-filled, terrorist-riddled world. Though less confrontational than its grunge counterpart, the techno subculture directly challenged and shocked mainstream society as nearly each rock subculture has done during the last eighty years before being subverted and incorporated into the mainstream by fashion designers, Hollywood, and big business. By the start of the new century, rock-and-roll took on different cultural forms. Confronted by a seemingly never-ending war in Iraq and the prospects of rapid climate change, collegiate-styled youths listened to socially conscious singer-songwriters. With only a few exceptions, rock-and-rollers have coalesced into distinct subcultures to rebel against the dominant social norms. History seldom can be separated into neat packages. Many of the different rock genres and their accompanying subcultures overlapped with one another. For example, from 1961 to the advent of the British invasion in 1964, the Brill Building songwriters, surf music, and Bob Dylan coexisted on the charts. Though sometimes intersecting xvi Introduction
and cross-pollinating, the different subcultures of rock-and-roll have been divided into distinct chapters to clearly distinguish the motivating factors behind each one. Rockin' in Time attempts to be as impartial as possible. Even though a book cannot be wrenched from the biases of its social setting, we have tried to present the music in a historical rather than a personal context and to avoid any effusive praise or disparaging remarks about any type of rock. As Sting, lead singer of the Police, once said, "there is no bad music, only bad musicians." These pages explore the social history of rock-and-roll. During the last eight decades that it has been an important and essential part of North American and British culture, rock-and-roll has reflected and sometimes changed the lives of several generations. Supplements The following instructor supplements are available for downloading from a passwordprotected section of Pearson Education Canada's online catalogue. Navigate to your book's catalogue page to view a list of those supplements that are available. See your local sales representative for details and access. Instructor's Resource Manual The Instructor's Resource Manual includes the following chapter-by-chapter material: Overview, LEARNING OBJECTIVES, Discussion Questions, Suggested Assignments, a list of suggested listening items in the Listening from MyLab section, and a list of suggested readings in the Bibliography. Test Bank The Test Bank is in Microsoft Word format. It includes fifteen short-answer questions and fifteen multiple-choice questions. Each multiple-choice question is accompanied by the answer. MySearchLab with eText A passcode-protected website that provides engaging experiences that personalize learning, MySearchLab contains an eText that is just like the printed text. Students can highlight and add notes to the eText online or download it to an iPad or Android tablet. MySearchLab also offers self-grading practice quizzes, discipline-specific media and readings, access to a variety of academic journals, and Associated Press news feeds, along with a wide range of writing, grammar, and research tools to help hone writing and research skills. CourseSmart for Instructors CourseSmart goes beyond traditional expectations--providing instant, online access to the textbooks and course materials you need at a lower cost for students. And even as students save money, you can save time and hassle with a digital eTextbook that allows Introduction xvii
you to search for the most relevant content at the very moment you need it. Whether it's evaluating textbooks or creating lecture notes to help students with difficult concepts, CourseSmart can make life a little easier. See how when you visit www.coursesmart. com/instructors. CourseSmart for Students CourseSmart goes beyond traditional expectations--providing instant, online access to the textbooks and course materials you need at an average savings of 60 percent. With instant access from any computer and the ability to search your text, you'll find the content you need quickly, no matter where you are. And with online tools like highlighting and note-taking, you can save time and study efficiently. See all the benefits at www. coursesmart.com/students. Technology Specialists Pearson's Technology Specialists work with faculty and campus course designers to ensure that Pearson technology products, assessment tools, and online course materials are tailored to meet your specific needs. This highly qualified team is dedicated to helping schools take full advantage of a wide range of educational resources, by assisting in the integration of a variety of instructional materials and media formats. Your local Pearson Education sales representative can provide you with more details on this service program. Pearson Custom Library For enrollments of at least twenty-five students, you can create your own textbook by choosing the chapters that best suit your own course needs. To begin building your custom text, visit www.pearsoncustomlibrary.com. You may also work with a dedicated Pearson Custom editor to create your ideal text--publishing your own original content or mixing and matching Pearson content. Contact your local Pearson Representative to get started. MediaShare Instructors may opt to use MediaShare to assign sight-singing activities online. In turn, students may submit, review, and receive detailed individual comments on their performances. Rhythm Generator Use the Rhythm Generator software, developed primarily by William Wieland, to create virtually unlimited rhythmic drills tailored to specific chapters of the book. These rhythmic drills are easily set to a variety of lengths as well as to beginning, intermediate, or advanced levels; they provide appropriate challenge to any student. Rhythm Generator exercises are ideal for in-class sight reading, individual practice, and assessment. Instructors and students alike will find the rhythms well targeted, musically satisfying, and fun to perform. xviii Introduction

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